WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic microbial biodiversity

  1. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. Why is Aquatic Biodiversity Declining?

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A.; Neves, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)

    2005-01-01

    Discusses reasons for declining aquatic biodiversity and focuses mainly on the issues of habitat loss, introduced species (aquatic exotics), and water pollution; document also includes web links to more information on exotic, invasive species and endangered animals.

  2. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. What is Aquatic Biodiversity; Why Is it Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A.; Neves, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)

    2005-01-01

    Describes the term aquatic biodiversity, explains the factors that increase and decrease biodiversity in natural ecosystems, and discusses the value of biodiversity for the health of the environment and quality of life; document also includes web links on national and world biodiversity.

  3. Microbial biodiversity of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ann Maureen

    Microorganisms are critical to the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and may also play a role in the functioning of the atmosphere. However, little is known about the diversity and function of microorganisms in the atmosphere. To investigate the forces driving the assembly of bacterial microbial communities in the atmosphere, I measured temporal variation in bacterial diversity and composition over diurnal and inter-day time scales. Results suggest that bacterial communities in the atmosphere markedly vary over diurnal time scales and are likely structured by inputs from both local terrestrial and long-distance sources. To assess the potential functions of bacteria and fungi in the atmosphere, I characterized total and potentially active communities using both RNA- and DNA-based data. Results suggest there are metabolically active microorganisms in the atmosphere that may affect atmospheric functions including precipitation development and carbon cycling. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  4. Aquatic biodiversity assessment for the lazy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Schubert, Grit; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The world is covered in DNA. In any ecosystem, extracellular DNA fragments can be found that once formed the genomes of a variety of micro- and macroorganisms. A few years ago, it was proposed to use this environmental DNA (eDNA) as a source of information on local vertebrate biodiversity (Ficetola et al. 2008; Taberlet et al. 2012). This idea offered an elegant solution to take up the gauntlet of rapidly increasing monitoring needs. Coupled with barcoding efforts, it promised to be cost-efficient in many respects, for example man-hours and taxonomic expertise. Ecologists and conservation biologists with an interest in aquatic ecosystems have enthusiastically adopted and pioneered this new method, producing dozens of eDNA studies. Most of these studies have, however, focused on a single or a few aquatic species. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Valentini et al. (2016) move the field a step further by demonstrating that metabarcoding approaches - which simultaneously target large groups of organisms such as amphibians or fish - can match and sometimes even outperform other inventory methods. PMID:26876232

  5. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, James R.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  6. Priorities for microbial biodiversity research: Summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Microbial diversity is an unseen national as well as international resource that deserves greater attention. Too small to be seen no longer means too small to be studied or values. Microbial diversity encompasses the spectrum of microscopic organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoa. These organisms populate the soil, water and air that surround us and live in more unusual environments such as the boiling water of hydrothermal vents, deep ocean trenches and alkali lakes. This report summarizes a workshop on microbial biodiversity which was organized by the Center for Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University.

  7. When is the best time to sample aquatic macroinvertebrates in ponds for biodiversity assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, M. J.; Sayer, C. D.; Wood, P J

    2016-01-01

    Ponds are sites of high biodiversity and conservation value, yet there is little or no statutory monitoring of them across most of Europe. There are clear and standardised protocols for sampling aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in ponds, but the most suitable time(s) to undertake the survey(s) remains poorly specified. This paper examined the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities from 95 ponds within different land use types over three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) to determine the...

  8. When is the best time to sample aquatic macroinvertebrates in ponds for biodiversity assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J; Sayer, C D; Wood, P J

    2016-03-01

    Ponds are sites of high biodiversity and conservation value, yet there is little or no statutory monitoring of them across most of Europe. There are clear and standardised protocols for sampling aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in ponds, but the most suitable time(s) to undertake the survey(s) remains poorly specified. This paper examined the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities from 95 ponds within different land use types over three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) to determine the most appropriate time to undertake sampling to characterise biodiversity. The combined samples from all three seasons provided the most comprehensive record of the aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa recorded within ponds (alpha and gamma diversity). Samples collected during the autumn survey yielded significantly greater macroinvertebrate richness (76% of the total diversity) than either spring or summer surveys. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest during autumn in meadow and agricultural ponds, but taxon richness among forest and urban ponds did not differ significantly temporally. The autumn survey provided the highest measures of richness for Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. However, richness of the aquatic insect order Trichoptera was highest in spring and lowest in autumn. The results illustrate that multiple surveys, covering more than one season, provide the most comprehensive representation of macroinvertebrate biodiversity. When sampling can only be undertaken on one occasion, the most appropriate time to undertake surveys to characterise the macroinvertebrate community biodiversity is during autumn, although this may need to be modified if other floral and faunal groups need to be incorporated into the sampling programme. PMID:26920128

  9. Genetic enhancement and conservation of aquatic biodiversity in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    There is a pressing need to enhance fish production in Africa through improved farm management and the use of improved fish breeds and/or alien species in aquaculture while at the same time conserve the aquatic genetic diversity. This paper presents the outcome of the Expert Consultation on Biosafety and Environmental Impact of Genetic Enhancement and Introduction of Improved Tilapia Strains/Alien Species in Africa held in Nairobi, Kenya on 20-23 February 2002. The main topics discussed were ...

  10. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Andrea M; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M; O'Dell, Kaela B; Fortney, Julian L; Wu, Jayne; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-15

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamic systems - the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (10(3)-10(6) cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. This work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments. PMID:27315516

  11. Harmonizing recreational fisheries and conservation objectives for aquatic biodiversity in inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowx, I G; Arlinghaus, R; Cooke, S J

    2010-06-01

    The importance of recreational fisheries to local and national economies, and as a generator of immense social welfare throughout the developed world, is well established. Development in the sector and its interaction with non-fishery-related nature conservation objectives for aquatic biodiversity, however, have the potential to generate conflict. This article reviews the intersection between recreational fisheries and nature conservation goals for aquatic biodiversity with specific reference to inland waters in industrialized countries, and the principal management activities and constraints that can lead to conflicts. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis was used to review the issues facing sectoral development and identify options for future advancement of recreational fisheries to ameliorate potential conflicts with nature conservation goals. It is concluded that reconciliation of recreational fisheries and modern conservation perspectives is both possible and desirable, because many conservation problems also benefit fisheries quality. Angler buy-in to conservation is probable if (1) management scales are small, (2) threats to conservation originate from outside the fisheries sectors and (3) ecological awareness for the conservation problem is high. If these aspects are not present, reconciliation of recreational fisheries and nature conservation goals is less likely, risking both the aquatic biodiversity and the future of angling. To address these issues, enforcement of legislation and continued communication with angler communities is necessary, as well as development of integrated management policies that build on the instrumental values of aquatic biodiversity for recreational fisheries, while curtailing the more insidious threats to such biodiversity that originate directly from the recreational fisheries sector. PMID:20557659

  12. The Identification, Types, Taxonomic Orders, Biodiversity and Importance of Aquatic Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification, types, taxonomic orders, biodiversity and importance of aquatic insects was reviewed to facilitate sustainable culture fisheries management and practice. Aquatic insects contribute significantly to fresh water ecosystems, one of many groups of organisms that, together, must be considered in the study of aquatic ecology. As such their study may be a significant part of understanding the ecological state of a given ecosystem and in gauging how that ecosystem will respond to stress. Aquatic insects and the larvae attack fish eggs and fry. They also compete for food and space in the pond. However, mosquito larvae are a food for fish. So, some insect larvae can serve to increase fish production. Insect bioagents can control the alligator weed, Alternanthera philloxeriodes. The flea beetle Agasilles hydrophila; alligator, Amnothrips andersonu and the alligator stem borer, Vegtia mallio can control the weed effectively. Other insects that can control water hyacinth are nevil (Nechetina circhbornae warmer (Atustache bruchi and hycinthmite (Orthoguma terebranths. Paropoynk alliondis and Litodactylus leucogaster can control the water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatium. The article reviews and discusses the identification, economic importance, life cycle, biodiversity, roles and taxonomic orders of aquatic insects to facilitate sustainable culture fisheries management and practice.

  13. Direct and indirect effects of glaciers on aquatic biodiversity in high Andean peatlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quenta, Estefania; Molina-Rodriguez, Jorge; Gonzales, Karina;

    2016-01-01

    The rapid melting of glacier cover is one of the most obvious impacts of climate change on alpine ecosystems and biodiversity. Our understanding of the impact of a decrease in glacier runoff on aquatic biodiversity is currently based on the 'glacier-heterogeneity-diversity' paradigm, according to...... which there is high α-diversity at intermediate levels of glacial influence due to the high degree of environmental heterogeneity caused by glacier water. This α-diversity pattern generates high levels of between-site aquatic community variation (high β diversity) and increases regional diversity (γ......-elevation peatlands (>4500 m above sea level). We sampled 200 pools from 20 peatlands along a glacier gradient in the Cordillera Real of Bolivia. We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the potential mechanisms underlying the observed diversity patterns. Intermediate levels of glacial influence (15...

  14. Next-generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Alice; Taberlet, Pierre; Miaud, Claude;

    2016-01-01

    species detection from DNA present into the environment. In this study, we tested if an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, using water samples, can be used for addressing significant questions in ecology and conservation. Two key aquatic vertebrate groups were targeted: amphibians and bony......Global biodiversity in freshwater and the oceans is declining at high rates. Reliable tools for assessing and monitoring aquatic biodiversity, especially for rare and secretive species, are important for efficient and timely management. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have provided a new tool for...... fish. The reliability of this method was cautiously validated in silico, in vitro, and in situ. When compared with traditional surveys or historical data, eDNA metabarcoding showed a much better detection probability overall. For amphibians, the detection probability with eDNA metabarcoding was 0...

  15. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question B7: What is the location/distribution of these aquatic biodiversity sites?

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows water features where aquatic biodiversity is likely to be important. It shows buffered streams, wetlands, and deepwater habitats that fall within...

  16. Integrated action planning for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of highland aquatic resources: evaluating outcomes for the Beijiang River, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Cai, K.; Luo, S.;

    2016-01-01

    The need for enhanced environmental planning and management for highland aquatic resources is described and rationale for integrated action planning presented. Past action planning initiatives for biodiversity conservation and wetland management are reviewed. A reflective account is given of inte...

  17. Hydrologic-Based Ecological Risk Assessment of Urban, Agriculture, and Coal Mining Impacts Upon Aquatic Habitat, Toxicity, and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Babendreier, Justin Eric

    2000-01-01

    Urban, agriculture and coal mining land use/cover impacts upon aquatic habitat, toxicity and biodiversity were investigated in Leading Creek, a 388 km2 watershed in southeastern Ohio. Abandoned strip mine land (ASML) and active deep underground mines were examined along with abandoned near-surface underground mine land (AUML). The work focused on assessment of aquatic toxicity, water quality, and biodiversity through investigation of associated ecological responses for both treated and untr...

  18. Microbial detoxification of metalaxyl in aquatic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed H.Massoud; Aly S.Derbalah; El-Sayed.B.Belal

    2008-01-01

    Four microorganisms,Pseudomonas sp.(ER2),Aspergillus niger (ER6),Cladosporium herbarum (ER4) and Penicilluim sp.(ER3),were isolated from cucumber leaves previously treated with metalaxyl using enrichment technique.These isolates were evaluated for detoxification of metalaxyl at the recommended dose level in aquatic system.The effect of pH and temperature on the growth ability of the tested isolates was also investigated by measuring the intracellular protein and mycelia dry weight for bacterial and fungal isolates,respectively.Moreover,the toxicity of metalaxyl after 28 d of treatment with the tested isolates was evaluated to confirm the complete removal of any toxic materials (metalaxyl and its metabolites).The results showed that the optimum degree pH for the growth of metalaxyl degrading isolates (bacterial and fungal isolates) was 7.The temperature 30℃ appeared to be the optimum degree for the growth of either fungal or bacterial isolates.The results showed that Pseudomonas sp.(ER2) was the most effective isolate in metalaxyl degradation followed by Aspergillus niger (ER6),Cladosporium herbarum (ER4) and PeniciUuim sp.(ER3),respectively.There is no toxicity of metalaxyl detected in the supernatant after 28 d of treannent with Pseudomonas sp.(ER2).The results suggest that bioremediation by Pseudomonas sp.(ER2) isolate was considered to be effective method for detoxification of metalaxyl in aqueous media.

  19. Wooden Tools: Reservoirs of Microbial Biodiversity in Traditional Cheesemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortal, Sylvie; Licitra, Giuseppe; Valence, Florence

    2014-02-01

    Today, wooden shelves are used for the ripening of about 500,000 tons of cheese per year in Europe, including about 350,000 tons in France, such as most of the famous cheeses with the protected designation of origin (PDO), e.g., Comté, Reblochon, Beaufort, Munster, Cantal, and Roquefort. For some PDO cheeses, the use of wooden tools is mandatory. Many cheesemakers believe that wooden tools improve the organoleptic and typical characteristics of their final products. Wood is a natural and sustainable material which has been used for centuries in traditional cheese production in a wide variety of forms (vats, shelves, and packaging). Wood is important in the cheesemaking process, interacting with the milk in vats or with the cheeses placed on shelves for ripening. Wood is viable due to its ability to exchange water but, above all, because it is covered by a rich microbial biofilm. As wood is porous and difficult to clean, the European Commission regularly highlights the question of its safety when in contact with food and calls for deeper scientific investigation. In this review, knowledge about the multiple technological roles of wood in dairy technology is discussed. The crucial role of wood as a reservoir of microbial biodiversity for traditional cheeses is reviewed, along with results of safety assessments. As a conclusion, the numerous questions remaining about this natural inoculating system are discussed. PMID:26068076

  20. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  1. Direct and indirect effects of glaciers on aquatic biodiversity in high Andean peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenta, Estefania; Molina-Rodriguez, Jorge; Gonzales, Karina; Rebaudo, François; Casas, Jérôme; Jacobsen, Dean; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The rapid melting of glacier cover is one of the most obvious impacts of climate change on alpine ecosystems and biodiversity. Our understanding of the impact of a decrease in glacier runoff on aquatic biodiversity is currently based on the 'glacier-heterogeneity-diversity' paradigm, according to which there is high α-diversity at intermediate levels of glacial influence due to the high degree of environmental heterogeneity caused by glacier water. This α-diversity pattern generates high levels of between-site aquatic community variation (high β diversity) and increases regional diversity (γ-diversity). There is a rich conceptual background in favor of this paradigm, but empirical data supporting it are scarce. We investigated this paradigm by analyzing the different diversity patterns (α, β and γ-diversity) of four aquatic groups (zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes) living in high-elevation peatlands (>4500 m above sea level). We sampled 200 pools from 20 peatlands along a glacier gradient in the Cordillera Real of Bolivia. We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the potential mechanisms underlying the observed diversity patterns. Intermediate levels of glacial influence (15-20% cover) resulted in high heterogeneity, but α-diversity responded to glacial influence only for the zooplankton group (Cladocera). Our SEM analysis did not identify environmental heterogeneity as a significant variable explaining the relationship between glacier and α-diversity. Peatland area had a strong positive effect on heterogeneity and diversity. β-diversity was significantly associated with glacier gradient, and 12.9% of the total regional diversity (γ-diversity) was restricted to peatlands with a high degree of glacial influence. These species might be lost in a context of glacial retreat. These findings provide new insight into the potential effects of glacial retreat on the aquatic environment and biodiversity in the peatlands of

  2. An examination of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship in arable soil microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B.S.; Ritz, Karl; Wheatley, R.; Kuan, H.L.; Boag, B.; Christensen, Søren; Ekelund, Flemming; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Muller, S.; Bloem, Jaap

    , nitrate accumulation, respiratory growth response, community level physiological profile and decomposition). Neither was there a direct effect of biodiversity on the variability of the processes, nor on the stability of decomposition when the soils were perturbed by heat or copper. The biodiversity of......Microbial communities differing in biodiversity were established by inoculating sterile agricultural soil with serially diluted soil suspensions prepared from the parent soil. Three replicate communities of each dilution were allowed to establish an equivalent microbial biomass by incubation for 9...... months at 15°C, after which the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship was examined for a range of soil processes. Biodiversity was determined by monitoring cultivable bacterial and fungal morphotypes, directly extracted eubacterial DNA and protozoan taxa. In the context of this study biodiversity...

  3. Trait-based approaches for understanding microbial biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    OpenAIRE

    SaschaKrause; XavierLe Roux; PascalAlexNiklaus; PeterVanBodegom; JayTLennon; StefanBertilsson; Hans-PeterGrossart; LaurentPhilippot

    2014-01-01

    In ecology, biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research has seen a shift in perspective from taxonomy to function in the last two decades, with successful application of trait-based approaches. This shift offers opportunities for a deeper mechanistic understanding of the role of biodiversity in maintaining multiple ecosystem processes and services. In this paper, we highlight studies that have focused on BEF of microbial communities with an emphasis on integrating trait-based approaches...

  4. Soil Functional Operating Range Linked to Microbial Biodiversity and Community Composition Using Denitrifiers as Model Guild

    OpenAIRE

    Hallin, Sara; Welsh, Allana; Stenstrom, John; Hallet, Stéphanie; Enwall, Karin; Bru, David; Philippot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are key players in biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is no consistent view on the significance of microbial biodiversity for soil ecosystem functioning. According to the insurance hypothesis, declines in ecosystem functioning due to reduced biodiversity are more likely to occur under fluctuating, extreme or rapidly changing environmental conditions. Here, we compare the functional operating range, a new concept defined as the complete range of environmental conditions unde...

  5. Biodiversity and multifunctionality in a microbial community: a novel theoretical approach to quantify functional redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Miki, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Taichi; Matsui, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems have a limited buffering capacity of multiple ecosystem functions against biodiversity loss (i.e. low multifunctional redundancy). We developed a novel theoretical approach to evaluate multifunctional redundancy in a microbial community using the microbial genome database (MBGD) for comparative analysis. In order to fully implement functional information, we defined orthologue richness in a community, each of which is a functionally conservative evolutionary unit in genomes, as an ...

  6. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stief

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal–microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal–microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) e...

  7. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stief

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal–microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal–microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosys...

  8. Effect of adaptation to phenol on biodegradation of monosubstituted phenols by aquatic microbial communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, R J; Pfaender, F K

    1987-01-01

    The adaptation of a mixed aquatic microbial community to phenol was examined in microcosms receiving phenol as a sole carbon source. Extended exposure (adaptation) to phenol resulted in adaptation of the microbial community to the structurally related aromatic compounds m-cresol, m-aminophenol, and p-chlorophenol. The increased biodegradation potential of the phenol-adapted microbial community was accompanied by a concurrent increase in the number of microorganisms able to degrade the three t...

  9. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, James S.; Carvalho, Tiago P.; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A.; Maxime, Emmanuel L.; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The immense rainforest ecosystems of tropical America represent some of the greatest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. Prominent among these are evolutionary radiations of freshwater fishes, including electric eels, piranhas, stingrays, and a myriad of small-bodied and colorful tetras, cichlids, and armored catfishes. In all, the many thousands of these forms account for nearly 10% of all the vertebrate species on Earth. This article explores the complimentary roles that ecological and geographic filters play in limiting dispersal in aquatic species, and how these factors contribute to the accumulation of species richness over broad geographic and evolutionary time scales. Abstract The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient

  10. Biodiversity and activity of microbial decomposers of leaf litter in streams under anthropogenic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Human activities are threatening biodiversity in freshwaters leading to irreversible alterations in ecosystem processes. One of the most important processes for the functioning of small-forested streams is the decomposition of allochthonous plant litter, which constitutes the major source of nutrients and energy for freshwater food-webs. Microbial decomposers, namely fungi and bacteria, play a critical role in this process degrading leaf materia...

  11. Study of the microbial biodiversity of Irpinian grapevines for optimizing the production of typical wines (Aglianico and Fiano)

    OpenAIRE

    Santomauro, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    At the industrial level, the study of microbial biodiversity of different vine cultivars of the wine industry could provide an effective way to meet the demands for greater health, quality and typicality of the wine by a consumer, without colliding with the statutory prohibition or prejudice associated with the use of genetically modified vine and yeast. This research involves the study of microbial biodiversity of two cultivars of vine which originate from Irpinia, a region possessing an est...

  12. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

  13. Reconstruction Of Ancient Microbial Biodiversity And Metabolism From Fossil Travertine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asangba, A. E.; Dong, Y.; Lindo, J.; Malhi, R. S.; Foubert, A.; Swennen, R.; Ozkul, M.; Fouke, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: A virtually unexplored frontier in the study of life in extreme environments is the extraction of genetic and environmental information directly from microbes entombed in calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals in the geological record. An environmental metagenomic study has been initiated to systematically track the fate of microbial gene sequences, lipids and other 'biomarkers' during the fossilization and diagenesis of Pleistocene terrestrial hot-spring travertine in Yellowstone National Park and the Pamukkale region of Turkey. The Mammoth Hot Springs corridor of Yellowstone contains thermal springs (73oC) that are actively and rapidly (mm's/day) precipitating travertine, as well as a complete time-series of travertine deposits that extend back to the Pleistocene (~33 ka). Comparative samples have been collected from quarries in the Denizli Basin (700-900 ka). The goal is to quantitatively track the preservation of these biomolecules through geological time, across specific sequences of down-flow travertine depositional facies and use this information to accurately reconstruct the identity, activity and ecology of the ancient microbes and their hot-spring environments. Analyses are being conducted of biomarkers extracted from bulk rock (cm's in diameter) as well as micro-drilled samples (μm in diameter). Each travertine sample is first being quantitatively screened (optically and geochemically) to determine the extent and fabric of water-rock alteration. Biomass has been successfully extracted from 10 μm-diameter fluid inclusions in primary crystals, as well as inter-crystalline deposits, and is undergoing metagenomic sequencing.

  14. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN NATURAL AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for describing the microbial degradation of xenobiotics through the use of a second-order reaction equation was tested in several water bodies in the United States and Russia. he experiment was aimed at studying the microbial transformation of a herbicide widely used in ...

  15. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites. PMID:26858133

  16. Biodiversity and multifunctionality in a microbial community: a novel theoretical approach to quantify functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Taichi; Matsui, Kazuaki

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystems have a limited buffering capacity of multiple ecosystem functions against biodiversity loss (i.e. low multifunctional redundancy). We developed a novel theoretical approach to evaluate multifunctional redundancy in a microbial community using the microbial genome database (MBGD) for comparative analysis. In order to fully implement functional information, we defined orthologue richness in a community, each of which is a functionally conservative evolutionary unit in genomes, as an index of community multifunctionality (MF). We constructed a graph of expected orthologue richness in a community (MF) as a function of species richness (SR), fit the power function to SR (i.e. MF = cSR(a)), and interpreted the higher exponent a as the lower multifunctional redundancy. Through a microcosm experiment, we confirmed that MF defined by orthologue richness could predict the actual multiple functions. We simulated random and non-random community assemblages using full genomic data of 478 prokaryotic species in the MBGD, and determined that the exponent in microbial communities ranged from 0.55 to 0.75. This exponent range provided a quantitative estimate that a 6.6-8.9% loss limit in SR occurred in a microbial community for an MF reduction no greater than 5%, suggesting a non-negligible initial loss effect of microbial diversity on MF. PMID:24352945

  17. Biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity is a really surprising ecological event, as long as there is an extraordinary chemical and biochemical homogeneity at the very foundation of all living beings. It is believed that there are at least three phenomena that may explain it: Darwinian evolution, that is a kind of ramifying evolution; structural coupling, as defined by H. Maturana; and, finally, thermodynamical phenomena, as presented by S. Kauffman leaning on the concepts of organization and a propagating organization that diversifies, and they are all interpreted by E. D. Schneider and J. J. Kay from the idea of Earth as a thermodynamical system. The explanatory importance of this idea in the current environmental crisis, evident in other events such as global warming, is of great relevance.

  18. Succession of aquatic microbial communities as a result of the water quality variations in continuous water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rong-chang; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2004-01-01

    The changes of structural and functional parameters of aquatic microbial communities in continuous water on campus of Tsinghua University, China are investigated by polyurethane foam unit(PFU) method. The measured compositions of the communities include alga, protozoa, and some metazoa(such as rotifers). The measured indicators of water quality include water temperature, pH value, dissolved oxygen(DO), potassium permanganate index(CODMn), total nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP) and chlorophyll-a(Chla). The trophic level, expressed by the trophic level indices(TLIc), is assessed with analytic hierarchy process and principal component analysis(AHP-PCA) method. The changing trends of the structural and functional parameters of aquatic microbial communities, such as Margalef index of diversity(D), Shannon-weaver index of diversity (H), Heterotropy index(HI), number of species when the colonization gets equilibrium(Seq), colonizing speed constant(G) and time spent when 90 percent of Seq colonized in PFU(T90%), are also analyzed. The experimental results showed the succession of aquatic microbial communities along the water flow is consistent with the water quality changes, so the parameters of microbial community can reflect the changes of water quality from the ecological view.

  19. Interactive effects of anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and Nr from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes in biodiversity in recent times. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in poleward and elevational range shiftsof flora and fauna, and changes in phenology, particularly ...

  20. Invasive ornamental fish: a potential threat to aquatic biodiversity in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.M. Knight

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alien fish find their way into newer habitats and ecosystems opportunistically. Once in a new habitat, these species try to occupy empty niches and compete with native species. An alien species becomes invasive wherever it has a competetive advantage over native species. Ecology of aquatic invasive alien species is rather poorly understood as most attention has been on invertebrates as that which spread through ballast water. Invasive alien species of fish that have taken advantage of the aquarium trade are emerging as the most important threats to fragile aquatic habitats. Regulations to this trade are rather weak and there is a general lack of data on the ecological impact of alien fish species despite the fact that a third of the world’s worst aquatic invasive species are aquarium or ornamental species.

  1. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  2. [Seasonal variation of functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in Apostichopus japonicus cultural pond].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fa-Jun; Tian, Xiang-Li; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Yang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    The functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) cultural ponds was examined in this paper. The Biolog plate technique and redundancy analysis (RDA) method were used to evaluate seasonal changes and their relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that both total amount and types of carbon sources utilized by microbes in the sea cucumber cultural ponds varied seasonally, and were the highest in summer and lowest in winter, with polymers being the main type of carbon sources. Principal component analysis revealed that the carbon utilization diversity of the microbial communities varied significantly over the seasonal courses. A total of 10 categories of carbon sources were significantly related to the principal component 1, among which were polymers, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, and amines. Significant seasonal changes were detected for all carbon utilization diversity indices of the microbial communities, including Shannon, McIntosh, Simpson, and S-E. However, seasonal variations were different among the microbial diversity indices. RDA analysis revealed that TP, NO(3-)-N, TN, and PO4(3-)-P were the critical environmental factors influencing the seasonal changes in functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in sea cucumber cultural ponds. PMID:25129954

  3. Measurement and interpretation of microbial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Frederik; Goldschmidt, Felix; Vital, Marius; Wang, Yingying; Egli, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    There is a widespread need for cultivation-free methods to quantify viability of natural microbial communities in aquatic environments. Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of all living cells, and therefore a useful indicator of viability. A luminescence-based ATP kit/protocol was optimised in order to detect ATP concentrations as low as 0.0001 nM with a standard deviation of water samples from a variety of aquatic environments (drinking water, groundwater, bottled water, river water, lake water and wastewater effluent) were analysed for extracellular ATP and microbial ATP in comparison with flow-cytometric (FCM) parameters. Microbial ATP concentrations ranged between 3% and 97% of total ATP concentrations, and correlated well (R(2)=0.8) with the concentrations of intact microbial cells (after staining with propidium iodide). From this correlation, we calculated an average ATP-per-cell value of 1.75x10(-10)nmol/cell. An even better correlation (R(2)=0.88) was observed between intact biovolume (derived from FCM scatter data) and microbial ATP concentrations, and an average ATP-per-biovolume value of 2.95x10(-9)nmol/microm(3) was calculated. These results support the use of ATP analysis for both routine monitoring and research purposes, and contribute towards a better interpretation of ATP data. PMID:20605621

  4. Coupling interaction between biodiversity and aquatic habitat area in Western Route Project vicinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-min TIAN; Zhao-yin WANG; Xiang-jun LIU; Shi-kui LIANG

    2010-01-01

    The Western Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will divert water from the upper Yangtze River and its tributaries,the Dadu River and Yalong River,to the upper Yellow River.The project may ease the water shortage in the Yellow River Basin.However,it may also have some effects on the ecosystem in the upper Yangtze River Basin.Benthic invertebrates play an important role in the river ecosystem,particularly in the circulation of materials and nutrition.Benthic invertebrates are widely used to quickly assess river ecosystems because of their rapid response to changes in the water environment.The diversity of benthic invertebrates is closely associated with the aquatic habitat area.This study examined this interaction by sampling the benthic invertebrates in an expanding area.The conclusions are that the diversity of benthic invertebrates begins to decrease when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 45% of the original area,and decreases dramatically when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 10% of the original area.The aquatic habitat area should be kept at more than 45% of the original area in order to maintain the significant diversity of benthic invertebrates.

  5. Biological invasions in the aquatic ecosystems of Europe as a threat to biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Wołczuk, Katarzyna; Mięsikowski, Michał; Jarzynka, Karolina; Wilczyńska, Bogdana

    2011-01-01

    In recent years biological invasions have become a serious ecological and socio-economic problem for many countries. Invasions are promoted by anthropogenic activity which is broadly understood as well as the instability of ecosystems. It carries a number of threats, often difficult to predict. The effects of invasion are long-term and occur on many levels of life. They can very often contribute to the extinction of native species, thus reducing biodiversity. According to the concept of susta...

  6. Microbial biotechnology for remediation of aquatic habitats polluted with chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Coşier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium may occur in nine different forms of oxidation ranging from ?II to +VI, with forms II, III and VI as the most commonly encountered. In Cluj county, chromium pollution dates well back in time and has caused important dysfunction to the mechanical-biological wastewater purification station of the city of Cluj (Coşier & Diţă 1996. The purpose of this study was to develop one microbial method able to reduce hexavalent chromium (mobile, permeable to cell membrane, carcinogenic and mutagenic (Ishikawa et al 1994 to the trivalent form (insoluble and an essential element for humans (Song et al 2006. Different sources of chromium-reducing bacteria and many sources of carbon and energy added to the Kvasnikov mineral basal medium (Komori et al 1990 with increasing amount of chromate (200- 1000 mg/l were tested. Two bacterial strains, able to reduce even 1000 mg chromate/l, were isolated in pure culture. For one of these bacterial strains, we determined the optimum conditions for the reduction of Cr (VI.

  7. Global biodiversity of aquatic ammonia-oxidizing archaea is partitioned by habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Biller

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Archaea play an important role in nitrification and are, thus, inextricably linked to the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Since the initial discovery of an ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit (amoA gene associated with an archaeal metagenomic fragment, archaeal amoA sequences have been detected in a wide variety of nitrifying environments. Recent sequencing efforts have revealed extensive diversity of archaeal amoA sequences within different habitats. In this study, we have examined over 8000 amoA sequences from the literature and public databases in an effort to understand the ecological factors influencing the distribution and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, with a particular focus on sequences from aquatic habitats. This broad survey provides strong statistical support for the hypothesis that different environments contain distinct clusters of AOA amoA sequences, as surprisingly few sequences are found in more than one habitat type. Within aquatic environments, salinity, depth in the water column, and temperature were significantly correlated with the distribution of sequence types. These findings support the existence of multiple distinct aquatic AOA populations in the environment and suggest some possible selective pressures driving the partitioning of AOA amoA diversity.

  8. Freshwater Wetland Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Implications for Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolaver, B. D.; Pierre, J. P.; Labay, B. J.; Ryberg, W. A.; Hibbits, T. J.; Prestridge, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes have caused widespread wetland loss and fragmentation. This trend has important implications for aquatic biota conservation, including the semi-aquatic Western Chicken Turtle (Deirochelys reticularia miaria). This species inhabits seasonally inundated, ephemeral water bodies and adjacent uplands in the southeastern U.S. However, wetland conversion to agriculture and urbanization is thought to cause the species' decline, particularly in Texas, which includes the westernmost part of its range. Because the species moves only a few kilometers between wetlands, it particularly sensitive to habitat loss and fragmentation. Thus, as part of the only state-funded species research program, this study provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) with scientific data to determine if the species warrants protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We use a species distribution model to map potentially suitable habitat for most of East Texas. We evaluate landscape-scale anthropogenic activities in this region which may be contributing to the species' decline. We identify areas of urbanization, agricultural expansion, forestry, and resulting wetland loss. We find that between 2001 and 2011 approximately 80 km2 of wetlands were lost in potentially suitable habitat, including the urbanizing Houston area. We use spatial geostatistics to quantify wetland habitat fragmentation. We also introduce the Habitat Alteration Index (HAI), which calculates total landscape alteration and mean probability of occurrence to identify high-quality habitat most at risk of recent anthropogenic alteration. Population surveys by biologists are targeting these areas and future management actions may focus on mitigating anthropogenic activities there. While this study focuses on D. r. miaria, this approach can evaluate wetland habitat of other aquatic organisms.

  9. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, P.

    2013-12-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments is enhanced more strongly than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies reveal that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and

  10. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world’s land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world’s total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa, Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  11. Metaproteomics of aquatic microbial communities in a deep and stratified estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colatriano, David; Ramachandran, Arthi; Yergeau, Etienne; Maranger, Roxane; Gélinas, Yves; Walsh, David A

    2015-10-01

    Here we harnessed the power of metaproteomics to assess the metabolic diversity and function of stratified aquatic microbial communities in the deep and expansive Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, located in eastern Canada. Vertical profiling of the microbial communities through the stratified water column revealed differences in metabolic lifestyles and in carbon and nitrogen processing pathways. In productive surface waters, we identified heterotrophic populations involved in the processing of high and low molecular weight organic matter from both terrestrial (e.g. cellulose and xylose) and marine (e.g. organic compatible osmolytes) sources. In the less productive deep waters, chemosynthetic production coupled to nitrification by MG-I Thaumarchaeota and Nitrospina appeared to be a dominant metabolic strategy. Similar to other studies of the coastal ocean, we identified methanol oxidation proteins originating from the common OM43 marine clade. However, we also identified a novel lineage of methanol-oxidizers specifically in the particle-rich bottom (i.e. nepheloid) layer. Membrane transport proteins assigned to the uncultivated MG-II Euryarchaeota were also specifically detected in the nepheloid layer. In total, these results revealed strong vertical structure of microbial taxa and metabolic activities, as well as the presence of specific "nepheloid" taxa that may contribute significantly to coastal ocean nutrient cycling. PMID:26223443

  12. Polar endoliths - an anti-correlation of climatic extremes and microbial biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; McKay, Christopher P.; Omelon, Christopher

    2002-10-01

    We examined the environmental stresses experienced by cyanobacteria living in endolithic gneissic habitats in the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic (75° N) and compared them with the endolithic habitat at the opposite latitude in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica (76° S). In the Arctic during the summer, there is a period for growth of approximately 2.5 months when temperatures rise above freezing. During this period, freeze thaw can occur during the diurnal cycle, but freeze thaw excursions are rare within higher-frequency temperature changes on the scale of minutes, in contrast with the Antarctic Dry Valleys. In the Arctic location rainfall of approximately 3 mm can occur in a single day and provides moisture for endolithic organisms for several days afterwards. This rainfall is an order of magnitude higher than that received in the Dry Valleys over 1 year. In the Dry Valleys, endolithic communities may potentially receive higher levels of ultraviolet radiation than the Arctic location because ozone depletion is more extreme. The less extreme environmental stresses experienced in the Arctic are confirmed by the presence of substantial epilithic growth, in contrast to the Dry Valleys. Despite the more extreme conditions experienced in the Antarctic location, the diversity of organisms within the endolithic habitat, which includes lichen and eukaryotic algal components, is higher than observed at the Arctic location, where genera of cyanobacteria dominate. The lower biodiversity in the Arctic may reflect the higher water flow through the rocks caused by precipitation and the more heterogeneous physical structure of the substrate. The data illustrate an instance in which extreme climate is anti-correlated with microbial biological diversity.

