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Sample records for aquatic macroinvertebrate community

  1. Abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in lakes exposed to Chernobyl-derived ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Nagorskaya, L.L. [Institute of Zoology NAS Belarus, 27, Academicheskaya st., 220072, Minsk (Belarus); Smith, J.T., E-mail: Jim.Smith@port.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Bldg, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Littoral (lake shore) macroinvertebrate communities were studied in eight natural lakes affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The lakes spanned a range in {sup 137}Cs contamination from 100 to 15500 kBq m{sup -2} and estimated external dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 30.7 {mu}Gy h{sup -1}. General linear models were used to assess whether abundance of individuals, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance and Shannon-Wiener diversity varied across the lakes. Step-wise multiple regressions were used to relate variation in total abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity, taxon richness within major groups of macroinvertebrates and abundance of the more common individual taxa to the measured environmental characteristics (conductivity, pH, total hardness and phosphate; lake area, lake maximum depth and total external dose) of the lakes. No evidence was found in this study that the ecological status of lake communities has been influenced by radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the most contaminated lake, Glubokoye, contained the highest richness of aquatic invertebrates. Taxon richness in the eight study lakes varied from 22 (Svyatskoe no. 7) to 42 (Glubokoye) which spans a range typical for uncontaminated lakes in the region. Since {sup 90}Sr is readily-absorbed by Mollusca, estimated dose rates to this group exceeded those for other invertebrate groups in two lakes (Perstok and Glubokoye). However this study found no association between mollusc diversity or abundance of individual snail species and variation between lakes in the external radiation dose. Indeed Glubokoye, the lake most contaminated by {sup 90}Sr, had the highest richness of freshwater snails per sample (an average of 8.9 taxa per sample). - Highlights: > We studied the effect of radiation on macroinvertebrates in Chernobyl affected lakes. > Abundance, taxon richness, Berger-Parker dominance, Shannon-Wiener diversity evaluated. > No

  2. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selego, S.M.; Rose, C.L.; Merovich, G.T., Jr.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions. Copyright ?? 2012 Stephen M. Selego et al.

  3. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  4. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins and its relationship with the aquatic macroinvertebrate community status

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović, Maja; Julio C. López-Doval; Castro-Català, Núria de; Guasch i Padró, Helena; Petrović, Mira; Muñoz, Isabel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barceló i Cullerés, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins (Llobregat, Ebro, Júcar and Guadalquivir) was performed. The data set included more than 200 emerging and priority compounds measured at 77 sampling sites along four river basins studied. The toxic units (TU) approach was used to assess the risk of individual compounds and the concentration addition model (CA) to assess the site specific risk. Link between chemical pollution and aquatic macroinvertebrate commu...

  6. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  7. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  8. Study of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities exposed to buckeye reclamation landfill drainage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buckeye Reclamation Landfill (BRL), a Superfund site, incorporates approximately 50 acres of a 658 acre tract of land. The BRL consists of past underground mining voids, including some surface-mined lands, and mine refuse piles from processed bituminous coal. The area was subsequently used as a nonhazardous public and municipal solid waste landfill, and industrial sludge and liquid wastes were also deposited in an impoundment in the northern section of the landfill. The entire landfill area was completely covered with soil and revegetated in the late 1980's and early 1990's. The BRL produces acidic and highly mineralized drainage causing a widespread problem of serious mine drainage pollution in the watershed. A study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pollutants to the macroinvertebrate assemblages and to determine the extent of pollution of the BRL watershed. Samples were collected from ten sites in 1995. Nine systematic and spatial transect samples were taken at each collection site for macroinverbrates with a 595 microm mesh, modified kick net from riffle/run and glide/pool habitats of streams above and below the BRL watershed. All macroinverbrates were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The levels for total Zn ranged from 22--604 microg/L; pH ranged from 4.4 to 8.1. The data distinguished the exposed sites receiving landfill leachates and sedimentation runoff from the less impacted sites

  9. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality in Sandia Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, field studies of water quality and stream macroinvertebrate communities were initiated in Sandia Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies were designed to establish baseline data and to determine the effects of routine discharges of industrial and sanitary waste. Water quality measurements were taken and aquatic macroinvertebrates sampled at three permanent stations within the canyon. Two of the three sample stations are located where the stream regularly receives industrial and sanitary waste effluents. These stations exhibited a low diversity of macroinvertebrates and slightly degraded water quality. The last sample station, located approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from the nearest wastewater outfall, appears to be in a zone of recovery where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams in the Los Alamos area. A large increase in macroinvertebrate diversity was also observed at the third station. These results indicate that effluents discharged into Sandia Canyon have a marked effect on water quality and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities

  10. Analysing chemical-induced changes in macroinvertebrate communities in aquatic mesocosm experiments: a comparison of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szöcs, E.; Brink, van den P.J.; Lagadic, L.; Caquet, T.; Roucaute, M.; Auber, A.; Bayona, Y.; Liess, M.; Ebke, P.; Ippolito, A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Brock, T.C.M.; Schäfer, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Mesocosm experiments that study the ecological impact of chemicals are often analysed using the multivariate method ‘Principal Response Curves’ (PRCs). Recently, the extension of generalised linear models (GLMs) to multivariate data was introduced as a tool to analyse community data in ecology. More

  11. Cryptic biodiversity in streams - a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic ecologists and entomologists have long known that species-level identifications were difficult, if not impossible, for many larval macroinvertebrates collected in streams. This study describes macroinvertebrate (primarily insect) communities from five coastal streams dist...

  12. Cryptic biodiversity in streams: a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities based on morphological and DNA barcode identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species-level identifications are difficult or impossible for many larval aquatic macroinvertebrates. We described the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities from 5 coastal streams in 3 neighboring catchments in southern California. We compared taxonomic identific...

  13. When is the best time to sample aquatic macroinvertebrates in ponds for biodiversity assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, M. J.; Sayer, C. D.; Wood, P J

    2016-01-01

    Ponds are sites of high biodiversity and conservation value, yet there is little or no statutory monitoring of them across most of Europe. There are clear and standardised protocols for sampling aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in ponds, but the most suitable time(s) to undertake the survey(s) remains poorly specified. This paper examined the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities from 95 ponds within different land use types over three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) to determine the...

  14. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with three aquatic macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Vallisneria americana) in Lake Onalaska, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The standing crop and species diversity of macroinvertebrates associated with wild celery (Vallisneria americana), Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), and coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) were examined in Lake Onalaska, Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River, during summer 1983. Although Ceratophyllum generally supported the largest invertebrate standing crop (number per g plant dry weight), differences in invertebrate abundance among plant species were not consistent across time. However, the distribution of several taxa were significantly affected by plant species. Hyalella azteca (overall the most abundant species) and Enallagma spp. (the most abundant predator) were consistently most numerous in Ceratophyllum samples and least abundant in Vallisneria samples. Generally, invertebrate community composition differed significantly among plant species throughout the summer.

  15. When is the best time to sample aquatic macroinvertebrates in ponds for biodiversity assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J; Sayer, C D; Wood, P J

    2016-03-01

    Ponds are sites of high biodiversity and conservation value, yet there is little or no statutory monitoring of them across most of Europe. There are clear and standardised protocols for sampling aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in ponds, but the most suitable time(s) to undertake the survey(s) remains poorly specified. This paper examined the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities from 95 ponds within different land use types over three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) to determine the most appropriate time to undertake sampling to characterise biodiversity. The combined samples from all three seasons provided the most comprehensive record of the aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa recorded within ponds (alpha and gamma diversity). Samples collected during the autumn survey yielded significantly greater macroinvertebrate richness (76% of the total diversity) than either spring or summer surveys. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest during autumn in meadow and agricultural ponds, but taxon richness among forest and urban ponds did not differ significantly temporally. The autumn survey provided the highest measures of richness for Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. However, richness of the aquatic insect order Trichoptera was highest in spring and lowest in autumn. The results illustrate that multiple surveys, covering more than one season, provide the most comprehensive representation of macroinvertebrate biodiversity. When sampling can only be undertaken on one occasion, the most appropriate time to undertake surveys to characterise the macroinvertebrate community biodiversity is during autumn, although this may need to be modified if other floral and faunal groups need to be incorporated into the sampling programme. PMID:26920128

  16. Characterization of the Kootenai River Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Community before and after Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2003-2006. [Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holderman, Charlie [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho Bonners

    2009-02-19

    The Kootenai River ecosystem has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam, completed in 1972 on the river near Libby Montana. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel, eliminating nutrient production and habitat diversity crucial to the functioning of a large river-floodplain ecosystem. Libby Dam continues to create large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows, and greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches. These changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to this artificial loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the Kootenay Lake's North Arm in 1992, the South Arm in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes the macroinvertebrate community in the Kootenai River and its response to experimental nutrient addition during 2005 and 2006. This report also provides an initial evaluation of cascading trophic interactions in response to nutrient addition. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 12 sites along a 325 km section of the Kootenai River, representing an upriver unimpounded reference reach, treatment and control canyon reach sites, and braided and meandering reach sites, all downstream from Libby Dam. Principle component analysis revealed that richness explained the greatest amount of variability in response to nutrient addition as did taxa from Acari, Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Analysis of variance revealed that nutrient addition had a

  17. Flow regime in a restored wetland determines trophic links and species composition in the aquatic macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Ortegón, E., E-mail: quique.gonzalezortegon@andaluciajunta.es [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom); IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Camino Tiro de Pichón s/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María (Spain); Walton, M.E.M.; Moghaddam, B. [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom); Vilas, C.; Prieto, A. [IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Camino Tiro de Pichón s/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María (Spain); Kennedy, H.A. [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom); Pedro Cañavate, J. [IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Camino Tiro de Pichón s/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María (Spain); Le Vay, L. [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    In a restored wetland (South of Spain), where different flow regimes control water exchange with the adjacent Guadalquivir estuary, the native Palaemon varians coexists with an exotic counterpart species Palaemon macrodactylus. This controlled m/acrocosm offers an excellent opportunity to investigate how the effects of water management, through different flow regimes, and the presence of a non-native species affect the aquatic community and the trophic niche (by gut contents and C-N isotopic composition) of the native shrimp Palaemon varians. We found that increased water exchange rate (5% day{sup −1} in mixed ponds vs. 0.1% day{sup −1} in extensive ponds) modified the aquatic community of this wetland; while extensive ponds are dominated by isopods and amphipods with low presence of P. macrodactylus, mixed ponds presented high biomass of mysids, corixids, copepods and both shrimp species. An estuarine origin of nutrients and primary production might explain seasonal and spatial differences found among ponds of this wetland. A combined analysis of gut contents and isotopic composition of the native and the exotic species showed that: (1) native P. varians is mainly omnivorous (2) while the non-native P. macrodactylus is more zooplanktivorous and (3) a dietary overlap occurred when both species coexist at mixed ponds where a higher water exchange and high abundance of mysids and copepods diversifies the native species' diet. Thus differences in the trophic ecology of both species are clearly explained by water management. This experimental study is a valuable tool for integrated management between river basin and wetlands since it allows quantification of wetland community changes in response to the flow regime. - Highlights: • Flow regimen is a major determinant of physicochemical habitat of a wetland. • Water exchanges wetland-estuary modify its aquatic community and trophic links. • Omnivory and physiological tolerance key in the resistance of a

  18. Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and water and health of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of streams near Park City, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Elis M.P.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Hadley, Heidi K.

    2001-01-01

    The spatial distribution of metals in streambed sediment and surface water of Silver Creek, McLeod Creek, Kimball Creek, Spring Creek, and part of the Weber River, near Park City, Utah, was examined. From the mid-1800s through the 1970s, this region was extensively mined for silver and lead ores. Although some remediation has occurred, residual deposits of tailing wastes remain in place along large sections of Silver Creek. These tailings are the most likely source of metals to this system. Bed sediment samples were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2000 and analyzed using two extraction techniques: a total extraction that completely dissolves all forms of metals in minerals and trace elements associated with the sediment; and a weak-acid extraction that extracts the metals and trace elements that are only weakly adsorbed onto the sediment surface. This latter method is used to determine the more biologically relevant fraction of metal complexed onto the sediment. Water samples were collected in March and August 2000 and were analyzed for total and dissolved trace metals. Concentrations of silver, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc in the streambed sediment of Silver Creek greatly exceeded background concentrations. These metals also exceeded established aquatic life criteria at most sites. In the Weber River, downstream of the confluence with Silver Creek, concentrations of cadmium, lead, zinc, and total mercury in streambed sediment also exceeded aquatic life guidelines, however, concentrations of metals in streambed sediment of McLeod and Kimball Creeks were lower than Silver Creek. Water-column concentrations of zinc, total mercury, and methylmercury in Silver Creek were high relative to unimpacted sites, and exceeded water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms. Qualitative measurements of the macroinvertebrate community in Silver Creek were compared to the spatial distribution of metals in streambed sediment. The data indicate that

  19. Aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure of a Nymphoides peltata-dominated and macrophyte-free site in an oxbow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Velde, van der G.

    1996-01-01

    The aquatic fauna in two freshwater biotopes, namely a Nymphoides peltata-dominated site and a macrophyte-free site, were studied quantitatively in a shallow oxbow lake of the river Waal. Water, sediment and macrophyte samples were analysed. Species richness, densities, and biomass of macro-inverteb

  20. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, November 1993--October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-08-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. Reports by Bennett (1994) and Cross (1994) discuss previous EST aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands those findings. EST collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon from November 1993 through October 1994. The two upstream stations are located below outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. Some water quality parameters are different at the first three stations from those expected of natural streams in the area, indicating degraded water quality due to effluent discharges. The aquatic habitat at the upper stations has also been degraded by sedimentation and channelization. The macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and unstable communities. In contrast, the two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. The two lower stations have increased macroinvertebrate diversity and stable communities, further indications of downstream water quality improvement.

  1. Preliminary study of some environmental and ecological aspects of the communities of fish and aquatic macro-invertebrates in the Tutunendo River, Choco, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From June to October 2003 studies related to environmental and ecological aspects of fishes and macro-invertebrates in three sampling stations of Tutunendo River located in the Department of Choco, Colombia, were carried out. Abiotic factors like conductivity, pH, oxygen and temperature were also measured. Eighty one hundred fish specimens, belonging to three orders, seven families and twelve species were collected. The order Siluriformes presented the greatest abundance (70.72%) with three families, seven species and 128 specimens, followed by Characiformes with three families, three species and 43 specimens (23.53%). At the same time 1.211 aquatic macro-invertebrates were collected represented by the orders Ephemeroptera (50.28%), Odonata (11.40%), Coleoptera (8.67%), Hemiptera (8.42%), Trichoptera (7.30%), Plecoptera (5.7%), Megaloptera (3.3%), Lepidoptera (2.31%), Diptera (0.37%) and Haplotaxida (0.08%). The families Leptophlebiidae (37.24%), followed by Naucoridae (8.42%) and Baetidae (8%) were the most represented. Relationship between fishes and macro invertebrates as food items in Geophagus pellegrini and Astyanaxfasciatus were also studied. G. pellegrini was zooplanctophage with preference for Baetidae, Leptohyphidae, Hydrobiosidae, Leptoceridae and Naucoridae. Finally, the present work indicated that Tutunendo town does not have potential fishery; the economy is supported in productive traditional systems based in the agriculture, complemented with fishery and extractive activities

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  3. Patterning and predicting aquatic macroinvertebrate diversities using artificial neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.S.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Chon, T.S.; Lek, S.

    2003-01-01

    A counterpropagation neural network (CPN) was applied to predict species richness (SR) and Shannon diversity index (SH) of benthic macroinvertebrate communities using 34 environmental variables. The data were collected at 664 sites at 23 different water types such as springs, streams, rivers, canals

  4. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  5. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Agriculturally Impaired Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Pliuraite

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This work presents research into the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities in streams that are under the influence of agricultural pollution A total of 67 macroinvertebrate taxa (including 61 identified species belonging to 40 families have been identified in the explored streams. The greatest species richness is recorded for the Trichoptera (18 species/1 taxa and Mollusca (12 species. The molluscs Gyraulus albus, amphipods Gammarus pulex, caddisflies Hydropsyche pellucidula and oligochaetes are detected in all examined streams. There, the number of total benthic macroinvertebrate taxa is highly variable, ranging from 16 to 40. Results show that the examined streams depending on the benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and predominance of seperate macroinvertebrate groups undergo different pollution. Intolerant to pollution taxa such as Plecoptera, which are the most sensitive to pollution insects, have been found only in 5 of 12 examined streams and in low abundances. The richness and diversity of macrozoobenthos in some streams appear to respond to the water quality deterioration. The present study has found out that in the stream where the total macroinvertebrate taxa, EPT taxa richness are the lowest and a relative abundance of gatherers is the highest, the values of NH4-N, NO3-N, total N, PO4-P and total P in the stream water are the highest, too.

  6. EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENTS OF THE MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY IN THE SHORT CREEK/EMPIRE LAKE AQUATIC SYSTEM, CHEROKEE COUNTY, KANSAS: A RECOMMENDATION FOR SITE-SPECIFIC CRITERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study uses statistical analysis techniques to determine the effects of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, manganese, and zinc) on the macroinvertebrate community using the data collected in the fall 1987.

  7. Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.