  13. Novel use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy to investigate aquatic carbon cycling from microbial to ecosystem scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, D.T.; Santos, I.S.; Leuven, J.R.F.W.; Oakes, J.M.; Erler, D.V.; Carvalho, M.C.; Eyre, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Development of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) has enabled real-time monitoring of carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane in air. Here we demonstrate that CRDS can be adapted to assess aquatic carbon cycling processes from microbial to ecosystem scales. We first measured in

  14. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on the aquatic microbial microcosm in comparison with chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, Kei [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Polikarpov, Gennady G. [The A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol 99011 (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    Effects of acute gamma-irradiation were investigated in the aquatic microcosm consisting of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producers; an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma) as consumers; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. At 100 Gy, populations were not affected in any taxa. At 500-5000 Gy, one or three taxa died out and populations of two or three taxa decreased over time, while that of Tolypothrix sp. increased. This Tolypothrix sp. increase was likely an indirect effect due to interspecies interactions. The principal response curve analysis revealed that the main trend of the effects was a dose-dependent population decrease. For a better understanding of radiation risks in aquatic microbial communities, effect doses of gamma-rays compared with copper, herbicides and detergents were evaluated using the radiochemoecological conceptual model and the effect index for microcosm.

  15. Effects of acute γ-irradiation on the aquatic microbial microcosm in comparison with chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of acute γ-irradiation were investigated in the aquatic microcosm consisting of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producers; an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma) as consumers; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. At 100 Gy, populations were not affected in any taxa. At 500-5000 Gy, one or three taxa died out and populations of two or three taxa decreased over time, while that of Tolypothrix sp. increased. This Tolypothrix sp. increase was likely an indirect effect due to interspecies interactions. The principal response curve analysis revealed that the main trend of the effects was a dose-dependent population decrease. For a better understanding of radiation risks in aquatic microbial communities, effect doses of γ-rays compared with copper, herbicides and detergents were evaluated using the radiochemoecological conceptual model and the effect index for microcosm.

  16. Bacterial and eukaryotic biodiversity patterns in terrestrial and aquatic habitats in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbels, Dagmar; Verleyen, Elie; Mano, Marie-José; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Sweetlove, Maxime; Tytgat, Bjorn; Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; De Wever, Aaike; D'hondt, Sofie; Ertz, Damien; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The bacterial and microeukaryotic biodiversity were studied using pyrosequencing analysis on a 454 GS FLX+ platform of partial SSU rRNA genes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the Sør Rondane Mountains, including soils, on mosses, endolithic communities, cryoconite holes and supraglacial and subglacial meltwater lenses. This inventory was complemented with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis targeting Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. OTUs belonging to the Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Tardigrada, Ciliophora, Cercozoa, Fungi, Bryophyta, Bacillariophyta, Collembola and Nematoda were present with a relative abundance of at least 0.1% in the eukaryotic communities. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, FBP and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Multivariate analyses of the pyrosequencing data revealed a general lack of differentiation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to habitat type. However, the bacterial community structure in the aquatic habitats was dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya and appeared to be significantly different compared with those in dry soils, on mosses, and in endolithic habitats. A striking feature in all datasets was the detection of a relatively large amount of sequences new to science, which underscores the need for additional biodiversity assessments in Antarctic inland locations. PMID:26936447

  17. Effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation on community structure of the aquatic microbial microcosm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shikano, Shuichi [Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University, 41 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8576 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Marine Environment Section, Water and Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    To characterise indirect effects of ionising radiation on aquatic microbial communities, effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation were investigated in a microcosm consisting of populations of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer; a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as consumer; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. Population changes in the constituent organisms were observed over 160 days after irradiation. Prokaryotic community structure was also examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. Principle response curve analysis revealed that the populations of the microcosm as a whole were not significantly affected at 100 Gy while they were adversely affected at 500-5000 Gy in a dose-dependent manner. However, some effects on each population, including each bacterial population detected by DGGE, did not depend on radiation doses, and some populations in the irradiated microcosm were larger than those of the control. These unexpected results are regarded as indirect effects through interspecies interactions, and possible mechanisms are proposed originating from population changes in other organisms co-existing in the microcosm. For example, some indirect effects on consumers and decomposers likely arose from interspecies competition within each trophic level. It is also likely that prey-predator relationships between producers and consumers caused some indirect effects on producers.

  18. Effects of acute γ-irradiation on community structure of the aquatic microbial microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterise indirect effects of ionising radiation on aquatic microbial communities, effects of acute γ-irradiation were investigated in a microcosm consisting of populations of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer; a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as consumer; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. Population changes in the constituent organisms were observed over 160 days after irradiation. Prokaryotic community structure was also examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. Principle response curve analysis revealed that the populations of the microcosm as a whole were not significantly affected at 100 Gy while they were adversely affected at 500-5000 Gy in a dose-dependent manner. However, some effects on each population, including each bacterial population detected by DGGE, did not depend on radiation doses, and some populations in the irradiated microcosm were larger than those of the control. These unexpected results are regarded as indirect effects through interspecies interactions, and possible mechanisms are proposed originating from population changes in other organisms co-existing in the microcosm. For example, some indirect effects on consumers and decomposers likely arose from interspecies competition within each trophic level. It is also likely that prey-predator relationships between producers and consumers caused some indirect effects on producers.

  19. Ecological Response to Extreme Flow Events in Streams and Rivers: Implications of Climate Change for Aquatic Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Dhungel, S.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    We used the USEPA's 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) data to assess the potential sensitivity of stream biodiversity to both spatial variation in measures of extreme flow and likely changes in extreme flows associated with projected climate change. The NRSA data consisted of macroinvertebrate samples collected at 1313 reference-quality sites. We characterized the hydrologic regimes at each of these sites by developing Random Forest empirical models from long-term (≥ 20 years) daily flow records obtained from 601 gaged USGS stations. These models described spatial variation in 16 flow variables as a function of climate and watershed attributes. Three of the models characterized aspects of extreme flow: the mean number of zero-flow events per year (ZeroDays), the mean number of high-flow events per year (HighDays = number of events per year that exceed the 95th percentile of mean annual flow), and the coefficient of variation of daily flows (CV). We used these models to predict the flow attributes expected at each of the 1313 sites with ecological data. We then built additional Random Forest models that related among-site differences in stream macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition, assemblage richness, and the likelihood of observing individual taxa to the 16 measures of flow regime and other environmental predictors. At the national level, ZeroDays was an important predictor of macroinvertebrate biodiversity: richness declined as ZeroDays increased. A similar pattern was observed when analyses were restricted to lowland and plains streams. For eastern highland streams, HighDays was a better predictor of stream biodiversity than aspects of low flow: richness declined as HighDays increased. For western streams, CV was a better predictor of biodiversity than either ZeroDays or HighDays: biodiversity decreased as CV increased. Empirical models that linked flow attributes to climate change projections imply that flow regime response to climate

  20. Phylogenetic and Functional Metagenomic Profiling for Assessing Microbial Biodiversity in Environmental Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kisand, Veljo; Valente, Angelica; Lahm, Armin; Tanet, Gerard; Lettieri, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Decisions guiding environmental management need to be based on a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity and functional capability within ecosystems. Microbes are of particular importance since they drive biogeochemical cycles, being both producers and decomposers. Their quick and direct responses to changes in environmental conditions modulate the ecosystem accordingly, thus providing a sensitive readout. Here we have used direct sequencing of total DNA from water samples t...

  1. Over 150 Years of Long-Term Fertilization Alters Spatial Scaling of Microbial Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Joy D Van Nostrand; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; Hirsch, Penny R.; Sun, Bo; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contra...

  2. Testing the stress-gradient hypothesis with aquatic detritivorous invertebrates : insights for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research

    OpenAIRE

    Fugère, V.; Andino, P.; Espinosa, R; Anthelme, Fabien; D. Jacobsen; Dangles, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    1. The stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) states that environmental stress modulates species interactions, causing a shift from negative interactions to net positive interactions with increasing stress. 2. Potentially, this modulation of species interactions could in turn influence biodiversity-ecosystem function (B-EF) relationships along stress gradients. Although the SGH has been extensively discussed in plant community ecology in the past two decades, it has received little attention from a...

  3. New Dimensions in Microbial Ecology—Functional Genes in Studies to Unravel the Biodiversity and Role of Functional Microbial Groups in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in the possibilities to study the diversity of microbial communities in the environment. The development of methods to study these communities on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis was a first step into the molecular analysis of environmental communities and the study of biodiversity in natural habitats. A new dimension in this field was reached with the introduction of functional genes of ecological importance and the establishment of genetic tools to study the diversity of functional microbial groups and their responses to environmental factors. Functional gene approaches are excellent tools to study the diversity of a particular function and to demonstrate changes in the composition of prokaryote communities contributing to this function. The phylogeny of many functional genes largely correlates with that of the 16S rRNA gene, and microbial species may be identified on the basis of functional gene sequences. Functional genes are perfectly suited to link culture-based microbiological work with environmental molecular genetic studies. In this review, the development of functional gene studies in environmental microbiology is highlighted with examples of genes relevant for important ecophysiological functions. Examples are presented for bacterial photosynthesis and two types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, with genes of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson-protein (fmoA as target for the green sulfur bacteria and of two reaction center proteins (pufLM for the phototrophic purple bacteria, with genes of adenosine-5′phosphosulfate (APS reductase (aprA, sulfate thioesterase (soxB and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB for sulfur oxidizing and sulfate reducing bacteria, with genes of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA for nitrifying/ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with genes of particulate nitrate reductase and nitrite reductases (narH/G, nirS, nirK for denitrifying bacteria and with genes

  4. Effects of chronic γ-irradiation on the aquatic microbial microcosm: equi-dosimetric comparison with effects of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of chronic γ-irradiation were investigated in the aquatic microcosm consisting of flagellate algae Euglena gracilis as producers, ciliate protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila as consumers and bacteria Escherichia coli as decomposers. At 1.1 Gy day−1, no effects were observed. At 5.1 Gy day−1, cell densities of E. coli showed a tendency to be lower than those of controls. At 9.7 and 24.7 Gy day−1, population decrease was observed in E. coli. E. gracilis and T. thermophila died out after temporal population decrease and subsequent population increase in T. thermophila. It is likely that this temporal population increase was an indirect effect due to interspecies interactions. Effect dose rates of γ-rays were compared with effect concentrations of some metals using the radiochemoecological conceptual model and the effect index for microcosm. Comparison of these community-level effects data with environmental exposure data suggests that ionising radiation, gadolinium and dysprosium have low risks to affect aquatic microbial communities while manganese, nickel and copper have considerable risks. Effects of chronic irradiation were smaller than those of acute irradiation, and an acute to chronic ratio was calculated to be 28 by dividing an acute dose by chronic daily dose rate at which the effect index was 10%. This ratio would be useful for community-level extrapolation from acute to chronic radiation effects. - Highlights: ► Effects of chronic γ-irradiation were investigated in the microbial microcosm. ► A possible indirect effect due to interspecies interactions was detected. ► Effect dose rates of γ-rays were compared with effect concentrations of some metals. ► It is likely that radiation have low risks to affect aquatic microbial communities. ► Effects of chronic γ-irradiation were smaller than those of acute one.

  5. Microbial biodiversity in cheese consortia and comparative Listeria growth on surfaces of uncooked pressed cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Cécile; Retureau, Emilie; Didienne, Robert; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2014-03-17

    The study set out to determine how changes in the microbial diversity of a complex antilisterial consortium from the surface of St-Nectaire cheese modify its antilisterial activities. On the basis of the microbial composition of a natural complex consortium named TR15 (Truefood consortium 15), three new consortia of different species and strain compositions were defined: TR15-SC (58 isolates from TR15 collection), TR15-M (pools of isolates from selective counting media) and TR15-BHI (pools of isolates from BHI medium). Their antilisterial activities on the surfaces of uncooked pressed cheese made with pasteurised milk were compared with the activity of complex consortium TR15 and a control cheese inoculated only with starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii). The natural consortium TR15 was the most inhibitory, followed by reconstituted consortium TR15-BHI. The dynamics of the cheese rind microbial flora were monitored by counting on media and by isolate identification using 16S rDNA sequencing and direct 16S rDNA Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis. The combination of these methods showed that rind with natural consortium TR15 had greater microbial diversity and different microbial dynamics than cheese rinds with reconstituted consortia. Cheese rind with the natural consortium showed higher citrate consumption and the highest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, connected with high levels of lactic acid bacteria such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Vagococcus fluvialis, Enterococcus gilvus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactococcus lactis, ripening bacteria such as Arthrobacter nicotianae/arilaitensis, and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas psychrophila and Enterobacter spp.). The highest L. monocytogenes count was on rind with TR15-M and was positively associated with the highest pH value, high succinic and citric acid contents, and the highest levels of Marinilactibacillus

  6. Temporal Stability and Biodiversity of Two Complex Antilisterial Cheese-Ripening Microbial Consortia

    OpenAIRE

    Maoz, Ariel; Mayr, Ralf; Scherer, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    The temporal stability and diversity of bacterial species composition as well as the antilisterial potential of two different, complex, and undefined microbial consortia from red-smear soft cheeses were investigated. Samples were collected twice, at 6-month intervals, from each of two food producers, and a total of 400 bacterial isolates were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Coryneform bacteria represented the majority of the isola...

  7. COMPARISON OF MICROBIAL TROPHIC INTERACTIONS IN AQUATIC MICROCOSMS DESIGNED FOR THE TESTING OF INTRODUCED MICROORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two aquatic microcosms of different complexity were calibrated with a eutrophic lake. he simple microcosm consisted of an intact sediment core with overlying water. he complex microcosm was compartmentalized (phytoplankton tank, grazer tank, and sediment cores) to allow manipulat...

  8. Biodiversity and interactions of acidophiles: Key to understanding and optimizing microbial processing of ores and concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.B.JOHNSON

    2008-01-01

    Mining companies have become increasingly aware of the potential of microbiological approaches for recovering base and precious metals from low-grade ores,and for remediating acidic,metal-rich wastewaters that drain from both operating and abandoned mine sites.Biological systems offer a number of environmental and (sometimes) economical advantages over conventional approaches,such as pyrometallurgy,though their application is not appropriate in every situation.Mineral processing using micro-organisms has been exploited for extracting gold,copper,uranium and cobalt,and current developments are targeting other base metals.Recently,there has been a great increase in our knowledge and understanding of both the diversity of the microbiology of biomining environments,and of how the microorganisms interact with each other.The results from laboratory experiments which have simulated both stirred tank and heap bioreactor systems have shown that microbial consortia are more robust than pure cultures of mineral-oxidizing acidophiles,and also tend to be more effective at bioleaching and bio-oxidizing ores and concentrates.The paper presented a concise review of the nature and interactions of microbial consortia that are involved in the oxidation of sulfide minerals,and how these might be adapted to meet future challenges in biomining operations.

  9. Biodiversity of Soil Microbial Communities Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland: An Assessment Using Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Gentry, T. J.; Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    Woody plants have encroached into grasslands, savannas, and other grass-dominated ecosystems throughout the world during the last century. This dramatic vegetation change is likely driven by livestock grazing, altered fire frequencies, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and/or changes in atmospheric deposition patterns. Woody invasion often results in significant changes in ecosystem function, including alterations in above- and belowground primary productivity, soil C, N, and P storage and turnover, and the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass pool. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships and interactions between plant communities and soil microbial communities in the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas where grasslands have been largely replaced by woodlands. Research was conducted along a successional chronosequence representing the stages of woody plant encroachment from open grassland to closed-canopy woodland. To characterize soil microbial community composition, soil samples (0-7.5 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands (representing time 0) and near the centers of woody plant clusters, groves, and drainage woodlands ranging in age from 10 to 130 yrs. Ages of woody plant stands were determined by dendrochronology. Community DNA was extracted from each soil sample with a MoBio PowerMax Soil DNA isolation kit. The DNA concentrations were quantified on a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and diluted to a standard concentration. Pyrosequencing was performed by the Research and Testing Laboratory (Lubbock, TX) according to Roche 454 Titanium chemistry protocols. Samples were amplified with primers 27F and 519R for bacteria, and primers ITS1F and ITS4 for fungi. Sequences were aligned using BioEdit and the RDP Pipeline and analyzed in MOTHUR. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of the operational taxonomic units identified by pyrosequencing revealed that both bacterial and fungal community composition were

  10. Microbial Biodiversity Screening for Metal Accumulators from Mineral Ore Rich Site in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya K. Sarkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Since the site selected for screening was a source of magnetite, the objective of this study was to isolate some groups of magnetotactic bacteria and microbes with potential of metal accumulation. Approach: The culture based approach was used for the study. Pure isolates obtained were characterized on the basis of morphology, biochemical tests, physiology as well as at the 16S rDNA based molecular level. They were screened for their metal accumulating ability. Results: Five pure bacterial isolates were obtained by culture dependent method, isolation being done on a modified Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum specific medium (DSMZ-380. These isolates not only exhibited morphological variation as found from Environmnetal Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM, but their cell surface also varied greatly in composition which was confirmed from various staining. Similarly another observed fact was that inspite of the same source of isolation, these strains exhibited a varied temperature and pH tolerance which indicates the diversity in the population. 16S rDNA based analysis shows the molecular identification and real time PCR based pathogenecity analysis proved that they lacked S. aureus or P. aeruginosa like pathogenic gene(s. The isolates were screened for metal accumulating property and all were found to tolerate a wide range of heavy metals and among them certain strains bear high potential of accumulation of metals like copper and chromium. Conclusion: This study reports the isolation and characterization of 5 novel bacterial isolates from the mining area of Andhra Pradesh, India revealing its rich biodiversity. It also points towards the ability of media DSMZ-380 to support growth of metal accumulating non-magnetotactic isolates.

  11. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, P.

    2013-01-01

    (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of...... significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii......) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen....

  12. Periphytic photosynthetic stimulation of extracellular enzyme activity in aquatic microbial communities associated with decaying typha litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Steven N; Schaecher, Mark; Neely, Robert K; Kuehn, Kevin A

    2006-11-01

    We examined the effect of light on extracellular enzyme activities of periphytic/endogenous microbial assemblages associated with decomposing litter of an emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia within a small inland wetland in southeastern Michigan. Standing-dead Typha leaf litter was collected, placed into floating wire mesh litter baskets, and submerged in a wetland pool. Enzyme saturation assays were conducted on three occasions following litter submergence (days 9, 28, and 44) to generate saturation curves for the individual enzymes tested and to examine potential differences in enzyme saturation kinetics during microbial colonization and development. Experimental light manipulations were conducted on two occasions during microbial development (days 10 and 29). Short-term (30 min) light exposure significantly increased extracellular beta-glucosidase activity of litter-associated microbial communities. Activities of beta-xylosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase were not stimulated, and stimulation of phosphatase activity was variable. The exact mechanism for increased enzyme activity remains unknown, but it may have been increased pH arising from periphytic algal photosynthesis. These results suggest that extracellular enzyme activity in microbial communities colonizing natural organic substrata may be influenced by light/photosynthesis, as has previously been demonstrated for periphyton communities grown on artificial, inert substrata. Thus, light/photosynthetic mediated stimulation of extracellular enzyme activities may be a common occurrence in microbial communities associated with natural decaying plant litter in wetlands and might engender diurnal patterns in other microbial decay processes (e.g., production, organic matter decomposition, and mineralization). PMID:17082997

  13. Biodiversity of the Surface Microbial Consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Timothy M; Goerges, Stefanie; Gelsomino, Roberto; Larpin, Sandra; Hohenegger, Markus; Bora, Nagamani; Jamet, Emmanuel; Rea, Mary C; Mounier, Jérôme; Vancanneyt, Marc; Guéguen, Micheline; Desmasures, Nathalie; Swings, Jean; Goodfellow, Mike; Ward, Alan C; Sebastiani, Hans; Irlinger, Françoise; Chamba, Jean-Francois; Beduhn, Ruediger; Scherer, Siegfried

    2014-02-01

    Comprehensive collaborative studies from our laboratories reveal the extensive biodiversity of the microflora of the surfaces of smear-ripened cheeses. Two thousand five hundred ninety-seven strains of bacteria and 2,446 strains of yeasts from the surface of the smear-ripened cheeses Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen, isolated at three or four times during ripening, were identified; 55 species of bacteria and 30 species of yeast were found. The microfloras of the five cheeses showed many similarities but also many differences and interbatch variation. Very few of the commercial smear microorganisms, deliberately inoculated onto the cheese surface, were reisolated and then mainly from the initial stages of ripening, implying that smear cheese production units must have an adventitious "house" flora. Limburger cheese had the simplest microflora, containing two yeasts, Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum, and two bacteria, Arthrobacter arilaitensis and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. The microflora of Livarot was the most complicated, comprising 10 yeasts and 38 bacteria, including many gram-negative organisms. Reblochon also had a very diverse microflora containing 8 yeasts and 13 bacteria (excluding gram-negative organisms which were not identified), while Gubbeen had 7 yeasts and 18 bacteria and Tilsit had 5 yeasts and 9 bacteria. D. hansenii was by far the dominant yeast, followed in order by G. candidum, Candida catenulata, and Kluyveromyces lactis. B. aurantiacum was the dominant bacterium and was found in every batch of the 5 cheeses. The next most common bacteria, in order, were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, A. arilaitensis, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, and Microbacterium gubbeenense. S. saprophyticus was mainly found in Gubbeen, and A. arilaitensis was found in all cheeses but not in every batch. C. casei was found in most batches of Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen. C. variabile was found in all batches of

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF SAMPLES USED FOR ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL STRAINS CAPABLE OF CONVERTING STRAW DESTINED AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Cybulska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In biogas plants, almost any type of organic matter can be used as a substrate to produce biogas. To make the process of methane fermentation more effective, these materials are pretreated. This applies in particular to a group of difficult substrates. Straw, due to its hemicellulose structure and saturation, is hardly fermented by biogas reactor microorganisms. The methods of post-harvest residue preparation for anaerobic digestion being applied so far are expensive, while their application has a negative effect on methanoegenic bacteria. Therefore, the microorganisms being able to degrade straw hemicellulose structure, utilisation of which could precede the proper fermentation process, have been searched for. This paper presents the results of microbial biodiversity analysis in the environmental samples being lupin, cereal, rape and maize straw as well as hay and haylage at different degradation stages. The analysis of biodiversity will help at a further stage of study to isolate active microbial strains showing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic or ligninolytic activity which are desirable in the process of straw biodegradation. Analysis of the microbial count was performed by the method of deep inoculation on different microbiological culture media. The conducted tests include determination of the number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the analysed samples for isolation of microbial strains capable of converting straw preceding the biogas production.

  15. Microbial Activity in Aquatic Environments Measured by Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reduction and Intercomparison with Commonly Used Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Griebler, Christian; Slezak, Doris

    2001-01-01

    A new method to determine microbial (bacterial and fungal) activity in various freshwater habitats is described. Based on microbial reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), our DMSO reduction method allows measurement of the respiratory activity in interstitial water, as well as in the water column. DMSO is added to water samples at a concentration (0.75% [vol/vol] or 106 mM) high enough to compete with other naturally occurring electron acceptors, as determined with ...

  16. Initial Test of the Benchmark Chemical Approach for Predicting Microbial Transformation Rates in Aquatic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Thomas D.; Gattie, David K.; Lewis, David L

    1990-01-01

    Using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid methyl ester (2,4-DME) as a benchmark chemical, we determined relative pseudo-first-order rate coefficients for the butoxyethyl ester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DBE), methyl parathion, and methyl-3-chlorobenzoate in a diversity of microbial samples, including water, sediment, biofilm, and floating microbial mats collected from a laboratory mesocosm as well as from streams, lakes, and wetlands in Georgia and Florida. The decreasing order of reac...

  17. Biodiversity within hot spring microbial mat communities: molecular monitoring of enrichment cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. M.; Santegoeds, C. M.; Nold, S. C.; Ramsing, N. B.; Ferris, M. J.; Bateson, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have begun to examine the basis for incongruence between hot spring microbial mat populations detected by cultivation or by 16S rRNA methods. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to monitor enrichments and isolates plated therefrom. At near extincting inoculum dilutions we observed Chloroflexus-like and cyanobacterial populations whose 16S rRNA sequences have been detected in the 'New Pit' Spring Chloroflexus mat and the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat. Cyanobacterial populations enriched from 44 to 54 degrees C and 56 to 63 degrees C samples at near habitat temperatures were similar to those previously detected in mat samples of comparable temperatures. However, a lower temperature enrichment from the higher temperature sample selected for the populations found in the lower temperature sample. Three Thermus populations detected by both DGGE and isolation exemplify even more how enrichment may bias our view of community structure. The most abundant population was adapted to the habitat temperature (50 degrees C), while populations adapted to 65 degrees C and 70 degrees C were 10(2)- and 10(4)-fold less abundant, respectively. However, enrichment at 70 degrees C favored the least abundant strain. Inoculum dilution and incubation at the habitat temperature favored the more numerically relevant populations. We enriched many other aerobic chemoorganotrophic populations at various inoculum dilutions and substrate concentrations, most of whose 16S rRNA sequences have not been detected in mats. A common feature of numerically relevant cyanobacterial, Chloroflexus-like and aerobic chemorganotrophic populations, is that they grow poorly and resist cultivation on solidified medium, suggesting plating bias, and that the medium composition and incubation conditions may not reflect the natural microenvironments these populations inhabit.

  18. The feasibility of automated online flow cytometry for in-situ monitoring of microbial dynamics in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Domenic Besmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent staining coupled with flow cytometry (FCM is often used for the monitoring, quantification and characterization of bacteria in engineered and environmental aquatic ecosystems including seawater, freshwater, drinking water, wastewater, and industrial bioreactors. However, infrequent grab sampling hampers accurate characterization and subsequent understanding of microbial dynamics in all of these ecosystems. A logic technological progression is high throughput and full automation of the sampling, staining, measurement, and data analysis steps. Here we assess the feasibility and applicability of automated FCM by means of actual data sets produced with prototype instrumentation. As proof-of-concept we demonstrate examples of microbial dynamics in (i flowing tap water from a municipal drinking water supply network and (ii river water from a small creek subject to two rainfall events. In both cases, automated measurements were done at 15-min intervals during 12 to 14 consecutive days, yielding more than 1000 individual data points for each ecosystem. The extensive data sets derived from the automated measurements allowed for the establishment of baseline data for each ecosystem, as well as for the recognition of daily variations and specific events that would most likely be missed (or miss-characterized by infrequent sampling. In addition, the online FCM data from the river water was combined and correlated with online measurements of abiotic parameters, showing considerable potential for a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in aquatic ecosystems. Although several challenges remain, the successful operation of an automated online FCM system and the basic interpretation of the resulting data sets represent a breakthrough towards the eventual establishment of fully automated online microbiological monitoring technologies.

  19. Adenosine triphosphate concentration in relation to microbial biomass in aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, H.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) extracted from a sediment community of an aquatic ecosystem by the sulfuric acid method are complicated by inhibitions from inorganic and organic compounds. Inhibitions by inorganic compounds are reversible while those by organic compounds are irreversible. The primary inhibition by organic compounds results by complexing with acid-soluble fulvic acids which will prevent the detection of as much as 80% of the ATP present in a sample by the luciferin-luciferase reaction. Analytical techniques were developed to partially circumvent such interferences. Biomass interpretations from ATP concentrations in aquatic systems are complicated by the diversity of the microbiota and by the variability in the carbon to ATP ratio caused by environmental conditions. However, when levels of ATP are considered as a physiological condition of a sedimentary community, this data provides a means to interpret community metabolism not available hitherto.

  20. Novel use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy to investigate aquatic carbon cycling from microbial to ecosystem scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Damien T; Santos, Isaac R; Leuven, Jasper R F W; Oakes, Joanne M; Erler, Dirk V; Carvalho, Matheus C; Eyre, Bradley D

    2013-11-19

    Development of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) has enabled real-time monitoring of carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane in air. Here we demonstrate that CRDS can be adapted to assess aquatic carbon cycling processes from microbial to ecosystem scales. We first measured in situ isotopologue concentrations of dissolved CO2 ((12)CO2 and (13)CO2) and CH4 ((12)CH4 and (13)CH4) with CRDS via a closed loop gas equilibration device during a survey along an estuary and during a 40 h time series in a mangrove creek (ecosystem scale). A similar system was also connected to an in situ benthic chamber in a seagrass bed (community scale). Finally, a pulse-chase isotope enrichment experiment was conducted by measuring real-time release of (13)CO2 after addition of (13)C enriched phytoplankton to exposed intertidal sediments (microbial scale). Miller-Tans plots revealed complex transformation pathways and distinct isotopic source values of CO2 and CH4. Calculations of δ(13)C-DIC based on CRDS measured δ(13)C-CO2 and published fractionation factors were in excellent agreement with measured δ(13)C-DIC using isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS). The portable CRDS instrumentation used here can obtain real-time, high precision, continuous greenhouse gas data in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine waters with less effort than conventional laboratory-based techniques. PMID:24131451

  1. Modeling Microbial Biogeochemistry from Terrestrial to Aquatic Ecosystems Using Trait-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.; Molins, S.; Karaoz, U.; Johnson, J. N.; Bouskill, N.; Hug, L. A.; Thomas, B. C.; Castelle, C. J.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.; Brodie, E.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, there is uncertainty in how climate or land-use-induced changes in hydrology and vegetation will affect subsurface carbon flux, the spatial and temporal distribution of flow and transport, biogeochemical cycling, and microbial metabolic activity. Here we focus on the initial development of a Genome-Enabled Watershed Simulation Capability (GEWaSC), which provides a predictive framework for understanding how genomic information stored in a subsurface microbiome affects biogeochemical watershed functioning, how watershed-scale processes affect microbial function, and how these interactions co-evolve. This multiscale framework builds on a hierarchical approach to multiscale modeling, which considers coupling between defined microscale and macroscale components of a system (e.g., a catchment being defined as macroscale and biogeofacies as microscale). Here, we report our progress in the development of a trait-based modeling approach within a reactive transport framework that simulates coupled guilds of microbes. Guild selection is driven by traits extracted from, and physiological properties inferred from, large-scale assembly of metagenome data. Meta-genomic, -transcriptomic and -proteomic information are also used to complement our existing biogeochemical reaction networks and contributes key reactions where biogeochemical analyses are unequivocal. Our approach models the rate of nutrient uptake and the thermodynamics of coupled electron donors and acceptors for a range of microbial metabolisms including heterotrophs and chemolitho(auto)trophs. Metabolism of exogenous substrates fuels catabolic and anabolic processes, with the proportion of energy used for each based upon dynamic intracellular and environmental conditions. In addition to biomass development, anabolism includes the production of key enzymes, such as nitrogenase for nitrogen fixation or exo-enzymes for the hydrolysis of extracellular polymers. This internal resource partitioning represents a

  2. BioDry: An Inexpensive, Low-Power Method to Preserve Aquatic Microbial Biomass at Room Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Tuorto

    Full Text Available This report describes BioDry (patent pending, a method for reliably preserving the biomolecules associated with aquatic microbial biomass samples, without the need of hazardous materials (e.g. liquid nitrogen, preservatives, etc., freezing, or bulky storage/sampling equipment. Gel electrophoresis analysis of nucleic acid extracts from samples treated in the lab with the BioDry method indicated that molecular integrity was protected in samples stored at room temperature for up to 30 days. Analysis of 16S/18S rRNA genes for presence/absence and relative abundance of microorganisms using both 454-pyrosequencing and TRFLP profiling revealed statistically indistinguishable communities from control samples that were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after collection. Seawater and river water biomass samples collected with a portable BioDry "field unit", constructed from off-the-shelf materials and a battery-operated pumping system, also displayed high levels of community rRNA preservation, despite a slight decrease in nucleic acid recovery over the course of storage for 30 days. Functional mRNA and protein pools from the field samples were also effectively conserved with BioDry, as assessed by respective RT-PCR amplification and western blot of ribulose-1-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BioDry can adequately preserve a suite of biomolecules from aquatic biomass at ambient temperatures for up to a month, giving it great potential for high resolution sampling in remote locations or on autonomous platforms where space and power are limited.

  3. Off-site impacts of agricultural composting: role of terrestrially derived organic matter in structuring aquatic microbial communities and their metabolic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Thomas; Merroune, Asmaa; Bettarel, Yvan; Got, Patrice; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal; Thu, Thuy D; Toan, Tran D; Rochelle-Newall, Emma

    2014-12-01

    While considered as sustainable and low-cost agricultural amendments, the impacts of organic fertilizers on downstream aquatic microbial communities remain poorly documented. We investigated the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter leaching from agricultural soil amended with compost, vermicompost or biochar and assessed their effects on lake microbial communities, in terms of viral and bacterial abundances, community structure and metabolic potential. The addition of compost and vermicompost significantly increased the amount of dissolved organic carbon in the leachate compared with soil alone. Leachates from these additions, either with or without biochar, were highly bioavailable to aquatic microbial communities, although reducing the metabolic potential of the community and harbouring more specific communities. Although not affecting bacterial richness or taxonomic distributions, the specific addition of biochar affected the original lake bacterial communities, resulting in a strongly different community. This could be partly explained by viral burst and converging bacterial abundances throughout the samples. These results underline the necessity to include off-site impacts of agricultural amendments when considering their cascading effect on downstream aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25195703

  4. COMBINING CLIMATE MODEL PREDICTIONS, HYDROLOGICAL MODELING, AND ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING ALGORITHMS TO PREDICT THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this research will provide a broad taxonomic and regional assessment of the impacts of climate change on aquatic species in the United States by producing predictions of current and future habitat quality for aquatic taxa based on multiple climate change scen...

  5. Physiological profiling of indigenous aquatic microbial communities to determine toxic effects of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.M.; Colwell, F.S. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garland, J.L. [Dynamac, Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Conventional bioassays for environmental assessment frequently rely on nonindigenous single species. The authors employed an assay in which whole environmental samples were distinguished by the ability of the native heterotrophic microbial communities to oxidize 95 different sole carbon sources generating a community-level physiological profile (CLPP). The average metabolic response (AMR) to the 95 variables defining the CLPP was used in laboratory bioassay studies with copper to construct dose-response curves over several different periods of exposure: 1 h (acute), 1 d, 2 d, and 4 d. The acute dose-response of Snake River bacterioplankton communities measured by AMR was compared to the dose-response of Photobacterium phosphoreum (used in the Microtox test) and a proprietary mixed consortia (used in the Polytox test). In laboratory bioassay studies, CLPP, AMR exhibited acute dose-response behavior over a greater range in copper concentrations and with less variability (per dose) than Microtox and Polytox. The acute sensitivity of CLPP AMR to copper was roughly equal to Microtox and much greater than Polytox. After a longer exposure (1 d) to copper, Snake River communities became more sensitive to copper but no additional effect was observed when the exposure was increases to 2 and 4 d. Snake River communities pre-exposed to copper (1 mg/L) for 4 d prior to acute dose-response experiments showed no difference in AMR with respect to doses up to 10 mg/L, indicating the ability of the assay to detect adaptation. Several metal-contaminated streams in Idaho were used to field validate the CLPP approach for detecting impacts of metals in the environment. The response profiles of the bacterioplankton from two downstream sites receiving metal laden mine drainage were compared to those from reference sites upstream and further downstream of the location receiving the mine drainage.

  6. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  7. Aquatic microbial habitats within a neotropical rainforest: bromeliads and pH-associated trends in bacterial diversity and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Kantor, Adam H; Woodside, Walter T

    2011-04-01

    Tank-forming bromeliads, suspended in the rainforest canopy, possess foliage arranged in compact rosettes capable of long-term retention of rainwater. This large and unique aquatic habitat is inhabited by microorganisms involved in the important decomposition of impounded material. Moreover, these communities are likely influenced by environmental factors such as pH, oxygen, and light. Bacterial community composition and diversity was determined for the tanks of several bromeliad species (Aechmea and Werauhia) from northern Costa Rica, which span a range of parameters, including tank morphology and pH. These were compared with a nearby forest soil sample, an artificial tank (amber bottle), and a commercially available species (Aechmea). Bacterial community diversity, as measured by 16S rRNA analysis and tRFLP, showed a significant positive correlation with tank pH. A majority of 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes found in association with acidic bromeliad tanks of pH  5.3, including the commercial bromeliad with the highest pH (6.7), were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. To empirically determine the effect of pH on bacterial community, the tank pH of a specimen of Aechmea was depressed, in the field, from 6.5 to 4.5, for 62 days. The resulting community changed predictably with decreased abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes and a concomitant increase in Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Collectively, these results suggest that bromeliad tanks provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, distinct from the surrounding environment, which are influenced greatly by acid-base conditions. Additionally, total organic carbon (∼46%) and nitrogen (∼2%) of bromeliad-impounded sediment was elevated relative to soil and gene surveys confirmed the presence of both chitinases and nitrogenases, suggesting that bromeliad tanks may provide important habitats for microbes involved in the biological cycling of carbon and

  8. Integration of biodiversity in soil quality monitoring : baselines for microbial and soil fauna parameters for different land-use types

    OpenAIRE

    Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Chaussod, R.; Martin-Laurent, F.; Villenave, Cécile; Cortet, J.; Ruiz-Camacho, N.; Pernin, C.; Mateille, Thierry; Philippot, L.; Bellido, A.; Rouge, L.; Arrouays, D; Bispo, A; Peres, G

    2012-01-01

    The French programme Reseau de Mesures de la Qualite des Sols - Biodiversite was carried out at a regional scale (Brittany, west part of France) i) to produce a first statement regarding soil biodiversity, ii) to identify bioindicators of anthropic constraints, and iii) to determine baseline values for several biological groups depending on land uses. In this study, 109 monitoring sites were investigated using a systematic framework (a 16 km x 16 km regular grid). Six biological groups were s...

  9. Long-term effect of irrigation with water from sewage treatment plant on AMF biodiversity and microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Torres, M. P.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    Shortage of water is one of the most important environmental problem in the Mediterranean areas that implicates the search for strategies for saving good quality water. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land can be a good solution for this problem because it reduces the utilization of fresh water and potentially could improve soil key parameters, but can modify physical-chemical and biological properties of the same. The aim of this work was to study the effect of long-term irrigation with treated waste water on microbial diversity, mainly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the soil and other properties related with the microbial community. The experiment was developed in an agricultural area with Citrus orchard, located in Alicante in the southeast Spain. Here, we tested whether the communities of AMF as well as soil microbial properties were affected by irrigation with water coming from sewage treatment plant during 40 years in a soil. To carry out this study the soil properties (dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, glomalin related soil protein, microbial biomass C and aggregate stability) and AMF diversity (the AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses) were analysed in the soil from two different plots with the same soil but with different type of irrigation (irrigated with fresh water and irrigated with treated water). The first results did not show significant differences in some soil properties between soil irrigated with water treated or not.

  10. Novel lineage patterns from an automated water sampler to probe marine microbial biodiversity with ships of opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Rowena F.; Picard, Kathryn T.; Hamilton, Kristina M.; Walne, Antony; Tarran, Glen A.; Mills, David; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Edwards, Martin

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of data on long-term, spatially resolved changes in microbial diversity and biogeography in marine systems, and yet these organisms underpin fundamental ecological processes in the oceans affecting socio-economic values of the marine environment. We report results from a new autonomous Water and Microplankton Sampler (WaMS) that is carried within the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR). Whilst the CPR with its larger mesh size (270 μm), is designed to capture larger plankton, the WaMS was designed as an additional device to capture plankton below 50 μm and delicate larger species, often destroyed by net sampling methods. A 454 pyrosequencing and flow cytometric investigation of eukaryotic microbes using the partial 18S rDNA from thirteen WaMS samples collected over three months in the English Channel revealed a wide diversity of organisms. Alveolates, Fungi, and picoplanktonic Chlorophytes were the most common lineages captured despite the small sample volumes (200-250 ml). The survey also identified Cercozoa and MAST heterotrophic Stramenopiles, normally missed in microscopic-based plankton surveys. The most common was the likely parasitic LKM11 Rozellomycota lineage which comprised 43.2% of all reads and are rarely observed in marine pelagic surveys. An additional 9.5% of reads belonged to other parasitic lineages including marine Syndiniales and Ichthyosporea. Sample variation was considerable, indicating that microbial diversity is spatially or temporally patchy. Our study has shown that the WaMS sampling system is autonomous, versatile and robust, and due to its deployment on the established CPR network, is a cost-effective monitoring tool for microbial diversity for the detection of smaller and delicate taxa.

  11. Modeling a microbial community and biodiversity assay with OBO Foundry ontologies: the interoperability gains of a modular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Walls, Ramona; Parnell, Jacob; Gallery, Rachel; Zheng, Jie; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The advent of affordable sequencing technology provides for a new generation of explorers who probe the world's microbial diversity. Projects such as Tara Oceans, Moorea Biocode Project and Gut Microbiome rely on sequencing technologies to probe community diversity. Either targeted gene surveys (also known as community surveys) or complete metagenomes are evaluated. The former, being the less costly of the two methods, relies on the identification of specific genomic regions, which can be used as a proxy to estimate genetic distance between related species in a Phylum. For instance, 16 S ribosomal RNA gene surveys are used to probe bacterial communities while internal transcribed spacer surveys, for example, can be used for probing fungal communities. With the explosion of projects and frenzy to explore new domains of life, scientists in the field have issued guidelines to report minimal information (following a checklist), ensuring that information is contextualized in a meaningful way. Yet the semantics of a checklist are not explicit. We demonstrate here how a tabular template can be used to collect information on microbial diversity using an explicit representation in the Resource Description Framework that is consistent with community agreed-upon knowledge representation patterns found in the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations. PMID:25632945

  12. Microbial dynamics and biodiversity of table olives fermentations: the different culture-dependent and –independent approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristianBotta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbial ecology of the table olive fermentation process is a complex set of dynamics in which the roles of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeast populations are closely related, and this synergism is of fundamental importance to obtain high quality products. Several studies on the ecology of table olives, both in spontaneous fermentations and in inoculated ones, have focused on the identification and characterization of yeasts, as they play a key role in the definition of the final organoleptic profiles through the production of volatile compounds. Moreover, these are able to promote the growth of LAB, which is responsible for the stabilization of the final product through the acidification activity and the inhibition of the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The current empirical production process of table olives could be improved through the development of mixed starter cultures. These can only be developed after a deep study of the population dynamics of yeasts and LAB by means of molecular methods. Until now, most studies have exploited culture-dependent approaches to define the natural microbiota of brine and olives. These approaches have identified two main species of LAB, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and L. pentosus, while, as far as yeasts are concerned, the most frequently isolated genera are Candida, Pichia and Saccharomyces. However, there are a few studies in literature in which a culture-independent approach has been employed. This review summarizes the state of the art of the microbial ecology of table olive fermentations and it focuses on the different approaches and molecular methods that have been applied.

  13. The GEF-6 Biodiversity Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Global Environment Facility

    2014-01-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biodiversity as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and TEEB (The Economics of E...

  14. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina Biodiversity of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Hemiptera from Argentinean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del '60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.The aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (infraorders Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha show a low diversity in Argentina; up to now 208 species have been recorded. In 1881 Carlos Berg provided the first reference

  15. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  16. Bundling biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity provides essential services to human societies. Many of these services are provided as public goods, so that they will typically be underprovided both by market mechanisms (because of the impossibility of excluding non-payers from using the services) and by government-run systems (because of the free rider problem). I suggest here that in some cases the public goods provided by biodiversity conservation can be bundled with private goods and their value to consumers captured in th...

  17. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  18. Biodiversity Conservation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Squires

    2014-01-01

    Asian's remarkable economic growth brought many benefits but also fuelled threats to its ecosystems and biodiversity. Economic growth brings biodiversity threats but also conservation opportunities. Continued biodiversity loss is inevitable, but the types, areas and rates of biodiversity loss are not. Prioritising biodiversity conservation, tempered by what is tractable, remains a high priority. Policy and market distortions and failures significantly underprice biodiversity, undermine ecosys...

  19. Collecting biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Haripersaud, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Collecting biodiversity There are major concerns about the use of primary species occurrence data that are rapidly becoming available on the internet for ecological studies. To this end, this research assessed the extent of biases associated with a herbarium dataset based is based on specimens collected in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. After getting an understanding of the biases, the database was used to: (a) develop a model to simulate relative abundance distributions in the herbarium...

  20. Fish biodiversity sampling in stream ecosystems: a process for evaluating the appropriate types and amount of gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph M.; Wells, Sarah P.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Because human impacts and climate change threaten aquatic ecosystems, a need exists to quantify catchment-scale biodiversity patterns and identify conservation actions that can mitigate adverse human impacts on aquatic biota.

  1. Is there a need for a '100 questions exercise' to enhance fisheries and aquatic conservation, policy, management and research? Lessons from a global 100 questions exercise on conservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, S J; Danylchuk, A J; Kaiser, M J; Rudd, M A

    2010-06-01

    Recent global and regional exercises have been undertaken to identify 100 questions of relevance to policy makers that, if answered, would improve decision making and conservation actions. These were intentionally broad, but all included themes and questions of relevance to aquatic and fisheries professionals (e.g. exploitation, habitat alteration, effectiveness of protected areas, migratory connectivity and environmental effects of aquaculture). Here, the content of the global 100 question exercise relevant to aquatic and fisheries issues is summarized and a critical analysis is provided. Many of the questions addressed in apparently unrelated themes and topics (e.g. terrestrial, agriculture and energy policy) have potential relevance to fisheries and aquatic habitats, which underlines the connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic realms. Given the intimate link between aquatic environmental problems and human activities (including culture and economics), greater understanding of the human dimension is required to inform decision making. Stakeholder perspectives need to be included as a core component of the fisheries management triangle (i.e. managing fish, habitat and people). The benefits and risks of conducting a global 100 questions exercise with an exclusive focus on questions of relevance to fisheries and aquatic practitioners are also considered. There is no question that evidence-based approaches to conservation are essential for addressing the many threats that face aquatic ecosystems and reverse the imperilment trends among ichthyofauna. It is still unclear, however, as to the extent to which 100 questions exercises will help to achieve conservation and management targets for aquatic resources. A global 100 questions exercise that focused on fisheries and aquatic issues would certainly help to generate interest and awareness sufficient to justify such an exercise. PMID:20557662

  2. How to Show the Real Microbial Biodiversity? A Comparison of Seven DNA Extraction Methods for Bacterial Population Analyses in Matrices Containing Highly Charged Natural Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kaden; Peter Krolla-Sidenstein

    2015-01-01

    A DNA extraction that comprises the DNA of all available taxa in an ecosystem is an essential step in population analysis, especially for next generation sequencing applications. Many nanoparticles as well as naturally occurring clay minerals contain charged surfaces or edges that capture negatively charged DNA molecules after cell lysis within DNA extraction. Depending on the methodology of DNA extraction, this phenomenon causes a shift in detection of microbial taxa in ecosystems and a poss...

  3. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  4. Biodiversity and global learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rieckmann, Marco; Timm, Jana-M.

    2010-01-01

    "The United Nations declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity. This emphasis on the significance of biodiversity for human existence and well-being reveals just how important expanding biodiversity conservation really is. Against this background the question arises as to how much global learning can contribute to maintaining biodiversity." (author's abstract)

  5. Progress in Biodiversity Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Keping Ma; Bin Chen; Liqiang Ji; Lisong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity Informatics is a young and rapidly growing field that brings information science and technologies to bear on the data and information generated by the study of biodiversity and related subjects. Recent years, biodiversity informatics community has made an extraordinary effort to digitize primary biodiversity data, and develop modelling tools, data integration, and county/ regional/ global biodiversity networks. In doing so, the community is creating an unprecedented global sharin...

  6. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  7. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TélesphoreSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  8. Progress in Biodiversity Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keping Ma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity Informatics is a young and rapidly growing field that brings information science and technologies to bear on the data and information generated by the study of biodiversity and related subjects. Recent years, biodiversity informatics community has made an extraordinary effort to digitize primary biodiversity data, and develop modelling tools, data integration, and county/ regional/ global biodiversity networks. In doing so, the community is creating an unprecedented global sharing of information and data produced by biodiversity science, and encouraging people to consider, survey and monitor natural biodiversity. Due to success of several international biodiversity informatics projects, such as Species 2000, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Barcoding of Life and Encyclopedia of Life, digitized information on species inventories, herbarium specimens, multimedia and literature is available through internet. These projects not only make great contributions to sharing digitized biodiversity data, but also in prompting the implementation of important biodiversity information standards, such as Darwin Core, and in the establishment of regional and national biodiversity networks. These efforts will facilitate the future establishment of a strong information infrastructure for data sharing and exchange at a global scale. Besides focusing on browsing and searching digitized data, scientists should also work on building data mining and modeling, such as MAXENT for Ecological Niche Modelling and LifeDesk for taxonomist’s knowledge management. At the same time, the idea of citizen sciences gains popularity showing us the benefit of the public working closely with the scientific community in completing internet-based biodiversity informatics activities. Therefore, biodiversity informatics has broad prospects, and is helping to build strong facilities that will aid in implementing the goals set by Global Plant Conservation Strategy and

  9. Paradoxes in Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    David Pearce

    2005-01-01

    Biodiversity is important for human wellbeing, but it is declining. Measures to conserve biodiversity are essential but may be a waste of effort if several paradoxes are not addressed. The highest levels of diversity are in nations least able to practise effective conservation. The flow of funds to international biodiversity conservation appears trivial when compared to the scale of biodiversity loss. International agreements may not actually protect or conserve more than what would have been...

  10. Biodiversity in the Marketplace

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Heal

    2000-01-01

    What is the nature of biodiversity as an economic commodity and why does it matter? How would its conservation contribute economically to our well-being? In this article, Geoffrey Heal considers three issues: Why is biodiversity important from an economic perspective? What kind of commodity is it? Does our usual economic mechanism, the market system, have the capacity to appreciate the economic value of biodiversity? The author first tries to characterize biodiversity from an economic perspec...

  11. Biodiversity Is Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Greater numbers of species are disappearing from the planet. Biodiversity protection has become an urgent task for all of us.Given this,the UN declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity. Chinese conservationists call for increased awareness of the importance of saving the biodiversity.The following are the perspectives of some Chinese scientists on the significance of,and measures for,biodiversity protection:

  12. Problematising accounting for biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael John Jones; Jill Frances Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to problematise “accounting for biodiversity” and to provide a framework for analysing and understanding the role of accounting in preserving and enhancing biodiversity on Planet Earth. The paper aims to raise awareness of the urgent need to address biodiversity loss and extinction and the need for corporations to discharge accountability for their part in the current biodiversity crisis by accounting for their biodiversity-related strategies and policies. Such acco...

  13. Knowing Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvany, P.

    2001-01-01

    The term "agricultural biodiversity" is relatively recent, perhaps post-CBD. Although, the specific nature of the biodiversity used by people was recognised for a long time, the overwhelming emphasis in the CBD was on general biodiversity, mainly 'wild' flora and fauna that inhabit this fragile biosphere in which people also live.

  14. Biodiversity and globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reduction of the earth’s biodiversity as a result of human activities is a matter of great concern to prominent scientists. What are the economic aspects of this loss? In economic terms, what is biodiversity and why might it matter? And is the loss of biodiversity in any way connected with globalization of the economy?

  15. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Copahue Geothermal System: A Volcanic Environment with Rich Extreme Prokaryotic Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sofía Urbieta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Copahue geothermal system is a natural extreme environment located at the northern end of the Cordillera de los Andes in Neuquén province in Argentina. The geochemistry and consequently the biodiversity of the area are dominated by the activity of the Copahue volcano. The main characteristic of Copahue is the extreme acidity of its aquatic environments; ponds and hot springs of moderate and high temperature as well as Río Agrio. In spite of being an apparently hostile location, the prokaryotic biodiversity detected by molecular ecology techniques as well as cultivation shows a rich and diverse environment dominated by acidophilic, sulphur oxidising bacteria or archaea, depending on the conditions of the particular niche studied. In microbial biofilms, found in the borders of the ponds where thermal activity is less intense, the species found are completely different, with a high presence of cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species. Our results, collected during more than 10 years of work in Copahue, have enabled us to outline geomicrobiological models for the different environments found in the ponds and Río Agrio. Besides, Copahue seems to be the habitat of novel, not yet characterised autochthonous species, especially in the domain Archaea.

  17. Essential biodiversity variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  18. In silico substrate dependence increases community productivity but threatens biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Aisling J.; Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The critical role that biodiversity plays in ecosystem functioning has motivated many studies of the mechanisms that sustain biodiversity, a notable example being cyclic competition. We extend existing models of communities with cyclic competition by incorporating variable community evenness and resource dependence in demographic processes, two features that have generally been neglected. In this way, we align previous approaches more closely with real-world microbial ecosystems. We demonstrate the existence of a trade-off between increasing biomass production and maintaining biodiversity. This supports experimental observations of a net negative biodiversity effect on biomass productivity, due to competition effects suffered by highly productive species in diverse communities. Our results also support the important role assigned by microbial ecologists to evenness in maintaining ecosystem stability, thus far largely overlooked in in silico approaches.

  19. Biodiversity, Habitats and Prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Lisot, Sara Francesca; Casella, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity. One commonly must break down the word to obtain its meaning; biological diversity. Even then, it’s difficult for the average person to conceptualize what activities contribute to biodiversity and how this is applicable in different contexts. The degradation of ecosystems and catastrophic loss in biodiversity we are currently facing is a global problem, but can also be seen as an opportunity for improvement. One company in particular, “Habitats” has taken on this vast challenge b...

  20. Financing Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Bayón; J. Steven Lovink; Wouter J. Veening

    2000-01-01

    Financing the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity has been called one of the greatest challenges. At the heart of this challenge lies the low financial and political value which is often assigned to biodiversity and the resulting lack of financial mechanisms for conservation and sustainable use. This report provides an overview of existing and experimental financing mechanisms that can be used to encourage the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. To help to better un...

  1. Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A. Huete-Pérez; Fernando Quezada

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been ma...

  2. Biodiversity and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological diversity or biodiversity is crucial for ecological stability including regulation of climate change, recreational and medicinal use; and scientific advancement. Kenya like other developing countries, especially, those in Sub-Saharan Africa, will continue to depend greatly on her biodiversity for present and future development. This important resource must, therefore be conserved. This chapter presents an overview of Kenya's biodiversity; its importance and initiatives being undertaken for its conservation; and in detail, explores issues of climate change and biodiversity, concentrating on impacts of climate change

  3. SRC and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article outlines the priority bird species and habitats in the UK which may be affected by short rotation coppice (SRC). Ways in which SRC plantations can give greatest benefits for biodiversity are examined before then considering the wider biodiversity implications of SRC. (UK)

  4. Ecology, Microbial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-03-19

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  5. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial biofilms are complex communities of bacteria, protozoa, microalgae, and micrometazoa which exist in a polymer matrix on submerged surfaces. Their development is integrative of environmental conditions and is affected by local biodiversity, the availability of organic ma...

  6. Biodiversity enhances reef fish biomass and resistance to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Navarrete, Sergio A; Edgar, Graham J

    2016-05-31

    Fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates, play key functional roles in aquatic ecosystems, and provide protein for a billion people, especially in the developing world. Those functions are compromised by mounting pressures on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Because of its economic and food value, fish biomass production provides an unusually direct link from biodiversity to critical ecosystem services. We used the Reef Life Survey's global database of 4,556 standardized fish surveys to test the importance of biodiversity to fish production relative to 25 environmental drivers. Temperature, biodiversity, and human influence together explained 47% of the global variation in reef fish biomass among sites. Fish species richness and functional diversity were among the strongest predictors of fish biomass, particularly for the large-bodied species and carnivores preferred by fishers, and these biodiversity effects were robust to potentially confounding influences of sample abundance, scale, and environmental correlations. Warmer temperatures increased biomass directly, presumably by raising metabolism, and indirectly by increasing diversity, whereas temperature variability reduced biomass. Importantly, diversity and climate interact, with biomass of diverse communities less affected by rising and variable temperatures than species-poor communities. Biodiversity thus buffers global fish biomass from climate change, and conservation of marine biodiversity can stabilize fish production in a changing ocean. PMID:27185921

  7. Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YounJung Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation, whereas both citrate (Cit-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50 for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs. It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results.

  8. The biodiversity from Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is about the flora biodiversity and fauna that it occupied the savannah of Bogota originally, about the flora and extinct fauna and of the flora and fauna that still persist in spite of the colonization

  9. Biodiversity and geography

    OpenAIRE

    Rauscher, Michael; Barbier, Edward B.

    2007-01-01

    The paper combines an economic-geography model of agglomeration and periphery with a model of species diversity and looks at optimal policies of biodiversity conservation. The subject of the paper is "natural" biodiversity, which is inevitably impaired by anthropogenic impact. Thus, the economic and the ecological system compete for space and the question arises as to how this conflict should be resolved. The decisive parameters of the model are related to biological diversity (endemism vs. r...

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records

    OpenAIRE

    Katsanevakis, S.; Ü. ACAR; Ammar, I.; Balci, B.A.; Bekas, P.; Belmonte, M.; Chintiroglou, C.C.; P. CONSOLI; Dimiza, M; K. FRYGANIOTIS; V. GEROVASILEIOU; Gnisci, V.; N. GÜLŞAHIN; Hoffman, R.; Y. ISSARIS

    2014-01-01

    The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf) (Greece); the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore); the mantis shrimp Clorid...

  11. A BIODIVERSITY HUB: SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adesh Kumar; Amita Kanaujia; Sonika Kushwaha; Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Diversity refers variety in nature i.e. the variety of life on Earth and its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. Sandi Bird sanctuary was developed and conserved in the year 1990 as natural biodiversity hub for aquatic vegetation as well as local residents and migratory birds. This Sanctuary has an area of 309 hectares. A study of faunal diversity in Sandi Bird Sanctuary was done during January 2013 to March 2014. Sandi Bird Sanctuary is well known as popular tourist...

  12. Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2010-06-01

    We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters. PMID:20866445

  13. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  14. Operationalizing biodiversity for conservation planning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahotra Sarkar; Chris Margules

    2002-07-01

    Biodiversity has acquired such a general meaning that people now find it difficult to pin down a precise sense for planning and policy-making aimed at biodiversity conservation. Because biodiversity is rooted in place, the task of conserving biodiversity should target places for conservation action; and because all places contain biodiversity, but not all places can be targeted for action, places have to be prioritized. What is needed for this is a measure of the extent to which biodiversity varies from place to place. We do not need a precise measure of biodiversity to prioritize places. Relative estimates of similarity or difference can be derived using partial measures, or what have come to be called biodiversity surrogates. Biodiversity surrogates are supposed to stand in for general biodiversity in planning applications. We distinguish between true surrogates, those that might truly stand in for general biodiversity, and estimator surrogates, which have true surrogates as their target variable. For example, species richness has traditionally been the estimator surrogate for the true surrogate, species diversity. But species richness does not capture the differences in composition between places; the essence of biodiversity. Another measure, called complementarity, explicitly captures the differences between places as we iterate the process of place prioritization, starting with an initial place. The relative concept of biodiversity built into the definition of complementarity has the level of precision needed to undertake conservation planning.

  15. Freshwater habitats in Plovdiv town and its surroundings and their importance for the biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILYAN GEORGIEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current synopsis reviews the types of aquatic habitats, that are located in the city of Plovdiv and analyses their importance for the biodiversity. Studies of the biodiversity in urban landscapes are of particular importance because they are still scarce. Several plant and animal groups are studied in the city of Plovdiv – mosses, mollusks, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Their distribution among habitats is presented, as well as specific threats and conservation problems.

  16. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, P.; Mergeay, J.; De Bie, T.; Van Wichelen, J.; De Meester, L.; Declerck, S.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of...

  17. Living on the edge : effectiveness of buffer strips in protecting biodiversity on boreal riparian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hylander, Kristoffer

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the ecological consequences of buffer strip retention on riparian and terrestrial biodiversity. Earlier studies on forest buffer strips have evaluated their effectiveness in relation to water quality and aquatic biota. However, forests along streams are species rich habitats for many organism groups. Buffer strip management is assumed to be important also for protecting such species. Current approaches to biodiversity-oriented forest management prac...

  18. Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, I Tanya; Aerts, Rien; Berendse, Frank; Berg, Matty P; Bruder, Andreas; Butenschoen, Olaf; Chauvet, Eric; Gessner, Mark O; Jabiol, Jérémy; Makkonen, Marika; McKie, Brendan G; Malmqvist, Björn; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Scheu, Stefan; Schmid, Bernhard; van Ruijven, Jasper; Vos, Veronique C A; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The decomposition of dead organic matter is a major determinant of carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, and of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Decomposition is driven by a vast diversity of organisms that are structured in complex food webs. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of biodiversity on decomposition is critical given the rapid loss of species worldwide and the effects of this loss on human well-being. Yet despite comprehensive syntheses of studies on how biodiversity affects litter decomposition, key questions remain, including when, where and how biodiversity has a role and whether general patterns and mechanisms occur across ecosystems and different functional types of organism. Here, in field experiments across five terrestrial and aquatic locations, ranging from the subarctic to the tropics, we show that reducing the functional diversity of decomposer organisms and plant litter types slowed the cycling of litter carbon and nitrogen. Moreover, we found evidence of nitrogen transfer from the litter of nitrogen-fixing plants to that of rapidly decomposing plants, but not between other plant functional types, highlighting that specific interactions in litter mixtures control carbon and nitrogen cycling during decomposition. The emergence of this general mechanism and the coherence of patterns across contrasting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggest that biodiversity loss has consistent consequences for litter decomposition and the cycling of major elements on broad spatial scales. PMID:24805346

  19. Belowground biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardgett, R.D.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that the immense diversity of microorganisms and animals that live belowground contributes significantly to shaping aboveground biodiversity and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Our understanding of how this belowground biodiversity is distributed, and how it regulates

  20. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The conclu...

  1. Biodiversity: a new challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoe, Edward T.

    1995-01-01

    Resource managers at many state and federal agencies are in the middle of a fundamental change in the practice and objectives of conservation. Traditional management has been directed toward maintaining, usually for harvest purposes, populations of individual species such as ducks, deer, or salmon. Increasingly, however, resource managers are recognizing the critical important of conserving biological diversity, or biodiversity.

  2. Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Reading in science class does not have to be boring, but it is no secret to students or teachers that textbooks are not much fun to read. It is always a challenge for teachers to find reading materials that would grab the interests of their students. In this article, the author relates how she used Biodiversity, a nonfiction book by Dorothy…

  3. Biodiversity and national accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity, a property of natural areas, provides a range of benefits to the economy including bioprospecting rents, knowledge and insurance, ecotourism fees, and ecosystem services. Many of these values can be broken out in the System of National Accounts, leading to better estimates of the economic losses when natural areas are degraded or destroyed. Developing countries harbor the gre...

  4. Business and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Meyer; Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per

    the effort has until now considered biodiversity actions relatively little, compared to other areas such as e.g. climate related actions. Nevertheless, the opportunity for businesses to meet their responsibilities and lift a share of the challenge is far from being just a romantic thought. Nor is the...

  5. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  6. Does mutualism hinder biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual-García, Alberto; Ferrera, Antonio; Bastolla, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper by James et al. finds that mutualistic interactions decrease the biodiversity of model ecosystems. However, this result can be reverted if we consider ecological trade-offs and choose parameters suitable for sparse mutualistic networks instead of fully connected networks.

  7. Microbial reduction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction of the soluble, oxidized form of uranium, U(VI), to insoluble U(IV) is an important mechanism for the immobilization of uranium in aquatic sediments and for the formation of some uranium ores. U(VI) reduction had generally been regarded as an abiologial reaction in which sulphide, molecular hydrogen or organic compounds function as the reductant. Microbial involvement in U(VI) reduction has been considered to be limited to indirect effects, such as microbial metabolism providing the reduced compounds for abiological U(VI) reduction and microbial cell walls providing a surface to stimulate abiological U(VI) reduction. We report here, however, that dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can obtain energy for growth by electron transport to U(VI). This novel form of microbial metabolism can be much faster than commonly cited abiological mechanisms for U(VI) reduction. Not only do these findings expand the known potential terminal electron acceptors for microbial energy transduction, they offer a likely explanation for the deposition of uranium in aquatic sediments and aquifers, and suggest a method for biological remediation of environments contaminated with uranium. (author)

  8. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... areas identified on the basis of birds alone performed well in representing overall species diversity where birds were relatively speciose compared to the other taxa in the data sets. Adding species data for one taxon increased surrogate effectiveness better than adding genus- and family-level data...

  9. Environmental services of biodiversity.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, N

    1996-01-01

    Humans derive many utilitarian benefits from the environmental services of biotas and ecosystems. This is often advanced as a prime argument to support conservation of biodiversity. There is much to be said for this viewpoint, as is documented in this paper through a summary assessment of several categories of environmental services, including regulation of climate and biogeochemical cycles, hydrological functions, soil protection, crop pollination, pest control, recreation and ecotourism, an...

  10. Defining biodiversity resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gadgil, Madhav

    2000-01-01

    The scope of the Biological Diversity Bill, tabled in the monsoon 2000 session of the Indian Parliament is excessively wide covering all biological resources. Instead it should focus on diversity related end-uses such as drugs, industrial enzymes, cosmetics, dyestuffs, plant growth regulators, emulsifiers, oleoresins and genes used for improving crops and livestock through breeding and genetic intervention. It should seek to regulate collection and movement of such biodiversity resources and ...

  11. Biodiversity in Agroforestry Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, C; J. Wöllecke; M. Elmer; A. Quinkenstein; Freese, D.; Hüttl, Reinhard F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Large areas of the agricultural landscapes in the lowlands of Northern Germany are low-structured and monotonous due to a consequent removal of trees, shrubs or other landscape elements within the last decades. The lack of heterogeneity has a drawback on biodiversity. Many species of the open field use hedgerows as refuges when environmental conditions become to harsh. If such refuges do not exists, the population decreases. Furthermore, forest species that usually perceive agricultural lands...

  12. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Ardura

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific. Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  13. The role of macrophytes in habitat structuring in aquatic ecosystems: methods of measurement, causes and consequences on animal assemblages' composition and biodiversity O papel das macrófitas na estruturação de habitat em ambientes aquáticos: métodos de medida, causas e consequências para a composição das assembléias animais e biodiversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in structuring communities in aquatic environments. These plants provide physical structure, increase habitat complexity and heterogeneity and affect various organisms like invertebrates, fishes and waterbirds. The complexity provided by macrophytes has been exhaustively studied in aquatic environments. However, macrophyte complexity has rarely been measured in a standardized fashion, making comparisons among different studies and the establishment of general conclusions difficult. To address this issue, this review is focused on questions related to the habitat structural complexity provided by these plants, exploring: i how complexity has been viewed by ecologists, with an emphasis on macrophyte studies; ii the pros and cons of several methods used to quantify plant complexity; iii the consequences of habitat structuring by macrophytes on invertebrates and fish and possible causes, mediated by habitat complexity, that lead to changes in these animal assemblages; iv potential impacts of non-native macrophyte species on habitat complexity and v the importance of complexity provided by macrophytes to management strategies for maintaining aquatic biodiversity. We examined literature produced in both temperate and tropical regions, but prioritized the latter. We found a great variety of habitat complexity measurements that are applied to aquatic macrophytes to understand their influence on attached animal assemblages. A lack of standardization (considering the wide range of techniques and scales of resolution used limits comparisons between different studies exploring this subject, in which biological samples and physical substrates were used to explore these relationships. Macrophytes affect animal assemblages and promote biodiversity through a chain of mechanisms, related to habitat complexity, that involve the availability of shelter and feeding sites. Invasive macrophyte species may modify habitat

  14. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  15. Understanding carbon regulation in aquatic systems - Bacteriophages as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil Sanmukh; Krishna Khairnar; Waman Paunikar; Satish Lokhande

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria and their phages are the most abundant constituents of the aquatic environment, and so represent an ideal model for studying carbon regulation in an aquatic system. The microbe-mediated interconversion of bioavailable organic carbon (OC) into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the microbial carbon pump (MCP) has been suggested to have the potential to revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration. It is estimated that DOC is the largest pool of organic matter in the ocean and, th...