  8. Assessment of Constructed Wetland Biological Integrity Using Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Galbrand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface flow constructed wetland consisting of seven cells was used to treat the leachates from a decommissioned landfill. Wetland monitoring was performed by evaluating the treatment efficiency of the landfill leachate and the wetland biological integrity of the wetland. The water quality samples were analyzed for iron, manganese, phosphorus (orthophosphate, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and TKN, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS and total dissolved solids (TDS. Aquatic macroinvertebrates were examined using Average Score per Taxon (ASPT via the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP biotic index, the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Sphaeriidae and Odonata (ETSD biotic index, abundance of mayflies and trophic structure. Reductions of 49.66, 66.66, 1.91, 46.37 and 8.33% were obtained for manganese, orthophosphate, TSS, TDS and COD, respectively. The nitrite, dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations were not in accordance with the water quality guidelines for aquatic life. ASPT, ETSD, percent abundance of mayflies and trophic structure represented moderate to moderately-poor water quality in comparison to a high quality reference site. Iron had most adverse effect on the biological system of the wetland.

  9. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  10. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  11. The impact of sediment removal on the aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a fishpond littoral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk ADÁMEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediment removal, a widely used technique in restoration management of standing water bodies, has a strong influence on communities of aquatic organisms. As most information on the impact of sediment removal on the aquatic environment comes from studies on lakes, the aim of this study was to describe macroinvertebrate assemblage succession in a fishpond (Štěpánek fishpond, Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Czech Republic littoral zone following restoration by sediment removal during the winter of 2003/2004. Semi-quantitative hand net sampling was undertaken one year before (2003 and in each of the following five years (2004–2008 after sediment removal. A significant decrease in both abundance (approx. 90% of individuals and diversity (approx. 30% of taxa of macroinvertebrates was detected immediately after pond restoration. The values gradually increased over subsequent years, reaching comparable abundance and diversity three years after sediment removal. A significant shift was recorded in the taxonomic and functional composition of the macroinvertebrate assemblage after sediment removal. Mayfly larvae were the dominant invertebrates before restoration, while chironomid larvae and oligochaetes dominated after sediment removal. Phytophilous taxa, grazers and scrapers, and swimming or diving invertebrates were common in 2003, whilst open-water taxa preferring mud and other mostly inorganic microhabitats, gatherers/collectors, and burrowing/boring invertebrates were relatively common after sediment removal. In 2008, the assemblage reverted towards the situation before sediment removal, probably connected with a lower water level and accelerated macrophyte bed succession. Principal Component Analysis on the species data confirmed the differences in invertebrate taxonomic structure among sampling years. Succession of the fishpond invertebrate assemblage in the years following sediment removal was mainly influenced by fish farming practice and

  12. Effect of riparian vegetation cover and season on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Ecuadorian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos-Sánchez, Silvana Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of season and changes in the riparian vegetation cover on diversity, structure, temporal variability, and trophic structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in the Sambache River, Pasochoa Wildlife Refuge, Ecuador. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected using a Surber bottom sampler during the dry and rainy seasons from sections of the river dissecting three different riparian vegetation types with varying degrees of disturbanc...

  13. Evaluating macroinvertebrate community shifts in the confluence of freestone and limestone streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Hellmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macroinvertebrates are critical to ecosystem functioning through their regulation of many essential top-down and bottom-up ecosystem processes such as energy translocation, nutrient flow, and detrital decomposition. However, specific preferences by macroinvertebrates for certain ranges of abiotic and biotic characteristics mean that changes in these factors often create large differences in benthic community structure. Investigations into drivers of community structure have found distinct patterns of variation between ecosystems, but drivers of macroscale variation may differ from drivers of microscale variation. Such microscale variation in macroinvertebrate community structure as a function of abiotic conditions may be found in the confluence of two geologically distinct freshwater streams. Variation in the origin, underlying bedrock, and watershed of a stream results in drastically different physical and chemical characteristics and correspondingly distinct macroinvertebrate community structures. In areas where water from geologically distinct streams flows together, a mixing zone emerges with unique chemical and physical characteristics. There is little information on how invertebrate communities are structured within this mixing zone. To investigate this, we examined how the structure of the macroinvertebrate community changed downstream of the confluence. Up to thirty metres downstream, we found distinct stream sections that mirrored physical and chemical conditions found in limestone and freestone streams, and a mixing zone with emergent properties. These physical and chemical changes between sites were accompanied by shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition. Diversity indices indicated significantly higher diversity in freestone sites than in limestone sites or the mixing zone and there was a unique composition of genera in the mixing zone that were distinct from both limestone and freestone sites. Factors driving

  14. Evaluation of Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat for Selected Stream Reaches at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.J. Henne; K.J. Buckley

    2005-08-12

    This is the second aquatic biological monitoring report generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Water Quality and Hydrology Group. The study has been conducted to generate impact-based assessments of habitat and water quality for LANL waterways. The monitoring program was designed to allow for the detection of spatial and temporal trends in water and habitat quality through ongoing, biannual monitoring of habitat characteristics and benthic aquatic macroinvertebrate communities at six key sites in Los Alamos, Sandia, Water, Pajarito, and Starmer's Gulch Canyons. Data were collected on aquatic habitat characteristics, channel substrate, and macroinvertebrate communities during 2001 and 2002. Aquatic habitat scores were stable between 2001 and 2002 at all locations except Starmer's Gulch and Pajarito Canyon, which had lower scores in 2002 due to low flow conditions. Channel substrate changes were most evident at the upper Los Alamos and Pajarito study reaches. The macroinvertebrate Stream Condition Index (SCI) indicated moderate to severe impairment at upper Los Alamos Canyon, slight to moderate impairment at upper Sandia Canyon, and little or no impairment at lower Sandia Canyon, Starmer's Gulch, and Pajarito Canyon. Habitat, substrate, and macroinvertebrate data from the site in upper Los Alamos Canyon indicated severe impacts from the Cerro Grande Fire of 2000. Impairment in the macroinvertebrate community at upper Sandia Canyon was probably due to effluent-dominated flow at that site. The minimal impairment SCI scores for the lower Sandia site indicated that water quality improved with distance downstream from the outfall at upper Sandia Canyon.

  15. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, December 1992--October 1993. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1990, an accidental spill from the TA-3 Power Plant Environment Tank released more than 3,785 liters of sulfuric acid into upper Sandia Canyon. The Biological Resource Evaluation Team (BRET) of EM-8 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected aquatic samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since then. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. An earlier report by Bennett (1994) discusses previous BRET aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands Bennett's initial findings. During 1993, BRET collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon. The substrates of the upper three stations are largely sands and silts while the substrates of the two lower stations are largely rock and cobbles. The two upstream stations are located near outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent. The third station is within a natural cattail marsh, approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from Stations SC1 and SC2. Water quality parameters are slightly different at these first three stations from those expected of natural streams, suggesting slightly degraded water quality. Correspondingly, the macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and poorly-developed community structures. The two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. Macroinvertebrate diversity increases and community structure becomes more complex at the two lower stations, which are further indications of improved water quality downstream

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, December 1992--October 1993. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S. [Ewing Technical Design, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    In the summer of 1990, an accidental spill from the TA-3 Power Plant Environment Tank released more than 3,785 liters of sulfuric acid into upper Sandia Canyon. The Biological Resource Evaluation Team (BRET) of EM-8 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected aquatic samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since then. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. An earlier report by Bennett (1994) discusses previous BRET aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands Bennett`s initial findings. During 1993, BRET collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon. The substrates of the upper three stations are largely sands and silts while the substrates of the two lower stations are largely rock and cobbles. The two upstream stations are located near outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent. The third station is within a natural cattail marsh, approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from Stations SC1 and SC2. Water quality parameters are slightly different at these first three stations from those expected of natural streams, suggesting slightly degraded water quality. Correspondingly, the macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and poorly-developed community structures. The two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. Macroinvertebrate diversity increases and community structure becomes more complex at the two lower stations, which are further indications of improved water quality downstream.

  17. Comparing the performance of different stream classification systems using aquatic macroinvertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Márlon de Castro Vasconcelos; Adriano Sanches Melo; Albano Schwarzbold

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We evaluated five stream classification systems observing: 1) differences in richness, abundance and macroinvertebrates communities among stream classes within classification systems; and 2) whether classification systems present better performance using macroinvertebrates. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of taxonomic resolution and data type (abundance and presence) on results. METHODS: Five stream classification systems were used, two based on hydroregions, one based on ecoregio...

  18. Differences in macroinvertebrate community structure in streams and rivers with different hydrologic regimes in the semi-arid Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are sensitive to changes in their chemical and physical environment, and as such, serve as excellent indicators of overall ecosystem health. Moreover, temporal and spatial differences in macroinvertebrate community structure can be used to investigate broad issues in aquatic science, such as the hypothesis that changes in climate are likely to have disproportionately large effects on small, intermittent stream ecosystems. We quantified macroinvertebrate community structure and abiotic conditions at ten stream sites with different dominant hydrologic regimes in the Colorado Plateau, ranging from small, intermittent desert streams to large perennial mountain rivers. Considerable differences were observed in community structure between sites with differing hydrologic regimes. Quantitative results of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination and Spearman rank correlations between physical habitat and macroinvertebrate resemblance matrices indicate that discharge, geomorphic channel unit type (% pools vs. % riffles), percent of substrate composed of sand, and velocity were the subset of measured habitat variables that best explained the differences in macroinvertebrate community structure among sites. Of the 134 taxa identified, nine taxa explained 95 % of the variability in community structure between sites. These results add to a growing base of knowledge regarding the functioning of lotic ecosystems in the Colorado Plateau, and provide timely information on anticipated changes in the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems in response to predicted future environmental conditions.

  19. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  20. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  1. Matching species to a changing landscape : aquatic macroinvertebrates in a heterogeneous landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Wilhelmus Cornelis Egbertus Petrus

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was the development, application and evaluation of a method by which relationships between aquatic macroinvertebrate species and their environment can be explained and aggregated to a manageable number of key relationships. The need for such a method is evident. From an appli

  2. Recovery of lotic macroinvertebrate communities from disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. Bruce

    1990-09-01

    Ecosystem disturbances produce changes in macrobenthic community structure (abundances, biomass, and production) that persist for a few weeks to many decades. Examples of disturbances with extremely long-term effects on benthic communities include contamination by persistent toxic agents, physical changes in habitats, and altered energy inputs. Stream size, retention, and local geomorphology may ameliorate the influence of disturbances on invertebrates. Disturbances can alter food webs and may select for favorable genotypes (e.g., insecticidal resistance). Introductions of pesticides into lotic ecosystems, which do not result in major physical changes within habitats, illustrate several factors that influence invertebrate recovery time from disturbance. These include: (1) magnitude of original contamination, toxicity, and extent of continued use; (2) spatial scale of the disturbance; (3) persistence of the pesticide; (4) timing of the contamination in relation to the life history stages of the organisms; (5) vagility of populations influenced by pesticides; and (6) position within the drainage network. The ability of macroinvertebrates to recolonize denuded stream habitats may vary greatly depending on regional life histories, dispersal abilities, and position within the stream network (e.g., headwaters vs larger rivers). Although downstream drift is the most frequently cited mechanism of invertebrate recolonization following disturbance in middle- and larger-order streams, evidence is presented that shows aerial recolonization to be potentially important in headwater streams. There is an apparent stochastic element operating for aerial recolonization, depending on the timing of disturbance and flight periods of various taxa. Available evidence indicates that recolonization of invertebrate taxa without an aerial adult stage requires longer periods of time than for those that possess winged, terrestrial adult stages (i.e., most insects). Innovative, manipulative

  3. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    also showed that environmental variables such as depth, transparency/depth ratio, total P, chl-a, and TSM differed significantly between the two lagoons. In order to assess the ecological quality of the study sites, the functional ISD index has been applied. From the preliminary results it seems that ISD index, based on the biomass size structure of the macroinvertebrate communities, is more appropriate for the assessment of the ecological status for these particular ecosystems. The development of a monitoring team is essential for the protection and management of these ecologically important ecosystems. Further investigation is necessary to examine the relationships between benthic macroinvertebrates and aquatic macrophytes, the use of biotic indices to the evaluation for lagoonal ecosystems' ecological status and the relation between the hydrological processes and the biodiversity patterns of the biotic elements.

  4. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass as potential indices of environmental contamination at National Wildlife Refuges in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass were measured at wetland units on three National Wildlife Refuges in Montana and examined to determine if they were...

  5. La Popala creek: quality analysis of water from some physical - chemical, microbiological variables and aquatic macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Popala creek supplies water to the people of Bolombolo in Venecia municipality in Antioquia, Colombia. In November 14th and 28th of 2009, four sampling station were located along the creek, to measure five sets of variables: physico- chemical, microbiological, aquatic macroinvertebrate, biological indicators and biotic index BMWP.Physico- chemical variables, aquatic macroinvertebrates and index BMWP indicate good environmental conditions in station 2, located about 150 m from the headwaters (station 1). On the other hand, Station 4, located near to the Cauca River, exhibits deterioration in water quality. Stations 3 and 4 displayed high levels of fecal coliforms. However, the samples taken from Bolombolo's water supply network indicate the water of the aqueduct is adequate for human consumption.

  6. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Macroinvertebrate Training Surveys in Guam in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered macroinvertebrate within a 25-meter x 2-meter belt transect. Members identified macroinvertebrates to species (when possible),...

  7. Landscape composition as a determinant of diversity and functional feeding groups of aquatic macroinvertebrates in southern rivers of the Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fierro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land use which directly or indirectly affect freshwater fauna constitute one of the principal anthropic factors which have caused world biological diversity to disappear rapidly during recent decades. This fauna includes aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates, organisms presenting temporal and spatial variation due to a variety of factors, one of which is the diverse food resources available in the rivers. To assess the effect of anthropic activities on this fauna, the distribution, abundance and characterisation of the functional feeding groups of aquatic macroinvertebrates were analysed, together with the physical and chemical variables in the environments of four coastal river basins of southern south-central Chile. A total of 104 taxa of macroinvertebrates were recorded, the principal component of the community being the Diptera (26 taxa. The abundance and richness of taxa were greater in summer and lower in winter. The most abundant species belong to the order Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. Macroinvertebrates were affected by different land use: stations with less anthropic activity and greater altitude had higher macroinvertebrates abundance, while the lowest abundance was found at the lowest stations. The functional feeding groups which were most abundant spatially and temporally were the collector-gatherers and the shredders. The physical and chemical water quality variables proved to be of exceptional quality in all the stations. These results suggest that policies governing changes in land use in central and southern Chile should take into account the dramatic alterations that these changes impose on the macroinvertebrates community. Policies for biodiversity conservation should therefore focus on these small but important organisms in the north Patagonian region of South America, which is a hotspot of world diversity.

  8. Responses of epibenthic and nektonic macroinvertebrate communities to a gradient of fish size in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nieoczym

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Size relationships between fish and organisms from adjacent trophic levels are crucial for predicting the structure and dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. We compared macroinvertebrate communities along a fish-size gradient created by separate stocking of three age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio in semi-natural ponds. The specific size range of fish (small, medium and large corresponding to fish age in ponds was the factor most strongly associated with macroinvertebrate composition. The other significant habitat variables were dissolved oxygen concentration in the water and submerged vegetation abundance in the open-water zone. Among the most numerous taxa in the ponds, relative abundances of Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Odonata and Coleoptera were larger in the presence of small-sized than of larger-sized carp. However, fish size effect was not linear, in that macroinvertebrate assemblages were less similar between ponds containing medium- vs large-sized fish than between ponds with small- vs large-sized fish. The dissimilarity patterns were mainly determined by disparities in abundance of Corixidae, which unlike other taxa common in the ponds occurred in the greatest numbers in the presence of large-sized carp. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest in ponds with small-sized fish and was positively related to emergent macrophyte cover. Enhancement of emergent vegetation is recommended as the most effective management strategy to buffer adverse impacts of fish on macroinvertebrates. If fish are present in the system, assessment of the size structure of fish populations can be advantageous in unravelling the essential processes driving the variation in pond communities.

  9. Differences found in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the presence or absence of the invasive alien crayfish, Orconectes hylas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Riggert, Brandye T.; Cairns, Stefan H.; Poulton, Barry C.; Riggert, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of alien species into aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, including invasions of crayfish species; however, little is known about the effects of these introductions on macroinvertebrate communities. The woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas (Faxon)) has been introduced into the St. Francis River watershed in southeast Missouri and has displaced populations of native crayfish. The effects of O. hylas on macroinvertebrate community composition were investigated in a fourth-order Ozark stream at two locations, one with the presence of O. hylas and one without. Significant differences between sites and across four sampling periods and two habitats were found in five categories of benthic macroinvertebrate metrics: species richness, percent/composition, dominance/diversity, functional feeding groups, and biotic indices. In most seasons and habitat combinations, the invaded site had significantly higher relative abundance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae), and significantly lower Missouri biotic index values, total taxa richness, and both richness and relative abundance of midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Overall study results indicate that some macroinvertebrate community differences due to the O. hylas invasion were not consistent between seasons and habitats, suggesting that further research on spatial and temporal habitat use and feeding ecology of Ozark crayfish species is needed to improve our understanding of the effects of these invasions on aquatic communities.

  10. Fire, flow and dynamic equilibrium in stream macroinvertebrate communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, R.S.; Pilliod, D.S.; Strickler, K.