  16. Combined effects of drought and the fungicide tebuconazole on aquatic leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Stéphane; Zoghlami, Olfa; Margoum, Christelle; Artigas, Joan; Chaumot, Arnaud; Foulquier, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Loss of biodiversity and altered ecosystem functioning are driven by the cumulative effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors affecting both quantity and quality of water resources. Here we performed a 40-day laboratory microcosm experiment to assess the individual and combined effects of drought and the model fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) on leaf litter decomposition (LLD), a fundamental biogeochemical process in freshwater ecosystems. Starting out from a worst-case scenario perspective, leaf-associated microbial communities were exposed to severe drought conditions (four 5-day drought periods alternated with 4-day immersion periods) and/or a chronic exposure to TBZ (nominal concentration of 20μgL(-1)). We assessed the direct effects of drought and fungicide on the structure (biomass, diversity) and activity (extracellular enzymatic potential) of fungal and bacterial assemblages colonizing leaves. We also investigated indirect effects on the feeding rates of the amphipod Gammarus fossarum on leaves previously exposed to drought and/or TBZ contamination. Results indicate a stronger effect of drought stress than fungicide contamination under the experimental conditions applied. Indeed, the drought stress strongly impacted microbial community structure and activities, inhibiting the LLD process and leading to cascading effects on macroinvertebrate feeding. However, despite the lack of significant effect of TBZ applied alone, the effects of drought on microbial functions (i.e., decrease in LLD and in enzymatic activities) and on Gammarus feeding rates were more pronounced when drought and TBZ stresses were applied together. In a perspective of ecological risk assessment and ecosystem management for sustainability, these findings stress the need for deeper insight into how multiple stressors can affect the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and associated services. PMID:26859779

  17. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  18. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... by comparing and combining different aspects of existing models. Finally, we discuss how model diversity came about in the past and could evolve in the future. Throughout our study, we use analogies from biodiversity research to analyse and interpret model diversity. We recommend to make models...

  19. Consequences and limits to use of historical hydrobiological data in the current biodiversity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Carrel, Alain Dutartre and Marie-Claude Roger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on aquatic fauna and flora have been collected for almost two centuries. More or less well conserved, these old data are used in setting up projects for biodiversity conservation and evaluation. To what purpose can the data be put? What precautions must be taken to ensure judicious use?

  20. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. PMID:23869702

  1. MICROBIAL ENZYME ACTIVITY FOR CHARACTERIZING NUTRIENT LOADING TO GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy and material flows in aquatic ecosystems are mediated by microbial carbon and nutrient cycling. Extracellular enzymes produced by the microbial community aid in the degradation of organic matter and the resultant acquisition of limiting nutrients. Organic carbon sequestrat...

  2. Biodiversity of Vibrios

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano L. Thompson; Iida, Tetsuya; Swings, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Vibrios are ubiquitous and abundant in the aquatic environment. A high abundance of vibrios is also detected in tissues and/or organs of various marine algae and animals, e.g., abalones, bivalves, corals, fish, shrimp, sponges, squid, and zooplankton. Vibrios harbour a wealth of diverse genomes as revealed by different genomic techniques including amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing, repetetive extragenic palindrome PCR, ribotyping, and whole-genome sequencing. ...

  3. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  4. Novel application of the MSSCP method in biodiversity studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tomczyk-Żak, Karolina; Kaczanowski, Szymon; Górecka, Magdalena; Zieenkiewicz, Urszula

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence diversity is widely performed for characterizing the biodiversity of microbial samples. The number of determined sequences has a considerable impact on complete results. Although the cost of mass sequencing is decreasing, it is often still too high for individual projects. We applied the multi-temperature single-strand conformational polymorphism (MSSCP) method to decrease the number of analysed sequences. This was a novel application of this method. As ...

  5. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen...... Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just...

  6. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  7. Funding begets biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrends, Antje; Burgess, Neil David; Gereau, Roy E.;

    2011-01-01

    Aim Effective conservation of biodiversity relies on an unbiased knowledge of its distribution. Conservation priority assessments are typically based on the levels of species richness, endemism and threat. Areas identified as important receive the majority of conservation investments, often....... Location Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Methods We analysed time series data (1980–2007) of funding (n = 134 projects) and plant species records (n = 75,631) from a newly compiled database. Perceived plant diversity, over three decades, is regressed against funding and environmental factors, and...

  8. Climate change and the potential spreading of marine mucilage and microbial pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Patterns in Biodiversity: Spatial organisation of biodiversity in the Netherland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of biodiversity and its current threats is urgently needed, especially in the Netherlands where high population density, industrialisation, and intensive land-use have radically altered the natural landscape. Often, biodiversity research is seriously hampered by a lack of data

  10. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches. PMID:22956430

  11. Climate changes and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As some people forecast an average temperature increase between 1 and 3.5 degrees by the end of the century, with higher increases under high latitudes (it could reach 8 degrees in some regions of Canada), other changes will occur: precipitations, sea level rise, reductions in polar ice, extreme climatic events, glacier melting, and so on. The author discusses how these changes will impact biodiversity as they will threat habitat and living conditions of many species. Some studies assess a loss of 15 to 37 per cent of biodiversity by 2050. Moreover, physiology is influenced by temperature: for some species, higher temperatures favour the development of female embryos, or the increase of their population, or may result in an evolution of their reproduction strategy. Life rhythm will also change, for plants as well as for animals. Species will keep on changing their distribution area, but some others will not be able to and are therefore threatened. Finally, as the evolutions concern their vectors, some diseases will spread in new regions

  12. Radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and spice-indicators of radioactive contamination are exposed as well. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose have been demonstrated

  13. 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 90Sr and 137Cs radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water object within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated

  14. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated. PMID:11402559

  15. Allelopathy of Aquatic Autotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Allelopathy in aquatic environments may provide a competitive advantage to angiosperms, algae, or cyanobacteria in their interaction with other primary producers. Allelopathy can influence the competition between different photoautotrophs for resources and change the succession of species, for exarnple, in phytoplankton cornmunities. Field evidence and laboratory studies indicate that allelopathy occurs in all aquatic habitats (marine and freshwater), and that ail prirnary producing organisms...

  16. The role of herbivorous water birds in aquatic systems through interactions with aquatic macrophytes, with special reference to the Bewick's Swan - Fennel Pondweed system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Nolet, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    The role of aquatic macrophytes in stimulating biodiversity and maintaining clear waters is currently undisputed. The management of (eutrophic) shallow waters is therefore often directed at (re-)establishing macrophyte domination. In contrast, the role of water birds has long been considered of mino

  17. Cryptic biodiversity in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-01-01

    DNA studies are revealing the extent of hidden, or cryptic, biodiversity. Two new studies challenge paradigms about cryptic biodiversity and highlight the importance of adding a historical and biogeographic dimension to biodiversity research.

  18. Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated American and Taiwan undergraduate students' attitudes toward biodiversity. The survey questionnaire consisted of statements prompted by the question "To what extent do you agree with the following statements about problems with the biodiversity issues." Students indicated strongly disagree, disagree, agree,…

  19. Biodiversity: Who Knows, Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemits, Birut

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity is an abstract concept, attracting various responses from different people according to where they have come from and what ecosystems they have been closely linked to. In theory, most people would agree that protecting biodiversity is an important process, but in practice, few people commit to actions on a local level. This paper…

  20. Biodiversity: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Data from the fossil record are used to illustrate biodiversity in the past and estimate modern biodiversity and loss. This data is used to compare current rates of extinction with past extinction events. Paleontologists are encouraged to use this data to understand the course and consequences of current losses and to share this knowledge with researchers interested in conservation and ecology.

  1. Cryptic biodiversity loss linked to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, M.; Domisch, S.; Engelhardt, C. H. M.; Haase, P.; Lehrian, S.; Sauer, J.; Theissinger, K.; Pauls, S. U.; Nowak, C.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change (GCC) significantly affects distributional patterns of organisms, and considerable impacts on biodiversity are predicted for the next decades. Inferred effects include large-scale range shifts towards higher altitudes and latitudes, facilitation of biological invasions and species extinctions. Alterations of biotic patterns caused by GCC have usually been predicted on the scale of taxonomically recognized morphospecies. However, the effects of climate change at the most fundamental level of biodiversity--intraspecific genetic diversity--remain elusive. Here we show that the use of morphospecies-based assessments of GCC effects will result in underestimations of the true scale of biodiversity loss. Species distribution modelling and assessments of mitochondrial DNA variability in nine montane aquatic insect species in Europe indicate that future range contractions will be accompanied by severe losses of cryptic evolutionary lineages and genetic diversity within these lineages. These losses greatly exceed those at the scale of morphospecies. We also document that the extent of range reduction may be a useful proxy when predicting losses of genetic diversity. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific patterns of genetic diversity should be considered when estimating the effects of climate change on biodiversity.

  2. Biodiversity Risk Assessment of Protected Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Vitalija Rudzkienė; Imantas Lazdinis; Vytautas Azbainis

    2013-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterised by the most abundant biodiversity because there are the best conditions for existence of various species of plants, animals and various other organisms there. Generally, in the last decades a lot of attention is given to biodiversity, and scientific research draws attention to an increasing loss of biodiversity. Biodiversity measurements are needed in order to understand biodiversity changes and to control them. Measurements and assessments of biodiversity ...

  3. Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Huete-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  4. HYDROLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    OSUJI, CORNELIUS I.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is the main controller of in-stream progression when it relates to metabolism of plants and animals, microbial decomposition of organic matter, solubility of air and water exchange of gases (Thyssen, 1987). However there are so many factors that could bring about low and high stream temperatures that lead to significant ecological variation in running waters. The major drivers as observed from the experiments conducted reveals that as water travels downstream, the temperature i...

  5. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariño Arturo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity of a country; (b the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a identifying

  6. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koblížek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2015), s. 854-870. ISSN 0168-6445 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11281S; GA MŠk LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : photoheterotrophs * microbial loop * aquatic food webs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 13.244, year: 2014

  7. Can a Single Amphibian Species Be a Good Biodiversity Indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sewell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although amphibians have been widely promoted as indicators of biodiversity and environmental change, rigorous tests are lacking. Here key indicator criteria are distilled from published papers, and a species that has been promoted as a bioindicator, the great crested newt, is tested against them. Although a link was established between the presence of great crested newts and aquatic plant diversity, this was not repeated with the diversity of macroinvertebrates. Equally, amphibians do not meet many of the published criteria of bioindicators. Our research suggests that a suite of indicators, rather than a single species, will usually be required.

  8. Freshwater ecosystems and aquatic insects: a paradox in biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Stefano; Bonada, Núria; Guareschi, Simone; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Millán, Andrés; Tierno de Figueroa, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions have increased significantly in response to global change and constitute one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. Insects make up a large fraction of invasive species, in general, and freshwaters are among the most invaded ecosystems on our planet. However, even though aquatic insects dominate most inland waters, have unparalleled taxonomic diversity and occupy nearly all trophic niches, there are almost no invasive insects in freshwaters. We present some hypotheses regarding why aquatic insects are not common among aquatic invasive organisms, suggesting that it may be the result of a suite of biological, ecological and anthropogenic factors. Such specific knowledge introduces a paradox in the current scientific discussion on invasive species; therefore, a more in-depth understanding could be an invaluable aid to disentangling how and why biological invasions occur. PMID:27072403

  9. Comments on increasing number and abundance of non-indigenous aquatic macrophyte species in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Hussner, Andreas; van de Weyer, Klaus; Gross, Elisabeth; Hilt, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Non-indigenous aquatic plants are a major cause of biodiversity loss in many countries. In this study, our own field data and a literature review have been used to get an overview of the history and the present distribution of non-indigenous aquatic plant species in Germany. Results show that the number of non-indigenous aquatic plant species in Germany rose from 1 in 1860 to 12 in 1980, but doubled to 24 during the following 29 years. Thirteen of these species are naturalised in at least one...

  10. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...

  11. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  12. BIOSORPTION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS BY MIXED MICROBIAL POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recognition of the need to estimate biosorption for natural microbial populations, the variability of partition coefficients for two hydrophobic pollutants to natural populations from a variety of aquatic systems was investigated. Biosorption partition coefficients for pyrene ...

  13. Net Present Biodiversity Value and the Design of Biodiversity Offsets

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Jacob McC.; Stephens, R. T. Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biod...

  14. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  15. Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Keniam River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on biodiversity of aquatic insects was carried out covering the area of Kuala Keniam to Kuala Perkai River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia. The macro invertebrate community was found in the different types of micro-habitat and various flowing speed levels in good quality of water of Keniam Rivers consisted mainly of aquatic insects. There are large numbers and wide species of aquatic insects in aquatic habitats make them of great ecological importance. There are three divided strata with total of nine sampling location were carried out within several varieties of microhabitats such as sandy, cobble, gravel, leaf and the pool area. The aquatic insects were collected and sampled by using a D-framed aquatic kick net. There was a wide variety of aquatic insects belonging to at least 8 orders in the study area. The orders of insect were Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Thysanura, Orthopthera, Hemiptera and Ephemeroptera. Throughout the study period, there is range from total of 140 to 604 individuals of aquatic insect trapped monthly and collected in Keniam River from September 2009 to December 2010. Some group of aquatic insects were found significant (χ2<0.05 different abundance between strata and sampling dates as well as habitat on the diversity of aquatic insects in Keniam River. The abundance and distribution of aquatic insects‟ species were varied and not constant from one month to another during the study period due to biotic and abiotic factors. Species diversity of aquatic insects varied in different strata of the Keniam River. This indicates the richness and diverse groups of aquatic insects in the study area. It adds to the fact that the undisturbed habitat quality is most suitable for insects to breed and multiply under the natural ecosystem with abundant food supply. Moving upstream from Kuala Perkai to lower stream to Kuala Keniam, one can observe various types of habitats for aquatic insects to live.

  16. Challenges for biodiversity research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    De Meester, L; Tienderen, van, P.H.; Werger, M; Hector, A; Wörheide, G.; Niemelä, J.; Aguilar, A; Smets, E.; Godfray, C.; Sutherland, W.; Bauhus, J.; Courchamp, F; Gandini, G.; Koch, M.; Le Maho, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the international year of biodiversity, new policies for preserving biodiversity in Europe and worldwide will be developed as targets set by older policies, such as to halt biodiversity loss in the EU by 2010, were not met. This paper aims at sharing the expertise LERU's members harbour to set the right priorities for new biodiversity policies.

  17. Microbial Community and Urban Water Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; ZHANG Yongyu; LIU Lemian; WANG Changfu; YU Xiaoqing

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization of China is substantial and growing, and water resources are crucial for both economic and social sustainable development. Unfortunately, the frequency and intensity of water contamination events are increasing at an unprecedented rate and often accompanied by increased pollutant loading due to human activities such as irreversible industrialization and urbanization. The impacts of human pollution are most evident and of greatest concern at the microbial level. The research of the Aquatic Ecohealth Group, Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has been focusing mainly on aquatic microorganisms in the urban environment, from drinking water and landscape water to waste water. Its projects fall into three categories: biomonitoring and bioassessment, microbial ecology and diversity, ecotoxicology and environmental microbiology. Its scientific topics include the aquatic ecological safety and microbial food web.

  18. Resilience of freshwater communities of small microbial eukaryotes undergoing severe drought events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eSimon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and shallow aquatic ecosystems such as ponds and streams constitute a significant proportion of continental surface waters, especially in temperate zones. In comparison with bigger lakes and rivers, they harbor higher biodiversity but they also exhibit reduced buffering capacity face to environmental shifts, such that climate global change can affect them in a more drastic way. For instance, many temperate areas are predicted to undergo droughts with increasing frequency in the near future, which may lead to the temporal desiccation of streams and ponds. In this work, we monitored temporal dynamics of planktonic communities of microbial eukaryotes (cell size range 0.2-5 µm in one brook and one pond that experienced recurrent droughts from 1 to 5 consecutive months during a temporal survey carried out monthly for two years based on high-throughput 18S rDNA metabarcoding. During drought-induced desiccation events, protist communities present in the remaining dry sediment, though highly diverse, differed radically from their planktonic counterparts. However, after water refill, the aquatic protist assemblages recovered their original structure within a month. This rapid recovery indicates that these eukaryotic communities are resilient to droughts, most likely via the entrance in dormancy. This property is essential for the long-term survival and functional stability of small freshwater ecosystems.

  19. Resilience of Freshwater Communities of Small Microbial Eukaryotes Undergoing Severe Drought Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marianne; López-García, Purificación; Deschamps, Philippe; Restoux, Gwendal; Bertolino, Paola; Moreira, David; Jardillier, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Small and shallow aquatic ecosystems such as ponds and streams constitute a significant proportion of continental surface waters, especially in temperate zones. In comparison with bigger lakes and rivers, they harbor higher biodiversity but they also exhibit reduced buffering capacity face to environmental shifts, such that climate global change can affect them in a more drastic way. For instance, many temperate areas are predicted to undergo droughts with increasing frequency in the near future, which may lead to the temporal desiccation of streams and ponds. In this work, we monitored temporal dynamics of planktonic communities of microbial eukaryotes (cell size range: 0.2-5 μm) in one brook and one pond that experienced recurrent droughts from 1 to 5 consecutive months during a temporal survey carried out monthly for 2 years based on high-throughput 18S rDNA metabarcoding. During drought-induced desiccation events, protist communities present in the remaining dry sediment, though highly diverse, differed radically from their planktonic counterparts. However, after water refill, the aquatic protist assemblages recovered their original structure within a month. This rapid recovery indicates that these eukaryotic communities are resilient to droughts, most likely via the entrance in dormancy. This property is essential for the long-term survival and functional stability of small freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27303393

  20. Resilience of Freshwater Communities of Small Microbial Eukaryotes Undergoing Severe Drought Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marianne; López-García, Purificación; Deschamps, Philippe; Restoux, Gwendal; Bertolino, Paola; Moreira, David; Jardillier, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Small and shallow aquatic ecosystems such as ponds and streams constitute a significant proportion of continental surface waters, especially in temperate zones. In comparison with bigger lakes and rivers, they harbor higher biodiversity but they also exhibit reduced buffering capacity face to environmental shifts, such that climate global change can affect them in a more drastic way. For instance, many temperate areas are predicted to undergo droughts with increasing frequency in the near future, which may lead to the temporal desiccation of streams and ponds. In this work, we monitored temporal dynamics of planktonic communities of microbial eukaryotes (cell size range: 0.2–5 μm) in one brook and one pond that experienced recurrent droughts from 1 to 5 consecutive months during a temporal survey carried out monthly for 2 years based on high-throughput 18S rDNA metabarcoding. During drought-induced desiccation events, protist communities present in the remaining dry sediment, though highly diverse, differed radically from their planktonic counterparts. However, after water refill, the aquatic protist assemblages recovered their original structure within a month. This rapid recovery indicates that these eukaryotic communities are resilient to droughts, most likely via the entrance in dormancy. This property is essential for the long-term survival and functional stability of small freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27303393

  1. MCBS Sites of Biodiversity Significance

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer represents areas with varying levels of native biodiversity that may contain high quality native plant communities, rare plants, rare animals,...

  2. Biodiversity versus cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The announcement has been made on the cloning of mice in these days and he doesn't stop to miss, because the world lives a stage where conscience of the protection is creating that should be given to the biodiversity. It is known that alone we won't subsist and the protection of the means and all that contains that environment is of vital importance for the man. But it is also known that the vegetables and animal transgenic that they come to multiply the species have appeared that we prepare. The transgenic has been altered genetically, for substitution of one or more genes of other species, inclusive human genes. This represents an improvement compared with the investigations that gave origin to the cloning animal. But it is necessary to notice that to it you arrived through the cloning. This year 28 million hectares have been sowed in cultivations of transgenic seeds and there is around 700 bovine transgenic whose milk contains a necessary protein in the treatment of the man's illnesses

  3. Ecotoxicology & Impact on Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanky Bhat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecotoxicology can be defined as the ‘study of impacts of pollutants on the structure and function of ecosystems’ it can be by manmade poisonous chemicals and their effect on the environment, it does not include the study of naturally occurring toxins or it is a scientific discipline combining the methods of ecology and toxicology in studying the effects of toxic substances and especially pollutants on the environment. Ecotoxicology is a mix of various discipline ecology, toxicology, analytical chemistry, physiology, molecular biology, and mathematics. Ecotoxicology looks at the impacts of contaminants including populations, pesticides on individuals, natural communities, and ecosystems. Communities of living things and the environments they live in form ecosystems.Ecosystems include rivers, ponds, deserts, grasslands, and forests, and they too can be affected by pesticides. Ecotoxicologists also study what happens to the pesticides themselves, where they go in the environment, how long they last, and how they finally break down. Herein we review what is ecotoxicology, different kinds of toxicants their impact on biodiversity, assessment of toxicity of environmental toxicant.

  4. Biodiversity and Environment Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Inthasone, Somsack; Pasquier, Nicolas; Andrea G.B.Tettamanzi; Da Costa Pereira, Célia

    2015-01-01

    The preservation of biodiversity is a crucial challenge of our times. Computer Science has much to offer in support of the efforts made by scientists in a variety of disciplines to better understand and govern the phenomena related to biodiversity. We provide a survey of Information Technology based resources and methods that can be employed to this end. Inparticular, we discuss (i) sources of data and information available on the World Wide Web and the technologies that make them accessible ...

  5. Diversity, Biodiversity, Conservation, and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Carlos Marques

    2001-01-01

    The concepts of diversity and biodiversity are analysed regarding their historical emergence, and their intrinsic meaning and differences are discussed. Through a brief synopsis, difficulties usually experienced by statisticians in capturing the dynamics of diversity are analysed and main problems identified. The shift from diversity to the more holistic biodiversity as a working concept is appraised in terms of the novelty involved. Through a number of examples, the way the two concepts capt...

  6. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.;

    2007-01-01

    green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...... useful, both for the purpose of information collection through which linkages between urban lifestyles and biodiversity can be identified and for the purpose of stakeholder analysis and involvement....

  7. Biodiversity of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.1_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.1_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Biodiversity, International Tourism and development

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Vietze, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    We analyze whether biodiversity is increasing the receipts of tourism and beneficial for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The underlying assumption is that a rich biodiversity provides a comparative advantage for most LDCs. We use a simple trade theory framework. The model is supported by an empirical analysis. The main findings are that first LDCs seem to have a comparative advantage in (sustainable) tourism, that second incidence of birds as the probably best explored taxonomic group has a...

  9. Microbial heterotrophic metabolic rates constrain the microbial carbon pump

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Robinson, C.; Ramaiah, N.

    .Rev.Microbiol.8, 593 (2010). 2. T. Nagata, in MicrobialEcologyoftheOceans D.L. Kirchman Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. NewYork, ed. 1. 2000),pp. 121–152. 3. D. F. Gruber, J. P. Simjouw, S. P. Seitzinger, and G. L.Taghon, Appl.Environ. Microbiol. 72, 4184 (2006). 4....W. Pohlman, J. E. Bauer,W. F.Waite, C. L. Osburn, N. R. Chapman, Nat. Geosci. 4, 37 (2011). 8. C. Robinson, in MicrobialEcologyoftheOceans D.L. Kirchman Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ed. 2. 2008),pp. 299–334. 9. J. M. Gasol etal., Aquat.Microb.Ecol. 53, 21...

  10. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  11. Practical application of self-organizing maps to interrelate biodiversity and functional data in NGS-based metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Marc; Teeling, Hanno; Huang, Sixing; Waldmann, Jost; Kassabgy, Mariette; Fuchs, Bernhard M.; Klindworth, Anna; Klockow, Christine; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Amann, Rudolf; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled the application of broad-scale sequencing in microbial biodiversity and metagenome studies. Biodiversity is usually targeted by classifying 16S ribosomal RNA genes, while metagenomic approaches target metabolic genes. However, both approaches remain isolated, as long as the taxonomic and functional information cannot be interrelated. Techniques like self-organizing maps (SOMs) have been applied to cluster metagenomes into taxon-specif...

  12. Environmental DNA reveals that rivers are conveyer belts of biodiversity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Kristy; Fronhofer, Emanuel A; Mächler, Elvira; Walser, Jean-Claude; Altermatt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    DNA sampled from the environment (eDNA) is a useful way to uncover biodiversity patterns. By combining a conceptual model and empirical data, we test whether eDNA transported in river networks can be used as an integrative way to assess eukaryotic biodiversity for broad spatial scales and across the land-water interface. Using an eDNA metabarcode approach, we detect 296 families of eukaryotes, spanning 19 phyla across the catchment of a river. We show for a subset of these families that eDNA samples overcome spatial autocorrelation biases associated with the classical community assessments by integrating biodiversity information over space. In addition, we demonstrate that many terrestrial species are detected; thus suggesting eDNA in river water also incorporates biodiversity information across terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Environmental DNA transported in river networks offers a novel and spatially integrated way to assess the total biodiversity for whole landscapes and will transform biodiversity data acquisition in ecology. PMID:27572523

  13. Flow cytometric assessment of microbial abundance in the near-field area of seawater reverse osmosis concentrate discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2014-06-01

    The discharge of concentrate and other process waters from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant operations into the marine environment may adversely affect water quality in the near-field area surrounding the outfall. The main concerns are the increase in salt concentration in receiving waters, which results in a density increase and potential water stratification near the outfall, and possible increases in turbidity, e.g., due to the discharge of filter backwash waters. Changes in ambient water quality may affect microbial abundance in the area, for example by hindering the photosynthesis process or disrupting biogenesis. It is widely accepted that marine biodiversity is lower in more extreme conditions, such as high salinity environments. As aquatic microbial communities respond very rapidly to changes in their environment, they can be used as indicators for monitoring ambient water quality. The objective of this study was to assess possible changes in microbial abundance as a result of concentrate discharge into the near-field area (<. 25. m) surrounding the outfall of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) SWRO plant. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis was conducted in order to rapidly determine microbial abundance on a single-cell level in 107 samples, taken by diving, from the discharge area, the intake area and two control sites. FCM analysis combined the measurement of distinct scatter of cells and particles, autofluorescence of cyanobacteria and algae, and fluorescence after staining of nucleic acids with SYBR® Green for a total bacterial count. The results indicate that changes in microbial abundance in the near-field area of the KAUST SWRO outfall are minor and appear to be the result of a dilution effect rather than a direct impact of the concentrate discharge. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  15. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  16. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.; Iversen, T. M.; Ellermann, T.; Hovmand, M. F.; Bøgestrand, J.; Grant, R.; Hansen, J.; Jensen, J. P.; Stockmarr, J.; Laursen, K. D.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  17. ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY STATUS OF SACHIN GIDC AND ITS SURROUNDINGS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR INDIAN PEAFOWL (Pavo cristatus) SCHEDULE –I BIRD SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The variety and variability of organisms and ecosystems is referred to as biological diversity or Biodiversity. Biodiversity is a term which has gained enormous importance in the past few years. Technically, it is a contraction of biological diversity. Biological diversity is defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity with...

  18. Data intensive computing for biodiversity

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Sarinder K

    2013-01-01

    This book is focused on the development of a data integration framework for retrieval of biodiversity information from heterogeneous and distributed data sources. The data integration system proposed in this book links remote databases in a networked environment, supports heterogeneous databases and data formats, links databases hosted on multiple platforms, and provides data security for database owners by allowing them to keep and maintain their own data and to choose information to be shared and linked. The book is a useful guide for researchers, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in learning state-of-the-art development for data integration in biodiversity.

  19. Betterments to biodiversity optimal sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity sampling is pivotal in ecology and biology. It is a complex trade-off between the need to sample ecological info, and the need to do it at low effort. In this paper, I propose an improved new solution to this challenge, which takes into account numerous aspects of biodiversity survey activities. There are two outcomes of the proposed algorithm: a) the optimal number of sampling points, and b) their coordinates in the study area. Resulting sampling points can be used for a survey ...

  20. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture......). Mammals and birds have traditionally been proposed as umbrella or flagship species (‘‘species that needs such large tracts of habitat that saving it will automatically save many other species’’––Simberloff 1998), to identify areas suitable as nature reserves (Kerr 1997; Sergio et al. 2005)....

  1. Biodiverse planting for carbon and biodiversity on indigenous land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Martin, Tara G; May, Tracey; Polglase, Phil; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2014-01-01

    Carbon offset mechanisms have been established to mitigate climate change through changes in land management. Regulatory frameworks enable landowners and managers to generate saleable carbon credits on domestic and international markets. Identifying and managing the associated co-benefits and dis-benefits involved in the adoption of carbon offset projects is important for the projects to contribute to the broader goal of sustainable development and the provision of benefits to the local communities. So far it has been unclear how Indigenous communities can benefit from such initiatives. We provide a spatial analysis of the carbon and biodiversity potential of one offset method, planting biodiverse native vegetation, on Indigenous land across Australia. We discover significant potential for opportunities for Indigenous communities to achieve carbon sequestration and biodiversity goals through biodiverse plantings, largely in southern and eastern Australia, but the economic feasibility of these projects depend on carbon market assumptions. Our national scale cost-effectiveness analysis is critical to enable Indigenous communities to maximise the benefits available to them through participation in carbon offset schemes. PMID:24637736

  2. Biodiverse planting for carbon and biodiversity on indigenous land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Renwick

    Full Text Available Carbon offset mechanisms have been established to mitigate climate change through changes in land management. Regulatory frameworks enable landowners and managers to generate saleable carbon credits on domestic and international markets. Identifying and managing the associated co-benefits and dis-benefits involved in the adoption of carbon offset projects is important for the projects to contribute to the broader goal of sustainable development and the provision of benefits to the local communities. So far it has been unclear how Indigenous communities can benefit from such initiatives. We provide a spatial analysis of the carbon and biodiversity potential of one offset method, planting biodiverse native vegetation, on Indigenous land across Australia. We discover significant potential for opportunities for Indigenous communities to achieve carbon sequestration and biodiversity goals through biodiverse plantings, largely in southern and eastern Australia, but the economic feasibility of these projects depend on carbon market assumptions. Our national scale cost-effectiveness analysis is critical to enable Indigenous communities to maximise the benefits available to them through participation in carbon offset schemes.

  3. Ecotoxicity assessment on microbial water purifying agents by aquatic organism%水生生物在评价微生物水质改良剂的生态毒性中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张续; 刘锋平; 潘力军

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the acute toxicity effects of microbial water purifying agents on zebrafish and daphnia magna,provide the basis information for its safety in use.[Methods] Zebrafish and daphnia magna were exposed to the different concentration testing diluents water for 48 hours,and the profit-logarithm graphical method was used to calculate the Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) for both 24 hours and 48 hours.[Results] At the exposure endpoint of 24 hours and 48 hours,the LC50 value for zebrafish was 15.66% and 9.85% respectively.As for the daphnia magna,the 24 hours LC50 value was 6.3% and the 48 hours LC50 was 3.13%.[Conclusion] The acute toxicity of microbial water purifying agents is low in zebrafish and daphnia magna,however,its chronic toxicity is still unclear and needs further study.%目的 探讨微生物型水质改良剂对斑马鱼和大型溞的急性毒性,为其安全使用提供依据.方法 将斑马鱼、大型溞分别暴露于不同浓度的水质改良剂稀释液中48 h,用概率单位图解法计算受试物对两种生物24 h、48 h的半数致死浓度(LC50).结果 受试物对斑马鱼24、48 h的LC50分别为15.66%和9.85%,对大型溞24、48 h的LC50分别为6.30%和3.13%.结论 微生物水质改良剂对斑马鱼及大型溞的急性毒性作用较小,但对其慢性毒性仍需进行研究.

  4. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  5. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  6. Microbial diversity of marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, U; Fieseler, L; Wehrl, M; Gernert, C; Steinert, M; Hacker, J; Horn, M

    2003-01-01

    The recent application of molecular microbial ecology tools to sponge-microbe associations has revealed a glimpse into the biodiversity of these microbial communities, that is considered just 'the tip of the iceberg'. This chapter provides an overview over these new findings with regard to identity, diversity and distribution patterns of sponge-associated microbial consortia. The sponges Aplysina aerophoba (Verongida), Rhopaloeides odorabile (Dicytoceratida) and Theonella swinhoei (Lithistida) were chosen as model systems for this review because they have been subject to both, cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. A discussion of the microbial assemblages of Halichondriapanicea is presented in the accompanying chapter by Imhoff and Stöhr. Considering that a large fraction of sponge-associated microbes is not yet amenable to cultivation, an emphasis has been placed on the techniques centering around the 16S rRNA gene. A section has been included that covers the potential of sponge microbial communities for drug discovery. Finally, a 'sponge-microbe interaction model' is presented that summarizes our current understanding of the processes that might have shaped the community structure of the microbial assemblages within sponges. PMID:15825640

  7. Analysis of Forest Biodiversity Changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By reference of the evaluative data of forest biodiversity changes in China from 1973 to 1998, the variation analysis models of the pressure index of forest biodiversity, forest ecosystem diversity and forest species diversity, as well as the general index of forest biodiversity are developed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Furthermore established is the relevant model of mutation of forest diversity potential functions. This paper points out that changes of forest biodiversity...

  8. Eco-districts and biodiversity development

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    In a context of global changes, decline of biodiversity and increase of the urban population, the request of urban developers to integrate biodiversity into their practices is increasingly strong. My PhD thesis aimed to (1) make a review of the consideration of biodiversity in urban development, and (2) develop new tools to help developers to improve their practices. In the first part focused on biodiversity review, (1) we have expressed some doubts about the relevance of the use of current g...

  9. Diversity Functions and the Value of Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity loss has been recognized as one of the most important global environmental problems, but the choice of conservation policies is hampered by the lack of an operational concept of biodiversity. Weitzman (1992, 1998) develops a framework for the measurement of diversity and the identification of cost-effective policies for the preservation of biodiversity. Weitzman’s framework has been criticized as being unsuitable for the global problem of biodiversity loss. This paper responds to...

  10. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina Alves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigate spatial and temporal variation in the aquatic macrophyte community in four urban reservoirs located in Curitiba metropolitan region, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic macrophyte community differ among reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. METHODS: The reservoirs selected ranged from oligotrophic/mesotrophic to eutrophic. Sampling occurred in October 2011, January 2012 and June 2012. Twelve aquatic macrophytes stands were sampled at each reservoir. Species were identified and the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was estimated. Differences among reservoirs and over sampling periods were analyzed: i through two‑way ANOVAs considering the stand extent (m and the stand biodiversity - species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and beta diversity (species variation along the aquatic macrophyte stand; and ii through PERMANOVA considering species composition. Indicator species that were characteristic for each reservoir were also identified. RESULTS: The aquatic macrophyte stand extent varied among reservoirs and over sampling periods. Species richness showed only temporal variation. On the other hand, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index varied only among reservoirs. The beta diversity of macrophyte stands did not vary among reservoirs or over time, meaning that species variability among aquatic macrophyte stands was independent of the stand extent and reservoir eutrophication. Community composition depended on the reservoir and sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our initial expectation that reservoirs of different degrees of eutrophication have different aquatic macrophyte communities. As a consequence, each reservoir had particular indicator species. Therefore, monitoring and management efforts must be offered for each reservoir individually.

  11. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  12. Teaching Biodiversity: A Successful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lynne; Brown, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    This article takes you on a journey through the authors' school course unit, the "Variety of Life," which aims to unpick the idea of biodiversity and its many facets. The aims and principles of each teaching topic are defined, teaching activities suggested, resources described and the skills each topic develops listed. Whilst aimed at 11- to…

  13. A National Biodiversity Offset Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Liberia had an estimated 4.3 million hectares of forests in 2011, comprising approximately 50 percent of Liberia’s landmass. These forests support very high levels of biodiversity, provide a wide range of ecosystem services (for example, bush meat, medicines, construction materials, and charcoal), and generate employment and revenue from commercial and chainsaw logging. Encouraging inward ...

  14. Reconciling methodologically different biodiversity assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Etienne, R.S.; Olff, H.; Hommel, P.W.F.M.; Langevelde, van F.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing large-scale habitat disturbance requires quick identification of conservation priorities such as targeting sites rich in species and/or endemics. Biodiversity assessments are time consuming and expensive, so surveys often rely on partial sampling. Optimal use should be made of all currently

  15. Benchmarking biodiversity performances of farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Dijk, van J.; Staats, H.; Musters, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers are the key players when it comes to the enhancement of farmland biodiversity. In this study, a benchmark system that focuses on improving farmers’ nature conservation was developed and tested among Dutch arable farmers in different social settings. The results show that especially tailored

  16. Biodiversity Drifts in Agricultural Landscapes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameixa, Olga; Kindlmann, Pavel

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Grillo, O.; Venora, G.), s. 316-331 ISBN 978-953-307-417-7 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : agricultural practices * biodiversity * ecosystems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Business Meets Biodiversity Conference 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.; Man, M. de; Verweij, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    How can companies successfully integrate the sustainable management of ecosystems and biodiversity into their business models? This was the central question at the international conference ‘Business Meets Biodiversity’ held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, on June 27th 2012. The organizing committee, co

  18. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  19. Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmenli, Musa

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

  20. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  1. Helsinki alert of biodiversity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, Leena; Beutler, Bruce; Bienenstock, John; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Eriksson, Johan; Färkkilä, Martti; Haahtela, Tari; Hanski, Ilkka; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kere, Juha; Knip, Mikael; Kontula, Kimmo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ling, Charlotte; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; von Mutius, Erika; Mäkelä, Mika J; Paunio, Tiina; Pershagen, Göran; Renz, Harald; Rook, Graham; Saarela, Maria; Vaarala, Outi; Veldhoen, Marc; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-05-01

    Urban living in built environments, combined with the use of processed water and food, may not provide the microbial stimulation necessary for a balanced development of immune function. Many chronic inflammatory disorders, including allergic, autoimmune, metabolic, and even some behavioural disorders, are linked to alteration in the human commensal microbiota. Sedentary lifestyle is associated with reduced exposure to a broad spectrum of environmental micro-organisms and surplus energy balance, both risk factors of chronic inflammatory disorders. According to the Biodiversity Hypothesis, an environment with diverse macrobiota and microbiota modifies and enriches the human microbiota, which in turn is crucial in the development and maintenance of appropriate immune function. These issues were discussed in the symposium 'Chronic Inflammation, Lifestyle and Environment', held in Helsinki, 20-22 August 2014, under the sponsorship of the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation. This paper briefly outlines the recent findings in the context of the environment, lifestyle, and health; discusses the forces that undermine immune tolerance in urban environments; and highlights the possibilities to restore broken immune tolerance among urban dwellers, summarizing the main messages in four statements and calling for actions to combat major public health threats. PMID:25904094

  2. Understanding microbial/DOM interactions using fluorescence and flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bethany; Rushworth, Cathy; Attridge, John; Anesio, Alexandre; Cox, Tim; Reynolds, Darren

    2015-04-01

    The transformation and movement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within freshwater aquatic systems is an important factor in the global cycling of carbon. DOC within aquatic systems is known to underpin the microbial food web and therefore plays an essential role in supporting and maintaining the aquatic ecosystem. Despite this the interactions between bacteria and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are not well understood, although the literature indicates that the microbial processing of bioavailable DOM is essential during the production of autochthonous, labile, DOM. DOM can be broadly characterised by its fluorescing properties and Coble et al. (2014) define terrestrially derived DOM as exhibiting "peak C" fluorescence, whilst labile microbially derived DOM is defined as showing "peak T" fluorescence. Our work explores the microbial/DOM interactions by analysing aquatic samples using fluorescence excitation and emission matrices (EEMs) in conjunction with microbial consumption of dissolved oxygen. Environmental and synthetic water samples were subjected to fluorescence characterisation using both fluorescence spectroscopy and in situ fluorescence sensors (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd.). PARAFAC analysis and peak picking were performed on EEMs and compared with flow cytometry data, used to quantify bacterial numbers present within samples. Synthetic samples were created using glucose, glutamic acid, nutrient-rich water and a standard bacterial seed. Synthetic samples were provided with terrestrially derived DOM via the addition of an aliquot of environmental water. Using a closed system approach, samples were incubated over time (up to a maximum of 20 days) and analysed at pre-defined intervals. The main focus of our work is to improve our understanding of microbial/DOM interactions and how these interactions affect both the DOM characteristics and microbial food web in freshwater aquatic systems. The information gained, in relation to the origin, microbial

  3. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  4. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  5. Options for promoting high-biodiversity REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, Steve; Mcnally, Richard; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne; Roe, Dilys; Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2011-11-15

    International climate and biodiversity conventions agree that to be effective in the long term, strategies to reduce emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks, and sustainable forest management (REDD+), must not undermine biodiversity. But how do countries achieve 'high-biodiversity REDD+' in practice? At a global level, options include immediate policy strengthening in international negotiations; promotion of co-benefit standards; and financial incentives and preferences for buying countries. At a national level, developing countries can also promote high-biodiversity REDD+ through more coherent policies; integrated planning; regulatory and economic instruments; and improved monitoring of biodiversity impacts.

  6. Biodiversity optimal sampling: an algorithmic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity sampling is a very serious task. When biodiversity sampling is not representative of the biodiversity spatial pattern due to few data or uncorrected sampling point locations, successive analyses, models and simulations are inevitably biased. In this work, I propose a new solution to the problem of biodiversity sampling. The proposed approach is proficient for habitats, plant and animal species, in addition it is able to answer the two pivotal questions of biodiversity sampling: 1 how many sampling points and 2 where are the sampling points.

  7. Aquatic insect assemblages associated with subalpine stream segment types in relict glaciated headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Joshua S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Bolton, Susan M.; Weekes, Anne A.; Gara, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    1. Aquatic habitats and biotic assemblages in subalpine headwaters are sensitive to climate and human impacts. Understanding biotic responses to such perturbations and the contribution of high-elevation headwaters to riverine biodiversity requires the assessment of assemblage composition among habitat types. We compared aquatic insect assemblages among headwater stream segment types in relict glaciated subalpine basins in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. 2. Aquatic insects were collected during summer and autumn in three headwater basins. In each basin, three different stream segment types were sampled: colluvial groundwater sources, alluvial lake inlets, and cascade-bedrock lake outlets. Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis revealed high β diversity in aquatic insect assemblages, and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that spatial and temporal patterns in assemblage composition differed among headwater stream segment types. Aquatic insect assemblages showed more fidelity to stream segment types than to individual basins, and the principal environmental variables associated with assemblage structure were temperature and substrate. 3. Indicator species analyses identified specific aquatic insects associated with each stream segment type. Several rare and potentially endemic aquatic insect taxa were present, including the recently described species, Lednia borealis (Baumann and Kondratieff). 4. Our results indicate that aquatic insect assemblages in relict glaciated subalpine headwaters were strongly differentiated among stream segment types. These results illustrate the contribution of headwaters to riverine biodiversity and emphasise the importance of these habitats for monitoring biotic responses to climate change. Monitoring biotic assemblages in high-elevation headwaters is needed to prevent the potential loss of unique and sensitive biota.

  8. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain

  9. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahotra Sarkar; Anshu Aggarwal; Justin Garson; Chris R Margules; Juliane Zeidler

    2002-07-01

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonstrated with two analyses, one data set consisting of the distributions of termite genera in Namibia, and the other consisting of the distributions of bird species in the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands. The attributes that data sets should have for the effective and reliable application of such procedures are discussed. The procedure used here is compared to some others that are also currently in use.

  10. Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools—such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization—have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  11. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    -Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long......-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. The CBMP-Terrestrial Plan aims to address these priority management questions: 1. What are the status, distribution, and conditions of terrestrial focal species, populations, communities, and landscapes/ecosystems and key processes...... network of scientists, conservation organizations, government agencies, Permanent Participants Arctic community experts and leaders. Using an ecosystem-based monitoring approach which includes species, ecological functions, ecosystems, their interactions, and potential drivers, the CBMP focuses on...

  12. Biodiversity in Word and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the variety of…

  13. Business Meets Biodiversity Conference 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vollaard, B.; Man, M. de; Verweij, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    How can companies successfully integrate the sustainable management of ecosystems and biodiversity into their business models? This was the central question at the international conference ‘Business Meets Biodiversity’ held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, on June 27th 2012. The organizing committee, consisting of the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, Hivos, Rabobank Group, WWF-NL and Tropenbos Internationa...

  14. FOREST BIODIVERSITY PRESERVATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. BORLEA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity conservation strategy should include forest protected areas as important objectives. Important legislative and administrative measures should be taken in order to integrate the forestry better in the sustainable development of the natural capital of Romania. A list of the most valuable virgin and natural forests is included. The definitions given to forest indicators must be revived and adapted to the actual situation.

  15. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, Lucas; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero;

    2016-01-01

    he diversity of life on Earth—which provides vital services to humanity (1)—stems from the difference between rates of evolutionary diversification and extinction. Human activities have shifted the balance (2): Species extinction rates are an estimated 1000 times the “background” rate (3) and cou...... United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  16. Confirmation of irradiation processing doses for controlling microflora in frozen aquatic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the research results and existing references in the hygienic standard and technique code of frozen aquatic products, a conclusion is made that the irradiation dose of 4-7 kGy could ensure bacteria count less than 5 x 104 cfu/g and no pathogen microbial detected when microbial count in the products is less than 5 x 106 cfu/g before irradiation. The irradiation dose of 4-7 kGy could be used in establishing irradiation sterilization practice for control microflora of frozen aquatic products. (authors)

  17. Tool use by aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool ...

  18. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  19. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) biodiversity and grassland ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-WEI GUO; HONG-CHANG LI; YA-LING GAN

    2006-01-01

    Interesting results may arise by combining studies on the structure and function of ecosystems with that of biodiversity for certain species. Grasshopper biodiversity is the result of the evolution of grassland ecosystems; however, it also impacts on the structure and the function of those ecosystems. We consider there to be a close relationship between the health of grassland ecosystems and grasshopper biodiversity. The main problems involved in this relationship are likely to include: (i) grasshopper biodiversity and its spatial pattern; (ii) the effect of grasshopper biodiversity on the ecological processes of grassland ecosystems; (iii) the biodiversity threshold of grasshopper population explosions;(iv) the relationship between grasshopper biodiversity and the natural and human factors that affect grassland ecosystems; and (v) grasshopper biodiversity and the health of grassland ecosystems. The solutions to these problems may provide sound bases for controlling disasters caused by grasshoppers and managing grassland ecosystems in the west of China. In this paper, we introduced two concepts for grasshopper biodiversity, that is, "spatial pattern" and "biodiversity threshold". It is helpful to understand the action of the spatial pattern of grasshopper biodiversity on the ecological processes of grassland ecosystems and the effect of this spatial pattern on the health of those ecosystems, owing to the fact that, in the west of China, grasslands are vast and grasshoppers are widely distributed. Moreover, we inferred that the change in the level of component richness at each type of grasshopper biodiversity can make an impact on grassland ecosystems, and therefore, there is likely to be a threshold to grasshopper biodiversity for the stability and the sustainability of those ecosystems.

  20. A BIODIVERSITY HUB: SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity refers variety in nature i.e. the variety of life on Earth and its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. Sandi Bird sanctuary was developed and conserved in the year 1990 as natural biodiversity hub for aquatic vegetation as well as local residents and migratory birds. This Sanctuary has an area of 309 hectares. A study of faunal diversity in Sandi Bird Sanctuary was done during January 2013 to March 2014. Sandi Bird Sanctuary is well known as popular tourist destination because of the diverse assemblage of avifauna especially migratory water birds that congregate at the Sandi Bird Sanctuary in winter. The result includes 3 species of annelids belonging to 3 orders, 10 orders of insects with 61 species, 4 species of mollusks belonging to 3 orders, 11 species of fishes belonging to 5 families, 3 species of amphibians and 15 species of reptiles belonging to 13 families, 157 species of birds, and 12 species of mammals belonging to 09 families from Sandi Bird Sanctuary. The sanctuary is an envoy area of the Indo-gangetic eco-system. Wetland vegetation is also found in the sanctuary.

  1. Scaling laws predict global microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Lennon, Jay T

    2016-05-24

    Scaling laws underpin unifying theories of biodiversity and are among the most predictively powerful relationships in biology. However, scaling laws developed for plants and animals often go untested or fail to hold for microorganisms. As a result, it is unclear whether scaling laws of biodiversity will span evolutionarily distant domains of life that encompass all modes of metabolism and scales of abundance. Using a global-scale compilation of ∼35,000 sites and ∼5.6⋅10(6) species, including the largest ever inventory of high-throughput molecular data and one of the largest compilations of plant and animal community data, we show similar rates of scaling in commonness and rarity across microorganisms and macroscopic plants and animals. We document a universal dominance scaling law that holds across 30 orders of magnitude, an unprecedented expanse that predicts the abundance of dominant ocean bacteria. In combining this scaling law with the lognormal model of biodiversity, we predict that Earth is home to upward of 1 trillion (10(12)) microbial species. Microbial biodiversity seems greater than ever anticipated yet predictable from the smallest to the largest microbiome. PMID:27140646

  2. Mangrove microbial diversity and the impact of trophic contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchez, Agnès; Pascault, Noémie; Chardon, Cècile; Bouvy, Marc; Cecchi, Philippe; Lambs, Luc; Herteman, Mélanie; Fromard, François; Got, Patrice; Leboulanger, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves are threatened ecosystems that provide numerous ecosystem services, especially through their wide biodiversity, and their bioremediation capacity is a challenging question in tropical areas. In a mangrove in Mayotte, we studied the potential role of microbial biofilm communities in removing nutrient loads from pre-treated wastewater. Microbial community samples were collected from tree roots, sediments, water, and from a colonization device, and their structure and dynamics were com...

  3. Functional soil microbial diversity across Europe estimated by EEA, MicroResp and BIOLOG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rutgers, Michiel; Creamer, Rachel;

    of estimating soil microbial activity. However, today several techniques are in use for determining microbial functional diversity and assessing soil biodiversity: Methods based on CO2 development by the microbes such as substrate induced respiration (SIR) on specific substrates have lead to the development...

  4. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Gianluca; Coci, Manuela; Giardina, Marco; Plechuk, Sonia; Campanile, Floriana; Stefani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The release of antibiotics (AB) into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of AB-resistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance) in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5-6 fold. These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of the effects of AB

  5. Have Introduced Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta) Affected Native Aquatic Vertebrates in Western United States Streams?

    OpenAIRE

    Burbank, Nora K.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of exotic species is one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity. Brown trout are native to Eurasia, but have been introduced to much of the rest of the world, including the United States. In other parts of their introduced range, brown trout have caused substantial negative effects to native species‟ abundances and distributions, and have altered the structure of some aquatic communities. In the United States, studies of some streams and watersheds have shown that...

  6. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Walpole, Matt; Collen, Ben; Van Strien, Arco; Scharlemann, Jorn P.W.; Almond, Rosamunde E.A.; Baillie, Jonathan E.M.; Bomhard, Bastian; Brown, Claire; Bruno, John; Carpenter, Kent E.; Carr, Genevieve M.; Chanson, Janice; Chenery, Anna M.; Csirke, Jorge; Davidson, Nick C.; Dentener, Frank; Foster, Matt; Galli, Alessandro; Galloway, James N.; Genovesi, Piero; Gregory, Richard D.; Hockings, Marc; Kapos, Valerie; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Leverington, Fiona; Loh, Jonathan; McGeoch, Melodie A.; McRae, Louise; Minasyan, Anahit; Morcillo, Monica Hernandez; Oldfield, Thomasina E.E.; Pauly, Daniel; Quader, Suhel; Revenga, Carmen; Sauer, John R.; Skolnik, Benjamin; Spear, Dian; Stanwell-Smith, Damon; Stuart, Simon N.; Symes, Andy; Tierney, Megan; Tyrrell, Tristan D.; Vie, Jean-Christophe; Watson, Reg

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, world leaders committed, through the Convention on Biological Diversity, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species' population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent and condition, and community composition) showed declines, with no significant recent reductions in rate, whereas indicators of pressures on biodiversity (including resource consumption, invasive alien species, nitrogen pollution, overexploitation, and climate change impacts) showed increases. Despite some local successes and increasing responses (including extent and biodiversity coverage of protected areas, sustainable forest management, policy responses to invasive alien species, and biodiversity-related aid), the rate of biodiversity loss does not appear to be slowing.

  7. Risk Assessment for Biodiversity: an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, S.; Vighi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Performing a risk assessment for biodiversity is a difficult task because it covers several issues and most of them suffer for a lack of crucial information. Several indicators have been developed to assess some aspect of biodiversity on the national, international or global scale but they often do not cover the complexity of the problem..This work represents an attempt for developing, within ALARM Project, a tool for biodiversity risk assessment that integrates approaches and results coming...

  8. Biodiversity and environmental education: A contradiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    The need for the maintenance of biodiversity has become a much-debated environmental concern. However, calling for continued biodiversity exposes one to potential accusations of caring more for the natural environment than for people. This article briefly reviews the development of environmental education and provides an overview of the concepts “biodiversity”, “sustainable development” and “sustainable consumption”. Reasons for maintaining biodiversity while simultaneously allowing for susta...

  9. Conservation of Biodiversity Through Tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Mathur

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. Plant tissue culture comprises a set of in vitro techniques, methods and strategies that are part of the group of technologies called plant biotechnology. Tissue culture has been exploited to create genetic variability from which crop plants can be improved, to improve the state of healt...

  10. How to value biodiversity in environmental management?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila-Panta, Mirka; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Uusitalo, Laura; Venesjärvi, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biodiversity is globally recognised as a cornerstone of healthy ecosystems, and biodiversity conservation is increasingly becoming one of the important aims of environmental management. Evaluating the tradeoffs of alternative management strategies requires quantitative estimates of the costs and benefits of their outcomes, including the value of biodiversity lost or preserved. This paper takes a decision-analytic standpoint, and reviews and discusses the alternative aspects of bi...

  11. International Tourism, development and Biodiversity: First Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Freytag; Christoph Vietze

    2006-01-01

    We analyse whether biodiversity can improve the economic growth of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) by increasing the receipts of tourism as one of the world biggest and fastest growing industries. The intention of our examination is to present an alternative utilization of biodiversity, rather than hunting or the agricultural use of habitats. Our hypothesis is that tourism may be an important chance for economic growth in developing countries. We assume that biodiversity is an important fact...

  12. Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Henle, Klaus; Potts, Simon; Kunin, William; Matsinos,Yiannis; Simila, Jukka; Pantis, John; Grobelnik, Vesna; Penev, Lyubomir; Settele, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Human actions, motivated by social and economic driving forces, generate various pressures on biodiversity, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, land use related disturbance patterns, or species invasions that have an impact on biodiversity from the genetic to the ecosystem level. Each of these factors acts at characteristic scales, and the scales of social and economic demands, of environmental pressures, of biodiversity impacts, of scientific analysis, and of governmental...

  13. Socio-Economic Context of Saving Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Ejaz GUL

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of time mankind has depended upon the available natural resources for survival, although the contribution of biodiversity to the sustainable development has recently been acknowledged. The need for this recognition arose from the fact that biodiversity provides a variety of socio- cultural and economic services for the humankind such as food, water, shelter, medicines, energy and aesthetic value. Despite realization of biodiversity as essential factor for human life and we...

  14. Marine biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and carbon cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Beaugrand, Grégory; Edwards, Martin; Legendre, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although recent studies suggest that climate change may substantially accelerate the rate of species loss in the biosphere, only a few studies have focused on the potential consequences of a spatial reorganization of biodiversity with global warming. Here, we show a pronounced latitudinal increase in phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic biodiversity in the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades. We also show that this rise in biodiversity paralleled a decrease in the mean size of z...

  15. Agricultural Biotechnology, Gene Flow and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    A sustainable strategy to nourish the planet and its people must also promote biodiversity conservation. This strategy will have to include reduction in land degradation and unsustainable overuse of fertilisers, pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, and irrigation water. A case can be made for conserving biodiversity as a source of traits for incorporation, by different genetic tools, into food plants and animals, but an even stronger case can be made for a conserved biodiversity to supply ecos...

  16. Harnessing private sector conservation of biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2002-01-01

    'Harnessing Private Sector Conservation of Biodiversity' was released on 4 December 2001. This paper provides an economic perspective on the role the private sector can play in conservation of biodiversity. It focuses on opportunities for governments to facilitate biodiversity conservation by enabling markets to allocate resources better. With more than 60 per cent of Australia's land area under private management, conservation cannot be adequately addressed without private sector participati...

  17. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    F. CROCETTA; Agius, D.; P. BALISTRERI; M. BARICHE; Y.K. BAYHAN; M. ÇAKIR; S. CIRIACO; M. CORSINI-FOKA; A. DEIDUN; R. EL ZRELLI; D. ERGÜDEN; Evans, J.; M. GHELIA; M. GIAVASI; P. KLEITOU

    2015-01-01

    The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel...

  18. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  19. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Rolon, Ana Silvia; Stenert, Cristina; Machado, Iberê Farina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-12-01

    Conservation of species in agroecosystems has attracted attention. Irrigation channels can improve habitats and offer conditions for freshwater species conservation. Two questions from biodiversity conservation point of view are: 1) Can the irrigated channels maintain a rich diversity of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians over the cultivation cycle? 2) Do richness, abundance and composition of aquatic species change over the rice cultivation cycle? For this, a set of four rice field channels was randomly selected in Southern Brazilian wetlands. In each channel, six sample collection events were carried out over the rice cultivation cycle (June 2005 to June 2006). A total of 160 taxa were identified in irrigated channels, including 59 macrophyte species, 91 taxa of macroinvertebrate and 10 amphibian species. The richness and abundance of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians did not change significantly over the rice cultivation cycle. However, the species composition of these groups in the irrigation channels varied between uncultivated and cultivated periods. Our results showed that the species diversity found in the irrigation channels, together with the permanence of water enables these man-made aquatic networks to function as important systems that can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in regions where the wetlands were converted into rice fields. The conservation of the species in agriculture, such as rice field channels, may be an important alternative for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost and the remaining ones are still at high risk due to the expansion of rice production. PMID:22208101

  20. Biodiversity and its fragility in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Ying-shan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; PU Li-na; HUI Chao-mao

    2007-01-01

    In Yunnan, 8 major aspects of biodiversity and fragility in landforms, ecosystems, distribution populations, alien invasion, segregation, pollution and maladministration with various menace factors causing biodiversity loss have been described. It is revealed that the facts that the biodiversity and fragility coexists in this paper. Accordingly, 6 major countermeasures for effective conservation and rational utilization of the provincial biodiversity were suggested on the basis of thescientific development concepts, principles of nature protection,conservation biology, resource management and ethnobotany and present status in Yunnan with rich intangible resources such as climatic,ethnical and cultural diversity, etc.

  1. Biodiversity in urban habitat patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, P G; Sadler, J P; Hill, M O; Pullin, A; Rushton, S; Austin, K; Small, E; Wood, B; Wadsworth, R; Sanderson, R; Thompson, K

    2006-05-01

    We examined the biodiversity of urban habitats in Birmingham (England) using a combination of field surveys of plants and carabid beetles, genetic studies of four species of butterflies, modelling the anthropochorous nature of the floral communities and spatially explicit modelling of selected mammal species. The aim of the project was to: (i) understand the ecological characteristics of the biota of cities model, (ii) examine the effects of habitat fragment size and connectivity upon the ecological diversity and individual species distributions, (iii) predict biodiversity in cities, and (iv) analyse the extent to which the flora and fauna utilise the 'urban greenways' both as wildlife corridors and as habitats in their own right. The results suggest that cities provide habitats for rich and diverse range of plants and animals, which occur sometimes in unlikely recombinant communities. The studies on carabids and butterflies illustrated the relative importance of habitat quality on individual sites as opposed to site location within the conurbation. This suggests that dispersal for most of our urban species is not a limiting factor in population persistence, although elements of the woodland carabid fauna did appear to have some geographical structuring. Theoretical models suggested that dormice and water voles may depend on linear habitats for dispersal. The models also indicated that other groups, such as small and medium sized mammals, may use corridors, although field-based research did not provide any evidence to suggest that plants or invertebrates use urban greenways for dispersal. This finding indicates the importance of identifying a target species or group of species for urban greenways intended as dispersal routeways rather than as habitat in their own right. Their importance for most groups is rather that greenways provide a chain of different habitats permeating the urban environment. We suggest that planners can have a positive impact on urban

  2. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  3. What drives biodiversity?: an empirical assessment of the relation between biodiversity and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Vietze, Christoph; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The environmental discussion is increasingly extended to the question of how to preserve biodiversity. As sensible regulation of biodiversity utilization uses politically set incentive schemes, it is required to discus the monetary value of biodiversity. Consequently, the relation between economic incentives and biodiversity is in the focus of our paper. By using bird species as bio indicators we derive first empirical results. In sum, one still may conclude that indeed economic growth is har...

  4. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    V. Anadon-Irizarry; D.C. Wege; A. Upgren; Young, R.; Boom, B; Y.M. Leon; Y. Arias; Koenig, K.; Morales, A.L.; Burke, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive nat...

  5. Compensation for biodiversity loss – Advice to the Netherlands' Taskforce on Biodiversity and Natural Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bie, de, R.M.A.; Dessel, van, P.F.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Compensation of damage to biodiversity is one of the mechanisms to settle environmental costs. It concerns creating new opportunities for biodiversity, which as a minimum equals the residual impact after a company or organization has attempted to avoid, prevent and mitigate that impact. In the Netherlands, voluntary compensation of biodiversity loss is very new and under development. No legal frameworks, regulations nor formal guidelines apply. Lessons are learned from voluntary biodiversity ...

  6. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.;

    2009-01-01

    . The EU FP6 project ENVASSO (Environmental Assessment of Soil for Monitoring) had the aim to design a single, integrated and operational set of EU-wide criteria and indicators to provide the basis for a harmonised comprehensive soil and land information system for monitoring in Europe. Here, a proposal...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  7. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  8. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    maximum score possible. A highly ranked ANA or ARA is one that is large in size compared to other areas, includes a greater proportion of the watershed within Reservation boundaries, contains a number of status taxa at high densities, exhibits a high overall biodiversity, has very good or excellent habitat and water quality, is well protected and isolated from disturbances, and shows several other characteristics that contribute to natural area value. In this report, the term 'natural area' is loosely defined as a terrestrial or aquatic system that exhibits, or is thought to exhibit, high natural integrity and other significant natural values. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and rank the currently recognized Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for their natural area value. A previous study (Baranski 2009) analyzed, evaluated, and ranked terrestrial areas (Natural Areas [NAs], Reference Areas [RAs], and Cooperative Management Areas [CMAs]) on the ORR for natural area value, and a precise methodology for natural area evaluation was developed. The present study is intended to be a complement and companion to the terrestrial area study and attempts to employ a similar methodology for aquatic areas so that aquatic and terrestrial areas can be compared on a similar scale. This study specifically develops criteria for assessing the ecological, biodiversity, and natural area importance and significance of aquatic systems on the Reservation in a relevant and consistent manner. The information can be integrated into the Tennessee Natural Heritage Program (http://tn.gov/environment/na/nhp.shtml) system and applied to potential new aquatic areas. Further, the information will be useful in planning, management, and protection efforts on the ORR.

  9. Comparing the Performance of Protected and Unprotected Areas in Conserving Freshwater Fish Abundance and Biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Andrew Sweke; Julius Michael Assam; Abdillahi Ismail Chande; Athanasio Stephano Mbonde; Magnus Mosha; Abel Mtui

    2016-01-01

    Marine protected areas have been shown to conserve aquatic resources including fish, but few studies have been conducted of protected areas in freshwater environments. This is particularly true of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. To better conserve the lake’s biodiversity, an understanding of the role played by protected areas in conserving fish abundance and diversity is needed. Sampling of fish and environmental parameters was performed within the Mahale Mountains National Park (MMNP) and nearby ...

  10. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  11. Trading biodiversity for pest problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Jonathan G; Fausti, Scott W

    2015-07-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species' abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  12. Proceedings of the 29. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichkoff, C.V. (ed.) [BC Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Van Aggelen, G.C. (ed.) [Environment Canada, North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Niimi, A.J. (ed.) [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The current challenges and approaches to deal with aquatic toxicology and their biological effect on aquatic biota were the main topic of discussion at this conference which provided an opportunity for leaders in industry, governments and universities to exchange information and ideas on the subject. The challenges range from dealing with the basics of aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring, regulation and guidelines, and the development of sediment and water quality criteria. The sessions were entitled as follows: (1) pulp and paper environmental monitoring, (2) metal mining environmental effects monitoring, (3) municipal waste water effluent effects, (4) basis of metal uptake and toxicity, (5) endocrine disrupting compounds, (6) oil and gas, (7) aquaculture, (8) sediments, (9) non-point source pollution, (10) amphibian and wildlife toxicology, (11) biodiversity and cumulative effects, (12) genomic and molecular techniques, (13) ecological fate monitoring, and (14) ecological risk assessment. The conference included 2 plenary sessions, 136 platform papers and 86 poster sessions. A total of 12 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Understanding carbon regulation in aquatic systems - Bacteriophages as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmukh, Swapnil; Khairnar, Krishna; Paunikar, Waman; Lokhande, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria and their phages are the most abundant constituents of the aquatic environment, and so represent an ideal model for studying carbon regulation in an aquatic system. The microbe-mediated interconversion of bioavailable organic carbon (OC) into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the microbial carbon pump (MCP) has been suggested to have the potential to revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration. It is estimated that DOC is the largest pool of organic matter in the ocean and, though a major component of the global carbon cycle, its source is not yet well understood. A key element of the carbon cycle is the microbial conversion of DOC into inedible forms. The primary aim of this study is to understand the phage conversion from organic to inorganic carbon during phage-host interactions. Time studies of phage-host interactions under controlled conditions reveal their impact on the total carbon content of the samples and their interconversion of organic and inorganic carbon compared to control samples. A total organic carbon (TOC) analysis showed an increase in inorganic carbon content by 15-25 percent in samples with bacteria and phage compared to samples with bacteria alone. Compared to control samples, the increase in inorganic carbon content was 60-70-fold in samples with bacteria and phage, and 50-55-fold for samples with bacteria alone. This study indicates the potential impact of phages in regulating the carbon cycle of aquatic systems. PMID:26213615

  14. Sustaining biodiversity in ancient tropical countryside

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Jai; Daniels, R. J. Ranjit; Chandran, M. D. Subash; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gretchen C. Daily

    2008-01-01

    With intensifying demands for food and biofuels, a critical threat to biodiversity is agricultural expansion into native tropical ecosystems. Tropical agriculture, particularly intensive agriculture, often supports few native organisms, and consequently has been largely overlooked in conservation planning; yet, recent work in the Neotropics demonstrates that tropical agriculture with certain features can support significant biodiversity, decades after conversion to farmland. It remains unknow...

  15. On the Value of Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Di Falco, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Crop biodiversity is very important for both the functioning of ecological systems and the generation of a vast array of ecosystem services. More agricultural biodiversity is associated with higher agriculture production and lower risk exposure. This article explores the recent contributions on the economics of agrobiodiversity. The focus is (mostly) on the empirical literature. Future issues are also highlighted.

  16. Biodiversity and marginality: Dilemma of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Piniero, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of economic development on women and biodiversity in two rural communities in Ecuador. The level of womens integration into the development process as influenced by age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, are analyzed. The effects of the economic change on biodiversity using homegardens as its indicators are also evaluated.

  17. Digital Geogames to foster local biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaal Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuing of biodiversity is considered to be a first step towards its conservation. Therefore, the aim of the BioDiv2Go project is to combine sensuous experiences discovering biodiversity with mobile technology and a game-based learning approach.

  18. A new sampling formula for neutral biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The neutral model of biodiversity, proposed by Hubbell (The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2001) to explain the diversity of functionally equivalent species, has been subject of hot debate in community ecology. Whereas Hubbell stud

  19. Assessing the effects of chemicals on aquatic microbial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha Dimitrov, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of synthetic chemicals are used in a vast range of applications. When reflecting about our daily activities, it is not difficult to realize how much of our life style is dependent on synthetic chemicals. From the food we eat, medicines we take to the health care produc

  20. Assessing the effects of chemicals on aquatic microbial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Dimitrov, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of synthetic chemicals are used in a vast range of applications. When reflecting about our daily activities, it is not difficult to realize how much of our life style is dependent on synthetic chemicals. From the food we eat, medicines we take to the health care products we use, all have their fair share of synthetic chemicals. However, many of the synthetic chemicals we depend on are released into the environment, where they could become a threat to non-target ...

  1. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  2. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health. PMID:26386206

  3. Focus on biodiversity, health and wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn; Athias, Renato

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 Environmental Research Letters (ERL) launched a focus series of research papers on the theme of biodiversity, health and well-being. It was the year of the second Rio Summit on Sustainable Development, a huge number of species had been made extinct and conservationists were making increasingly urgent calls for the protection of biodiversity. The situation is ever more critical. Since we started the issue more species have become extinct, and hundreds more have now become critically endangered. The focus issue highlighted the complexity of the links of biodiversity and health, and provides more evidence for the importance to human health of biodiversity on our planet. Research papers contrasted anthropocentric western scientific views of biodiversity and its ecosystem service to humans, with the more horizontal conceptions of indigenous communities in the Amazon—and as many cultures have recognized throughout history, they recognize that we are part of nature: nature does not exist for us.

  4. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  5. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S.; Bilton, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this

  6. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  7. Cycad diversification and tropical biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent unexpected discovery that living Cycadales are not Jurassic-Cretaceous (200– 65 Mya relicts, as all their extant genera began to diversify during the Late Miocene (12 Mya, has challenged a classical evolutionary myth. This brief note shows how this finding may also provide new clues on the shaping of the high tropical biodiversity

    El reciente e inesperado descubrimiento de que las Cycadales actuales no son relictos Jurásico-Cretácicos (200-65 Mya, ya que todos sus géneros iniciaron su diversificación durante el Mioceno Tardío (12 Mya, ha puesto en entredicho un mito evolutivo clásico. En esta nota se expone como este hallazgo puede, además, proporcionar nuevas pistas sobre el origen de la elevada biodiversidad tropical.

  8. Monitoring Biodiversity using Environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis

    . Finally, a study tests the applicability of non-destructive DNA extraction from old and ancient insect remains. DNA is successfully retrieved, amplified and equenced from dried museum beetle specimens up to 188 years old, ermafrost-preserved macrofossils up to 26.000 years old and directly from 1800......As any species interacts with its environment, most of them will at some point expel DNA to their surroundings. Such DNA can be picked up in environmental samples, isolated and analysed. Within the last decade, this has become a multidisciplinary research field known as Environmental DNA (eDNA......). Especially the advance in DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized this field and opened new frontiers in ecology, evolution and environmental sciences. Also, it is becoming a powerful tool for field biologist, with new and efficient methods for monitoring biodiversity. This thesis focuses on the use of...