    2010-01-01

    The complex effects of disturbances on ecological communities can be further complicated by subsequent perturbations within an ecosystem. We investigated how wildfire interacts with annual variations in peak streamflow to affect the stability of stream macroinvertebrate communities in a central Idaho wilderness, USA. We conducted a 4-year retrospective analysis of unburned (n = 7) and burned (n = 6) catchments, using changes in reflectance values (??NBR) from satellite imagery to quantify the percentage of each catchment's riparian and upland vegetation that burned at high and low severity. For this wildland fire complex, increasing riparian burn severity and extent were associated with greater year-to-year variation, rather than a perennial increase, in sediment loads, organic debris, large woody debris (LWD) and undercut bank structure. Temporal changes in these variables were correlated with yearly peak flow in burned catchments but not in unburned reference catchments, indicating that an interaction between fire and flow can result in decreased habitat stability in burned catchments. Streams in more severely burned catchments exhibited increasingly dynamic macroinvertebrate communities and did not show increased similarity to reference streams over time. Annual variability in macroinvertebrates was attributed, predominantly, to the changing influence of sediment, LWD, riparian cover and organic debris, as quantities of these habitat components fluctuated annually depending on burn severity and annual peak streamflows. These analyses suggest that interactions among fire, flow and stream habitat may increase inter-annual habitat variability and macroinvertebrate community dynamics for a duration approaching the length of the historic fire return interval of the study area. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  12. Macroinvertebrate community responses to a dewatering disturbance gradient in a restored stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Muehlbauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dewatering disturbances are common in aquatic systems and represent a relatively untapped field of disturbance ecology, yet studying dewatering events along gradients in non-dichotomous (i.e. wet/dry terms is often difficult. Because many stream restorations can essentially be perceived as planned hydrologic manipulations, such systems can make ideal test-cases for understanding processes of hydrological disturbance. In this study we used an experimental drawdown in a 440 ha stream/wetland restoration site to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate community responses to dewatering and subsequent rewetting. The geomorphic nature of the site and the design of the restoration allowed dewatering to occur predictably along a gradient and decoupled the hydrologic response from any geomorphic (i.e. habitat heterogeneity effects. In the absence of such heterogeneous habitat refugia, reach-scale wetted perimeter and depth conditions exerted a strong control on community structure. The community exhibited an incremental response to dewatering severity over the course of this disturbance, which was made manifest not as a change in community means but as an increase in community variability, or dispersion, at each site. The dewatering also affected inter-species abundance and distributional patterns, as dewatering and rewetting promoted alternate species groups with divergent habitat tolerances. Finally, our results indicate that rapid rewetting – analogous to a hurricane breaking a summer drought – may represent a recovery process rather than an additional disturbance and that such processes, even in newly restored systems, may be rapid.

  13. Macroinvertebrate community responses to a dewatering disturbance gradient in a restored stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Muehlbauer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dewatering disturbances are common in aquatic systems and represent a relatively untapped field of disturbance ecology, yet studying dewatering events along gradients in non-dichotomous (i.e., wet/dry terms is often difficult. Because many stream restorations can essentially be perceived as planned hydrologic manipulations, such systems can make ideal test-cases for understanding processes of hydrological disturbance. In this study we used an experimental drawdown in a 440 ha stream/wetland restoration site to assess aquatic macroinvertebrate community responses to dewatering and subsequent rewetting. The geomorphic nature of the site and the design of the restoration allowed dewatering to occur predictably along a gradient and decoupled the hydrologic response from any geomorphic (i.e., habitat heterogeneity effects. In the absence of such heterogeneous habitat refugia, reach-scale wetted perimeter and depth conditions exerted a strong control on community structure. The community exhibited an incremental response to dewatering severity over the course of this disturbance, which was made manifest not as a change in community means but as an increase in community variability, or dispersion, at each site. The dewatering also affected inter-species abundance and distributional patterns, as dewatering and rewetting promoted alternate species groups with divergent habitat tolerances. Finally, our results indicate that rapid rewetting – analogous to a hurricane breaking a summer drought – may represent a recovery process rather than an additional disturbance and that such processes, even in newly restored systems, may be rapid.

  14. Microdistribution patterns of macroinvertebrate communities upstream and downstream of organic effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cabria, Mario; Barquín, José; Juanes, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyses the distribution patterns of macroinvertebrate communities in four microhabitats (riffles, glides, leaf litter and bank roots) upstream and downstream of two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in northern Spain rivers. Macroinvertebrate communities were analysed in November 2006 by taking 5 samples from each of the microhabitats under unaffected (upstream WWTP) and affected (downstream WWTP) conditions, respectively. Water velocity, depth, substrate coarseness and hydraulic stress by means of the Froude number were also estimated at all sampling locations. Under unaffected conditions, the abundance and presence/absence of certain macroinvertebrate taxa were mainly determined by hydraulic characteristics (water velocity and Froude number) and feeding resource availability. However, neither macroinvertebrate richness nor abundance were neither significantly correlated with hydraulic stress nor substrate coarseness, although the number of macroinvertebrate taxa increased in microhabitats with high structural complexity. Macroinvertebrate abundance increased downstream of both WWTPs, while macroinvertebrate richness was not adversely affected by the organic enrichment of water. The structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities occurring in riffles was similar under unaffected and affected conditions, while communities from leaf litter and submerged bank roots showed important changes above and below the WWTPs, indicating that they are probably the most appropriate communities for water quality assessment. PMID:21168894

  15. Results of investigating the macroinvertebrate community of the Danube River on the sector upstream from the Iron Gate (km 1083-1071

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Momir M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work cites results of investigating aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Danube River on the sector upstream from the Iron Gate (KM 1083-1071. The investigated part is interesting from the hydrobiological standpoint above all due to differences of faunal composition in relation to higher sections that could be expected in view of differences in overall characteristics of the river. A rich macroinvertebrate community (84 taxa was observed. The diversity of taxa is primarily a result of habitat diversity within the given stretch. Oligochaeta and Mollusca were the principal components.

  16. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  17. Inferring community properties of benthic macroinvertebrates in streams using Shannon index and exergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen Van; Cho, Woon-Seok; Kim, Hungsoo; Jung, Il Hyo; Kim, YongKuk; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Definition of ecological integrity based on community analysis has long been a critical issue in risk assessment for sustainable ecosystem management. In this work, two indices (i.e., Shannon index and exergy) were selected for the analysis of community properties of benthic macroinvertebrate community in streams in Korea. For this purpose, the means and variances of both indices were analyzed. The results found an extra scope of structural and functional properties in communities in response to environmental variabilities and anthropogenic disturbances. The combination of these two parameters (four indices) was feasible in identification of disturbance agents (e.g., industrial pollution or organic pollution) and specifying states of communities. The four-aforementioned parameters (means and variances of Shannon index and exergy) were further used as input data in a self-organizing map for the characterization of water quality. Our results suggested that Shannon index and exergy in combination could be utilized as a suitable reference system and would be an efficient tool for assessment of the health of aquatic ecosystems exposed to environmental disturbances.

  18. Meander reconnection method determines restoration success for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Leszinski, Marc; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    meander, blocked main channel) and a partially reconnected meander (opened downstream, pipe bypass from main channel upstream, still open main channel) for macroinvertebrate communities in a German lowland river. Immediately upon reconnection of the two meanders, habitat diversity and macroinvertebrates......Re-meandering of degraded rivers is a frequently implemented measure in river restoration. A simple solution is reconnection of old meanders; however, its success likely depends on the reconnection method. We conducted a field study to analyze the benefits of a fully reconnected (fully opened...... were recorded for three years with sampling in spring and in summer each year. The results of a principal response curve analysis show that the macroinvertebrate community in the fully reconnected meander reflected main channel reference conditions after 1.5 years. The macroinvertebrate community...

  19. Drivers of abundance and community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates in Ottawa River sediment near Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, M.J.; Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: bondm@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The Ottawa River has received effluent from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for more than 60 years. Some radionuclides and contaminants released in effluents are bound rapidly to particles and deposited in bottom sediments where they may be biologically available to benthic invertebrates and other aquatic biota. As part of a larger ecological assessment, we assess the potential impact of contaminated sediments in the vicinity of CRL on local benthic community structure. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we demonstrate that CRL operations have had little impact on the local benthic community. Despite elevated anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in sediment near CRL's process outfall, the benthic community is no less abundant or diverse than what is observed upstream at background levels. The Ottawa River benthic invertebrate community is structured predominantly by natural physical and biological conditions in the sediment, specifically sediment water content and organic content. These natural habitat conditions have a stronger influence on macroinvertebrate communities than sediment contamination. (author)

  20. Relationships between physical and chemical factors and aquatic macroinvertebrates in perennial streams in the arid northern mountain basin El Batinah, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boulaaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between physical properties, water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates were investigated in riffles of four perennial streams in the arid northern Oman. Samples were collected monthly in autumn, winter and spring with a Surber net. Thirty two invertebrate taxa were recorded, most species are widely distributed, but few species with very restricted distribution were also captured. Diptera followed by Pulmonata, Coleoptera and Odonata were the most represented taxa, Trichoptera and Heteroptera were a significant component only in one station (the Fezeh, where the lowest mean water temperature (23°C was recorded. In the dry months from May to October, aquatic macroinvertebrates were completely absent. In order to summarise the community response some biotic indices were calculated. The highest diversity was observed in the Fezeh station. A seasonal gradient was also observed, with the highest diversity values in January, April, and December. The low faunal diversity was attributed to the high air and water temperature and the hydrological regime instability. A between station and a between month coinertia analysis was carried out, to analyse the response to spatial and seasonal factors. The first coinertia axis was correlated with altitude and substrate composition, while the second axis was correlated with air and water temperature. The present research emphasizes the urgency for preserving the less disturbed wadis in arid zones, because, despite their species poorness, their uniqueness in faunal composition requires special attention. The presence of few endemic species with very restricted distribution highlights the topicality and the value in investigating these areas, allowing the increase of our knowledge on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography about the benthic macroinvertebrates living in these extreme habitats.

  1. The influence of partial timber harvest in riparian management zones on macroinvertebrate and fish communities on first- and second-order streams in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Blinn, Charles R.; Newman, Raymond M.; Atuke, Dickson M.; Fredricks, Keith; Hemstad, Nathaniel A.; Merten, Eric; Schlesser, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few evaluations of aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities have been published in peer-reviewed literature detailing the effect of varying residual basal area (RBA) after timber harvesting in riparian buffers. Our analysis investigated the effects of partial harvesting within riparian buffers on aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams from two experiments in northern Minnesota northern hardwood-aspen forests. Each experiment evaluated partial harvesting within riparian buffers. In both experiments, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were collected 1 year prior to harvest and in each of 3 years after harvest. We observed interannual variation for the macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity and taxon richness in the single-basin study and abundance and diversity in the multiple-basin study, but few effects related to harvest treatments in either study. However, interannual variation was not evident in the fish communities and we detected no significant changes in the stream fish communities associated with partially harvested riparian buffers in either study. This would suggest that timber harvesting in riparian management zones along reaches ≤200 m in length on both sides of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 12.4 ± 1.3 m2 ha−1 or on a single side of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 8.7 ± 1.6 m2 ha−1 may be adequate to protect macroinvertebrate and fish communities in our Minnesota study systems given these specific timber harvesting techniques.

  2. Responses of aquatic organisms to metal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, Maarten de [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: maarten.dejonge@ua.ac.be; Vijver, Bart van de [Department of Bryophytes and Thallophytes, National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Domein van Bouchout, 1860 Meise (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-12-15

    The role of macroinvertebrates and diatoms as indicator for metal pollution was investigated by assessing both biota along a metal gradient in the Belgian river the Dommel. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were sampled in summer and winter and physical-chemical characteristics of the water were measured at four different sample periods and related to sediment characteristics. Although metal concentrations, except cadmium, in the water nowhere exceeded water quality standards, high metal concentrations were measured in the sediment, indicating historical contamination of the Dommel. At the sites that were situated downstream of the pollution source, high levels of conductivity and chloride were measured in the water. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated pH, phosphate and zinc as the significant environmental variables explaining each respectively 7.7%, 11.6% and 22.6% of the macroinvertebrate community composition. Two clusters could be separated, with Gammarus pulex, Leptocerus interruptus, Baetis rhodani and Cloeon dipterum associated with low zinc concentrations and Tubificidae, Asellus aquaticus, Erpobdella sp. and Chironomus thummi-plumosus associated with higher zinc concentrations. Ammonium (10.6%), conductivity (16.5%), chloride (11.4%) and zinc (5.9%) turned out to be significant variables explaining the diatom community structure. Based on physical-chemical differences and species composition, three different groups could be separated. With this Tabellaria flocculosa and Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens were associated with low metal concentrations, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia palea with elevated concentrations and Eolimna minima and Sellaphora seminulum with high zinc concentrations. In conclusion, the diatom community best reflected the metal gradient. With regard to water quality indices, those based on macroinvertebrates best followed the metal pollution gradient and were most strongly correlated with physical-chemical variables of water and

  3. Responses of aquatic organisms to metal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of macroinvertebrates and diatoms as indicator for metal pollution was investigated by assessing both biota along a metal gradient in the Belgian river the Dommel. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were sampled in summer and winter and physical-chemical characteristics of the water were measured at four different sample periods and related to sediment characteristics. Although metal concentrations, except cadmium, in the water nowhere exceeded water quality standards, high metal concentrations were measured in the sediment, indicating historical contamination of the Dommel. At the sites that were situated downstream of the pollution source, high levels of conductivity and chloride were measured in the water. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated pH, phosphate and zinc as the significant environmental variables explaining each respectively 7.7%, 11.6% and 22.6% of the macroinvertebrate community composition. Two clusters could be separated, with Gammarus pulex, Leptocerus interruptus, Baetis rhodani and Cloeon dipterum associated with low zinc concentrations and Tubificidae, Asellus aquaticus, Erpobdella sp. and Chironomus thummi-plumosus associated with higher zinc concentrations. Ammonium (10.6%), conductivity (16.5%), chloride (11.4%) and zinc (5.9%) turned out to be significant variables explaining the diatom community structure. Based on physical-chemical differences and species composition, three different groups could be separated. With this Tabellaria flocculosa and Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens were associated with low metal concentrations, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia palea with elevated concentrations and Eolimna minima and Sellaphora seminulum with high zinc concentrations. In conclusion, the diatom community best reflected the metal gradient. With regard to water quality indices, those based on macroinvertebrates best followed the metal pollution gradient and were most strongly correlated with physical-chemical variables of water and

  4. In situ effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on community structure of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Milošević, Djuradj; Piperac, Milica Stojković; Savić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in the current literature, the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the community structure of macroinvertebrates has been investigated in situ. Macroinvertebrates were exposed for 100 days to an environmentally relevant concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 25 mg kg(-1) in sediment. Czekanowski's index was 0.61, meaning 39% of the macroinvertebrate community structure was affected by the TiO2 treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) visualized the qualitative and quantitative variability of macroinvertebrates at the community level among all samples. A distance-based permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the significant effect of TiO2 on the macroinvertebrate community structure. The indicator value analysis showed that the relative frequency and abundance of Planorbarius corneus and Radix labiata were significantly lower in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Meanwhile, Ceratopogonidae, showed a significantly higher relative frequency and abundance in the TiO2 treatment than in the control.

  5. In situ effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on community structure of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Milošević, Djuradj; Piperac, Milica Stojković; Savić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    For the first time in the current literature, the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the community structure of macroinvertebrates has been investigated in situ. Macroinvertebrates were exposed for 100 days to an environmentally relevant concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles, 25 mg kg(-1) in sediment. Czekanowski's index was 0.61, meaning 39% of the macroinvertebrate community structure was affected by the TiO2 treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) visualized the qualitative and quantitative variability of macroinvertebrates at the community level among all samples. A distance-based permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the significant effect of TiO2 on the macroinvertebrate community structure. The indicator value analysis showed that the relative frequency and abundance of Planorbarius corneus and Radix labiata were significantly lower in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. Meanwhile, Ceratopogonidae, showed a significantly higher relative frequency and abundance in the TiO2 treatment than in the control. PMID:26924756

  6. Metal-induced shifts in benthic macroinvertebrate community composition in Andean high altitude streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Loayza-Muro; R. Elías-Letts; J.K. Marticorena-Ruíz; E.J. Palomino; J.F. Duivenvoorden; M.H.S. Kraak; W. Admiraal

    2010-01-01

    High altitude creates unique challenging conditions to biota that limit the diversity of benthic communities. Because environmental pollution may add further stress to life at high altitude, the present study explored the effect of metal pollution on the macroinvertebrate community composition in An

  7. Final report (2002-2004): Benthic macroinvertebrate communities of reconstructed freshwater tidal wetlands in the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, K.D.; Hammerschlag, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable work has been conducted on the benthic communities of inland aquatic systems, but there remains a paucity of effort on freshwater tidal wetlands. This study characterized the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of recently reconstructed urban freshwater tidal wetlands along the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. The focus of the study was on the two main areas of Kingman Marsh, which were reconstructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2000 using Anacostia dredge material. Populations from this 'new' marsh were compared to those of similarly reconstructed Kenilworth Marsh (1993) just one half mile upstream, the relic reference Dueling Creek Marsh in the upper Anacostia estuary and the outside reference Patuxent freshwater tidal marsh in an adjacent watershed. Benthic macro invertebrate organisms were collected using selected techniques for evaluation including the Ekman bottom grab sampler, sediment corer, D-net and Hester-Dendy sampler. Samples were collected at least seasonally from tidal channels, tidal mudflats, three vegetation/sediment zones (low, middle and high marsh), and pools over a 3-year period (late 2001-2004). The macroinvertebrate communities present at the marsh sites proved to be good indicators of disturbance and stress (Kingman Marsh), pollution, urban vs. rural location (Kenilworth and Patuxent), and similarities between reconstructed and remnant wetlands (Kenilworth and Dueling Creek). Macroinvertebrate density was significantly greater at Kingman Marsh than Kenilworth Marsh due to more numerous chironomids and oligochaetes. This may reflect an increase in unvegetated sediments at Kingman (even at elevations above natural mudflat) due to grazing pressure from over-abundant resident Canada geese. Unvegetated sediments yielded greater macroinvertebrate abundance but lower richness than vegetated marsh sites. Data collected from this study provides information on the extent that benthic macroinvertebrate communities can serve

  8. Community of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in an Atlantic Forest Stream, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Azevedo

    2012-11-01

    Resumo. A composição, diversidade e densidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos foram descritas a partir de amostras provenientes de quatro localidades distintas do Rio Mato Grosso, Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro. Os dados bióticos e abióticos foram obtidos em janeiro 2006 em microhabitats com diferentes tipos de substrato. Foi amostrado um total de 5.605 espécimes de 28 famílias de insetos e duas de crustáceos. Os menores valores de riqueza, diversidade, equitabilidade e densidade foram registrados nas localidades de menor altitude. Folhiço foi o substrato com maiores valores de diversidade e densidade, enquanto areia apresentou os menores valores desses parâmetros.

  9. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC50 values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively

  10. The effects of tricyclazole treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rossaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tricyclazole treatments on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory were studied. In field conditions, low density of benthic populations was observed, both in treated and untreated plots, which was attributed to the short period of submersion of the rice field and high water temperature, fungicide treatments had no significant effect. Both laboratory acute toxicity test and a test using a mesocosm suggested a low toxicity of tricyclazole on invertebrates. A reduction of the macroinvertebrate density was observed only when tricyclazole concentration was applied at concentrations 100 times the ones tested in the field, acute toxicity test gave an LC50 after 48 h of 26 mg*L–1, in agreement with data obtained for other species.

  11. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter. PMID:25189079

  12. IBQS : a synthetic index of soil quality based on soil macro-invertebrate communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Nuria; Mathieu, J.; Célini, L.; Rollard, C.; Hommay, G.; Iorio, E; Lavelle, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We developed a synthetic index of biological soil quality (IBQS) based on soil macro-invertebrate community patterns to assess soil quality. In 22 sites representing the diversity of agroecosystems encountered in France, invertebrate communities co-varied significantly with a set of 14 parameters describing the physical and chemical properties of soil (co-inertia, p < 0.001: RV= 0.70). Using hierarchical classification, sites could be separated into four homogeneous groups and, using the 'ind...

  13. Are the effects of an invasive crayfish on lake littoral macroinvertebrate communities consistent over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruokonen T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of invasive species requires assessment of their effects on recipient ecosystems. However, impact assessment of invasive species commonly lacks a long-term perspective which can potentially lead to false conclusions. We examined the effects of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana on the stony littoral macroinvertebrate communities of a large boreal lake and assessed the extent to which the patterns observed in previous short-term studies were stable over time. We used temporal macroinvertebrate data collected in five consecutive years from a site with a well-established crayfish population, a site with no crayfish and a site where crayfish had been recently introduced. Our results revealed that signal crayfish had temporally rather consistent negative effects on the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages but that the effects might be limited to certain taxa, in particular Gastropoda and Coleoptera. We also observed increases in Gastropoda density and taxa richness following a decline in crayfish density, indicating that the recovery of invertebrate assemblages might be fast. Hence, negative effects on benthic macroinvertebrates can likely be minimized by effective control of the signal crayfish population.

  14. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...... of photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...... light use efficiency at low irradiance (a) was the same. Although GPmax and a varied extensively among the 190 communities, their upper limits increased linearly and predictably with community absorption reaching 26.3 mmol m22 s21 O2 and 0.090 mol mol21 photon at 100% absorption. The upper limit...

  15. Relationships between physical and chemical factors and aquatic macroinvertebrates in perennial streams in the arid northern mountain basin El Batinah, Oman

    OpenAIRE

    S. Boulaaba; S. Zrelli; Boumaiza, M.; B. Rossaro

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between physical properties, water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates were investigated in riffles of four perennial streams in the arid northern Oman. Samples were collected monthly in autumn, winter and spring with a Surber net. Thirty two invertebrate taxa were recorded, most species are widely distributed, but few species with very restricted distribution were also captured. Diptera followed by Pulmonata, Coleoptera and Odonata were the most represented taxa, Trich...

  16. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  17. Relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and geospatial habitat, in-stream water chemistry, and surfactants in the effluent-dominated Trinity River, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slye, Jaime L; Kennedy, James H; Johnson, David R; Atkinson, Sam F; Dyer, Scott D; Ciarlo, Michael; Stanton, Kathleen; Sanderson, Hans; Nielsen, Allen M; Price, Bradford B

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, benthic macroinvertebrate community structure studies have been conducted on the upper Trinity River, Texas, USA, which is dominated by municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and industrial effluents. The Trinity River is located in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, and is the most highly populated and industrialized watershed in Texas. As such, the Trinity River represents a near-worst-case scenario to examine the environmental effects of domestic-municipal and industrial effluents on aquatic life. A 1987 to 1988 study concluded that many stretches of the river supported a diverse benthic community structure; however, a decline in taxa richness occurred immediately downstream of WWTPs. A 2005 study designed to parallel the 1987 to 1988 efforts evaluated how changes in water quality, habitat, and increased urbanization impacted benthic community structure. Physicochemical measurements, habitat quality, geospatial variables, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from 10 sites. Surfactants were measured and toxic units (TUs) were calculated for surface water and pore water as indicators of domestic/household use of cleaning products. Total TUs indicated a low potential for biological impacts. Toxic unit distribution was not dependent on WWTP location and did not correlate with any benthic variable. Eight environmental parameters were determined to be useful for predicting changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure: surfactant surface water TUs (SWTU), in-stream habitat cover, and surface water total organic carbon were the top three parameters. Abundance, taxa richness, and taxa similarity in 2005 had increased since the earlier study throughout the immediate vicinity of the metropolitan area.

  18. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  19. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  20. Effects of heavy metals on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in New Zealand streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, C.W. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand); Clements, W.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1998-11-01

    The authors performed chemical analyses of heavy metals in water and periphyton, toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and an indigenous mayfly (Deleatidium sp.), and field surveys of benthic macroinvertebrates to estimate the degree of metal pollution in three catchments in the Coromandel Peninsula of New Zealand. Good agreement was found between toxicity tests and measures of benthic community structure, particularly at stations with the highest metal levels. Responses of benthic communities at stations with low or moderate levels of metal contamination were variable and were probably confounded by factors other than heavy metals. Effects of heavy metals on benthic communities in New Zealand streams were similar to those reported for metal-polluted streams in North America and Europe, suggesting that responses to metal contamination are predictable. Abundance and species richness of mayflies, number of taxa in the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, and total taxonomic richness were the best indicators of heavy metals in New Zealand streams. In contrast, the quantitative macroinvertebrate community index (QMCI), a biotic index proposed for assessing effects of organic enrichment in New Zealand streams, could not distinguish between reference and metal-polluted streams. The poor performance of the QMCI was primarily due to incorrect tolerance scores for some taxa to heavy metals. Because of concerns regarding the subjective assignment of tolerance values to species, the authors recommend that tolerance values for dominant species in New Zealand streams should be verified experimentally in stream microcosms.

  1. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Christensen, Sigurd W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  2. Catchment land use as a predictor of the macroinvertebrate community changes between inlet and outlet of small water dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Beracko; Alexandra, Rogánska; Fedor, Čiampor; Čiamporová-Zaťovičová, Zuzana

    2015-10-01

    Changes in land use practices have affected the integrity and the quality of stream water worldwide. Effective catchment management, in terms of land use alteration, depends on our ability to quantify ecologically significant changes and to discriminate among varying levels of impact. In this study, we assessed the structural and functional changes upstream and downstream of eight small water reservoirs in western Slovakia and the relationship between these changes and shifts in physicochemical parameters as a consequence of stream damming and catchment land use. Dams were categorized into two groups, the first with both inlet and outlet situated in deforested and agricultural landscape and the second with inlet flowing through natural and forested landscape, while outlet is situated in deforested and urban region. Using a "between-groups" principal components analysis and a "between-groups" fuzzy principal components analysis, we found significant differences in structural and functional composition of macroinvertebrate communities between inlets with forested catchment and outlets flowing through agricultural, urban landscape. The structural dissimilarity is best explained by the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the aquatic environment, while functional variation of communities is best explained by land use of an area surrounding the stream. The distance in structural and functional community composition between inlet and outlet was linked with difference in environmental conditions between these habitats. The change of structural community composition significantly reflected shift in the water temperature and phosphorus concentration, while the change of functional community composition was determined by change of nutrient concentrations (e.g., PO4, NO3, NH4) and pH. PMID:27600116

  3. Effects of intra- and interspecific competition on the sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates to carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, Ana Isabel; Parra, Gema; Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    The Ecological Risk Assessment of pesticides and other potentially toxic chemicals is generally based on toxicity data obtained from single-species laboratory experiments. In the field, however, contaminant effects are ubiquitously co-occurring with ecological interactions such as species competition and predation, which might influence the sensitivity of the individuals exposed to toxicants. The present experimental study investigated how intra- and interspecific competition influence the response of sensitive aquatic organisms to a pesticide. For this, the effects of the fungicide carbendazim were assessed on the mortality and growth of the snail Bithynia tentaculata and the crustacean Gammarus pulex under different levels of intraspecific and interspecific competition for a food resource. Interspecific competition was created by adding individuals of Radix peregra and Asellus aquaticus, respectively. The interaction of competition and carbendazim exposure significantly influenced B. tentaculata growth, however, combined effects on survival and immobility were considered transient and were less easily demonstrated. Positive influence of competition on G. pulex survival was observed under low-medium carbendazim concentrations and under medium-high density pressures, being partly related to cannibalistic and predation compensatory mechanisms, enhanced under food limiting conditions. This study shows that intra- and interspecific competition pressure may influence the response of sensitive aquatic organisms in a more complex way (positive, non-significant and negative effects were observed) than just increasing the sensitivity of the studied species, as has generally been hypothesized. PMID:26024811

  4. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, pgas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, pgas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas activity that reinforce the need for more quantitative analyses of cumulative freshwater-effects from oil and gas development. PMID:26047867

  5. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, pgas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, pgas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas activity that reinforce the need for more quantitative analyses of cumulative freshwater-effects from oil and gas development.

  6. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-08-11

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  7. Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: A bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal regime immediately downstream from bottom release reservoirs is often characterized by reduced diel and seasonal (winter warm/summer cool) conditions. These unusual thermal patterns have often been implicated as a primary factor underlying observed downstream changes in the species composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. The potential mechanisms for selective elimination of benthic species by unusual thermal regimes has been reviewed. Although the effects of temperature on the rate and magnitude of larval growth and development has been included in the list of potential mechanisms, only recently have field studies below dams focused on this interrelationship. This study investigates the overall community structure as well as the seasonal pattern of larval growth and development for several univoltine species of insects in the Delaware River below or near the hypolimnetic discharge of the Cannonsville and Pepeacton dams. These dams, which are located on the West and East branches of the Delaware River, respectively, produce a thermal gradient extending about 70 km downstream

  8. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  9. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  10. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  11. Sensitivity of Ethiopian aquatic macroinvertebrates to the pesticides endosulfan and diazinon, compared to literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Berhan M; Retta, Negussie; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to present a methodology for toxicity tests that can be used when analytical resources to verify the test concentrations are limited, and to evaluate whether the sensitivity of a limited number of Ethiopian species to pesticides differs from literature values for, mainly, temperate species. Acute toxicity tests were performed using three Ethiopian aquatic invertebrate species, one crustacean (Diaphanosoma brachyurum) and two insects (Anopheles pharoensis and Culex pipiens) and using the pesticides endosulfan and diazinon. All species-pesticide combinations were tested in duplicate to estimate the consistency, i.e. the intra-laboratory variation, in test results. Daphnia magna was tested as well to allow the test results to be compared directly with values from the literature. Results indicate that the differences between the EC50s obtained for D. magna in this study and those reported in the literature were less than a factor of 2. This indicates that the methodology used is able to provide credible toxicity values. The results of the duplicated tests showed intra-laboratory variation in EC50 values of up to a factor of 3, with one test showing a difference of a factor of 6 at 48 h. Comparison with available literature results for arthropod species using species sensitivity distributions indicated that the test results obtained in this study fit well in the log-normal distribution of the literature values. We conclude that the methodology of performing multiple tests to check for consistency of test results and performing tests with D. magna for comparison with literature values to check for accuracy is able to provide reliable effect threshold levels and that the tested Ethiopian species did not differ in sensitivity from the arthropod species reported on in the literature.

  12. Sensitivity of Ethiopian aquatic macroinvertebrates to the pesticides endosulfan and diazinon, compared to literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Berhan M; Retta, Negussie; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to present a methodology for toxicity tests that can be used when analytical resources to verify the test concentrations are limited, and to evaluate whether the sensitivity of a limited number of Ethiopian species to pesticides differs from literature values for, mainly, temperate species. Acute toxicity tests were performed using three Ethiopian aquatic invertebrate species, one crustacean (Diaphanosoma brachyurum) and two insects (Anopheles pharoensis and Culex pipiens) and using the pesticides endosulfan and diazinon. All species-pesticide combinations were tested in duplicate to estimate the consistency, i.e. the intra-laboratory variation, in test results. Daphnia magna was tested as well to allow the test results to be compared directly with values from the literature. Results indicate that the differences between the EC50s obtained for D. magna in this study and those reported in the literature were less than a factor of 2. This indicates that the methodology used is able to provide credible toxicity values. The results of the duplicated tests showed intra-laboratory variation in EC50 values of up to a factor of 3, with one test showing a difference of a factor of 6 at 48 h. Comparison with available literature results for arthropod species using species sensitivity distributions indicated that the test results obtained in this study fit well in the log-normal distribution of the literature values. We conclude that the methodology of performing multiple tests to check for consistency of test results and performing tests with D. magna for comparison with literature values to check for accuracy is able to provide reliable effect threshold levels and that the tested Ethiopian species did not differ in sensitivity from the arthropod species reported on in the literature. PMID:27221822

  13. The influence of natural and anthropic environmental variables on the structure and spatial distribution along longitudinal gradient of macroinvertebrate communities in southern Brazilian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarrey, Andrea Vanessa Batalla; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Braun, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Southern Brazilian rivers and streams have been intensively affected by human activities, especially agriculture and the release of untreated domestic sewage. However, data about the aquatic macroinvertebrates in these streams are scarce and limited to only certain groups. In addition, studies focusing on the structure and spatial distribution of these communities are lacking. This study analyzed the effects of natural and anthropic variables on the community structure of macroinvertebrates along a longitudinal gradient in three microbasins located in a region of landscape transition in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sampling was conducted in the Vacacaí-Mirim River (August 2008) and in the Ibicuí-Mirim and Tororaipí rivers (August 2009) following an environmental gradient including 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) order segments. Local natural factors that were analyzed include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, substrate granulometry, and the presence of aquatic vegetation. Anthropic variables that were analyzed include including bank erosion, land use, urbanization, riparian deforestation, and fine sediments input. A total of 42 families and 129 taxa were found, with predominance of environmentally tolerant taxa. Geological context (landscape transition and large hydrographic basins) tended to influence natural environmental factors along the rivers' longitudinal gradients. However, changes in anthropic variables were not affected by these geological differences and therefore did not correlate with patterns of spatial distribution in macroinvertebrate communities. Only 1(st) order stream segments showed a community composition with high richness of taxa intolerant to anthropic disturbance. Richness as a whole tended to be higher in 3(rd) to 4(th) order set of segments, but this trend was a result of local anthropic environmental disturbances. Future inventories conducted in similar landscape transition regions of Brazil

  14. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin. PMID:24292872

  15. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  16. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-22

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  17. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact

  18. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with littoral zone habitats and the influence of environmental factors in Malilangwe Reservoir, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalu T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate macroinvertebrate communities so as to understand factors and processes structuring macroinvertebrate communities in a small reservoir, Malilangwe reservoir over seven months (April to October. Sampling was performed by active sweep netting and searching soil sediments. Water temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia, nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand and macrophyte cover were determined. In total, forty-two macroinvertebrate families belonging to 10 orders were identified amongst 13 macrophyte species and sediments. Thiaridae and Physidae (Mollusca were the dominant and most abundant taxa (57.71% and there were followed by the Hemiptera (27.31%. High indices for sites 1 to 3 for the Simpsons index, the Shannon-Weaver index and evenness were recorded, while low indices were observed for sites 4 to 5, with significant differences being observed among the study site using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test (p < 0.05. Redundancy Analysis revealed that among environmental factors, hydrologically linked parameters such as conductivity, water level and macrophyte cover had the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distribution.

  19. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in a subtropical reservoir and their effects over the benthic macroinvertebrate community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme de Souza Beghelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the influences of the environment spatial heterogeneity on benthic macroinvertebrates considering transverse and longitudinal gradients as also seasonality. METHODS: Four samplings were performed: two in the wet and two in the dry season in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones in the littoral and profundal regions of Itupararanga reservoir, SP, Brazil. Abiotic characterization of the water and of the sediment was performed. The biotic characterization was based on richness, dominance, diversity, and density of organisms, as well as on the relative abundance of predominant taxa. Two-way ANOSIM analyses were performed for both biotic and abiotic components, in order to test the significance of the differences in the longitudinal and transverse directions as well as of the differences between seasons. RESULTS: Compartmentalization was present in both directions, longitudinal and transverse. In a general way, the littoral region presented higher diversity values when compared with the profundal region, and the riverine zone presented high densities and high percentage of taxons, which usually indicate organic pollution. The differentiation between the transitional and lacustrine zones was determined mainly by taxonomic composition. Seasonality was also observed and the transportation of small particles, the entrance of nutrients, and the presence of macrophytes were considered as determinants for differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results demonstrate the responses of benthic macroinvertebrate communities considering distinct sources of variation: longitudinal heterogeneity, determined by the increasing distance from the forming rivers that leads to a gradient of physical and chemical conditions; transverse heterogeneity, determined by the proximity with the land environment and depth differences. Seasonal heterogeneity was recorded during the period of this research and

  20. Steel creek macroinvertebrates: L Lake/steel creek biological monitoring program January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hop, J.R.; Lauritsen, D.; Magoulik, D.