  9. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  10. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  11. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-02-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala. PMID:7621793

  12. Biodiversity assessment at Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) campus, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid assessment of biodiversity in the DAE campus, Kalpakkam was carried out. The entire DAE campus of 3000 acres, at Kalpakkam was divided into four representative plots comprising of different landscapes namely (1) undisturbed area with dense vegetation, (2) building area, (3) water bodies with riparian cover and (4) sandy area with meager vegetation for inventorying of charismatic terrestrial/semi-aquatic fauna viz., Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Butterflies. For birds, early morning surveys were made whereas for mammals evening and night surveys were followed. Midday sampling was followed for butterflies and other animals. Each plot was surveyed twice in a week over a period of one year (April 07' to March 08'). Totally 128 species of animals were identified during the survey and it has highlighted the potential of biodiversity in the campus. The diversity of butterflies is remarkable. Twenty-two butterfly species were encountered. Frogs, toads, lizards and snakes are also diverse. Five species of frogs and one species of toad were recorded. Lizards are more diverse than snakes. Nine species of lizards were encountered. Calotus versicolor is abundant followed by common skink. Totally five species of snakes were recorded. Among them Common bronzedback and Green Vine Snake were predominant. Seventy species of birds were recorded during the survey period. Black crowned night heron, Common house crow, Great cormorant, Oriental white ibis, Painted stork, Cattle egret, Common mynah are more common. Sixteen species of mammals were encountered during the survey. Wild cattle, Jackal, Jungle cat, Toddy cat, Crested porcupine and Indian civet are the major wildlife found. Indian civet and Crested porcupine are elusive animals that are diminishing from wild and their presence at this campus is an indication of less human intervention. (author)

  13. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  14. Biodiversity of the flora of Mount Papa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though Mount Papa is in the dry zone area, it is almost evergreen, due to its elevation of 4981 feet above the sea level and its fertile soil conditions. A has a rich biodiversity with vegetation of many types

  15. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments in terrestrial, marine, freshwater and...... coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect......, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...

  16. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans.

  17. 2010: A new beginning for biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbault, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Proclaimed "International Year of Biodiversity", will 2010 hold all its promises? Reminder: initiated by the Convention on Biological Diversity ratified after the global summit in Rio de Janeiro, delegations from more than one hundred countries gathered in Johannesburg in 2002 and committed themselves to slowing the erosion of biodiversity by 2010. The European Union was more ambitious (or reckless?) and even spoke about halting this erosion (European Environment Agency, Progress towards the European 2010 biodiversity target, 2009)! Well, that date has come and the overall appraisal that has been made formally in Nagoya in October this year was not so brilliant (see Leadley et al., 2010)-but the same slogan has been launched for 2020! The aim here is not to repeat that appraisal, but, after considering the broad outlines, to evoke some of the issues and challenges that inevitably result from the great question of the protection and management of global biodiversity. PMID:21640957

  18. Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON) project is an online mapping information system consisting of a large collection of species occurrence...

  19. Online Biodiversity Resources - Principles for Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Neale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Online biodiversity portals and databases enabling access to large volumes of biological information represent a potentially extensive set of resources for a variety of user groups. However, in order for these resources to live up to their promise they need to be both useful and easy to use. We discuss a number of principles for designing systems for usability, examine how these have been applied to the development of online biodiversity resources and compare this with a portal project developed by the Astrophysics community. We highlight a lack of user involvement and formalised requirements analysis by biodiversity projects resulting in a poor understanding of both the users and their tasks. We suggest a change in the way large biodiversity portal projects are structured, that is by providing infrastructure and supporting user groups developing individual interfaces.

  20. Biodiversity Loss Threatens Human Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Sandra; Fargione, Joseph; CHAPIN, F. STUART; Tilman, David

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity lies at the core of ecosystem processes fueling our planet's vital life-support systems; its degradation--by us--is threatening our own well-being and will disproportionately impact the poor.

  1. Breaking boundaries for biodiversity : expanding the policy agenda to halt biodiversity loss

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, M.P.; Sanders, M.E.; Tekelenburg, A.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Lörzing, J.A.; Brink, Th.

    2010-01-01

    Our assessment from the perspective of the Netherlands, a country in the temperate zone, showed a slightly positive picture, in line with the overall results for this zone. The loss of biodiversity in the Netherlands has been slowed down, but the European target – halting the loss of biodiversity – could not be met. The picture in the Netherlands is less positive if the average low quality of the remaining Dutch biodiversity is taken into account. If the impacts on biodiversity abroad of impo...

  2. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  3. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  4. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the tritium released from nuclear facilities into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates, fish, and food chain studies, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near that of the external medium. Incorporation of tritium from triated water into the organic matter of cells is at a slower rate than incorporation into the tissue free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the 'carrier' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher tropic levels. Radiation doses to large populations of humans from tritium releases will most likely be from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products. (author)

  5. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with

  6. Biodiversity, from the Ocean to the City

    OpenAIRE

    Bœuf, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The coral ecosystem, a biodiversity “hot spot” for oceans, here the great southern reef in New Caledonia © Gilles Boeuf How to obtain an objective estimate of species diversity and biodiversity is one of today’s crucial questions. This is no simple challenge, as everything is evolving very rapidly and the mass destruction of habitats is constantly leading to the disappearance of an unknown number of species. Equally alarming is the disappearance of human descriptors of diversity: systematici...

  7. Patterns of behavior in biodiversity preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Metrick, Andrew; Weitzman, Martin L.

    1994-01-01

    Conservation budgets are limited, so it is right to ask of biodiversity programs, What should be preserved? How much should be preserved? Where? Recent papers on optimal preservation policy have tried to integrate three considerations: the relative uniqueness of different species or habitats, the degree of risk to their continued survival, and the opportunity cost of the resources needed to enhance their prospects for survival. It is natural to ask, How are we doing? Have biodiversity conserv...

  8. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    K. TSIAMIS; Ö. AYDOGAN; Bailly, N.; Balistreri, P; M. BARICHE; S. CARDEN-NOAD; M. CORSINI-FOKA; F. CROCETTA; B. DAVIDOV; C. DIMITRIADIS; B. DRAGIČEVIĆ; M. DRAKULIĆ; J. DULČIĆ; A. ESCÁNEZ; F.A. FERNÁNDEZ-ÁLVAREZ

    2015-01-01

    The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native species include: the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii in Capri Island, Thyrrenian Sea; the bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus in the Adriatic Sea; a juvenile basking shark ...

  9. Bulldozing Biodiversity: The Economics of Optimal Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash

    2015-01-01

    Many conservationists have become enamoured with mainstream economic concepts and approaches, described as pragmatic replacements for appeals to ethics and direct regulation. Trading biodiversity using offsets is part of the resulting push for market governance that is promoted as a more efficient means of Nature conservation. In critically evaluationg this position I start by explaining the assumptions behind biodiversity and ecosystem valuation and how economic logic legitimi...

  10. A Macroeconomic Model of Biodiversity Protection

    OpenAIRE

    David Martin

    2013-01-01

    Many biodiversity researchers have responded to the financial constraints faced by policy makers to develop models based upon the “Noah’s Ark” metaphor, implying that society can save only a limited amount of biodiversity. Unfortunately, as Herman Daly (Land Economics, 1991) pointed out, such microeconomic rules can allow an ark to sink albeit in some optimal fashion. So, I step back to look at the macroeconomic question, how big should the ark be? I start with Norgaard’s (Ecological Economic...

  11. Does stakeholder involvement really benefit biodiversity conservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Juliette C.; Jordan, Andrew; Searle, Kate R.; Butler, Adam; Chapman, Daniel S.; Simmons, Peter; Allan D. Watt

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of protected areas, such as Natura 2000, is a common approach to curbing biodiversity loss. But many of these areas are owned or managed by private actors. Policies indicate that their involvement should be encouraged to ensure long term success. However, to date there have been no systematic evaluations of whether local actor involvement in the management of protected areas does in fact contribute to the conservation of biodiversity, which is the expressed policy goal. Rese...

  12. The integration of biodiversity into One Health

    OpenAIRE

    Romanelli, C.; Cooper, H. D.; De Souza Dias, B. F.

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the links between biodiversity, health and disease presents major opportunities for policy development, and can enhance our understanding of how health-focused measures affect biodiversity, and conservation measures affect health. The breadth and complexity of these relationships, and the socio-economic drivers by which they are influenced, in the context of rapidly shifting global trends, reaffirm the need for an integrative, multidisciplinary and systemic approach ...

  13. Regulating Biodiversity: What is the Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Swanson; Ben Groom

    2012-01-01

    We distinguish between local problems of biodiversity loss and global ones, where international cooperation is required. Global biodiversity regulation involves choosing the optimal stopping rule regarding global land conversions, in order to ensure that some areas of unconverted natural reserves remain to support the production sector that exists on converted lands. The basic difficulty with implementing a solution to this global problem lies in the asymmetry in endowments between those stat...

  14. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF SAVING BIODIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ejaz GUL; Imran Sharif CHAUDHRY

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity provides a variety of socio- cultural and economic services for the humankind such as food, water, shelter, medicines, energy and aesthetic value. Pakistan is fortunate to have rich biodiversity canvas and is blessed with more than nine distinct ecological zones. These ecological zones provide a range of habitats to a great variety of flora and fauna, besides a vast variety of plant species having great medicinal and food value. However, deforestation, over development and lack o...

  15. Regulating global biodiversity: What is the problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Tim; Groom, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We distinguish between local problems of biodiversity loss and global ones, where international cooperation is required. Global biodiversity regulation involves choosing the optimal stopping rule regarding global land conversions, in order to ensure that some areas of unconverted natural reserves remain to support the production sector that exists on converted lands. The basic difficulty with implementing a solution to this global problem lies in the asymmetry in endowments between those stat...

  16. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts Raf; Honnay Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has rec...

  17. [Mechanism on biodiversity managing crop diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Shi, Zhu-Feng; Gao, Dong; Liu, Lin; Zhu, You-Yong; Li, Cheng-Yun

    2012-11-01

    Reasonable utilization of natural resource and protection of ecological environment is the foundation for implementing agricultural sustainable development. Biodiversity research and protection are becoming an important issue concerned commonly in the world. Crop disease is one of the important natural disasters for food production and safety, and is also one of the main reasons that confine sustainable development of agricultural production. Large-scale deployment of single highly resistant variety results in reduction of agro-biodiversity level. In this case, excessive loss of agro-biodiversity has become the main challenge in sustainable agriculture. Biodiversity can not only effectively alleviate disease incidence and loss of crop production, but also reduce pollution of agricultural ecological environment caused by excessive application of pesticides and fertilizers to the agricultural ecological environment. Discovery of the mechanism of biodiversity to control crop diseases can reasonably guide the rational deployment and rotation of different crops and establish optimization combinations of different crops. This review summarizes recent advances of research on molecular, physiological, and ecological mechanisms of biodiversity managing crop diseases, and proposes some research that needs to be strengthened in the future. PMID:23208136

  18. Towards a Duty of Care for Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, G.; Curtis, A.; Allan, C.

    2010-04-01

    The decline in biodiversity is a worldwide phenomenon, with current rates of species extinction more dramatic than any previously recorded. Habitat loss has been identified as the major cause of biodiversity decline. In this article we suggest that a statutory duty of care would complement the current mix of policy options for biodiversity conservation. Obstacles hindering the introduction of a statutory duty of care include linguistic ambiguity about the terms ‘duty of care’ and ‘stewardship’ and how they are applied in a natural resource management context, and the absence of a mechanism to guide its implementation. Drawing on international literature and key informant interviews we have articulated characteristics of duty of care to reduce linguistic ambiguity, and developed a framework for implementing a duty of care for biodiversity at the regional scale. The framework draws on key elements of the common law ‘duty of care’, the concepts of ‘taking reasonable care’ and ‘avoiding foreseeable harm’, in its logic. Core elements of the framework include desired outcomes for biodiversity, supported by current recommended practices. The focus on outcomes provides opportunities for the development of innovative management practices. The framework incorporates multiple pathways for the redress of non-compliance including tiered negative sanctions, and positive measures to encourage compliance. Importantly, the framework addresses the need for change and adaptation that is a necessary part of biodiversity management.

  19. Biodiversity conservation and drug discovery: Can they be combined? The Suriname and Madagascar experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shugeng; Kingston, David G I

    2009-08-01

    The approach to new drugs through natural products has proved to be the single most successful strategy for the discovery of new drugs, but in recent years its use has been deemphasized by many pharmaceutical companies in favor of approaches based on combinatorial chemistry and genomics, among others.Drug discovery from natural sources requires continued access to plant, marine, and microbial biomass, and so the preservation of tropical rainforests is an important part of our drug discovery program. Sadly, many of the tropical forests of the world are under severe environmental pressure, and deforestation is a serious problem in most tropical countries. One way to combat this loss is to demonstrate their value as potential sources of new pharmaceutical or agrochemical products.As part of an effort to integrate biodiversity conservation and drug discovery with economic development, we initiated an International Cooperative biodiversity Group (ICBG) to discover potential pharmaceuticals from the plant biodiversity of Suriname and Madagascar. The Group, established with funding from agencies of the United States government, involved participants from the USA, Suriname, and Madagascar. The basic approach was to search for bioactive plants in the Suriname and Malagasy flora, and to isolate their bioactive constituents by the best available methods, but the work included capacity building as well as research. Progress on this project will be reported, drawing on results obtained from the isolation of bioactive natural products from Suriname and Madagascar. The benefits of this general approach to biodiversity and drug discovery will also be discussed. PMID:20161050

  20. Achievements and Prospects of Biodiversity Informatics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Biodiversity information is the basis for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.It not only helps us understand the status quo of biodiversity,but also reveals the relationships between its different components and hence their dynamic variations.Furthermore,it will help us predict the trend of future biodiversity development,and lay the basis for related analyses and scientific decision making on biodiversity conservation.

  1. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... that inefficient distribution of light can account for the low community production rates in aquatic habitats and the depth distribution of form-functional groups of macroalgae with different canopy structure.......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...

  2. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  3. Evaluating efficacy of a ballast water filtration system for reducing spread of aquatic species in freshwater ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briski, Elizabeta; Linley, R. D.; Adams, J.; Bailey, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions by non-indigenous species are considered a leading threat to biodiversity, with prevention being a key management strategy. Consequently, numerous commercial ballast water treatment systems have been, or are being, developed to prevent future aquatic invasions. However, most treatment systems are being designed for the many vessels undertaking long transoceanic voyages in marine waters rather than the relatively few vessels operating on short voyages in freshwater, such a...

  4. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Simon; Charles Morris; Joseph Robb; William McCoy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and...

  5. Perturbations to aquatic photosynthesis due to high-energy cosmic ray induced muon flux in the extragalactic shock model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Lien; Rodriguez, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    We modify a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the perturbations that high energy muons could make on aquatic primary productivity. Then we apply this in the context of the extragalactic shock model, according to which Earth receives an enhanced dose of high-energy cosmic rays when it is at the galactic north. We obtain considerable reduction in the photosynthesis rates, consistent with potential drops in biodiversity.

  6. Development of fauna, micro flora and aquatic organisms database at the vicinity of Gamma Green House in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodiversity database of non-human biota which consisted of flora, fauna, aquatic organisms and micro flora at the vicinity of Gamma Greenhouse (GGH) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency is under development. In 2011, a workshop on biodiversity and sampling of flora and fauna by local experts had been conducted in BAB to expose the necessary knowledge to all those involved in this study. Since then, several field surveys had been successfully being carried out covering terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in order to observe species distribution pattern and to collect the non-human biota samples. The surveys had been conducted according to standard survey procedures and the samples collected were preserved and identified using appropriate techniques. In this paper, the work on fauna, micro flora and aquatic organisms was presented. The fauna and micro flora specimens were kept in Biodiversity Laboratory in Block 44. Based on those field surveys several species of terrestrial vertebrate and invertebrate organisms were spotted. A diverse group of mushroom was found to be present at the study site. The presence of several aquatic zooplankton for example Cyclops, Nauplius; phytoplankton and bacteria for example Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp and others in the pond nearby proved that the pond ecosystem is in good condition. Through this study, the preliminary biodiversity list of fauna at the vicinity of the nuclear facility, GGH had been developed and the work will continue for complete baseline data development. Besides that, many principles and methodologies used in ecological survey had been learnt and applied but the skills involved still need to be polished through workshops, collaboration and consultation from local experts. Thus far, several agencies had been approached to gain collaboration and consultation such as Institut Perikanan Malaysia, UKM, UPM and UMT. (author)

  7. BASELINE STATUS FOR FLORA AND FAUNA WITH AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY IN DAHEJ AREA, DISTRICT BHARUCH GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Floristic and Faunistic pattern of the area was studied based on inquiries from the local population, personal observation and forest officials. The study area falls under Dahej, Bharuch District of Gujarat state. Western part of the study area is occupied by the mud flats and Saltpans. There is almost plain without much undulation, a fallow land; hence not mush vegetation cover, except scattered Prosopis juliflora shrubs and few trees of Prosopis cineraria. Total 41 species of trees belong to 20 families are enumerated from the study area. Shrubs encountered during the present survey are 27 shrub species belong to 18 families are enumerated from the study area. The dominant shrub community in this area was represented by Prosopis Juliflora (Gando baval, Calotropis procera, C. gigantea (Akado, Ipomoea fistulosa (Nasarmo, Lawsonia inermis (Mendhi, Abutilon indicum (Khapat and Lantana camara (Ganthai. Painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala was observed which is grouped under near threatened birds by IUCN. Among the birds in the study area, Pea fowl (Pavo cristatus, is included in schedule I of Wild life protection Act (1972, while many other birds are included in schedule IV. Among the reptiles, Indian Cobra (Naja naja, and Common rat snake (Ptyas mucosus were provided protection as per Schedule-II of Wild life protection act, (1972. Among mammals, Common Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsi, Jackal (Canis aureus (Linnaeus and Jungle cat (Felis Chaus are schedule–II animals. Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus is protected as Schedule-III animal and Hares and five stripped squirrels are included in schedule IV of Wild Life Protection act 1972.

  8. BASELINE STATUS FOR FLORA AND FAUNA WITH AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY IN DAHEJ AREA, DISTRICT BHARUCH GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar; Manoj Eledath

    2015-01-01

    Floristic and Faunistic pattern of the area was studied based on inquiries from the local population, personal observation and forest officials. The study area falls under Dahej, Bharuch District of Gujarat state. Western part of the study area is occupied by the mud flats and Saltpans. There is almost plain without much undulation, a fallow land; hence not mush vegetation cover, except scattered Prosopis juliflora shrubs and few trees of Prosopis cineraria. Total 41 species of trees belong t...

  9. Modelling indicators of water security, water pollution and aquatic biodiversity in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Egon; Williams, Richard; Keller, Virginie; Voss, Anja; Tattari, Sirkka

    2012-01-01

    The GWAVA (Global Water AVailability Assessment) model for indicating human water security has been extended with a newly developed module for calculating pollutant concentrations. This module is first described and then illustrated by being used to model nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter concentrations. The module uses solely input variables that are likely to be available for future scenarios, making it possible to apply the module to such scenarios. The module first calculates pollut...

  10. Global biodiversity of aquatic ammonia-oxidizing archaea is partitioned by habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Biller, Steven J.; Mosier, Annika C.; Wells, George F.; Francis, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Archaea play an important role in nitrification and are, thus, inextricably linked to the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Since the initial discovery of an ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit (amoA) gene associated with an archaeal metagenomic fragment, archaeal amoA sequences have been detected in a wide variety of nitrifying environments. Recent sequencing efforts have revealed extensive diversity of archaeal amoA sequences within different habitats. In this study, we have examined over 800...

  11. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  12. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  13. The effect of soil habitat connectivity on microbial interactions, community structure and diversity: a microcosm-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Soils contain tremendous microbial phylogenetic and functional diversity. Recent advances in the application of molecular methods into microbial ecology have provided a new appreciation of the extent of soil-borne microbial diversity, but our understanding of the forces that shape and maintain this tremendous source of biodiversity still remain rudimentary. The overall aim of the work presented in this thesis was to increase our understanding of the forces that allow for the tremendous amount...

  14. 关于中国淡水生态系统生物多样性监测与管理的探讨%BIODIVERSITY MONITORING FOR AND MANAGEMENT OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS IN CHINA: A DISCUSSION AND POSITION PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dong-Jiong; LI Gang

    2006-01-01

    Due to the rapid economic growth and the continuous increase of human, ecosystem disturbances and habitat destructions, the biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems in China is rapidly declining. This issue is gradually gaining the government's attention as its environmental policy becomes more and more equally-weighed on both "pollution prevention and control" and "ecological conservation" issues while only the former was emphasized in the past. However, some unsolved issues still exist with regard to aquatic biodiversity monitoring and management in China. For example, there are functional overlaps among governmental departments; regional ecological function divisions are not clarified; biodiversity is usually neglected or not emphasized in environmental impact assessment for construction projects; and so on. In our opinion, the following areas should be emphasied: (a) enhancing the cooperation among governmental departments; (b) setting up mechanisms to allow ecological watershed management;(c) establishing the biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration planning for local freshwater ecosystem; (d) clarifying the ecological function divisions; (e) enhancing the biodiversity monitoring and management for freshwater ecosystem in environmental impact assessment studies for industrial construction and rural development projects; (f) establishing a technical regulatory framework for related monitoring and management activities which includes an index system for monitoring and assessment; (g) studying and establishing the related biological criteria for formulating assessment standards; and (h) paying attention to aquatic vegetation,fishes, benthic macro-invertebrates and other key aquatic assemblages.

  15. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  16. Challenges of Biodiversity Education: A Review of Education Strategies for Biodiversity Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Perez, Moramay; Tidball, Keith G.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation has increasingly gained recognition in national and international agendas. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has positioned biodiversity as a key asset to be protected to ensure our well-being and that of future generations. Nearly 20 years after its inception, results are not as expected, as shown in the…

  17. Climate-smart management of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Fuller, Angela K.; Rosenblatt, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining where biodiversity is likely to be most vulnerable to climate change and methods to reduce that vulnerability are necessary first steps to incorporate climate change into biodiversity management plans. Here, we use a spatial climate change vulnerability assessment to (1) map the potential vulnerability of terrestrial biodiversity to climate change in the northeastern United States and (2) provide guidance on how and where management actions for biodiversity could provide long-term benefits under climate change (i.e., climate-smart management considerations). Our model suggests that biodiversity will be most vulnerable in Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia due to the combination of high climate change velocity, high landscape resistance, and high topoclimate homogeneity. Biodiversity is predicted to be least vulnerable in Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire because large portions of these states have low landscape resistance, low climate change velocity, and low topoclimate homogeneity. Our spatial climate-smart management considerations suggest that: (1) high topoclimate diversity could moderate the effects of climate change across 50% of the region; (2) decreasing local landscape resistance in conjunction with other management actions could increase the benefit of those actions across 17% of the region; and (3) management actions across 24% of the region could provide long-term benefits by promoting short-term population persistence that provides a source population capable of moving in the future. The guidance and framework we provide here should allow conservation organizations to incorporate our climate-smart management considerations into management plans without drastically changing their approach to biodiversity conservation.

  18. Biodiversity information platforms: From standards to interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Berendsohn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious bottlenecks in the scientific workflows of biodiversity sciences is the need to integrate data from different sources, software applications, and services for analysis, visualisation and publication. For more than a quarter of a century the TDWG Biodiversity Information Standards organisation has a central role in defining and promoting data standards and protocols supporting interoperability between disparate and locally distributed systems. Although often not sufficiently recognized, TDWG standards are the foundation of many popular Biodiversity Informatics applications and infrastructures ranging from small desktop software solutions to large scale international data networks. However, individual scientists and groups of collaborating scientist have difficulties in fully exploiting the potential of standards that are often notoriously complex, lack non-technical documentations, and use different representations and underlying technologies. In the last few years, a series of initiatives such as Scratchpads, the EDIT Platform for Cybertaxonomy, and biowikifarm have started to implement and set up virtual work platforms for biodiversity sciences which shield their users from the complexity of the underlying standards. Apart from being practical work-horses for numerous working processes related to biodiversity sciences, they can be seen as information brokers mediating information between multiple data standards and protocols. The ViBRANT project will further strengthen the flexibility and power of virtual biodiversity working platforms by building software interfaces between them, thus facilitating essential information flows needed for comprehensive data exchange, data indexing, web-publication, and versioning. This work will make an important contribution to the shaping of an international, interoperable, and user-oriented biodiversity information infrastructure.

  19. Stochastic assembly leads to alternative communities with distinct functions in a bioreactor microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Liu, Wenzong; Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Wang, Aijie

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The processes and mechanisms of community assembly and its relationships to community functioning are central issues in ecology. Both deterministic and stochastic factors play important roles in shaping community composition and structure, but the connection between community assembly and ecosystem functioning remains elusive, especially in microbial communities. Here, we used microbial electrolysis cell reactors as a model system to examine the roles of stochastic assembly in determining microbial community structure and functions. Under identical environmental conditions with the same source community, ecological drift (i.e., initial stochastic colonization) and subsequent biotic interactions created dramatically different communities with little overlap among 14 identical reactors, indicating that stochastic assembly played dominant roles in determining microbial community structure. Neutral community modeling analysis revealed that deterministic factors also played significant roles in shaping microbial community structure in these reactors. Most importantly, the newly formed communities differed substantially in community functions (e.g., H2 production), which showed strong linkages to community structure. This study is the first to demonstrate that stochastic assembly plays a dominant role in determining not only community structure but also ecosystem functions. Elucidating the links among community assembly, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning is critical to understanding ecosystem functioning, biodiversity preservation, and ecosystem management. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms are the most diverse group of life known on earth. Although it is well documented that microbial natural biodiversity is extremely high, it is not clear why such high diversity is generated and maintained. Numerous studies have established the roles of niche-based deterministic factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and salt) in shaping microbial biodiversity, the importance of

  20. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of aquatic inland habitats currently faces unprecedented threats from human activities. At the same time, although much is known about the functioning of freshwater ecosystems the successful transfer of such knowledge to practical conservation has not been universal. Global awareness of aquatic conservation issues is also hampered by the fact that conditions under the water surface are largely hidden from the direct experience of most members of society. Connectivity, or lack of it, is another challenge to the conservation of freshwater habitats, while urban areas can play a perhaps unexpectedly important positive role. Freshwater habitats frequently enjoy benefits accruing from a sense of ownership or stewardship by local inhabitants, which has led to the development of conservation movements which commonly started life centred on the aquatic inland habitat itself but of which many have now matured into wider catchment-based conservation programmes. A demonstrable need for evidence-based conservation management in turn requires scientific assessments to be increasingly robust and standardised, while at the same time remaining open to the adoption of technological advances and welcoming the rapidly developing citizen science movement. There is evidence of real progress in this context and conservation scientists are now communicating their findings to environmental managers in a way and on a scale that was rarely seen a couple of decades ago. It is only in this way that scientific knowledge can be efficiently transferred to conservation planning, prioritisation and ultimately management in an increasingly scaled-up, joined-up and resource-limited world. The principle of ‘prevention is better than cure’ is particularly appropriate to most biological conservation issues in aquatic inland habitats and is inextricably linked to educating and/or nudging appropriate human behaviours. When prevention fails, some form of emergency

  1. Aquatic Plants and Lake Ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan

    Oxford : Blackwell Science Ltd, 2003 - (O´Sullivan, P.; Reynolds, C.), s. 309-340 ISBN 0-632-04797-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Aquatic macrophytes * green algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yvon-Durocher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton are key components of aquatic ecosystems, fixing CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and supporting secondary production, yet relatively little is known about how future global warming might alter their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functioning. Here, we explore how the structure, function, and biodiversity of a planktonic metacommunity was altered after five years of experimental warming. Our outdoor mesocosm experiment was open to natural dispersal from the regional species pool, allowing us to explore the effects of experimental warming in the context of metacommunity dynamics. Warming of 4°C led to a 67% increase in the species richness of the phytoplankton, more evenly-distributed abundance, and higher rates of gross primary productivity. Warming elevated productivity indirectly, by increasing the biodiversity and biomass of the local phytoplankton communities. Warming also systematically shifted the taxonomic and functional trait composition of the phytoplankton, favoring large, colonial, inedible phytoplankton taxa, suggesting stronger top-down control, mediated by zooplankton grazing played an important role. Overall, our findings suggest that temperature can modulate species coexistence, and through such mechanisms, global warming could, in some cases, increase the species richness and productivity of phytoplankton communities.

  3. Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P; Cellamare, Maria; Dossena, Matteo; Gaston, Kevin J; Leitao, Maria; Montoya, José M; Reuman, Daniel C; Woodward, Guy; Trimmer, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton are key components of aquatic ecosystems, fixing CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and supporting secondary production, yet relatively little is known about how future global warming might alter their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functioning. Here, we explore how the structure, function, and biodiversity of a planktonic metacommunity was altered after five years of experimental warming. Our outdoor mesocosm experiment was open to natural dispersal from the regional species pool, allowing us to explore the effects of experimental warming in the context of metacommunity dynamics. Warming of 4°C led to a 67% increase in the species richness of the phytoplankton, more evenly-distributed abundance, and higher rates of gross primary productivity. Warming elevated productivity indirectly, by increasing the biodiversity and biomass of the local phytoplankton communities. Warming also systematically shifted the taxonomic and functional trait composition of the phytoplankton, favoring large, colonial, inedible phytoplankton taxa, suggesting stronger top-down control, mediated by zooplankton grazing played an important role. Overall, our findings suggest that temperature can modulate species coexistence, and through such mechanisms, global warming could, in some cases, increase the species richness and productivity of phytoplankton communities. PMID:26680314

  4. Biodiversity and its informative value in evaluation of localities under anthropogenic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems became a frequent and valuable approach that is widely recognized as a necessary supplement to still more standard chemical monitoring programmes. Biomonitoring implies bioindication of changes that are routinely viewed as negative changes in biological systems due to the influence of stress factors, mostly of anthropogenic origin. Although there are an increasing number of scientific papers devoted to bioindication at the level of individual species or individual specimen (toxicity and genotoxicity testing, biomarkers etc.), complex biomonitoring at the ecosystem level seems to be rather difficult to manage and interpret. Although biodiversity is one of the central themes of ecology and ecotoxicology as well, there is still considerable disagreement in methodology of its comprehensive evaluation. Here we are presenting several approaches to biodiversity evaluation and results interpretation. Conclusions on methodology and interpretation are made on two sets of data - fish parasites under different environmental conditions and a lichen community under emission loading. We can conclude that biodiversity (community composition and structure) analysis could be used for: i) Retrospective bioindication, where it represents indication of complex changes, sensitive early warning, and indication with long-term memory, and/ or ii) prospective assessment, where it represents ecosystem health and stability. Best results are obtained when the biological community is stratified in order to reach environmentally reasonable units; and, these bioindicative components of the community are necessary for effective monitoring plans or ecological risk assessment studies. (authors)

  5. The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Biermann, Antje; Borer, Elizabeth T; Cebrián-Piqueras, Miguel A; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Van Donk, Ellen; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Harpole, W Stanley; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Kleyer, Michael; Knops, Johannes M H; Lemmens, Pieter; Lind, Eric M; Litchman, Elena; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin; Martens, Koen; Meier, Sandra; Minden, Vanessa; Moore, Joslin L; Venterink, Harry Olde; Seabloom, Eric W; Sommer, Ulrich; Striebel, Maren; Trenkamp, Anastasia; Trinogga, Juliane; Urabe, Jotaro; Vyverman, Wim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Widdicombe, Claire E; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns of diversity-productivity relationships with respect to available resources. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the findings across ecosystem types ranging from aquatic ecosystems to grasslands and forests. As hypothesized, resource supply increased realized productivity and richness, but we found significant differences between ecosystems and study types. Increased richness was associated with increased productivity, although this effect was not seen in experiments. More even communities had lower productivity, indicating that biomass production is often maintained by a few dominant species, and reduced dominance generally reduced ecosystem productivity. This synthesis, which integrates observational and experimental studies in a variety of ecosystems and geographical regions, exposes common patterns and differences in biodiversity-functioning relationships, and increases the mechanistic understanding of changes in ecosystems productivity. PMID:27114584

  6. Macroecology of biodiversity: disentangling local and regional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärtel, Meelis; Bennett, Jonathan A; Zobel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Contents 404 I. 404 II. 404 III. 405 IV. 406 V. 407 VI. 408 409 References 409 SUMMARY: Macroecology of biodiversity disentangles local and regional drivers of biodiversity by exploring large-scale biodiversity relationships with environmental or biotic gradients, generalizing local biodiversity relationships across regions, or comparing biodiversity patterns among species groups. A macroecological perspective is also important at local scales: a full understanding of local biodiversity drivers, including human impact, demands that regional processes be taken into account. This requires knowledge of which species could inhabit a site (the species pool), including those that are currently absent (dark diversity). Macroecology of biodiversity is currently advancing quickly owing to an unprecedented accumulation of biodiversity data, new sampling techniques and analytical methods, all of which better equip us to face current and future challenges in ecology and biodiversity conservation. PMID:27040897

  7. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Netherlands

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01 in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively. Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity.

  8. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: response to seasonal flooding regime and to environmental degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal flooding is the most important ecological phenomenon in the Pantanal. Every year many parts of the biome change from terrestrial into aquatic habitats and vice-versa. The degree of inundation creates a range of major habitats. Flooding occupies about 80% of the whole Pantanal. In contrast, during the dry season, most of the flooded areas stay dry, when the water returns to the river beds or evaporates. The Pantanal is a large continental savanna wetland (147,574 km(2) in Brazil), touching Bolivia to the north and Paraguay to the south. The maze of fluctuating water levels, nutrients, and biota forms a dynamic ecosystem. The vegetation comprises 1,863 phanerogam plant species listed for the floodplain and 3,400 for the whole basin and 250 species of aquatic plants. The complex vegetation cover and seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna within the floodplain: 263 species of fish, 41 of amphibians, 113 of reptiles (177 for the basin), 463 of birds and 132 mammal species. Many endangered species occur, including jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758). Waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Analysis of the root causes of the threats to biodiversity indicated that deforestation (17% of the Pantanal and 63% of the surrounding uplands) with modification and loss of natural habitats due to cattle ranching, unsustainable agriculture, mining, environmental contamination (including mercury, pesticides, urban sewage), non organized tourism, fire, disturbances at the upstream region modifying hydrological flow, erosion, weak implementation and enforcement of legislation are the major issues to face conservation action and sustainable use. Under an evolutionary focus, local biodiversity seems to be well adapted to seasonal shrinking and expansion of natural habitats due to flooding. However, the conversion of natural vegetation due to human occupation is a real threat to biodiversity. PMID:19197468

  9. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  10. Taxonomic survey and characterization of the habitat of aquatic insects in protected areas in a subtropical island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Rosa Pires

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic inventories are the basis of several ecological studies and they enable a better understanding of the local and regional biodiversity. This paper aimed to survey the aquatic insect fauna in a subtropical island, as well as to generate information on the habitats used by the taxa found. Two regions showing a good state of environmental conservation in the Santa Catarina Island, in Santa Catarina, Brazil, were selected: “Lagoa do Peri” Municipal Park and “Desterro” Environmental Protected Area. Aquatic invertebrates were collected by using a Surber sampler (in a lotic environment and an Eckman-Birge dredger (in a lentic environment between 2009 and 2012. Sixty taxa were found, belonging to eight taxonomic orders. Thus, there were 19 new registers of aquatic insect families for Santa Catarina. At the sites of this study, 13 families already known for Santa Catarina were not observed, according to a comparison with articles published until July 2014. As for the habitat, richness differed between the types of the habitats sampled, with lower richness in the substrate “sand”. The study represents a significant contribution to knowledge on aquatic insects in Santa Catarina, especially regarding the biodiversity in islands.