    1988-04-01

    The macroinvertebrate community in Steel Creek was monitored at 13 sampling stations from January 1986 to December 1987 to assess the effects of L-Lake impoundment on the biological community downstream from the dam. The benthic macroinvertebrate communities were sampled monthly at 13 stations in Steel Creek using artificial substrates. Macroinvertebrates suspended in the water column were collected monthly at seven stations using drift nets. Emerging aquatic insects were sampled monthly at seven stations with floating emergence traps. Invertebrates on natural substrates (bottom sediments, snags, and macrophytes) were collected at seven stations in May and September in both 1986 and 1987. Macroinvertebrates were collected in February and August of 1986 and 1987 at 13 stations in Steel Creek using dip nets. 61 refs., 79 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Climate warming and agricultural stressors interact to determine stream macroinvertebrate community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-05-01

    Global climate change is likely to modify the ecological consequences of currently acting stressors, but potentially important interactions between climate warming and land-use related stressors remain largely unknown. Agriculture affects streams and rivers worldwide, including via nutrient enrichment and increased fine sediment input. We manipulated nutrients (simulating agricultural run-off) and deposited fine sediment (simulating agricultural erosion) (two levels each) and water temperature (eight levels, 0-6°C above ambient) simultaneously in 128 streamside mesocosms to determine the individual and combined effects of the three stressors on macroinvertebrate community dynamics (community composition and body size structure of benthic, drift and insect emergence assemblages). All three stressors had pervasive individual effects, but in combination often produced additive or antagonistic outcomes. Changes in benthic community composition showed a complex interplay among habitat quality (with or without sediment), resource availability (with or without nutrient enrichment) and the behavioural/physiological tendency to drift or emerge as temperature rose. The presence of sediment and raised temperature both resulted in a community of smaller organisms. Deposited fine sediment strongly increased the propensity to drift. Stressor effects were most prominent in the benthic assemblage, frequently reflected by opposite patterns in individuals quitting the benthos (in terms of their propensity to drift or emerge). Of particular importance is that community measures of stream health routinely used around the world (taxon richness, EPT richness and diversity) all showed complex three-way interactions, with either a consistently stronger temperature response or a reversal of its direction when one or both agricultural stressors were also in operation. The negative effects of added fine sediment, which were often stronger at raised temperatures, suggest that streams already

  2. The habitat type and trophic state determine benthic macroinvertebrate communities in lowland shallow lakes of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrates play important roles in shallow lake ecosystems. Several studies based on qualitative comparisons of the amount of macrophytes were carried out to relate benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages to habitat conditions in shallow lakes. Our main aim was to analyze the effects of habitat type and trophic state on taxonomic composition and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in lowland shallow lakes based on quantitative classification of habitat types. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were investigated in eight shallow lakes of eastern China in four seasons. A total of 33 species was collected from these lakes, including four Oligochaeta, eight Chironomidae, eight Gastropoda, four Bivalvia and nine other miscellaneous species. According to the ratio of the dry weight of macrophytes to the dry weight of phytoplankton, the study lakes were separated into three lake types; macrophyte-dominated, transitional, and algae-dominated regions. The total abundance of macroinvertebrates was significantly higher in the group of algae-dominated regions than in the macrophyte-dominated regions. Scrapers had the highest abundance in the macrophyte-dominated regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses results showed that abundance, biomass and characteristic species of benthic macroinvertebrates were affected by their habitat types. The abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrates showed significant positive correlations with the trophic state index (TSI. TSI and turbidity were significantly correlated with DC1 (Axis 1 of detrended correspondence analysis, while Chlorophyll a and the ratio of the dry weight of macrophytes to the dry weight of phytoplankton were significantly correlated with DC2. The findings indicated that the habitat type and trophic state were the key factors determining the structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages in lowland shallow lakes. Our study was one of the few studies that had demonstrated the

  3. Effects of a Kentucky flood-control reservoir on macroinvertebrates in the tailwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a flood-control reservoir on downstream macroinvertebrates were assessed by comparing the tailwater community with that of a natural stream. Samples were collected 1.6 and 21.1 km below Barren River Lake dam in 1979, 1980, and 1981 and in a reservoir tributary in 1980 and 1981. An indication of environmental stress in the macroinvertebrate community was observed at both tailwater stations, whereas macroinvertebrates in the natural tributary stream had the characteristics commonly associated with a ‘healthy’ community. Densities of macroinvertebrates in tailwaters were highest during periods of low-stable flows and lowest during fluctuating and high-stable flows. Changes in temperature cycles and water quality were also considered factors in reducing macroinvertebrate abundance in the tailwater. Dominant macroinvertebrate taxa in tailwaters were primarily small organisms with a high tolerance for dynamic living conditions. Of these, aquatic Diptera, Oligochaeta, Caenis, Cheumatopsyche, and Planariidae were most common. The effects of reservoir discharge were most evident near the dam, where macroinvertebrate densities were relatively high and taxonomic diversity was low. Downstream, the impact of the reservoir was moderated, but recovery was judged incomplete.

  4. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  5. Effects of organic pollution and physical stress on benthic macroinvertebrate communities from two intermittently closed and open coastal lagoons (ICOLLs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and environmental conditions were studied in two intermittently closed and open coastal lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs), located in southern Algarve (Foz do Almargem e Salgados), with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution, originated mainly from wastewater discharges, and the physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoons. Most of the year, lagoons were isolated from the sea, receiving the freshwater inputs from small rivers and in Salgados, also from the effluents of a wastewater plant. According to environmental and biotic conditions, Foz do Almargem presented a greater marine influence and a lower trophic state (mesotrophic) than Salgados (hypereutrophic). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the lagoons were distinct, just as their relations with environmental parameters. Mollusca were the most abundant macroinvertebrates in Foz do Almargem, while Insecta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea were more relevant in Salgados. Corophium multisetosum occurred exclusively in Salgados stations and, just as Chironomus sp., other Insecta and Oligochaeta, densities were positively related to total phosphorus, clay content and chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment, chlorophyll a concentration in water and with total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Abra segmentum, Cerastoderma glaucum, Peringia ulvae and Ecrobia ventrosa occurred only in Foz do Almargem, with lower values of the above mentioned parameters. Both lagoons were dominated by deposit feeders and taxa tolerant to environmental stress, although in Salgados there was a greater occurrence of opportunistic taxa associated to pronounced unbalanced situations, due to excess organic matter enrichment.

  6. Macroinvertebrate community structure and function along gradients of physical stream quality and pesticide contamination in Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes

    to stream are surface runoff and tile drainage giving rise to short pulses of acute contamination strongly coinciding with high levels of precipitation. Field studies indicate that macroinvertebrate community structure can be impacted by pesticides during spraying seasons in May and June, but also......  A wide array of pesticides are applied to agricultural crops during spring and autumn spraying season, and detections of pesticides in stream water and bed sediments of agricultural streams emphasize the potential exposure of benthic macroinvertebrates. Major transportation routes from catchment...... that it is difficult to disentangle the specific effects of pesticides from those related to the poor physical conditions prevailing in the majority of agricultural streams. This study aims to separate the effects of pesticides from those of poor physical conditions. Model based predicted pesticide loss to streams...

  7. Response of macroinvertebrate communities to remediation-simulating conditions in Pennsylvania streams influenced by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Long, E.S.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We compared naturally alkaline streams with limestone lithology to freestone streams with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) to predict benthic macroinvertebrate community recovery from AMD in limestone-treated watersheds. Surrogate-recovered (limestone) and, in many cases, freestone systems had significantly higher macroinvertebrate densities; diversity; taxa richness; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa; EPT/chironomid ratios; scraper/collector - gatherer ratios; herbivores; collector - filterers; and scrapers. AMD-influenced systems had significantly greater numbers of Diptera and collector - gatherers. An entire trophic level (herbivores) was 'restored' in surrogate-recovered streams, which also showed greater trophic specialization. Indicator analysis identified seven taxa (within Crustacea, Diptera, Nematoda, Trichoptera, and Ephemeroptera) as significant indicators of limestone systems and six taxa (within Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Tricoptera, Coleoptera, and Mollusca) as significant freestone indicators, all useful as biological indicators of recovery from AMD. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  8. Food webs of a sandy beach macroinvertebrate community using stable isotopes analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Isabella; Brilli, Mauro; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2011-09-01

    The study examines the food webs of macroinvertebrates along a gradient from the sandy shore to a dune slack in the retrodune. The study was conducted at the Maremma Regional Park in an area subjected to beach progradation. Transects with pitfall traps were set perpendicular to the sea to capture macroinvertebrates, whereas vegetation biomass was evaluated using quadrats. Marine allochthonous material was also examined. Stable isotopes of δ 13C and δ 15N were analysed both in plants and macroinvertebrates of marine and terrestrial origins. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group species with similar values. Multi-source mixing models were used to analyse the contribution of carbon of marine origin to the diets, to calculate trophic levels and to estimate the diets of certain species. The results indicate a decrease in the contribution of marine carbon in the diets of terrestrial macroinvertebrates along the sea-land axis.

  9. Freshwater macroinvertebrate research in western Louisiana: limitations of our knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaller, M.; Hudson, J. D.; Kelso, W. E.; Williams, L. R.

    2005-05-01

    Western Louisiana streams and rivers represent relatively uncharted waters with regard to their biota, particularly aquatic macroinvertebrates. Whereas statewide taxonomic surveys have been conducted for several taxa (Dryopid Coleoptera, Odonata, and Plecoptera), peer-reviewed studies on macroinvertebrate communities and their structuring factors are few. We present the findings of three different macroinvertebrate community studies in western Louisiana encompassing 1990-2004. These studies investigated large-scale forest cover removal and localized biotic influences on macroinvertebrate communities. These studies generally were inconclusive with regard to abiotic anthropogenic disturbances; instead, strong seasonal and spatial patterns combined with wide tolerances to stream physio-chemistry appeared to be more important factors. However, strong localized biotic effects did appear to significantly alter macroinvertebrate communities. Further, a paucity of classic shredding organisms was noted in each study suggesting a unique community composition in these streams in comparison to neighboring regions. We believe geologic phenomenon may have acted as an evolutionary filter that produced a macroinvertebrate community generally tolerant of abiotic disturbance, but not as of yet, tolerant to biotic disturbances.

  10. Spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system of southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of macroinvertebrate distributions and associated environmental drivers in subtropical Asian rivers is relatively scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined the spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system, the Dongjiang River Basin, in southeastern China. A total of 70 families and 9 classes of macroinvertebrates were identified from 74 sites sampled in January 2013. Our study has the following findings: (1 a distinct spatial differentiation of macroinvertebrate communities was present in the Dongjiang River Basin indicated by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, which corresponded to the northern region (NR, middle region (MR, and southern region (SR gradient; (2 ANOVAs showed that diversity indices (total taxa, Margalef index and the Shannon diversity index, biotic indices (richness of EPT, percentage of EPT, and family biotic index and most of the studied environmental conditions (elevation, slope, steam order, water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, substrates, ammoniacal nitrogen, total phosphorus, percentage of urban land, percentage of rural land, and percentage of forest land differed significantly among the three regions and a degradation gradient was observed in the NR–MR–SR direction; (3 Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that NR sites were characterized by steep slope and coarse substrate, MR sites were characterized by high water temperatures and shallow slopes, and SR sites were primarily characterized by high total phosphorus and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; and (4 the Indicator Species Analysis, in conjunction with CCA analysis indicated that the most representative indicator taxon is Tipulidae for NR, Semisulcospira sp. for MR, and Branchiura sp. for SR.

  11. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.;

    2012-01-01

    Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv......) avoid 're-inventing the wheel', thus accelerating improvements to aquatic ecosystem models. We intend to achieve this as a community that fosters interactions amongst ecologists and model developers. Further, we outline scientific topics recently articulated by the scientific community, which lend...

  12. Assessment of the effects of the dry period on the faunal composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two temporary ponds in NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Pérez-Bilbao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds are habitats that undergo periods of drying and flooding. They have been neglected for many years and changes produced by climatic change will greatly affect them. Thus, nowadays they constitute an endangered ecosystem due to their characteristics and to human pressures. These habitats support a high biological richness with species adapted to extreme conditions. Assuming that hydroperiod is the main factor structuring aquatic assemblages in this type of ecosystem, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the dry period on the faunal composition and the natural succession process of macroinvertebrate assemblages in two temporary ponds and to analyze the differences between two periods, before and after the dry period. A total of 7225 individuals belonging to 93 macroinvertebrate taxa (Nematoda, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Acari, Insecta were collected. The most abundant and richest group were insects. Cluster and Non-Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS analyses showed the clustering of the samples in two groups, before and after the dry period, as we had expected. Thus, there was a change in faunal composition in both ponds, corresponding to a successional process. According to the SIMPER analysis, the most contributive taxa in both ponds were mostly insects and crustaceans. Regarding feeding traits, predators and shredders were the dominant groups. However, there was a change in the trophic structure of the assemblages between the two periods. Most taxa resist the drying season with resting eggs, cocoons or simply by flying to more permanent freshwater bodies. Although the two studied ponds are temporary habitats, they support a different faunal composition hosting species that are endemic or rare at regional or national level. 

  13. Macroinvertebrate communities and the relationships with biotic factors in river-connected lakes in the lower reaches of Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shiyun; Zheng, Jinxiu; Zhao, Xianfu; Dong, Fangyong; Hu, Juxiang

    2016-10-01

    The relationships of macroinvertebrate communities with abiotic factors in lake and river system were well documented, but their relationships with biotic factors were few explored. The macroinvertebrate communities in two river-disconnected lakes (Poyang Lake and Shijiu Lake) and the rivers connected to Shijiu Lake were investigated to reveal the differences in communities and explore the relationships with biotic factors. A total of 34 species were recorded in the three water bodies. Combined with the previous study results, the dominant species in Poyang Lake is almost unchanged since 1997. Mollusks were dominated in abundance in Poyang Lake and the rivers connected to Shijiu Lake, while oligochaetes dominated the communities in Shijiu Lake. The alpha diversity indices of macroinvertebrates in Poyang Lake and the rivers connected to Shijiu Lake were distinctly higher than that of Shijiu Lake, and the beta diversity index of Shijiu Lake was the highest, supporting the rules that alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates achieves a maximum at a moderate level of connectivity and beta diversity seems to be higher when the connectivity is weaker. The differences in communities were significant between the Poyang Lake and Shijiu Lake, while the differences in the Poyang Lake and the rivers connected to Shijiu Lake were not significant. According to the results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), protozoon densities and phytoplankton biomass affected the distribution of macroinvertebrates in Shijiu Lake. Species number of planktonic crustaceans influenced the distribution of macroinvertebrates in rivers connected to Shijiu Lake, while species number of rotifer and densities of phytoplankton distinctly impacted on the distribution of macroinvertebrates in Poyang Lake. PMID:27650438

  14. Short-term effects of visitor trampling on macroinvertebrates in karst streams in an ecotourism region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarpinati, Suzana Cunha; Siqueira, Tadeu; Medina-Jr, Paulino Barroso; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the potential risks of human visitation on macroinvertebrate communities in streams, we investigated the effect of trampling using two short-term experiments conducted in a Brazilian ecotourism karst region. We asked three questions: (a) Does trampling increase the drift rate of aquatic macroinvertebrates and organic matter? (b) Does trampling change the macroinvertebrate community organization? (c) If trampling alters the community structure, is a short time (5 days, a between weekends interval - peaks of tourism activities) sufficient for community restructuring? Analysis of variance of richness, total abundance, abundance of the most abundant genus (e.g., Simothraulopsis and Callibaetis), and community composition showed that trampling immediately affects macroinvertebrate community and that the intervals between the peaks of visitation (5 days) are not sufficient to complete community restructuring. Considering that bathing areas receive thousands of visitors every year and that intervals of time without visitation are nearly nonexistent, we suspect that the negative effects on the macroinvertebrate community occur in a cumulative way. Finally, we discuss some simple procedures that could potentially be used for reducing trampling impacts in lotic environments. PMID:24150715

  15. Short-term effects of visitor trampling on macroinvertebrates in karst streams in an ecotourism region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarpinati, Suzana Cunha; Siqueira, Tadeu; Medina-Jr, Paulino Barroso; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the potential risks of human visitation on macroinvertebrate communities in streams, we investigated the effect of trampling using two short-term experiments conducted in a Brazilian ecotourism karst region. We asked three questions: (a) Does trampling increase the drift rate of aquatic macroinvertebrates and organic matter? (b) Does trampling change the macroinvertebrate community organization? (c) If trampling alters the community structure, is a short time (5 days, a between weekends interval - peaks of tourism activities) sufficient for community restructuring? Analysis of variance of richness, total abundance, abundance of the most abundant genus (e.g., Simothraulopsis and Callibaetis), and community composition showed that trampling immediately affects macroinvertebrate community and that the intervals between the peaks of visitation (5 days) are not sufficient to complete community restructuring. Considering that bathing areas receive thousands of visitors every year and that intervals of time without visitation are nearly nonexistent, we suspect that the negative effects on the macroinvertebrate community occur in a cumulative way. Finally, we discuss some simple procedures that could potentially be used for reducing trampling impacts in lotic environments.

  16. Macroinvertebrate diversity loss in urban streams from tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Portela, Clayton; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2016-04-01

    The increase of human activities in recent years has significantly interfered and affected aquatic ecosystems. In this present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization in the community structure of aquatic macroinvertebrates from Atlantic Forest streams. The sampling was conducted in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012. The streams were characterized for its environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. The macroinvertebrates were sampled on rocky substrates with a kicknet. A total of 5370 individuals were collected from all streams and were distributed among Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. In urban sites, all those orders were found, except Megaloptera, while only Mollusca was not found in preserved streams. We performed a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis that separated two groups distributed among sites in urban communities and another group outside this area. The dominance was significantly higher at urban sites, while the α diversity and equitability were greater in preserved sites. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was also performed, indicating that most taxa associated with high values of the Habitat Integrity Index (HII) and a few genus of the order Diptera with the high values of ammonia, total nitrogen, associated to streams in urban sites. Urban and preserved streams differ by physical-chemical variables and aquatic macroinvertebrates. In urban streams, there is most dominance, while α diversity and equitability are higher in preserved streams.

  17. Macroinvertebrate and algal communities in an extremely acidic river and the Kawah Ijen crater lake (pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Löhr; R. Sluik; M.M. Olaveson; N. Ivorra; C.A.M. van Gestel; N.M. van Straalen

    2006-01-01

    Acidic aquatic ecosystems are mainly characterized by low pH and high concentrations of metals and other elements with evident effects on local community structure. Acidity effects on benthic communities in one of the world's largest extremely acidic crater lakes, the Kawah Ijen (East Java, Indonesi

  18. Nature's plow: Soil macroinvertebrate communities in the Neotropical savannas of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, J; Thomas, R

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This book compiles recent knowledge on soil macroinvertebrates, emphasizing the earthworms of the acid-soil savannas of Colombian Eastern Plains. An inventory of biological resources, including abundance and diversity of soil macrofauna, and their specific ecologies, were produced for natural and agricultural systems at "Centro Nacional de Investigacion Carimagua", together with an evaluation of the impact of those resources on soil and plants. In addition, the volume ...

  19. Social Insects Dominate Eastern US Temperate Hardwood Forest Macroinvertebrate Communities in Warmer Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R King; Warren, Robert J.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms, termites, and ants are common macroinvertebrates in terrestrial environments, although for most ecosystems data on their abundance and biomass is sparse. Quantifying their areal abundance is a critical first step in understanding their functional importance. We intensively sampled dead wood, litter, and soil in eastern US temperate hardwood forests at four sites, which span much of the latitudinal range of this ecosystem, to estimate the abundance and biomass m−2 of individuals in...

  20. Aquatic insect community of lake, Phulbari anua in Cachar, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Susmita; Narzary, Rupali

    2013-05-01

    An investigation on the water quality and aquatic insect community of an oxbow lake (Phulbari anua) of south Assam, North-East India was carried out during February to April, 2010. Aquatic insect community of the oxbow lake was represented by 9 species belonging to 9 families and 4 orders during the study period. Order Ephemeroptera and Hemiptera were found to be dominant. Record of 5 species and 5 families from the order Hemiptera showed that this is the largest order in terms of aquatic insect diversity of the lake. Computation of dominance status of different species of aquatic insects of the lake based on Engelmann's Scale revealed that Anisops lundbladiana and Cloeon sp. were eudominant in the system. The Shannon- Weiner's Diversity Index (H') and Shannon evenness values (J') were found to range from 0.3-0.69 and 0.53 -0.97, respectively indicating perturbation of the system. Again in terms of physico-chemical properties of water the lake is in a satisfactory condition where all the parameters are well within the range of IS 10500. The DO values were found to range from 6.8 to 14.8 mgl(-1). Free CO2 fluctuated from 1 to 4.98 mgl(-1) and nitrate in water ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 mgl(-1). Margalef's water quality index values of most of the samplings also indicated clean water condition of the lake. Correlation coefficient analyses of the environmental variables, aquatic insect diversity and density of the lake revealed that aquatic insect diversity of the lake is mainly governed by dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and free carbon dioxide. PMID:24617147

  1. The Gelså River Restoration Revisited:Community persistence of the macroinvertebrate community over an 11-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Nikolai; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Kristensen, Esben; Kronvang, Brian; Larsen, Søren Erik; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Skriver, Jens; Thodsen, Hans; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken on the River Gelså, Denmark, where a 1.8 km meandering course was estab-lished in 1989 to replace a channelized river reach. This restoration project was the first of its kind inDenmark and has the longest time-series of post-intervention data of any restoration project conductedworld-wide. Additionally, a 0.5 km upstream (control) reach that remained channelized has been sampledsince 1989. In this paper, we examined macroinvertebrate assemblages in distinct habitats ...

  2. Environmental monitoring using next generation sequencing: rapid identification of macroinvertebrate bioindicator species

    OpenAIRE

    Carew, Melissa E.; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Metzeling, Leon; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Invertebrate communities are central to many environmental monitoring programs. In freshwater ecosystems, aquatic macroinvertebrates are collected, identified and then used to infer ecosystem condition. Yet the key step of species identification is often not taken, as it requires a high level of taxonomic expertise, which is lacking in most organizations, or species cannot be identified as they are morphologically cryptic or represent little known groups. Identifying species usin...

  3. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  4. Seasonal change in aquatic insect communities of freshwater streams in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suparoek Watanasit

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic insects in 23 streams of 13 southern provinces of Thailand were collected during wet (October 1944) and dry seasons (March-April 1995) using hand net. Standard time for collection was 20 minutes. The aims of the study were to investigate the composition and distribution of aquatic insects from 23 streams in southern Thailand and to determine seasonal change in the community of aquatic insects.Composition of aquatic insects collected involved 53 families of 9 orders in the dry season. ...

  5. Primary producers sustaining macro-invertebrate communities in intertidal mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    BOUILLON, S; N. Koedam; Raman, A. V.; Dehairs, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the large number of studies on the trophic significance of mangrove primary production to the aquatic foodweb, there have been few attempts to provide an overview of the relative importance of different primary carbon sources to invertebrates in the intertidal mangrove habitats. We determined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta 13C, delta 15N) in sediments, primary producers, and 22 invertebrate species from an intertidal mangrove forest located along the southeast...

  6. Congruence in demersal fish, macroinvertebrate, and macroalgal community turnover on shallow temperate reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Russell J; Hill, Nicole A; Leaper, Rebecca; Ellis, Nick; Pitcher, C Roland; Barrett, Neville S; Edgar, Graham J

    2014-03-01

    To support coastal planning through improved understanding of patterns of biotic and abiotic surrogacy at broad scales, we used gradient forest modeling (GFM) to analyze and predict spatial patterns of compositional turnover of demersal fishes, macroinvertebrates, and macroalgae on shallow, temperate Australian reefs. Predictive models were first developed using environmental surrogates with estimates of prediction uncertainty, and then the efficacy of the three assemblages as biosurrogates for each other was assessed. Data from underwater visual surveys of subtidal rocky reefs were collected from the southeastern coastline of continental Australia (including South Australia and Victoria) and the northern coastline of Tasmania. These data were combined with 0.01 degree-resolution gridded environmental variables to develop statistical models of compositional turnover (beta diversity) using GFM. GFM extends the machine learning, ensemble tree-based method of random forests (RF), to allow the simultaneous modeling of multiple taxa. The models were used to generate predictions of compositional turnover for each of the three assemblages within unsurveyed areas across the 6600 km of coastline in the region of interest. The most important predictor for all three assemblages was variability in sea surface temperature (measured as standard deviation from measures taken interannually). Spatial predictions of compositional turnover within unsurveyed areas across the region of interest were remarkably congruent across the three taxa. However, the greatest uncertainty in these predictions varied in location among the different assemblages. Pairwise congruency comparisons of observed and predicted turnover among the three assemblages showed that invertebrate and macroalgal biodiversity were most similar, followed by fishes and macroalgae, and lastly fishes and invertebrate biodiversity, suggesting that of the three assemblages, macroalgae would make the best biosurrogate for

  7. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  8. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  9. Macroinvertebrate diversity loss in urban streams from tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Portela, Clayton; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2016-04-01

    The increase of human activities in recent years has significantly interfered and affected aquatic ecosystems. In this present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization in the community structure of aquatic macroinvertebrates from Atlantic Forest streams. The sampling was conducted in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012. The streams were characterized for its environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. The macroinvertebrates were sampled on rocky substrates with a kicknet. A total of 5370 individuals were collected from all streams and were distributed among Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. In urban sites, all those orders were found, except Megaloptera, while only Mollusca was not found in preserved streams. We performed a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis that separated two groups distributed among sites in urban communities and another group outside this area. The dominance was significantly higher at urban sites, while the α diversity and equitability were greater in preserved sites. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was also performed, indicating that most taxa associated with high values of the Habitat Integrity Index (HII) and a few genus of the order Diptera with the high values of ammonia, total nitrogen, associated to streams in urban sites. Urban and preserved streams differ by physical-chemical variables and aquatic macroinvertebrates. In urban streams, there is most dominance, while α diversity and equitability are higher in preserved streams. PMID:27003402

  10. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  11. Impacts of lawn-care pesticides on aquatic ecosystems in relation to property value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the potential impacts of lawn-care pesticides on aquatic ecosystems, the macroinvertebrate communities of six streams were assessed using a multimetric approach. Four streams flowed through residential neighborhoods of Peachtree City, GA, USA, with differing mean property values and two reference streams were outside the city limits. A series of correlation analyses were conducted comparing stream rank from water quality and physical stream parameters, habitat assessments, benthic macroinvertebrate metric, pesticide toxicity and metal toxicity data to determine relationships among these parameters. Significant correlations were detected between individual analyses of stream rank for pesticide toxicity, specific conductance, turbidity, temperature and dissolved oxygen with benthic macroinvertebrate metrics. - The macroinvertebrate communities of suburban streams may be influenced by the toxicity of the pesticides present in the water and sediment as well as select water quality parameters

  12. Assessment of periphyton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic communities, and physical habitat in midwestern United States streams coinciding with varying historical concentrations of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D; Hosmer, Alan J; Brain, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this pilot study were to: (1) characterize periphyton and benthic communities using standard collection methods in six Midwest watersheds with varying historical levels of atrazine (low range, medium range and upper range); (2) qualitatively assess presence of aquatic vascular plants at each site; (3) assess and compare physical habitat at each study site in order to evaluate how physical habitat structure may influence the biological communities and (4) analyze the periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrate community data (i.e., series of metrics) among sites to evaluate possible differences or similarities among sites with different historical atrazine exposures. Five of the eight physical habitat metrics (including total physical habitat score) were different among the six study sites. There appeared to be no substantial difference in the structure of periphtyon communities at the six Midwest sites based on 9 of 12 metrics. For the three metrics that showed differences among sites-percentage of sensitive diatoms, percent Achnanches minutissima and percent motile diatoms - there was no consistent pattern with previous degrees of atrazine exposure and the scoring of these metrics. There were also no statistical differences in aquatic macrophyte spatial coverage among the six study areas. Thus, based on the spatially and temporally limited periphyton and aquatic macrophyte data, varying historical atrazine exposure was not associated with impact on resident plant communities (the target receptor group for atrazine). All 10 benthic community metrics showed significant differences among the six Midwest sites. Although no consistent pattern existed with varying historic levels of atrazine, benthic communities at one site with lower historical levels of atrazine were of higher quality than the other five sites. However, this one site also had a higher quality habitat compared to the other sites which was most likely the reason for this benthic condition.

  13. A study of post-thermal recovery of the macroinvertebrate community of Four Mile Creek, June 1985--September 1987. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, D.; Starkel, W.; Specht, W.

    1989-11-01

    Four Mile Creek is one of several streams at the Savannah River Site which has received thermal effluents ({le}70{degrees}C water) from nuclear production operations. From 1955--mid-1985, Four Mile Creek received thermal effluent from C-Reactor as well as non-thermal discharges from F and H Separation Areas. Total discharges from all of these facilities was about ten times higher than the natural flow of the creek (Firth et al. 1986). All water being discharged into Four Mile Creek was originally pumped from the Savannah River. This study reports the results of the artificial substrate sampling of macroinvertebrate communities of Four Mile Creek from June 1985 through September 1987, when sampling was terminated. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities, and biomass data from this study are compared to Four Mile data collected prior to the shutdown of C-Reactor (Kondratieff and Kondratieff 1985 and Firth et al. 1986), and to comparable macroinvertebrate data from other Savannah River Site streams. 29 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effects of the “Run-of-River” Hydro Scheme on Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat Conditions in a Mountain River of Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to quantify the impacts of the run of river (ROR scheme on the instream habitat and macroinvertebrate community. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblages and collected the habitat variables above and below an ROR hydropower plant: Aotou plant in the Hailang River, China. The effects of the ROR scheme on habitat conditions were examined using regulation-related variables, most of which, particularly the hydrological variables and substrate composition, presented spatial variations along the downstream direction, contributing to heterogeneous conditions between reaches. The macroinvertebrate richness, the density and the diversity metrics showed significant decreases in the “depleted” reach compared with the upper and lower reaches. Approximately 75% of reach-averaged densities and 50% of taxa richness suffered decreases in the “depleted” reach compared with the upper reach. Furthermore, functional feeding groups also showed distinct site differences along the channel. The relative abundance of both collector-gatherers and the scrapers reduced considerably at the “depleted” sites, particularly at the site immediately downstream of the weir. The total variance in the the functional feeding group (FFG data explained by Canonical correlation analysis (CCA was more than 81.4% and the high-loadings factors were depth, flow velocity, DO and substrate composition. We demonstrated that flow diversion at the 75% level and an in-channel barrier, due to the ROR scheme, are likely to lead to poor habitat conditions and decrease both the abundance and the diversity of macroinvertebrates in reaches influenced by water diversion.

  15. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons below coal-tar-sealed parking lots and effects on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L.; Gosselink, L.; Bryer, P. [City Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Parking-lot pavement sealants recently have been recognized as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stream sediments in Austin, Texas. Laboratory and field studies have shown that PAHs in sediments can be toxic to aquatic organisms and can degrade aquatic communities. After identifying increases in concentrations of PAHs in sediments below seal-coated parking lots, we investigated whether the increases had significant effects on stream biota in 5 Austin streams. We sampled sediment chemistry and biological communities above and below the point at which stormwater runoff from the parking lots discharged into the streams, thus providing 5 upstream reference sites and 5 downstream treatment sites. Differences between upstream and downstream concentrations of total PAH ranged from 3.9 to 32 mg/kg. Analysis of the species occurrence data from pool and riffle habitats indicated a significant decrease in community health at the downstream sites, including decreases in richness, intolerant taxa, Diptera taxa, and density. In pool sediments, Chironomidae density was negatively correlated with PAH concentrations, whereas Oligochaeta density responded positively to PAH concentrations. In general, pool taxa responded more strongly than riffle taxa to PAHs, but riffle taxa responded more broadly than pool taxa. Increases in PAH sediment-toxicity units between upstream and downstream sites explained decreases in taxon richness and density in pools between upstream and downstream sites.

  16. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  17. The influence of the anthropic activities on the benthonic macroinvertebrates communities existing in the Jiu and Jiul de Vest rivers, southwest of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca Petrovici

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The different sensibility of the benthonic macro-invertebrates has been used in determiningthe manner in which these communities are being influenced by the alteration of the water quality. Thepresent study aims at following this precise aspect. The benthos samples have been collected from tworivers in the south-west of Romania: Jiu (3 stations and Jiul de Vest (2 stations. There have beenstudied 10 groups of benthonic invertebrates. The benthonic communities’ density, abundance andfrequency values have varied according to the physic-chemical conditions of the collecting station.

  18. The River Gelså restoration revisited: Habitat specific assemblages and persistence of the macroinvertebrate community over an 11-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Kristensen, Esben Astrup;

    2014-01-01

    , to investigatethe longer-term effects of restoration on the biota. We found that habitat type influenced macroinverte-brate community composition to some degree, while there were no clear effects on - and -diversity ofhabitat or reach type. Stony substrate habitats introduced as part of the restoration could...... (eutrophication)and dispersal limitations. However, it might also reflect that River Gelså is still functionally channelizedand is far from exhibiting a dynamic river morphology governed by natural processes that create a rangeof habitats for the biota and this might explain why there has not been a more...

  19. Application of clustering techniques for the characterization of macroinvertebrate communities to support river restoration management

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaenssens, V; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Goethals, P.L.M.; De Pauw, N.

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive prescribes that the development of a river assessment system should be based on an ecological typology taking the biological reference conditions of each river type as a starting point. Aside from this assessment, water managers responsible for river restoration actions also need to know the steering environmental factors to meet these reference conditions for biological communities in each ecological river type. As such, an ecological typology based on ...