  11. Microbial Metalloproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Leon Hagedoorn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteomics is a rapidly developing field of science that involves the comprehensive analysis of all metal-containing or metal-binding proteins in a biological sample. The purpose of this review is to offer a comprehensive overview of the research involving approaches that can be categorized as inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS based methods, X-ray absorption/fluorescence, radionuclide based methods and bioinformatics. Important discoveries in microbial proteomics will be reviewed, as well as the outlook to new emerging approaches and research areas.

  12. Microbial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term safety and integrity of radioactive waste disposal sites proposed for use by Ontario Hydro may be affected by the release of radioactive gases. Microbes mediate the primary pathways of waste degradation and hence an assessment of their potential to produce gaseous end products from the breakdown of low level waste was performed. Due to a number of unknown variables, assumptions were made regarding environmental and waste conditions that controlled microbial activity; however, it was concluded that 14C and 3H would be produced, albeit over a long time scale of about 1500 years for 14C in the worst case situation

  13. Microbial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, A L

    2000-01-01

    For thousands of years, microorganisms have been used to supply products such as bread, beer and wine. A second phase of traditional microbial biotechnology began during World War I and resulted in the development of the acetone-butanol and glycerol fermentations, followed by processes yielding, for example, citric acid, vitamins and antibiotics. In the early 1970s, traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield more than 40 biopharmaceutical products, such as erythropoietin, human growth hormone and interferons. Today, microbiology is a major participant in global industry, especially in the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. PMID:10631778

  14. Microbial Ecosystems, Protection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Conservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes; Preservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes Definition The use, management, and conservation of ecosystems in order to preserve microbial diversity and functioning. Introdu

  15. Fossil Biodiversity: Red Noise Plus Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Melott, A L; Melott, Adrian L.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the Fourier power spectrum as well as the Hurst exponent of extinction, origination, and total biodiversity in the marine fossil record, using a recently improved geologic timescale. We find all of them strongly inconsistent with past claims of self-similarity as well as inconsistent with random walk behavior. Instead, they are dominated by low-frequency power, with approximate f^-2 power over one decade in frequency. The spectrum turns over at about 10^5 y, lending plausibility to connections with galactic dynamics. Even in the background of this low-frequency dominance, a previously noted 62 My biodiversity cycle stands out with better than 99% confidence above the noise level, accounting for about 35% of the total variance in the fossil biodiversity record.

  16. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation. PMID:18775582

  17. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  18. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, CBMP, Terrestrial Plan, www.caff.is/terrestrial, is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders......, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components and...

  19. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. PMID:26776057

  20. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J.; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-05-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics.

  1. Educating for biodiversity conservation in urban parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to propose a procedure for learning about biodiversity in urban parks, as a contribution for educating conservation of natural resources. The procedure was named “Diagnosis of biodiversity conservation status in urban parks”. It comprises for stages describing the physic, geographic, socio-historic, and cultural study of the park as well as a taxonomic inventory of species, its distribution, presence in Cuba, and menaces they are subjected to. This facilitates to carry out educative activities. The introduction of the procedure is thought of from an ethno-biological and interdisciplinary perspective for training students in biological, geographical, historical, cultural and ethnological procedures, seeking a holistic approach to environment. The effectiveness of the proposal was appraised by accounting the experience of a class at “Casino Campestre” park in Camagüey City. Key words: biodiversity, urban parks, procedures, conservation training

  2. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano;

    2016-01-01

    sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7......Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary...

  3. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J.; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics. PMID:27151103

  4. Biodiversity analysis in the digital era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Salle, John; Williams, Kristen J; Moritz, Craig

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores what the virtual biodiversity e-infrastructure will look like as it takes advantage of advances in 'Big Data' biodiversity informatics and e-research infrastructure, which allow integration of various taxon-level data types (genome, morphology, distribution and species interactions) within a phylogenetic and environmental framework. By overcoming the data scaling problem in ecology, this integrative framework will provide richer information and fast learning to enable a deeper understanding of biodiversity evolution and dynamics in a rapidly changing world. The Atlas of Living Australia is used as one example of the advantages of progressing towards this future. Living in this future will require the adoption of new ways of integrating scientific knowledge into societal decision making.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481789

  5. Biodiversity analysis in the digital era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores what the virtual biodiversity e-infrastructure will look like as it takes advantage of advances in ‘Big Data’ biodiversity informatics and e-research infrastructure, which allow integration of various taxon-level data types (genome, morphology, distribution and species interactions) within a phylogenetic and environmental framework. By overcoming the data scaling problem in ecology, this integrative framework will provide richer information and fast learning to enable a deeper understanding of biodiversity evolution and dynamics in a rapidly changing world. The Atlas of Living Australia is used as one example of the advantages of progressing towards this future. Living in this future will require the adoption of new ways of integrating scientific knowledge into societal decision making. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481789

  6. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  7. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  8. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  9. Biodiversity in a Florida Sandhill Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Robertson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This project compares two transects of land in the University of South Florida's Botanical Gardens for their biodiversity. The transects were chosen to represent a Florida sandhill ecosystem and the individual Longleaf Pine, Saw Palmetto, Turkey Oak, Laurel Oak and Live Oak specimens were counted. All other species above waist height were counted as "other"?. Once the individuals were counted, the Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices were calculated. Since the Shannon-Wiener index incorporates several diversity characteristics, it is typically more reliable than Simpson's. However, both biodiversity indices agreed that transect B was more diverse than transect A.

  10. Microbial Eco-Physiology of the human intestinal tract: a flow cytometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amor, Ben, K.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a multifaceted approach to further enhance our view of the complex human intestinal microbial ecosystem. This approach combines me advantages of flow cyrometry (FCM), a single cell and high-throughput technology, and molecular techniques that have proven themselves to be invaluabIe tools in studying the microbial diversity and structure of the intestinal microbiota. The ultimate aim was to relate the genetic biodiversity of the intestinal microbiota with their in situ ph...

  11. Growth and composition characteristics of functional groups of the soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, B.; Elhottová, Dana; Šantrůčková, Hana

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2004, s. 38-42. ISBN 80-86525-03-1. [Present methods for investigation of microbial community biodiversity in soils and substrates. Methodological workshop /9./. České Budějovice (CZ), 02.03.2004-03.03.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil microbial community * growth parameters * composition characteristics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand was...

  13. Highly specialized microbial diversity in hyper-arid polar desert

    OpenAIRE

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Chan, Yuki; Lacap, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Jurgens, Joel A.; Farrell, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica are a cold hyperarid polar desert that present extreme challenges to life. Here, we report a culture-independent survey of multidomain microbial biodiversity in McKelvey Valley, a pristine example of the coldest desert on Earth. We demonstrate that life has adapted to form highly-specialized communities in distinct lithic niches occurring concomitantly within this terrain. Endoliths and chasmoliths in sandstone displayed greatest diversity, whereas soil w...

  14. Evaluation of nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems with nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gen-fu; WU Xue-chang; XUAN Xiao-dong; ZHOU Xue-ping

    2006-01-01

    There has always been a great need for simple and accurate bioassays for evaluating nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems. Whereas organic carbon is usually considered to be the limiting nutrient for microbial growth in many aquatic ecosystems,there are, however, many water sources that are limited by phosphorus or nitrogen. A method named "nitrogen fixing bacterial growth potential" (NFBGP) test, which is based on pre-culturing ofautochthonous (target) microorganisms was described. The method was applied to evaluate phosphorus or nitrogen nutrient limitation in lake and sewage water samples using an isolate of the nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azorhizobium sp. WS6. The results corresponded well to those from the traditional algal growth potential (AGP) test and the bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) test, suggesting that the NFBGP test is a useful supplementary method for evaluating the limiting nutrient, especially phosphorus, in an aquatic environment.

  15. The Occurrence of Bioactive Micromonosporae in Aquatic Habitats of the Sunshine Coast in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ipek Kurtböke

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening strategies based on the ecological knowledge of antibiotic producing microorganisms and their roles in the natural environment are being increasingly employed in the search for novel antibiotic agents. Micromonosporae are common inhabitants of aquatic habitats and have proved to be a continuing source of novel bioactive compounds including antibacterial and antitumor agents. The ecological distribution and frequency of bioactive micromonosporae in Sunshine Coast region aquatic habitats were studied through a range of selective isolation procedures designed to negatively select against the isolation of unwanted microbial taxa commonly associated with marine environments. It was revealed that bioactive compound producing species of micromonosporae were present in the aquatic habitats of the Sunshine Coast region in Australia.

  16. Pre-natal Aquatic Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Ana; Serra, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Water, a source of well-being, peace, fullness, freedom and harmony. For quite some time now, water is sought after for its renowned benefits in terms of relieving the physical and emotional changes which commonly occur during pregnancy. Objectives: 1) Describe the process of intervention, arising from the use of the aquatic environment in prenatal preparation 2) Relate the gains in health from prenatal preparation aquatica Method: Descriptive creating and applying a prep...

  17. Status and strategies for marine biodiversity of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    The status of marine biodiversity and factors responsible for the degradation and loss of marine biodiversity are discussed. Goa has abundant marine wealth. Phytoplankton, marine algae, manglicolous fungi, seagrasses, mangrove flora and other...

  18. Core issues in the economics of biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Clement A

    2011-02-01

    Economic evaluations are essential for assessing the desirability of biodiversity conservation. This article highlights significant advances in theories and methods of economic evaluation and their relevance and limitations as a guide to biodiversity conservation; considers the implications of the phylogenetic similarity principle for the survival of species; discusses consequences of the Noah's Ark problem for selecting features of biodiversity to be saved; analyzes the extent to which the precautionary principle can be rationally used to support the conservation of biodiversity; explores the impact of market extensions, market and other institutional failures, and globalization on biodiversity loss; examines the relationship between the rate of interest and biodiversity depletion; and investigates the implications of intergenerational equity for biodiversity conservation. The consequences of changes in biodiversity for sustainable development are given particular attention. PMID:21332494

  19. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong T; Ho, Cuong T; Trinh, Quan H; Trinh, Duc A; Luu, Minh T N; Tran, Hai S; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  20. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong T.; Ho, Cuong T.; Trinh, Quan H.; Trinh, Duc A.; Luu, Minh T. N.; Tran, Hai S.; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L.; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  1. Carcinogenic hazards in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical characterization of contaminants in bottom sediments from the Great Lakes in western New York (Lake Erie) was carried out by applying reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to fractions derived by routine organic extraction and separation methods. A comparison of the chromatograms from the sediments with those from analogous fractions isolated from tissue samples of aquatic biota showed correlations in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition. In the HPLC analysis of fractions isolated from sediment, Tubifex worms, aquatic snails, and fish tissue samples clearly indicated a characteristic PAH ''fingerprint' in all segments of the aquatic food chain. The patterns of horizontal distribution of the relative PAH levels indicated a point source of the pollution in the Buffalo River. Feral fish population samples showed several kinds of lesions that appear to be neoplasms. The histology of these lesions is described, and the significance of the data in terms of a possible human health hazard is discussed.

  2. Using Stable Isotopes to Detect Land Use Change and Nitrogen Sources in Aquatic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing land use is one of the primary causes of increased sedimentation and nutrient levels in aquatic systems, resulting in contamination and reduction of biodiversity. Detecting and quantifying these inputs is the first step towards remediation, and enabling targeted reductions of transport processes into waterways from human impacted land surfaces. More recently, stable isotope analyses are being used as detection and quantification tools in aquatic environments. Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of sediments, as well as algae and invertebrates from aquatic systems can be used as proxies to record both short and long term environmental change. Excess nitrogen (or nitrogen-compounds) derived from urbanization, industry, forestry, farming and agriculture, increase the bioavailability of nitrogen to aquatic organisms, changing their natural δ15N isotopic signatures. Allochthonous (terrestrial) input from soil destabilization and human activity in surrounding catchments changes δ13C isotopic compositions and increases the C:N ratio of sediments. Heavy metal and other organic pollutants can also be used to indicate urbanization and industrial contamination. The combined use of carbon and nitrogen isotopes, C:N ratios and heavy metals are powerful environmental monitoring tools, which are useful indicators of source and transport pathways of terrestrial derived material and anthropogenic pollutants into streams, rivers and estuaries. (author)

  3. Challenges and Remedies to Biodiversity in Singhason Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Ni-et Teronpi,; Tamuli, A. K.; Robindra Teron

    2015-01-01

    The Singhason hill range in Assam is a cultural landscape with rich biodiversity and implications for conservation of biodiversity. In recent years, the hill range has been under pressure particularly from human interference that poses considerable threats to biodiversity and the landscape. There is no previous study on environment of Singhason hills due to which biodiversity status, agricultural practices and other related aspects of the hill are unknown. In the present paper, drivers of env...

  4. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Imhoff; Taylor Ricketts

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal...

  5. Urban Green Space and Urban Biodiversity: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sadasivam Karuppannan; Zainul Mukrim Baharuddin; Alpana Sivam; Chris B. Daniels

    2013-01-01

    Urban green space plays an important role in enhancing the quality of environment especially for urban biodiversity. Declining biodiversity around the world has received much attention among academics, professionals and citizens. The United Nations has declared year 2010 as the ‘International Year of Biodiversity’. Urban biodiversity movement is important to ensure healthy city environments. Despite this ongoing movement, urban dwellers have little knowledge about conservation of biodiversity...

  6. Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality

    OpenAIRE

    Wagg, C; Bender, S.F.; Widmer, D.; van der Heijden, Marcellus

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth’s biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investi...

  7. Exploring Benthic Biodiversity Patterns and Hotspots on European Margin Slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Danovaro; Miquel Canals; Serge Heussner; Nikolaos Lampadariou; Ann Vanreusel

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that continental slope ecosystems represent one of the major repositories of benthic marine biodiversity. The enhanced levels of biodiversity along slopes are hypothesized to be a source of biodiversity for continental shelves and deeper basins. Continental margins are increasingly altered by human activities, but the consequences of these anthropogenic impacts on benthic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are almost completely unknown. Thus, there is an urgen...

  8. The Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) Data Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Droege, Gabriele; Barker, Katharine; Astrin, Jonas J.; Bartels, Paul; Butler, Carol; Cantrill, David; Coddington, Jonathan; Forest, Félix; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Hobern,Donald; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline; Ó Tuama, Éamonn; Petersen, Gitte; Sanjur, Oris; Schindel, David

    2013-01-01

    The Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) was formed in 2011 with the principal aim of making high-quality well-documented and vouchered collections that store DNA or tissue samples of biodiversity, discoverable for research through a networked community of biodiversity repositories. This is achieved through the GGBN Data Portal (http://data.ggbn.org), which links globally distributed databases and bridges the gap between biodiversity repositories, sequence databases and research results....

  9. Biodiversity Loss and the Ecological Footprint of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Lazarus; David Lin; Jon Martindill; Jeanette Hardiman; Louisa Pitney; Alessandro Galli

    2015-01-01

    Human pressure on ecosystems is among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. As biodiversity plays a key role in supporting the human enterprise, its decline puts the well-being of human societies at risk. Halting biodiversity loss is therefore a key policy priority, as reflected in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under strategic goal A. The Ecological Footprint has become a widely used metric for natural capital and ecosystem accounting, and is frequently cited in the sustainability de...

  10. Exploring benthic biodiversity patterns and hotspots on European margin slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Danovaro, R.; M. Canals; Gambi, C.; S. Heussner; Lampadariou, N.; Vanreusel, A.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that continental slope ecosystems represent one of the major repositories of benthic marine biodiversity. The enhanced levels of biodiversity along slopes are hypothesized to be a source of biodiversity for continental shelves and deeper basins. Continental margins are increasingly altered by human activities, but the consequences of these anthropogenic impacts on benthic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are almost completely unknown. Thus, there is an urgen...

  11. A family of spatial biodiversity measures based on graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, T; Illian, Janine Baerbel

    2012-01-01

    While much research in ecology has focused on spatially explicit modelling as well as on measures of biodiversity, the concept of spatial (or local) biodiversity has been discussed very little. This paper generalises existing measures of spatial biodiversity and introduces a family of spatial biodiversity measures by flexibly defining the notion of the individuals’ neighbourhood within the framework of graphs associated to a spatial point pattern. We consider two non-independent aspects of sp...

  12. Calculating Biodiversity in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schen, Melissa; Berger, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    One of the standards for life science addressed in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) is "Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics" (HS-LS2). A critical concept included in this core idea is biodiversity. To show competency, students are expected to design investigations, collect data, and…

  13. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  14. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  15. Frontiers in research on biodiversity and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Keesing, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Global losses of biodiversity have galvanised efforts to understand how changes to communities affect ecological processes, including transmission of infectious pathogens. Here, we review recent research on diversity–disease relationships and identify future priorities. Growing evidence from experimental, observational and modelling studies indicates that biodiversity changes alter infection for a range of pathogens and through diverse mechanisms. Drawing upon lessons from the community ecology of free-living organisms, we illustrate how recent advances from biodiversity research generally can provide necessary theoretical foundations, inform experimental designs, and guide future research at the interface between infectious disease risk and changing ecological communities. Dilution effects are expected when ecological communities are nested and interactions between the pathogen and the most competent host group(s) persist or increase as biodiversity declines. To move beyond polarising debates about the generality of diversity effects and develop a predictive framework, we emphasise the need to identify how the effects of diversity vary with temporal and spatial scale, to explore how realistic patterns of community assembly affect transmission, and to use experimental studies to consider mechanisms beyond simple changes in host richness, including shifts in trophic structure, functional diversity and symbiont composition. PMID:26261049

  16. Bats, Blood-Feeders and Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies such as biodiversity and diet studies. To reveal the diversity in environmental samples such as soil, water, and faeces, this approach principally employs PCR amplification of environmental DNA wi...

  17. Biodiversity and the feel-good factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Irvine, Katherine N.; Skinner, Andrew M. J.;

    2012-01-01

    of greenspaces that offer the greatest benefits remain poorly understood. One possibility is that humans respond positively to increased levels of biodiversity. Here, we demonstrate the lack of a consistent relationship between actual plant, butterfly, and bird species richness and the psychological...

  18. Ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kate E.; Safi, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have incredible biological diversity, showing extreme flexibility in eco-morphology, physiology, life history and behaviour across their evolutionary history. Undoubtedly, mammals play an important role in ecosystems by providing essential services such as regulating insect populations, seed dispersal and pollination and act as indicators of general ecosystem health. However, the macroecological and macroevolutionary processes underpinning past and present biodiversity patterns are on...

  19. Loss of biodiversity can increase disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2010-01-01

    A paper in the Dec. 2 issue of "Nature," co-authored by a Virginia Tech faculty member, provides a review of the scientific literature relating to yet another important impact of biodiversity loss, namely how this loss can result in the increase of the transmission and spread of infectious diseases, such as Lyme disease and West Nile.

  20. Problems of Biodiversity Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelago of 17.508 islands with land width of 1.9 millions km2 and sea of 3.1 millions km2, having many types of habitat and become one of biodiversity center in the world. There are about 28.000 plants species, 350.000 animals species and about 10.000 microbes predicted lived endemically in Indonesia. The country that represents only 1.32% of the world having 10% of total flowering plants, 12% of mammals, 16% reptiles and amphibian, 17% birds, 25% fishes and 15% of insects in the world. Most of the biodiversity were not investigated and utilized yet. The direct use of the biodiversity is not any risk, and in addition, between government, society and industries sometime does not have the same view and attitude. Habitat destruction and over-exploitation have caused Indonesia having long list of endangered species including 126 birds, 63 mammals and 21 reptiles. The extinction of some species occurred just few years ago like trulek jawa (Vanellus macropterus, insectivore bird (Eutrichomyias rowleyi in North Sulawesi, and tiger sub species (Panthera tigris in Java and Bali. It seems that now is time for all Indonesians to introspect and look for the way that can be used for preserving biodiversity.

  1. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. PMID:25523624

  2. An Overview of the Biodiversity in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paudel, Prakash K.; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Kindlmann, Pavel

    1st ed. Dodrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Kindlmann, P.), s. 1-40 ISBN 978-94-007-1801-2. - (Biomedical and Life Sciences) R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : ecology * conservation biology * biodiversity * ecosystems * landscape ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Biodiversity and Edge Effects: An Activity in Landscape Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Justin L.

    2007-01-01

    Biodiversity and the conservation of biodiversity have received increased attention during the last few decades and these topics have been implemented into many G7-12 science curricula. This work presents an exercise that may be used in middle and high school classrooms to help students better understand spatial aspects of biodiversity. The…

  4. The biodiversity and companies, from communication practices to organizational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald LACHAUD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a study on the role and the place of the biodiversity in the communication of the French companies. From an analysis of Web sites, it questions the presence of organizational conceptions of the biodiversity and the commensuration by the companies of the biodiversity.

  5. WOW! Windows on the Wild: A Biodiversity Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Judy, Ed.; And Others

    Windows on the Wild is an environmental education program of the World Wildlife Fund. This issue of WOW! focuses on biodiversity. Topics include: an interview with one of the world's leading experts on biodiversity; the lighter side of biodiversity through comics and cartoons; a species-scape that compares the number of species on the planet;…

  6. Growing biodiverse carbon-rich forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Firn, Jennifer; Chadès, Iadine; Martin, Tara G

    2014-02-01

    Regrowing forests on cleared land is a key strategy to achieve both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation globally. Maximizing these co-benefits, however, remains theoretically and technically challenging because of the complex relationship between carbon sequestration and biodiversity in forests, the strong influence of climate variability and landscape position on forest development, the large number of restoration strategies possible, and long time-frames needed to declare success. Through the synthesis of three decades of knowledge on forest dynamics and plant functional traits combined with decision science, we demonstrate that we cannot always maximize carbon sequestration by simply increasing the functional trait diversity of trees planted. The relationships between plant functional diversity, carbon sequestration rates above ground and in the soil are dependent on climate and landscape positions. We show how to manage 'identities' and 'complementarities' between plant functional traits to achieve systematically maximal cobenefits in various climate and landscape contexts. We provide examples of optimal planting and thinning rules that satisfy this ecological strategy and guide the restoration of forests that are rich in both carbon and plant functional diversity. Our framework provides the first mechanistic approach for generating decision-makingrules that can be used to manage forests for multiple objectives, and supports joined carbon credit and biodiversity conservation initiatives, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation REDD+. The decision framework can also be linked to species distribution models and socio-economic models to find restoration solutions that maximize simultaneously biodiversity, carbon stocks, and other ecosystem services across landscapes. Our study provides the foundation for developing and testing cost-effective and adaptable forest management rules to achieve biodiversity, carbon

  7. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Ulrich; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) and its consequence for ecosystem services has predominantly been studied by controlled, short-term and small-scale experiments under standardized environmental conditions and constant community compositions. However, changes in biodiversity occur in real-world ecosystems with varying environments and a dynamic community composition. In this theme issue, we present novel research on BEF in such dynamic communities. The contributions are organized in three sections on BEF relationships in (i) multi-trophic diversity, (ii) non-equilibrium biodiversity under disturbance and varying environmental conditions, and (iii) large spatial and long temporal scales. The first section shows that multi-trophic BEF relationships often appear idiosyncratic, while accounting for species traits enables a predictive understanding. Future BEF research on complex communities needs to include ecological theory that is based on first principles of species-averaged body masses, stoichiometry and effects of environmental conditions such as temperature. The second section illustrates that disturbance and varying environments have direct as well as indirect (via changes in species richness, community composition and species' traits) effects on BEF relationships. Fluctuations in biodiversity (species richness, community composition and also trait dominance within species) can severely modify BEF relationships. The third section demonstrates that BEF at larger spatial scales is driven by different variables. While species richness per se and community biomass are most important, species identity effects and community composition are less important than at small scales. Across long temporal scales, mass extinctions represent severe changes in biodiversity with mixed effects on ecosystem functions. Together, the contributions of this theme issue identify new research frontiers and answer some open questions on BEF relationships

  8. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Ulrich; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) and its consequence for ecosystem services has predominantly been studied by controlled, short-term and small-scale experiments under standardized environmental conditions and constant community compositions. However, changes in biodiversity occur in real-world ecosystems with varying environments and a dynamic community composition. In this theme issue, we present novel research on BEF in such dynamic communities. The contributions are organized in three sections on BEF relationships in (i) multi-trophic diversity, (ii) non-equilibrium biodiversity under disturbance and varying environmental conditions, and (iii) large spatial and long temporal scales. The first section shows that multi-trophic BEF relationships often appear idiosyncratic, while accounting for species traits enables a predictive understanding. Future BEF research on complex communities needs to include ecological theory that is based on first principles of species-averaged body masses, stoichiometry and effects of environmental conditions such as temperature. The second section illustrates that disturbance and varying environments have direct as well as indirect (via changes in species richness, community composition and species' traits) effects on BEF relationships. Fluctuations in biodiversity (species richness, community composition and also trait dominance within species) can severely modify BEF relationships. The third section demonstrates that BEF at larger spatial scales is driven by different variables. While species richness per se and community biomass are most important, species identity effects and community composition are less important than at small scales. Across long temporal scales, mass extinctions represent severe changes in biodiversity with mixed effects on ecosystem functions. Together, the contributions of this theme issue identify new research frontiers and answer some open questions on BEF relationships

  9. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anadon-Irizarry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive national-level stakeholder consultation. By applying the Vulnerability criterion, a total of 284 Key Biodiversity Areas were defined and mapped as holding 409 (54% of the region’s threatened species. Of these, 144 (or 51% overlapped partially or completely with protected areas. Cockpit Country, followed by Litchfield Mountain - Matheson’s Run, Blue Mountains (all Jamaica and Massif de la Hotte (Haiti were found to support exceptionally high numbers of globally threatened taxa, with more than 40 such species at each site. Key Biodiversity Areas, building from Important Bird Areas, provide a valuable framework against which to review the adequacy of existing national protected-area systems and also to prioritize which species and sites require the most urgent conservation attention.

  10. Informing and influencing the interface between biodiversity science and biodiversity policy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Neil R; Smith, Gideon F

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, as a megadiverse country (±21 700 vascular plants, 4800 vertebrates and 68 900 invertebrates described), is presently engaged with an extended, modified Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). The country is fortunate in having a strong tradition of systematics research and, inter alia, houses several million preserved plant specimens (±1 million databased and georeferenced), allowing taxonomists and conservationists to track both the occurrence and distribution of indigenous and naturalized plant species. These rich local resources have been extensively drawn upon to deliver, with varying degrees of success, the 16 outcome-oriented GSPC 2010 Targets. The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEMBA, 2004), the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and the National Biodiversity Framework (NBF) have provided a robust legislative, enabling and policy framework for making operational and advancing GSPC-related efforts. However, within an emerging economy, the conservation of biodiversity has competed for government resources with housing, sanitation, primary education, basic health care and crime prevention, delivery of which translates to the currency of politicians: votes. A key challenge identified by local (and global) biodiversity scientists for the current GSPC phase is broad-scale advocacy, communicating the changing state of nature, and the inter-relatedness of biodiversity and human well-being. The nature of meeting this challenge is explored. PMID:22059250

  11. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  12. Significant and persistent impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities in Northern coniferous forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Martin; Howes, Charles G; VanInsberghe, David; Yu, Hang; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Henrik Nilsson, Rolf; Hallam, Steven J.; Mohn, William W

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revea...

  13. Functional Ecological Gene Networks to Reveal the Changes Among Microbial Interactions Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Luo, Feng; He, Zhili; Tu, Qichao; Zhi, Xiaoyang

    2010-05-17

    Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes is a central issue in ecology, and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity researches focus on species richness and abundance but ignore the interactions among different microbial species/populations. However, determining the interactions and their relationships to environmental changes in microbial communities is a grand challenge, primarily due to the lack of information on the network structure among different microbial species/populations. Here, a novel random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework for identifying functional ecological gene networks (fEGNs) is developed with the high throughput functional gene array hybridization data from the grassland microbial communities in a long-term FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) experiment. Both fEGNs under elevated CO2 (eCO2) and ambient CO2 (aCO2) possessed general characteristics of many complex systems such as scale-free, small-world, modular and hierarchical. However, the topological structure of the fEGNs is distinctly different between eCO2 and aCO2, suggesting that eCO2 dramatically altered the interactions among different microbial functional groups/populations. In addition, the changes in network structure were significantly correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and plant productivity, indicating the potential importance of network interactions in ecosystem functioning. Elucidating network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology, systems microbiology, and global change.

  14. Enrichment experiment changes microbial interactions in an ultra-oligotrophic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Soto, Gabriel Y; Aguirre-von-Wobeser, Eneas; Eguiarte, Luis E; Elser, James J; Lee, Zarraz M-P; Souza, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The increase of nutrients in water bodies, in particular nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) due to the recent expansion of agricultural and other human activities is accelerating environmental degradation of these water bodies, elevating the risk of eutrophication and reducing biodiversity. To evaluate the ecological effects of the influx of nutrients in an oligotrophic and stoichiometrically imbalanced environment, we performed a replicated in situ mesocosm experiment. We analyzed the effects of a N- and P-enrichment on the bacterial interspecific interactions in an experiment conducted in the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) in Mexico. This is a desert ecosystem comprised of several aquatic systems with a large number of microbial endemic species. The abundance of key nutrients in this basin exhibits strong stoichiometric imbalance (high N:P ratios), suggesting that species diversity is maintained mostly by competition for resources. We focused on the biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance of 960 strains of cultivated bacteria in two habitats, water and sediment, before and after 3 weeks of fertilization. The water habitat was dominated by Pseudomonas, while Halomonas dominated the sediment. Strong antibiotic resistance was found among the isolates at time zero in the nutrient-poor bacterial communities, but resistance declined in the bacteria isolated in the nutrient-rich environments, suggesting that in the nutrient-poor original environment, negative inter-specific interactions were important, while in the nutrient-rich environments, competitive interactions are not so important. In water, a significant increase in the percentage of biofilm-forming strains was observed for all treatments involving nutrient addition. PMID:25883593

  15. Enrichment experiment changes microbial interactions in an ultra-oligotrophic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yaxal Ponce-Soto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of nutrients in water bodies, in particular nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P due to the recent expansion of agricultural and other human activities is accelerating environmental degradation of these water bodies, elevating the risk of eutrophication and reducing biodiversity. To evaluate the ecological effects of the influx of nutrients in an oligotrophic and stoichiometrically imbalanced environment, we performed a replicated in situ mesocosm experiment. We analyzed the effects of a N- and P-enrichment on the bacterial interspecific interactions in an experiment conducted in the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB in Mexico. This is a desert ecosystem comprised of several aquatic systems with a large number of microbial endemic species. The abundance of key nutrients in this basin exhibits strong stoichiometric imbalance (high N:P ratios, suggesting that species diversity is maintained mostly by competition for resources. We focused on the biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance of 960 strains of cultivated bacteria in two habitats, water and sediment, before and after three weeks of fertilization. The water habitat was dominated by Pseudomonas, while Halomonas dominated the sediment. Strong antibiotic resistance was found among the isolates at time zero in the nutrient-poor bacterial communities, but resistance declined in the bacteria isolated in the nutrient-rich environments, suggesting that in the nutrient-poor original environment, negative inter-specific interactions were important, while in the nutrient-rich environments, competitive interactions are not so important. In water, a significant increase in the percentage of biofilm-forming strains was observed for all treatments involving nutrient addition.

  16. Cave speleothems as repositories of microbial biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Jurado, Valme; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Fernández, Octavio; Calaforra, José M.; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-04-01

    The need to better understand the biodiversity, origins of life on Earth and on other planets, and the wide applications of the microbe-mineral interactions have led to a rapid expansion of interest in subsurface environments. Recently reported results indicated signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity which suggest that Mars's subsurface can house organic molecules or traces of microbial life, making the search for microbial life on Earth's subsurface even more compelling. Caves on Earth are windows into the subsurface that harbor a wide variety of mineral-utilizing microorganisms, which may contribute to the formation of biominerals and unusual microstructures recognized as biosignatures. These environments contain a wide variety of redox interfaces and stable physicochemical conditions, which enhance secondary mineral precipitation and microbial growth under limited organic nutrient inputs. Enigmatic microorganisms and unusual mineral features have been found associated with secondary mineral deposits or speleothems in limestone caves and lava tubes. In this study, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted on cave speleothem samples to assess microbe-mineral interactions, evaluate biogenicity, as well as to describe unusual mineral formations and microbial features. Microbial mats, extracellular polymeric substances, tubular empty sheaths, mineralized cells, filamentous fabrics, as well as "cell-sized" etch pits or microborings produced by bacterial cells were observed on minerals. These features evidence microbe-mineral interactions and may represent mineralogical signatures of life. We can thus consider that caves on Earth are plausible repositories of terrestrial biosignatures where we can look for microbial signatures. Acknowledgments: AZM acknowledges the support from the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework

  17. Enhancement of biodiversity in energy farming: towards a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When biomass is a substantial sustainable energy source, and special energy crops are grown on a large scale, land use and the environment of agriculture will be affected. Of these effects, biodiversity deserves special attention. The enhancement of biodiversity in energy farming via standard setting is the overall purpose of this project. In this study, the potential functionality of biodiversity in energy farming is proposed as a way of operationalising the rather abstract and broad concept of biodiversity. Functions of biodiversity are reviewed, and examples of functions are worked out, based on the current literature of nature in energy farming systems. (author)

  18. Fifteen forms of biodiversity trend in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Brian J; Dornelas, Maria; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Magurran, Anne E

    2015-02-01

    Humans are transforming the biosphere in unprecedented ways, raising the important question of how these impacts are changing biodiversity. Here we argue that our understanding of biodiversity trends in the Anthropocene, and our ability to protect the natural world, is impeded by a failure to consider different types of biodiversity measured at different spatial scales. We propose that ecologists should recognize and assess 15 distinct categories of biodiversity trend. We summarize what is known about each of these 15 categories, identify major gaps in our current knowledge, and recommend the next steps required for better understanding of trends in biodiversity. PMID:25542312

  19. Structure and biodiversity of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats of a Vereda Wetland Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Penatti Pinese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Vereda wetlands are among the most important aquatic habitats in Brazilian savannah (Cerrado because of their association with river springs and its relevancy for biodiversity conservation. This study aimed to determine and compare the biodiversity of zooplankton in vereda lakes, differentiated by the presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes at an environmental reserve in Uberlândia, Minas Geais, Southeastern Brazil. Zooplanctonic abundance patterns and their relation with environmental parameters were also discussed and presented through multivariate statistics. Methods Twelve samples were taken at water surface, at 15-day intervals in 2006. It was observed a total richness of 75 species, including 12 genera, 29 species and one sub-species as new records for Minas Gerais State. Results Rotifers were the predominant group and Lecanidae was the most diverse family. Among cladocerans, Chydoridae showed the greatest richness and Bosminidae the highest abundance. Few adult copepods were sampled in this study, but nauplii were very frequent. Cyclopidae was the most common family among copepods and there was no record of Calanoida. Conclusions The difference in composition among the studied lakes was remarkable. The lake with macrophytes showed the greatest richness but the lowest density, and the opposite situation occurred in the other lake. This can be explained by the fact that aquatic macrophytes, as primary producers, exert a bottom-up effect on zooplankton community, sustaining a high local diversity in contrast with a low numeric abundance of these microorganisms. Therefore, this pattern may have been created by the surround heterogeneity and, at the same time, by the reduction of available minerals of the system caused by macrophyte matter fixation. Many studies on zooplankton need to be developed in palm swamp communities in order to better comprehend the biological diversity and the energy balance in different habitats for

  20. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence - from phenomenon to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Darren

    2014-05-01

    (bioluminescent reporter bacteria) for the discovery and characterization of bacteriophage and to assess their potential use as a bio-control/antimicrobial in the health and agri-food sectors. Presently, he is developing, in collaboration with industrial partners, in-situ fluorescence sensors to help further understand the role of dissolved organic matter in underpinning the microbial processes in aquatic systems through time, a project funded by the Natural Environment Research Council, UK.

  1. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  2. A one ocean model of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dor, Ronald K.; Fennel, Katja; Berghe, Edward Vanden

    2009-09-01

    The history of life is written in the ocean, and the history of the ocean is written in DNA. Geologists have shown us that hundreds of millions of years of ocean history can be revealed from records of a single phylum in cores of mud from abyssal plains. We are now accumulating genetic tools to unravel the relationships of hundreds of phyla to track this history back billions of years. The technologies demonstrated by the Census of Marine Life (CoML) mean that the ocean is no longer opaque or unknowable. The secrets of the largest component of the biosphere are knowable. The cost of understanding the history of ocean life is not cheap, but it is also not prohibitive. A transparent, open ocean is available for us to use to understand ourselves. This article develops a model of biodiversity equilibration in a single, physically static ocean as a step towards biodiversity in physically complex real oceans. It attempts to be quantitative and to simultaneously account for biodiversity patterns from bacteria to whales focusing on emergent properties rather than details. Biodiversity reflects long-term survival of DNA sequences, stabilizing "ecosystem services" despite environmental change. In the ocean, mechanisms for ensuring survival range from prokaryotes maintaining low concentrations of replicable DNA throughout the ocean volume, anticipating local change, to animals whose mobility increases with mass to avoid local change through movement. Whales can reach any point in the ocean in weeks, but prokaryotes can only diffuse. The high metabolic costs of mobility are offset by the dramatically lower number of DNA replicates required to ensure survival. Reproduction rates probably scale more or less inversely with body mass. Bacteria respond in a week, plankton in a year, whales in a century. We generally lack coherent theories to explain the origins of animals (metazoans) and the contributions of biodiversity to ecosystems. The One Ocean Model suggests that mobile

  3. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der;

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected and...

  4. Aquatic plants clean wastewater lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Water weeds that grow profusely in warm tropical and subtropical regions have always been considered a nuisance; current research is focusing on methods to cull benefits from such aquatic proliferations. Weeds, especially the water hyacinth, are proving to be useful in the purification of wastewater lagoons. The plants extract inorganic and organic toxicants from the effluent. Hyacinths employed in experiments conducted in Puerto Rico are removed from the lagoons to prevent overcrowding. This harvest is sent through a digester to produce methane. (2 diagrams, 3 photos)

  5. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  6. Maximizing biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+: a decoupled approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current debates on biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+ are marked by considerable ambiguity and contention. Nevertheless, REDD+ continues to represent one of the most important opportunities for global biodiversity conservation, and the question of how best to achieve biodiversity co-benefits remains an important one. Thus far, most biodiversity conservation in the context of REDD+ is predicated on the notion that services are co-located on a landscape. In contrast, this letter argues that decoupling biodiversity and carbon services on a landscape through national-level planning is a better approach to biodiversity conservation under REDD+. We discuss the fundamental ecological differences between the two services and use principles of resource economics to demonstrate that a decoupled approach will be more efficient, more flexible, and better able to mobilize sufficient finance for biodiversity conservation than a coupled approach. (letter)

  7. Economic valuation for the conservation of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, N J; Austen, M C; Mangi, S C; Townsend, M

    2008-03-01

    Policy makers are increasingly recognising the role of environmental valuation to guide and support the management and conservation of biodiversity. This paper presents a goods and services approach to determine the economic value of marine biodiversity in the UK, with the aim of clarifying the role of valuation in the management of marine biodiversity. The goods and services resulting from UK marine biodiversity are detailed, and 8 of the 13 services are valued in monetary terms. It is found that a decline in UK marine biodiversity could result in a varying, and at present unpredictable, change in the provision of goods and services, including reduced resilience and resistance to change, declining marine environmental health, reduced fisheries potential, and loss of recreational opportunities. The results suggest that this approach can facilitate biodiversity management by enabling the optimal allocation of limited management resources and through raising awareness of the importance of marine biodiversity. PMID:18191954

  8. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  9. Contamination, classification and geoecosystematic relevance of aquatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present knowledge about aquatic sediments and their contamination is summarized in a literature review. For geoecosystematic purposes, the classification schemes elaborated in the literature are in the initial stages, showing deficits with respect to sedimentary structure and the relevant fixation and release processes of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds. The factor regulating the release of phosporus and nitrogen compounds out of the pore water and at the top layer of the sediments are illustrated with regard to the processes at the sediment/water interface. The role of microbial releases and the hydrodynamic and diagenetic influence on these processes are still not fully understood. In comparison with subaerial soils, techniques for measuring relevant soil physical and hydrodynamic parameters are less well developed. The valuation criteria of sediment contamination, their applicability to other contamination sites, and the comparability of results are still limited. Each chapter closes with an overview of open questions. (orig.)

  10. Functionally stable and phylogenetically diverse microbial enrichments from microbial fuel cells during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Gorby, Yuri A; Bretschger, Orianna

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. One of the goals of MFC research is to develop the technology for cost-effective wastewater treatment. However, before practical MFC applications are implemented it is important to gain fundamental knowledge about long-term system performance, reproducibility, and the formation and maintenance of functionally-stable microbial communities. Here we report findings from a MFC operated for over 300 days using only primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant as the microbial resource and substrate. The system was operated in a repeat-batch mode, where the reactor solution was replaced once every two weeks with new primary effluent that consisted of different microbial and chemical compositions with every batch exchange. The turbidity of the primary clarifier effluent solution notably decreased, and 97% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) was removed after an 8-13 day residence time for each batch cycle. On average, the limiting current density was 1000 mA/m(2), the maximum power density was 13 mW/m(2), and coulombic efficiency was 25%. Interestingly, the electrochemical performance and BOD removal rates were very reproducible throughout MFC operation regardless of the sample variability associated with each wastewater exchange. While MFC performance was very reproducible, the phylogenetic analyses of anode-associated electricity-generating biofilms showed that the microbial populations temporally fluctuated and maintained a high biodiversity throughout the year-long experiment. These results suggest that MFC communities are both self-selecting and self-optimizing, thereby able to develop and maintain functional stability regardless of fluctuations in carbon source(s) and regular introduction of microbial competitors. These results contribute significantly toward the practical application

  11. Functionally stable and phylogenetically diverse microbial enrichments from microbial fuel cells during wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun'ichi Ishii

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. One of the goals of MFC research is to develop the technology for cost-effective wastewater treatment. However, before practical MFC applications are implemented it is important to gain fundamental knowledge about long-term system performance, reproducibility, and the formation and maintenance of functionally-stable microbial communities. Here we report findings from a MFC operated for over 300 days using only primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant as the microbial resource and substrate. The system was operated in a repeat-batch mode, where the reactor solution was replaced once every two weeks with new primary effluent that consisted of different microbial and chemical compositions with every batch exchange. The turbidity of the primary clarifier effluent solution notably decreased, and 97% of biological oxygen demand (BOD was removed after an 8-13 day residence time for each batch cycle. On average, the limiting current density was 1000 mA/m(2, the maximum power density was 13 mW/m(2, and coulombic efficiency was 25%. Interestingly, the electrochemical performance and BOD removal rates were very reproducible throughout MFC operation regardless of the sample variability associated with each wastewater exchange. While MFC performance was very reproducible, the phylogenetic analyses of anode-associated electricity-generating biofilms showed that the microbial populations temporally fluctuated and maintained a high biodiversity throughout the year-long experiment. These results suggest that MFC communities are both self-selecting and self-optimizing, thereby able to develop and maintain functional stability regardless of fluctuations in carbon source(s and regular introduction of microbial competitors. These results contribute significantly toward the

  12. Coastal biodiversity and ecosystem services flows at the landscape scale: The CBESS progamme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, David; Bothwell, John; Bradbury, Richard; Burrows, Michael; Burton, Niall; Emmerson, Mark; Garbutt, Angus; Skov, Martin; Solan, Martin; Spencer, Tom; Underwood, Graham

    2015-04-01

    The health of the European coastline is inextricably linked to the economy and culture of coastal nations but they are sensitive to climate change. As global temperatures increase, sea levels will rise and the forces experienced where land meets sea will become more destructive. Salt marshes, mudflats, beaches will be affected. These landscapes support a wide range of economically valuable animal and plant species, but also act as sites of carbon storage, nutrient recycling, and pollutant capture and amelioration. Their preservation is of utmost importance. Our programme: "A hierarchical approach to the examination of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem service flows across coastal margins" (CBESS) is designed to understand the landscape-scale links between the functions that these systems provide (ecosystem service flows) and the organisms that provide these services (biodiversity stocks) and moves beyond most previous studies, conducted at smaller scales. Our consortium of experts ranges from microbial ecologists, through environmental economists, to mathematical modellers, and organisations (RSPB, BTO, CEFAS, EA) with vested interest in the sustainable use of coastal wetlands. CBESS spans the landscape scale, investigating how biodiversity stocks provide ecosystem services (cf. National Ecosystem Assessment: Supporting services; Provisioning services; Regulating services; and Cultural services). CBESS combined a detailed study of two regional landscapes with a broad-scale UK-wide study to allow both specific and general conclusions to be drawn. The regional study compares two areas of great UK national importance: Morecambe Bay on the west coast and the Essex coastline on the east. We carried out biological and physical surveys at more than 600 stations combined with in situ measures of ecosystem funtction to clarify how biodiversity can provide these important ecosystem functions across scales. This information will be shared with those

  13. Key Biodiversity Areas identification in Japan Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Natori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Priority sites within Japan Hotspot were identified using Key Biodiversity Area (KBA criteria, based on vulnerability and irreplaceability. The identification process considered 217 trigger species from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater and brackish water fishes and odonates, and focused on identifying gaps in Japan’s protected-area system. We identified 228 sites as KBAs and 50 rivers as candidate KBAs. Collectively, KBAs occupy 18% of the land, about half is not protected. Sites selected include natural and semi-natural environments, and appropriate form of protection is site-dependent. Twenty percent of Japanese terrestrial area is already protected, although to varying degrees, but additional 8% should also receive protection or proper management to strengthen the conservation of biodiversity in Japan.

  14. Macroeconomic policy, growth, and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Philip

    2008-12-01

    To successfully achieve biodiversity conservation, the amount of ecosystem structure available for economic production must be determined by, and subject to, conservation needs. As such, the scale of economic systems must remain within the limits imposed by the need to preserve critical ecosystems and the regenerative and waste assimilative capacities of the ecosphere. These limits are determined by biophysical criteria, yet macroeconomics involves the use of economic instruments designed to meet economic criteria that have no capacity to achieve biophysically based targets. Macroeconomic policy cannot, therefore, directly solve the biodiversity erosion crisis. Nevertheless, good macroeconomic policy is still important given that bad macroeconomy policy is likely to reduce human well-being and increase the likelihood of social upheaval that could undermine conservation efforts. PMID:19076875

  15. Regional microbial signatures positively correlate with differential wine phenotypes: evidence for a microbial aspect to terroir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sarah; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Many crops display differential geographic phenotypes and sensorial signatures, encapsulated by the concept of terroir. The drivers behind these differences remain elusive, and the potential contribution of microbes has been ignored until recently. Significant genetic differentiation between microbial communities and populations from different geographic locations has been demonstrated, but crucially it has not been shown whether this correlates with differential agricultural phenotypes or not. Using wine as a model system, we utilize the regionally genetically differentiated population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in New Zealand and objectively demonstrate that these populations differentially affect wine phenotype, which is driven by a complex mix of chemicals. These findings reveal the importance of microbial populations for the regional identity of wine, and potentially extend to other important agricultural commodities. Moreover, this suggests that long-term implementation of methods maintaining differential biodiversity may have tangible economic imperatives as well as being desirable in terms of employing agricultural practices that increase responsible environmental stewardship. PMID:26400688

  16. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  17. Biodiversity, the Human Microbiome and Mental Health: Moving toward a New Clinical Ecology for the 21st Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in research concerning the brain-related influences of the microbiome have been paradigm shifting, although at an early stage, clinical research involving beneficial microbes lends credence to the notion that the microbiome may be an important target in supporting mental health (defined here along the continuum between quality of life and the criteria for specific disorders. Through metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology, a new emphasis to personalized medicine is on the horizon. Humans can now be viewed as multispecies organisms operating within an ecological theatre; it is important that clinicians increasingly see their patients in this context. Historically marginalized ecological aspects of health are destined to become an important consideration in the new frontiers of practicing medicine with the microbiome in mind. Emerging evidence indicates that macrobiodiversity in the external environment can influence mental well-being. Local biodiversity may also drive differences in human-associated microbiota; microbial diversity as a product of external biodiversity may have far-reaching effects on immune function and mood. With a focus on the microbiome as it pertains to mental health, we define environmental “grey space” and emphasize a new frontier involving bio-eco-psychological medicine. Within this concept the ecological terrain can link dysbiotic lifestyles and biodiversity on the grand scale to the local human-associated microbial ecosystems that might otherwise seem far removed from one another.

  18. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geo...

  19. Social psychology and biodiversity conservation in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Erwin; D'Haene, Karoline; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    We investigate farmers’ intentions to apply biodiversity conservation practices from psychological perspective, using an adapted version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), including group norms and putting emphasis on moral norms and self-identity. The study is based on a quantitative survey (n = 106) in Belgium, analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses and path analysis. Results show that the impact of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control on intentions is almos...

  20. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Carlos J Melián; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropica...

  1. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  2. Geocoding LCSH in the Biodiversity Heritage Library

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Crozier; Jay Paige; Martin Kalfatovic; Chris Freeland

    2008-01-01

    Reusing metadata generated through years of cataloging practice is a natural and pragmatic way of leveraging an institution's investment in describing its resources. Using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), the Biodiversity Heritage Library generates new interfaces for browsing and navigating books in a digital library. LCSH are grouped into tag clouds and plotted on interactive maps using methods available within the Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API). Code example...

  3. DNA and RNA technology in soil biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    DNA technology has come a long way and state of the art techniques are currently used in the analysis of soil biodiversity. Current methods will be presented and their strengths and limitations discussed. RNA technology, for the study of gene expression and potential activity of functional groups in the soil, is lagging behind, mostly due to the difficulties of extracting stable RNA from the soil. The potentials and challenges of adopting RNA technology for soil analysis will be discussed.

  4. Voluntary biodiversity offset strategies in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Bidaud, C.; Hrabranski, M.; Méral, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In this article we examine the institutional strategies and methods of biodiversity offset calculation employed by two mining companies in Madagascar. Much like the REDD+ mechanisms, these environmental projects are based on estimations of the past and predictions of the future, and require validation by international experts. They incorporate a set of standard indicators adapted to the affected habitats, and specially developed units of measurement to demonstrate ecological equivalence. The ...

  5. Engaging the public in biodiversity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Novacek, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    To engage people in biodiversity and other environmental issues, one must provide the opportunity for enhanced understanding that empowers individuals to make choices and take action based on sound science and reliable recommendations. To this end, we must acknowledge some real challenges. Recent surveys show that, despite growing public concern, environmental issues still rank below many other problems, such as terrorism, health care, the economy, and (in the U.S.) family values. Moreover, m...

  6. The underestimated biodiversity of tropical grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brett P; Andersen, Alan N; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    For decades, there has been enormous scientific interest in tropical savannahs and grasslands, fuelled by the recognition that they are a dynamic and potentially unstable biome, requiring periodic disturbance for their maintenance. However, that scientific interest has not translated into widespread appreciation of, and concern about threats to, their biodiversity. In terms of biodiversity, grassy biomes are considered poor cousins of the other dominant biome of the tropics-forests. Simple notions of grassy biomes being species-poor cannot be supported; for some key taxa, such as vascular plants, this may be valid, but for others it is not. Here, we use an analysis of existing data to demonstrate that high-rainfall tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) have vertebrate species richness comparable with that of forests, despite having lower plant diversity. The Neotropics stand out in terms of both overall vertebrate species richness and number of range-restricted vertebrate species in TGBs. Given high rates of land-cover conversion in Neotropical grassy biomes, they should be a high priority for conservation and greater inclusion in protected areas. Fire needs to be actively maintained in these systems, and in many cases re-introduced after decades of inappropriate fire exclusion. The relative intactness of TGBs in Africa and Australia make them the least vulnerable to biodiversity loss in the immediate future. We argue that, like forests, TGBs should be recognized as a critical-but increasingly threatened-store of global biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. PMID:27502382

  7. Bio-diversity and tribal cultivation practices

    OpenAIRE

    Das, V

    2009-01-01

    The tribal regions of Orissa used to contain a high biodiversity of crops which sustained the local tribal communities. However, due to deforestation and climate change influencing rainfall patterns, the rich soil and forests have disappeared leaving the tribal communities on the brink of starvation. Projects attempting to help the tribals have included measures such as agroforestry, contour cropping, vegetative bunds, and watershed improvements. These measures had poor sustainability and did...

  8. Effects on herbicides on hedgerow biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Beate; Christensen, Kimmie K.

    2008-01-01

    Low dosages of herbicides may reduce the number of flowers on non-target plants. Effect of herbicides on flowering and on pollen and nectar production are relevant end-points for effect assessment on non-target species. Herbicides have the potential to reduce the number of flowers in hedgerow vegetation and thereby also decrease the availability of pollen, nectar and seeds that are important food for many insects and birds. The biodiversity of hedgerow bottom vegetation is lower at convention...

  9. Preserving Biodiversity: Ambiguity and Safety Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Giannis Vardas; Anastasios Xepapadeas

    2006-01-01

    Safety rules are developed, for biodiversity preservation. These rules are designed to take into account the impact of uncertainty and worst case scenarios, which when combined with unregulated ecosystem management decisions, might produce extinction of species. The safety rules take the form of fixed land allocation and fixed harvesting rules under uncertainty. We explore how model uncertainty affects these safety rules relative to the classic risk aversion case and how a measure of precauti...

  10. Canga biodiversity, a matter of mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eSkirycz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian name canga refers to the ecosystem associated with superficial iron crusts typical for the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG and some parts of Amazon (Flona de Carajas. Iron stone is associated with mountain plateaux and so, in addition to high metal concentrations (particularly iron and manganese, canga ecosystems, as other rock outcrops, are characterized by isolation and environmental harshness. Canga inselbergs, all together, occupy no more than 200km2 of area spread over thousands of km2 of the Iron Quadrangle (MG and the Flona de Carajas, resulting in considerable beta biodiversity. Moreover, the presence of different microhabitats within the iron crust is associated with high alpha biodiversity. Hundreds of angiosperm species have been reported so far across remote canga inselbergs and different micro-habitats. Among these are endemics such as the cactus Arthrocereus glaziovii and the medicinal plant Pilocarpus microphyllus. Canga is also home to iron and manganese metallophytes; species that evolved to tolerate high metal concentrations. These are particularly interesting to study metal homeostasis as both iron and manganese are essential plant micro-elements. Besides being models for metal metabolism, metallophytes can be used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated sites, and as such are considered among priority species for canga restoration.Biodiversity mining is not the only mining business attracted to canga. Open cast iron mining generates as much as 5-6% of Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP and dialogue between mining companies, government, society and ecologists, enforced by legal regulation, is ongoing to find compromise for canga protection, and where mining is unavoidable for ecosystem restoration. Environmental factors that shaped canga vegetation, canga biodiversity , physiological mechanisms to play a role, and ways to protect and restore canga will be reviewed.

  11. Canga biodiversity, a matter of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirycz, Aleksandra; Castilho, Alexandre; Chaparro, Cristian; Carvalho, Nelson; Tzotzos, George; Siqueira, Jose O

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian name canga refers to the ecosystems associated with superficial iron crusts typical for the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG) and some parts of Amazon (Flona de Carajas). Iron stone is associated with mountain plateaux and so, in addition to high metal concentrations (particularly iron and manganese), canga ecosystems, as other rock outcrops, are characterized by isolation and environmental harshness. Canga inselbergs, all together, occupy no more than 200 km(2) of area spread over thousands of km(2) of the Iron Quadrangle (MG) and the Flona de Carajas, resulting in considerable beta biodiversity. Moreover, the presence of different microhabitats within the iron crust is associated with high alpha biodiversity. Hundreds of angiosperm species have been reported so far across remote canga inselbergs and different micro-habitats. Among these are endemics such as the cactus Arthrocereus glaziovii and the medicinal plant Pilocarpus microphyllus. Canga is also home to iron and manganese metallophytes; species that evolved to tolerate high metal concentrations. These are particularly interesting to study metal homeostasis as both iron and manganese are essential plant micro-elements. Besides being models for metal metabolism, metallophytes can be used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated sites, and as such are considered among priority species for canga restoration. "Biodiversity mining" is not the only mining business attracted to canga. Open cast iron mining generates as much as 5-6% of Brazilian gross domestic product and dialog between mining companies, government, society, and ecologists, enforced by legal regulation, is ongoing to find compromise for canga protection, and where mining is unavoidable for ecosystem restoration. Environmental factors that shaped canga vegetation, canga biodiversity, physiological mechanisms to play a role, and ways to protect and restore canga will be reviewed. PMID:25505476

  12. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  13. Causes of biodiversity loss in coastal ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    Although far less published than loss of biodiversity on land, the loss of marine genetic, species and ecosystem diversity is a global crisis in its own right. The coastal strip (the shallow water, the intertidal area and the immediately adjacent land) is the most vulnerable as well as the most abused marine zone. Coastal ecosystems are not only an important source for essential products for mankind, including foods, medicine, raw materials and recreational facilities, but also provide ecolog...

  14. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhua Xin; Yuguang Zhou; Xiuzhu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living i...

  15. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical ree...

  16. Habitat trees: key elements for forest biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bütler, R.; Lachat, T.; Larrieu, L.; Y. Paillet

    2013-01-01

    Habitat trees are defined as standing live or dead trees providing ecological niches (microhabitats) such as cavities, bark pockets, large dead branches, cracks or trunk rot. They are of prime concern for forest biodiversity as they can harbor many threatened species of flora and fauna. Habitat trees are a legacy of the past and are of exceptional importance given the hundreds of years such a tree might need to reach this status. The retention of habitat trees with a suitable distribution ...

  17. Sustaining biodiversity in ancient tropical countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Jai; Daniels, R J Ranjit; Chandran, M D Subash; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2008-11-18

    With intensifying demands for food and biofuels, a critical threat to biodiversity is agricultural expansion into native tropical ecosystems. Tropical agriculture, particularly intensive agriculture, often supports few native organisms, and consequently has been largely overlooked in conservation planning; yet, recent work in the Neotropics demonstrates that tropical agriculture with certain features can support significant biodiversity, decades after conversion to farmland. It remains unknown whether this conservation value can be sustained for centuries to millennia. Here, we quantify the bird diversity affiliated with agricultural systems in southwest India, a region continuously cultivated for >2,000 years. We show that arecanut palm (Areca catechu) production systems retain 90% of the bird species associated with regional native forest. Two factors promote this high conservation value. First, the system involves intercropping with multiple, usually woody, understory species and, thus, has high vertical structural complexity that is positively correlated with bird species richness. Second, the system encompasses nearby forests, where large quantities of leaf litter are extracted for mulch. The preservation of these forests on productive land traces back to their value in supplying inputs to arecanut cultivation. The long-term biodiversity value of an agricultural ecosystem has not been documented in South and Southeast Asia. Our findings open a new conservation opportunity for this imperiled region that may well extend to other crops. Some of these working lands may be able to sustain native species over long-time scales, indicating that conservation investments in agriculture today could pay off for people and for nature. PMID:18981411

  18. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  19. [Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

    2009-07-01

    Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

  20. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status. PMID:26928527

  1. Student Teachers' Understanding of the Terminology, Distribution, and Loss of Biodiversity: Perspectives from a Biodiversity Hotspot and an Industrialized Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Florian; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    The loss of biodiversity is one of the most urgent global environmental problems of our time. Public education and awareness building is key to successful biodiversity protection. Knowledgeable and skilled student teachers are a key component for the successful implementation of biodiversity education in schools. Yet, little empirical evidence exists on teachers' detailed understanding of biodiversity. This study aimed to assess student teachers' conceptions of the terminology as well as their understanding of the distribution and loss of biodiversity. Data were collected from a qualitative in-depth interview study of student biology teachers from Costa Rica and Germany ( n = 24). Both verbal and visual methods were used to elicit responses. The results show that participants from both countries equated biodiversity with species diversity and had misconceptions about genetic diversity. Costa Rican student teachers seemed to have a more local perspective on biodiversity and unanimously described their local biodiversity as high, and under threat. In contrast, German teachers showed a more global view and were mostly uncertain about the level and threat status of local biodiversity. Prevailing associations explaining the global distribution and loss of biodiversity were heavily based on everyday assumptions, such as the presence/absence of humans, cities, and industries. Additionally, the transnational character of many of the socioeconomic drivers causing biodiversity loss was largely neglected. Although most participants were unfamiliar with the scientific concept of biodiversity hotspots, they implicitly used a naive biodiversity hotspots concept to explain the distribution and loss of global biodiversity. The results are discussed in terms of the educational implications.

  2. Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides from Pinal Creek, AZ

    OpenAIRE

    Bargar, John

    2009-01-01

    The microbial catalysis of Mn(II) oxidation is believed to be a dominant source of abundant sorption- and redox-active Mn oxides in marine, freshwater, and subsurface aquatic environments. In spite of their importance, environmental oxides of known biogenic origin have generally not been characterized in detail from a structural perspective. Hyporheic zone Mn oxide grain coatings at Pinal Creek, Arizona, a metals-contaminated stream, have been identified as being dominantly microbial in origi...

  3. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  4. The roles and contributions of Biodiversity Observation Networks (BONs) in better tracking progress to 2020 biodiversity targets: a European case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzel, F.T.; Saarenmaa, H.; Regan, E; Martin, C. S.; Mergen, P.; Smirnova, L.; Tuama, E.O.; García Camacho, F.A.; Hoffmann, A; Vohland, K.; Häuser, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the United Nations’ Strategic Plan for Biodiversity set ambitious goals for protecting biodiversity from further decline. Increased efforts are urgently needed to achieve these targets by 2020. The availability of comprehensive, sound and up-to-date biodiversity data is a key requirement to implement policies, strategies and actions to address biodiversity loss, monitor progress towards biodiversity targets, as well as to assess the current status and future ...

  5. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerts Raf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an

  6. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zhang; Hui Li; Ye Feng

    2014-01-01

    Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversi...

  7. Spatial Pattern Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystem Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales. It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs retrieved from Remote Sensing i

  8. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  9. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  10. Progress of microbial species diversity research in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangdong Guo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes with rich species and genetic diversity are widely distributed throughout various habitats in the world. China possesses a variety of climate zones, geographic environments, and complex ecosystems, which play a large role shaping the complex biodiversity of this country. Microbial diversity has been widely studied and well documented by Chinese scientists. For example, a total of ca. 14,700 eukaryotic microbe species have been recorded, including ca. 14,060 fungi, ca. 300 oomycetes, and ca. 340 slime molds. Within the Fungi, there have been 473 medicinal fungal species and 966 edible fungal taxa recorded. However, recent studies have documented much high species diversity of prokaryotic microbes using molecular techniques,which have greatly promoted the study level of microbial diversity in China. This review paper summarizes recent research progress of microbial (i.e., archaea, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and slime molds diversity in China based on traditional and molecular techniques.

  11. Economic tools for biodiversity. An elaboration of TEEB recommendations with regard to the Taskforce Biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group on Economic Instruments of the Biodiversity and Natural Resources Task Force addressed the question how the recommendations of the report of the United Nations 'The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity' (TEEB) can be realized in the Netherlands. A selection of topics has been made for which policy proposals are developed which might be promising and can lead to a better protection of the biodiversity. The following proposals were investigated and/or elaborated: decrease of the social discount rate; further greening of the tax system; import levy on bulk commodities; taxes on non-sustainable wood; levy on the use of open space; differential tax on animal proteins; and a revision of biomass incentives.

  12. Forty years of experiments on aquatic invasive species: are study biases limiting our understanding of impacts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Thomsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by non-native species are a threat to biodiversity because invaders can impact native populations, communities and entire ecosystems. To manage this threat, it is necessary to have a strong mechanistic understanding of how non-native species affect local species and communities. We reviewed 259 published papers (1972–2012 that described field experiments quantifying the impact of aquatic non-native species, to examine whether various types of study biases are limiting this understanding. Our review revealed that invasion impacts had been experimentally quantified for 101 aquatic non-native species, in all major freshwater and marine habitats, on all continents except Antarctica and for most higher taxonomic groupings. Over one-quarter (26% of studies included tests for impacts on local biodiversity. However, despite this extensive research effort, certain taxa, habitats and regions remain poorly studied. For example, of the over one hundred species examined in previous studies, only one was a marine fish and only six were herbivores. Furthermore, over half (53% the studies were from the USA and two-thirds (66% were from experiments conducted in temperate latitudes. By contrast, only 3% of studies were from Africa and <2% from high latitudes. We also found that one-fifth (20% of studies were conducted in estuaries, but only 1% from coral reefs. Finally, we note that the standard procedure of pooling or not reporting non-significant treatments and responses is likely to limit future synthetic advancement by biasing meta-analysis and severely limiting our ability to identify non-native species with none or negligible ecological impacts. In conclusion, a future focus on poorly-studied taxa, habitats and regions, and enhanced reporting of results, should improve our understanding and management of impacts associated with aquatic non-native species.

  13. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  14. A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Snyder, C.D.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity surveys are often hampered by the inability to control extraneous sources of variability introduced into comparisons of populations across a heterogenous landscape. If not specifically accounted for a priori, this noise can weaken comparisons between sites, and can make it difficult to draw inferences about specific ecological processes. We developed a terrain-based, paired-site sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA). The goal of this design was to minimize variance due to terrain influences on stream communities, while representing the range of hemlock dominated stream environments present in the park. We used geographic information systems (GIS) and cluster analysis to define and partition hemlock dominated streams into terrain types based on topographic variables and stream order. We computed similarity of forest stands within terrain types and used this information to pair hemlock-dominated streams with hardwood counterparts prior to sampling. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design through power analysis and found that power to detect differences in aquatic invertebrate taxa richness was highest when sites were paired and terrain type was included as a factor in the analysis. Precision of the estimated difference in mean richness was nearly doubled using the terrain-based, paired site design in comparison to other evaluated designs. Use of this method allowed us to sample stream communities representative of park-wide forest conditions while effectively controlling for landscape variability.

  15. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  16. Nitrogen cycle in microbial mats: completely unknown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, O.; Bebout, B.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial mats are thought to have originated around 3.7 billion years ago, most likely in the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents, which supplied a source of energy in the form of reduced chemical species from the Earth's interior. Active hydrothermal vents are also believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa, Saturn's moon Enceladus, and on Mars, earlier in that planet's history. Microbial mats have been an important force in the maintenance of Earth's ecosystems and the first photosynthesis was also originated there. Microbial mats are believed to exhibit most, if not all, biogeochemical processes that exist in aquatic ecosystems, due to the presence of different physiological groups of microorganisms therein. While most microbially mediated biogeochemical transformations have been shown to occur within microbial mats, the nitrogen cycle in the microbial mats has received very little study in spite of the fact that nitrogen usually limits growth in marine environments. We will present the first results in the determination of a complete nitrogen budget for a photosynthetic microbial mat. Both in situ sources and sinks of nitrogen in photosynthetic microbial mats are being measured using stable isotope techniques. Our work has a particular focus on recently described, but poorly understood, processes, e.g., anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and an emphasis on understanding the role that nitrogen cycling may play in generating biogenic nitrogen isotopic signatures and biomarker molecules. Measurements of environmental controls on nitrogen cycling should offer insight into the nature of co-evolution of these microbial communities and their planets of origin. Identifying the spatial (microscale) as well as temporal (diel and seasonal) distribution of nitrogen transformations, e.g., rates of nitrification and denitrification, within mats, particularly with respect to the distribution of photosynthetically-produced oxygen, is anticipated. The results

  17. Effects of organic matter input on soil microbial properties and crop yields in conventional and organic cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Professor Jørgen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Unlike conventional cropping systems, which are characterised by targeted short-term fertility management, organic farming systems depend on long-term increase in soil fertility and promotion of soil biodiversity. This study sought to investigate long-term effects of organic matter inputs on various cropping systems in a 10-year-old experiment. Results show that in the long-term high C and N inputs enhance microbial activity. Microbial biomass N and the potential nitrification rate were highe...

  18. Biodiversity at the Ecosystem Level - Patterns and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    levels of organization? How may GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) deal with ecosystem level data and informatics? The conference had two important goals. The first was to present an overview of contemporary research related to ecosystem level biodiversity and the second was to help GBIF......This publication contains the presentations and discussions from the second DanBIF conference, entitled Biodiversity at the Ecosystem Level – Patterns and Processes. The questions asked at this conference were: What is biodiversity at the ecosystem level? How is it related to biodiversity at other...... formulate a strategy for dealing with biodiversity above the species and molecular levels and make data available for the end-users....

  19. Biodiversity, climate change and poverty: exploring the links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Swiderska, Krystyna

    2008-02-15

    Biodiversity — the variety of all life, from genes and species to ecosystems — is intimately linked to Earth's climate and, inevitably, to climate change. Biodiversity and poverty are also inextricably connected. For instance, changes to natural ecosystems influence both climate change and people's ability to cope with some of its damaging impacts. And in their turn climate change, as well as people's responses to it, affect biodiversity. Unpicking all these strands clearly shows that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. Yet compared to activities such as forest conservation and afforestation — widely noted as a way of sequestering carbon and cutting greenhouse gas emissions — biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. That must change: urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.

  20. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.