  20. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Aquatic Communities of Selected Springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Knowles, Leel, Jr.; Katz, Brian G.; Strom, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic, physicochemical, and aquatic community data were collected and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for selected springs within the St. Johns River Water Management District from January 2004 to October 2007. Nine springs were included in this study: Alexander, Apopka, Bugg, De Leon, Gemini, Green, Rock, Silver Glen, and Wekiwa. Urban lands increased in Alexander, Apopka, De Leon, Gemini, Green, and Wekiwa springsheds between 1973 and 2004, accompanied by a loss of forested and/or agricultural lands in most springsheds. Forested cover increased and open surface waters and wetlands decreased in the Bugg and Rock springsheds. Although rainfall did not change significantly over time in each springshed, spring discharge decreased significantly in De Leon, Fern Hammock, Rock, Silver, and Wekiwa Springs. Nitrate concentrations increased significantly with time in Apopka, Fern Hammock, Gemini Springs run, and Juniper Springs, and decreased significantly in Alexander Spring, Bugg Spring run, Rock Springs, and Wekiwa Springs. Phosphorus increased significantly with time in Juniper Springs and decreased significantly in Apopka, De Leon, Rock, Silver Glen, and Wekiwa Springs. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities ranged from relatively low diversity assemblages (Green Spring) to assemblages with high taxonomic richness, diversity, and dominance (Rock and De Leon Springs). Shannon-Wiener diversity index averages among samples pooled by spring were lowest for Apopka Spring and greatest for Rock, Bugg, and Silver Glen Springs. Mean Stream Condition Index for pooled samples per spring was lowest for De Leon and Gemini Springs and highest for Rock and Wekiwa Springs. Mean percentages of very tolerant taxa were lowest for Alexander Spring and highest for Bugg and Green Springs. Fish community richness was lowest for Green Spring, and greatest for Alexander Spring run and Silver Glen Springs. Forty five fish species representing 35 genera and 23 families were collected

  1. Natural disturbance shapes benthic intertidal macroinvertebrate communities of high latitude river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Blanchard, Amy L.; Dunton, Kenneth H.; Powell, Abby N.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike lower latitude coastlines, the estuarine nearshore zones of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea are icebound and frozen up to 9 months annually. This annual freezing event represents a dramatic physical disturbance to fauna living within intertidal sediments. The main objectives of this study were to describe the benthic communities of Beaufort Sea deltas, including temporal changes and trophic structure. Understanding benthic invertebrate communities provided a baseline for concurrent research on shorebird foraging ecology at these sites. We found that despite continuous year-to-year episodes of annual freezing, these estuarine deltas are populated by a range of invertebrates that represent both marine and freshwater assemblages. Freshwater organisms like Diptera and Oligochaeta not only survive this extreme event, but a marine invasion of infaunal organisms such as Amphipoda and Polychaeta rapidly recolonizes the delta mudflats following ice ablation. These delta sediments of sand, silt, and clay are fine in structure compared to sediments of other Beaufort Sea coastal intertidal habitats. The relatively depauperate invertebrate community that ultimately develops is composed of marine and freshwater benthic invertebrates. The composition of the infauna also reflects two strategies that make life on Beaufort Sea deltas possible: a migration of marine organisms from deeper lagoons to the intertidal and freshwater biota that survive the 9-month ice-covered period in frozen sediments. Stable isotopic analyses reveal that both infaunal assemblages assimilate marine and terrestrial sources of organic carbon. These results provide some of the first quantitative information on the infaunal food resources of shallow arctic estuarine systems and the long-term persistence of these invertebrate assemblages. Our data help explain the presence of large numbers of shorebirds in these habitats during the brief summer open-water period and their trophic importance to migrating

  2. Chemolithoautotrophy supports macroinvertebrate food webs and affects diversity and stability in groundwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Benjamin T; Engel, Annette Summers; Nowlin, Weston H; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2016-06-01

    The prevailing paradigm in subterranean ecology is that below-ground food webs are simple, limited to one or two trophic levels, and composed of generalist species because of spatio-temporally patchy food resources and pervasive energy limitation. This paradigm is based on relatively few studies of easily accessible, air-filled caves. However, in some subterranean ecosystems, chemolithoautotrophy can subsidize or replace surface-based allochthonous inputs of photosynthetically derived organic matter (OM) as a basal food resource and promote niche specialization and evolution of higher trophic levels. Consequently, the current subterranean trophic paradigm fails to account for variation in resources, trophic specialization, and food chain length in some subterranean ecosystems. We reevaluated the subterranean food web paradigm by examining spatial variation in the isotopic composition of basal food resources and consumers, food web structure, stygobiont species diversity, and chromophoric organic matter (CDOM), across a geochemical gradient in a large and complex groundwater system, the Edwards Aquifer in Central Texas (USA). Mean δ13C values of stygobiont communities become increasingly more negative along the gradient of photosynthetic OM sources near the aquifer recharge zone to chemolithoautotrophic OM sources closer to the freshwater-saline water interface (FWSWI) between oxygenated freshwater and anoxic, sulfide-rich saline water. Stygobiont community species richness declined with increasing distance from the FWSWI. Bayesian mixing models were used to estimate the relative importance of photosynthetic OM and chemolithoautorophic OM for stygobiont communities at three biogeochemically distinct sites. The contribution of chemolithoautotrophic OM to consumers at these sites ranged between 25% and 69% of total OM utilized and comprised as much as 88% of the diet for one species. In addition, the food web adjacent to the FWSWI had greater trophic diversity when

  3. Chemolithoautotrophy supports macroinvertebrate food webs and affects diversity and stability in groundwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Benjamin T; Engel, Annette Summers; Nowlin, Weston H; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2016-06-01

    The prevailing paradigm in subterranean ecology is that below-ground food webs are simple, limited to one or two trophic levels, and composed of generalist species because of spatio-temporally patchy food resources and pervasive energy limitation. This paradigm is based on relatively few studies of easily accessible, air-filled caves. However, in some subterranean ecosystems, chemolithoautotrophy can subsidize or replace surface-based allochthonous inputs of photosynthetically derived organic matter (OM) as a basal food resource and promote niche specialization and evolution of higher trophic levels. Consequently, the current subterranean trophic paradigm fails to account for variation in resources, trophic specialization, and food chain length in some subterranean ecosystems. We reevaluated the subterranean food web paradigm by examining spatial variation in the isotopic composition of basal food resources and consumers, food web structure, stygobiont species diversity, and chromophoric organic matter (CDOM), across a geochemical gradient in a large and complex groundwater system, the Edwards Aquifer in Central Texas (USA). Mean δ13C values of stygobiont communities become increasingly more negative along the gradient of photosynthetic OM sources near the aquifer recharge zone to chemolithoautotrophic OM sources closer to the freshwater-saline water interface (FWSWI) between oxygenated freshwater and anoxic, sulfide-rich saline water. Stygobiont community species richness declined with increasing distance from the FWSWI. Bayesian mixing models were used to estimate the relative importance of photosynthetic OM and chemolithoautorophic OM for stygobiont communities at three biogeochemically distinct sites. The contribution of chemolithoautotrophic OM to consumers at these sites ranged between 25% and 69% of total OM utilized and comprised as much as 88% of the diet for one species. In addition, the food web adjacent to the FWSWI had greater trophic diversity when

  4. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina Alves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigate spatial and temporal variation in the aquatic macrophyte community in four urban reservoirs located in Curitiba metropolitan region, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic macrophyte community differ among reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. METHODS: The reservoirs selected ranged from oligotrophic/mesotrophic to eutrophic. Sampling occurred in October 2011, January 2012 and June 2012. Twelve aquatic macrophytes stands were sampled at each reservoir. Species were identified and the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was estimated. Differences among reservoirs and over sampling periods were analyzed: i through two‑way ANOVAs considering the stand extent (m and the stand biodiversity - species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and beta diversity (species variation along the aquatic macrophyte stand; and ii through PERMANOVA considering species composition. Indicator species that were characteristic for each reservoir were also identified. RESULTS: The aquatic macrophyte stand extent varied among reservoirs and over sampling periods. Species richness showed only temporal variation. On the other hand, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index varied only among reservoirs. The beta diversity of macrophyte stands did not vary among reservoirs or over time, meaning that species variability among aquatic macrophyte stands was independent of the stand extent and reservoir eutrophication. Community composition depended on the reservoir and sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our initial expectation that reservoirs of different degrees of eutrophication have different aquatic macrophyte communities. As a consequence, each reservoir had particular indicator species. Therefore, monitoring and management efforts must be offered for each reservoir individually.

  5. Spatio-temporal dynamics of undisturbed macroinvertebrate communities in the Mondego River basin : contribution to the ecological assessment of streams

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Maria Luísa Correia, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Ecologia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008 Macroinvertebrates have become the most commonly used and widely known biological indicators for assessing and monitoring human impacts in streams because they respond predictably to many kinds/intensities of anthropogenic pressures. Hence, they were included in the indicators group of ecological status required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). However, the lack o...

  6. Modelling the presence and identifying the determinant factors of dominant macroinvertebrate taxa in a karst river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqing; Chen, Qiuwen; Chen, Kai; Yang, Qingrui

    2016-06-01

    Modelling the macroinvertebrate community is important for evaluating the status of aquatic ecosystem health. Alternative to physical-based approaches, this study proposed two data-driven methods, support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN), to model the presence of macroinvertebrate species in rivers based on abiotic features. A famous karst river, Lijiang River, in Southwest China was selected as the study case. A total of 300 records containing data on 11 physicochemical parameters were collected from the upstream, midstream and downstream reaches of the river over a 2-year period (2009-2010) and were used for model construction and verification. Ten dominant macroinvertebrate taxa in the study area were modelled. In addition, the performance of the two methods was compared, and the relative importance of the independent variables was identified. The obtained results mapped abiotic factors to the species presence and could be used in combination with a two-dimensional hydro-environmental model to assess the impacts of flow regulation on macroinvertebrate dynamics. Furthermore, the SVM model performed slightly better than the ANN model in the studied case. PMID:27138003

  7. Aquatic insects as the main food resource of fish the community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vidotto-Magnoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the feeding of fish species of the Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, low Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fishes were collected in two stretches of the reservoir: Santa Bárbara (14 samples and Bonito (two samples between September 2002 and March 2004, using gill and seining nets. The results of stomach contents analysis were expressed with the frequency of occurrence and gravimetric method, combined in the Alimentary Index (AI. The 20 species studied consumed 52 food items, grouped in 10 food categories: aquatic insects, terrestrial insects, crustaceans, fish, macroinvertebrates, microcrustaceans, algae, vegetal matter, detritus/sediment and scales. The aquatic insects (mainly Chironomidae, Odonata and Ephemeroptera were the most common food resources, consumed by 18 species. The diet composition of the community (species grouped indicated that the dominant food category in the diet of fishes was aquatic insects (AI = 77.6%, followed by crustaceans (AI = 7.1%. Four trophic guilds were identified according a cluster analysis (Pearson distance: insectivorous (10 species, omnivorous (4 species, detritivorous (3 species and piscivorous/carcinophagous (3 species. Despite the highest number of species, the insectivorous guild was responsible for more than 80% in captures in number and biomass (CPUEn and CPUEb. The low values of niche breadth presented by all species, along with the low values of diet overlap between species pairs indicate a high degree of food resources partitioning among species. The aquatic insects, despite being the main food resource of insectivorous fishes, also complemented the diet of other species, which demonstrate the importance of this food resource for the fish community, sustaining a high diversity, abundance and biomass of fishes.Neste estudo foi avaliada a dieta das espécies de peixes do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava, baixo rio Tietê, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados em dois

  8. Effect of thiram and of a hydrocarbon mixture on freshwater macroinvertebrate communities in outdoor stream and pond mesocosms: I. Study design, chemicals fate and structural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayona, Yannick; Roucaute, Marc; Cailleaud, Kevin; Lagadic, Laurent; Bassères, Anne; Caquet, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Higher-tier ecological risk assessment (ERA) in mesocosms is commonly performed in lotic or lentic experimental systems. These systems differ in their physico-chemical and hydrological properties, leading to differences in chemical fate, community characteristics and potential recovery. This raises the issue of the relevance and sensitivity of community-level endpoints in different types of mesocosms. In this study, macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass estimates were used to assess the effects of a dithiocarbamate fungicide, thiram (35 and 170 µg l(-1)), and a petroleum middle distillate (PMD; 0.01, 0.4, 2 and 20 mg l(-1)) in outdoor stream and pond mesocosms. Streams were continuously treated during 3 weeks followed by a 2-month long post-treatment period. Ponds were treated weekly for 4 weeks, followed by a 10-month long post-treatment period. Taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrate communities was characterized using the α, β and γ components of taxa richness, Shannon and Gini-Simpson indices. Computations were based either on abundance or biomass data. Results clearly highlighted that the effects of chemicals depended on the exposure regime (for thiram) and type of system (for the PMD). Causes of the differences between streams and ponds in the magnitude and nature of effects include differential sensitivity of taxa dwelling in lentic and lotic systems and the influence of hydrology (e.g., drift from upstream) and mesocosm connectivity on recovery dynamics. This study also showed complementarities in the use of both types of mesocosms to improve the characterization of chemical effects on communities in ERA. PMID:26385344

  9. Modelling community structure in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lek, S.; Scardi, M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Descy, J.P.; Park, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    The book presents approaches and methodologies for predicting the structure and diversity of key aquatic communities (namely diatoms, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish), under natural conditions and under man-made disturbance. Such an approach will make it possible to: 1) set up procedures for rob

  10. Sources of beta diversity in estuarine benthic macro-invertebrate communities in the Baltic Sea - North Sea transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefson, Alf B.; Göke, Cordula

    regimes (ca 100 km). Contributions of beta to total diversity were high among regions, but minor between sediment types. Thus controlling for the two environmental factors, salinity and sediment type, there was still an unexplained high beta among stations within regions. A significant distance...... regions. The study indicates control of beta diversity by both environmental factors and factors related to invertebrate biology, operating at different spatial scales.......Identification of sources of beta diversity, the change of diversity, is important to understand regulation of overall diversity. Additive partitioning of diversity (species richness and expH) compared to random, was performed on a quantitative benthic macro-invertebrate collection of > 400 species...

  11. Engaging the recreational angling community to implement and manage aquatic protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2011-06-01

    Recreational angling is a popular leisure activity, the quality of which is greatly dependent on fish abundance and well-functioning aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic protected areas (APAs) are used to help maintain and even restore aquatic systems and their associated biota, including fish species that are popular with recreational anglers. Paradoxically, the use of APAs has been a source of much contention and conflict between members of the recreational angling community and those interested in or mandated to protect aquatic resources on the basis of the interests of multiple stakeholder groups. The angling community is concerned about the loss of fishing opportunities and effectiveness of APAs. Although it is still unclear whether establishment of APAs alone can effectively protect aquatic resources, actively including the recreational angling community in the design, implementation, and management of APAs will help ensure the values of this rather substantial user group are incorporated into aquatic conservation strategies. Conversely, the probability of increasing the sustainability of recreational angling and related economies will be greatest if recreational angler groups remain open minded to both short-term and long-term goals of fisheries conservation strategies, including the use of APAs. PMID:21175844

  12. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  13. Macroinvertebrate diversity in the karst Jadro River (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađa Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of 10 years of investigation of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along the karst Jadro River. The Jadro is a typical karst river. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along the river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling, in addition to which several physicochemical parameters were also determined. Based on qualitative and quantitative composition of the macroinvertebrate fauna, correspondence analysis divided the river course into three sections: upstream, midcourse, and downstream. Forty-three taxa were recorded. Results of saprobiological analysis based on macrozoobenthos indicate that water of the Jadro River belongs to quality classes I and II.

  14. Effect of adaptation to phenol on biodegradation of monosubstituted phenols by aquatic microbial communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, R J; Pfaender, F K

    1987-01-01

    The adaptation of a mixed aquatic microbial community to phenol was examined in microcosms receiving phenol as a sole carbon source. Extended exposure (adaptation) to phenol resulted in adaptation of the microbial community to the structurally related aromatic compounds m-cresol, m-aminophenol, and p-chlorophenol. The increased biodegradation potential of the phenol-adapted microbial community was accompanied by a concurrent increase in the number of microorganisms able to degrade the three t...

  15. Classification and retrieval on macroinvertebrate image databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Pulkkinen, Jenni; Gabbouj, Moncef; Ärje, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Salme; Tirronen, Ville; Juhola, Martti; Turpeinen, Tuomas; Meissner, Kristian

    2011-07-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are continuously threatened by a growing number of human induced changes. Macroinvertebrate biomonitoring is particularly efficient in pinpointing the cause-effect structure between slow and subtle changes and their detrimental consequences in aquatic ecosystems. The greatest obstacle to implementing efficient biomonitoring is currently the cost-intensive human expert taxonomic identification of samples. While there is evidence that automated recognition techniques can match human taxa identification accuracy at greatly reduced costs, so far the development of automated identification techniques for aquatic organisms has been minimal. In this paper, we focus on advancing classification and data retrieval that are instrumental when processing large macroinvertebrate image datasets. To accomplish this for routine biomonitoring, in this paper we shall investigate the feasibility of automated river macroinvertebrate classification and retrieval with high precision. Besides the state-of-the-art classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Bayesian Classifiers (BCs), the focus is particularly drawn on feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs), namely multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and radial basis function networks (RBFNs). Since both ANN types have been proclaimed superior by different investigations even for the same benchmark problems, we shall first show that the main reason for this ambiguity lies in the static and rather poor comparison methodologies applied in most earlier works. Especially the most common drawback occurs due to the limited evaluation of the ANN performances over just one or few network architecture(s). Therefore, in this study, an extensive evaluation of each classifier performance over an ANN architecture space is performed. The best classifier among all, which is trained over a dataset of river macroinvertebrate specimens, is then used in the MUVIS framework for the efficient search and retrieval of particular

  16. Influência do hábitat na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados às raízes de Eichhornia crassipes na região do Lago Catalão, Amazonas, Brasil Influence of habitat on community structure of macroinvertebrate associated with roots of Eichhornia crassipes in the Lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Por possuírem ciclos de vida curtos, os macroinvertebrados aquáticos podem responder rapidamente às modificações ambientais, alterando a estrutura das suas populações e comunidades. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se há relação entre a composição de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados a bancos de Eichhornia crassipes o gradiente de condutividade elétrica da água e a biomassa das raízes destes bancos. No pico da cheia de 2005, 21 bancos de macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes dominados por E. crassipes foram amostrados no rio Negro (baixa condutividade 30 µS cm-1 e 50 µS cm-1. Foram encontrados 1707 macroinvertebrados aquáticos, distribuídos em 14 ordens e 35 famílias. A abundância de invertebrados aquáticos foi maior em bancos na confluência das águas. O aumento da biomassa das raízes de E. crassipes levou a um aumento da abundância e da riqueza de famílias de macroinvertebrados. A abundância dos coletores-catadores, coletores-filtradores e raspadores variou com o tipo de água, e apenas a abundância dos coletores-catadores e coletores-filtradores variou em função da biomassa das raízes. A riqueza de famílias dos raspadores variou em função do tipo de água. A organização da comunidade depende do gradiente de biomassa de raízes, indicando a importância da estrutura do hábitat para o estabelecimento dos macroinvertebrados.Owing to their short life cycles aquatic macroinvertebrates may quickly respond to environmental modifications by changing the structure of their populations and communities. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the composition of aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia crassipes stands, the gradient of water conductivity and biomass of the roots of these stands. At the peak of the floods of 2005, 21 banks of floating aquatic macrophytes dominated by E. crassipes were sampled in the Solimões River (high conductivity > 50 µS cm-1, the

  17. Effect of Environmental Factors on Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in the Huntai River Basin in the Huntai River Basin%影响浑太河流域大型底栖动物群落结构的环境因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳利; 李艳粉; 徐宗学

    2015-01-01

    In May-June 2012, macroinvertebrates were investigated at 66 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. A total of 72 macrobenthos species were collected, of which, 51 species ( 70. 83%) were aquatic insects, 10 species (13. 89%) were mollusks, 7 species(9. 72%) were annelids, and 4 species(5. 56%) were arthropods. First, 13 candidate metrics ( EPT taxa, Dominant taxon%, Ephemeroptera%, Trichoptera%, mollusks%, Heptageniidae/Ephemeroptera; Hydropsychidae/Trichoptera, Oligochaeta%, intolerant taxon%, tolerant taxon%, Collector%, Clingers%, Shannon-wiener index. ) which belonged to six types were chosen to represent macroinvertebrate community structure by correlation analysis. Then, relationships between anthropogenic and physiography pressures and macroinvertebrate community structure variables were measured using redundancy analysis. Then, this study compared the relative influences of anthropogenic and physiographic pressures on macroinvertebrate community structure and the relative influences of anthropogenic pressures at reach, riparian and catchment scales by pRDA. The results showed all environmental factors explained 72. 23% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. In addition, a large proportion of the explained variability in macroinvertebrate community structure was related to anthropogenic pressures(48. 9%) and to physiographic variables ( 11. 8%) , anthropogenic pressures at reach scale influenced most significantly macroinvertebrate community structure which explained 35. 3% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. pH, habitat, TN, CODMn, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved particle and ammonia influenced respectively explained 4%, 3. 6%,1. 8%, 1. 7%, 1. 7%, 0. 9%, 0. 9% and 0. 9% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. The land use at riparian and catchment scale respectively explained 10% and 7% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. Finally, the

  18. Water quality and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers within and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, Texas, 2005-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the water quality and status of fish and macroinvertebrate communities, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Amistad National Recreation Area, completed a reconnaissance-level survey of the water quality and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area in southwest Texas during 2005–7. Water-quality conditions during the spring and summer months of 2005 in the Devils and Pecos Rivers were assessed at locations just upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities were assessed during 2006 and 2007 in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area and Amistad Reservoir. Water-quality samples were collected at one site on both the Devils and Pecos Rivers. Fish and macroinvertebrates were collected at the water-quality sampling site on each river and at three additional sites on each river. The water-quality constituents of primary concern were total dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, orthophosphate, phosphorus, selenium, and selected pesticides. During the spring and summer of 2005, the concentrations of total dissolved solids ranged from 208 to 232 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in samples from the Devils River compared to 1,460 to 2,390 mg/L in samples from the Pecos River. Total dissolved solid concentrations measured in samples collected from the Devils River and Pecos River did not exceed the proposed State of Texas water-quality standard applicable for the segments of each river where samples were collected. During the spring and summer of 2005, chloride concentrations measured in samples collected in 2005 from the Devils River ranged from 11.6 to 12.9 mg/L, compared to chloride concentrations measured in samples collected from the Pecos River, which ranged from 519 to 879 mg

  19. Aquatic invertebrate communities in tank bromeliads: how well do classic ecological patterns apply?

    OpenAIRE

    Jocque, Merlijn; Field, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) often occur in high densities in the Neotropics and represent a key freshwater habitat in montane forests, housing quite complex invertebrate communities. We tested the extent to which there are species richness–altitude, richness–environment, richness–size, richness–habitat complexity and richness–isolation relationships for the aquatic invertebrate communities from 157 bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. We found that invertebrate species richness an...

  20. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system. PMID:26830433

  1. Succession of aquatic microbial communities as a result of the water quality variations in continuous water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rong-chang; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2004-01-01

    The changes of structural and functional parameters of aquatic microbial communities in continuous water on campus of Tsinghua University, China are investigated by polyurethane foam unit(PFU) method. The measured compositions of the communities include alga, protozoa, and some metazoa(such as rotifers). The measured indicators of water quality include water temperature, pH value, dissolved oxygen(DO), potassium permanganate index(CODMn), total nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP) and chlorophyll-a(Chla). The trophic level, expressed by the trophic level indices(TLIc), is assessed with analytic hierarchy process and principal component analysis(AHP-PCA) method. The changing trends of the structural and functional parameters of aquatic microbial communities, such as Margalef index of diversity(D), Shannon-weaver index of diversity (H), Heterotropy index(HI), number of species when the colonization gets equilibrium(Seq), colonizing speed constant(G) and time spent when 90 percent of Seq colonized in PFU(T90%), are also analyzed. The experimental results showed the succession of aquatic microbial communities along the water flow is consistent with the water quality changes, so the parameters of microbial community can reflect the changes of water quality from the ecological view.

  2. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong T; Ho, Cuong T; Trinh, Quan H; Trinh, Duc A; Luu, Minh T N; Tran, Hai S; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  3. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong T.; Ho, Cuong T.; Trinh, Quan H.; Trinh, Duc A.; Luu, Minh T. N.; Tran, Hai S.; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L.; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  4. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects. PMID:26875187

  5. Population ecology and community structure of sub-tidal soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Konkan, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vizakat, L.; Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    , Nemertea and Sipuncula (1.59%). Twenty nine species of macro-invertebrates were observed. Among which, burrowing deposit feeding Axiothella obockensis, Clymene annandalei and surface deposit feeder Prionospio pinnata were dominant. The species diversity...

  6. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  7. Toxicity and aquatic community impacts of membrane and ion exchange water treatment effluents in coastal North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes a study titled "Assessment of Potential Toxicity and Aquatic Community Impacts Associated with Membrane and Ion Exchange Water Treatment...

  8. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa C Van Dijk; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and...

  9. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura E Silva, M S G; Graciano, T S; Losekann, M E; Luiz, A J B

    2016-05-17

    Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between near and distant sites, for both periods (dry and rainy seasons). The position of the samplers significantly affected the structure of macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) in the rainy season. PMID:27191461

  10. How mutualisms arise in phytoplankton communities: building eco-evolutionary principles for aquatic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamia, Elena; Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-07-01

    Extensive sampling and metagenomics analyses of plankton communities across all aquatic environments are beginning to provide insights into the ecology of microbial communities. In particular, the importance of metabolic exchanges that provide a foundation for ecological interactions between microorganisms has emerged as a key factor in forging such communities. Here we show how both studies of environmental samples and physiological experimentation in the laboratory with defined microbial co-cultures are being used to decipher the metabolic and molecular underpinnings of such exchanges. In addition, we explain how metabolic modelling may be used to conduct investigations in reverse, deducing novel molecular exchanges from analysis of large-scale data sets, which can identify persistently co-occurring species. Finally, we consider how knowledge of microbial community ecology can be built into evolutionary theories tailored to these species' unique lifestyles. We propose a novel model for the evolution of metabolic auxotrophy in microorganisms that arises as a result of symbiosis, termed the Foraging-to-Farming hypothesis. The model has testable predictions, fits several known examples of mutualism in the aquatic world, and sheds light on how interactions, which cement dependencies within communities of microorganisms, might be initiated. PMID:27282316

  11. Trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities as explained by pesticides and water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieromina, O; Musters, C J M; Bodegom, P M; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Vijver, M G

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing functional species' characteristics (species traits) that represent physiological, life history and morphological characteristics of species help understanding the impacts of various stressors on aquatic communities at field conditions. This research aimed to study the combined effects of pesticides and other environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, floating macrophytes cover, phosphate, nitrite, and nitrate) on the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities. To this purpose, a field inventory was performed in a flower bulb growing area of the Netherlands with significant variation in pesticides pressures. Macrofauna community composition, water chemistry parameters and pesticide concentrations in ditches next to flower bulb fields were determined. Trait modalities of nine traits (feeding mode, respiration mode, locomotion type, resistance form, reproduction mode, life stage, voltinism, saprobity, maximum body size) likely to indicate pesticides impacts were analyzed. According to a redundancy analysis, phosphate -and not pesticides- constituted the main factor structuring the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna. The functional composition could be ascribed for 2-4 % to pesticides, and for 3-11 % to phosphate. The lack of trait responses to pesticides may indicate that species may have used alternative strategies to adapt to ambient pesticides stress. Biomass of animals exhibiting trait modalities related to feeding by predation and grazing, presence of diapause form or dormancy, reproduction by free clutches and ovoviviparity, life stage of larvae and pupa, was negatively correlated to the concentration of phosphate. Hence, despite the high pesticide pollution in the area, variation in nutrient-related stressors seems to be the dominant driver of the functional composition of aquatic macrofauna assembly in agricultural ditches. PMID:27209569

  12. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio;

    2015-01-01

    altitudinal patterns in population densities, (ii) transplants of the five taxa upstream of their natural altitudinal limit to test the short-term (14days) effect on survival, and (iii) in situ experiments of locomotory activity as a proxy for animal response to relatively small differences in temperature (5...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits.......; larvae of Andesiops (Ephemeroptera), Claudioperla, (Plecoptera), Scirtes (Coleoptera) and Anomalocosmoecus (Trichoptera), and the amphipod Hyalella in an Ecuadorian glacier-fed stream (4100-4500ma.s.l.). The following were performed: (i) quantitative benthic sampling at three sites to determine...

  13. The influence of urbanisation on macroinvertebrate biodiversity in constructed stormwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Teresa J; Davis, Jenny A; Thompson, Ross M

    2015-12-01

    The construction of wetlands in urban environments is primarily carried out to assist in the removal of contaminants from wastewaters; however, these wetlands have the added benefit of providing habitat for aquatic invertebrates, fish and waterbirds. Stormwater quantity and quality is directly related to impervious area (roads, sealed areas, roofs) in the catchment. As a consequence, it would be expected that impervious area would be related to contaminant load and biodiversity in receiving waters such as urban wetlands. This study aimed to establish whether the degree of urbanisation and its associated changes to stormwater runoff affected macroinvertebrate richness and abundance within constructed wetlands. Urban wetlands in Melbourne's west and south east were sampled along a gradient of urbanisation. There was a significant negative relationship between total imperviousness (TI) and the abundance of aquatic invertebrates detected for sites in the west, but not in the south east. However macroinvertebrate communities were relatively homogenous both within and between all study wetlands. Chironomidae (non-biting midges) was the most abundant family recorded at the majority of sites. Chironomids are able to tolerate a wide array of environmental conditions, including eutrophic and anoxic conditions. Their prevalence suggests that water quality is impaired in these systems, regardless of degree of urbanisation, although the causal mechanism is unclear. These results show some dependency between receiving wetland condition and the degree of urbanisation of the catchment, but suggest that other factors may be as important in determining the value of urban wetlands as habitat for wildlife.

  14. The influence of urbanisation on macroinvertebrate biodiversity in constructed stormwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Teresa J; Davis, Jenny A; Thompson, Ross M

    2015-12-01

    The construction of wetlands in urban environments is primarily carried out to assist in the removal of contaminants from wastewaters; however, these wetlands have the added benefit of providing habitat for aquatic invertebrates, fish and waterbirds. Stormwater quantity and quality is directly related to impervious area (roads, sealed areas, roofs) in the catchment. As a consequence, it would be expected that impervious area would be related to contaminant load and biodiversity in receiving waters such as urban wetlands. This study aimed to establish whether the degree of urbanisation and its associated changes to stormwater runoff affected macroinvertebrate richness and abundance within constructed wetlands. Urban wetlands in Melbourne's west and south east were sampled along a gradient of urbanisation. There was a significant negative relationship between total imperviousness (TI) and the abundance of aquatic invertebrates detected for sites in the west, but not in the south east. However macroinvertebrate communities were relatively homogenous both within and between all study wetlands. Chironomidae (non-biting midges) was the most abundant family recorded at the majority of sites. Chironomids are able to tolerate a wide array of environmental conditions, including eutrophic and anoxic conditions. Their prevalence suggests that water quality is impaired in these systems, regardless of degree of urbanisation, although the causal mechanism is unclear. These results show some dependency between receiving wetland condition and the degree of urbanisation of the catchment, but suggest that other factors may be as important in determining the value of urban wetlands as habitat for wildlife. PMID:26245534

  15. [Seasonal variation of functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in Apostichopus japonicus cultural pond].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fa-Jun; Tian, Xiang-Li; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Yang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    The functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) cultural ponds was examined in this paper. The Biolog plate technique and redundancy analysis (RDA) method were used to evaluate seasonal changes and their relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that both total amount and types of carbon sources utilized by microbes in the sea cucumber cultural ponds varied seasonally, and were the highest in summer and lowest in winter, with polymers being the main type of carbon sources. Principal component analysis revealed that the carbon utilization diversity of the microbial communities varied significantly over the seasonal courses. A total of 10 categories of carbon sources were significantly related to the principal component 1, among which were polymers, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, and amines. Significant seasonal changes were detected for all carbon utilization diversity indices of the microbial communities, including Shannon, McIntosh, Simpson, and S-E. However, seasonal variations were different among the microbial diversity indices. RDA analysis revealed that TP, NO(3-)-N, TN, and PO4(3-)-P were the critical environmental factors influencing the seasonal changes in functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in sea cucumber cultural ponds. PMID:25129954

  16. Comparison of two methods for estimating the abundance, diversity and habitat preference of fluvial macroinvertebrates in contrasting habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Camargo, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this research we evaluate the effects of the method used for estimating the potential surface available for benthic macroinvertebrates in macrophyte and unvegetated habitats on several metrics and habitat preference of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the upper catchment of the Henares River (Guadal

  17. Macroinvertebrate community structure in rivers near naturalAn-drias davidianusbreeding caves in Zhangjiajie City during winter%张家界大鲵繁殖洞穴外溪冬季大型无脊椎动物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志强; 王崇瑞; 伍远安; 立华; 危起伟; 洪波; 刘训华; 胡维军

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is an endangered amphibian in China and the largest salamander in the world.A. davidianus is endemic to rocky, fast-running mountain streams and lakes in China. The wild population is decreasing because of over-hunting and loss of habitat. This endemic species is currently listed in Annex I of CITES and Class II of the Protected Animals in China. Previous studies have reported that this species is carnivorous, and the larvae prey mainly on small aquatic animals, such as shrimp and aquatic insects, whereas adults prey on fish, frogs, and crabs. Macroinvertebrates are important groups in stream and river eco-systems. As most macroinvertebrates have a stationary life mode or a limited migration distance, the species and their numbers are important to access the environmental quality of a habitat. Thus, macroinvertebrate data are commonly used as water quality bioindicators. Field investigations were conducted during January 2013 and 2014 in five natural breeding caves (seven sampling sites) located in the Hunan Zhangjiajie Chinese Giant Salamander State Reserve. The objective was to use macroinvertebrates to assess the health of theA. davidianus habitat. A total of 117 macroinvertebrate taxa were identified in five phyla, eight classes, 16 orders, and 59 families during January 2013. Of them, 107 were aquatic insects, three were mollusks, two were crustaceans, and one each was Hirudinea, Turbellaria, and Nematoda. A mean of 27 macroinvertebrate taxa were collected over the 2 years of sampling. The maximum and minimum numbers collected were 33 and 15 in the water outlet of Qiyanquan Cave (S6) and the water outlet of Luozita Cave (S1), respectively. The density of macroinvertebrates ranged from 872.2 to 3511.1 ind/m2 (average, 1747.6 ind/m2). Aquatic insects were the dominant group, and their relative abundance was 97.05%.Baetis sp.,Choroterpes sp.,Hydropsyche sp.,Serratella sp.,Heptagenia sp., andAntocha sp. were the

  18. Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance To Diagnose Hazardous Chemicals in Multiple Contaminated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Stefanie; Gunold, Roman; Mothes, Sibylle; Paschke, Albrecht; Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-08-18

    Aquatic ecosystems are often contaminated with large numbers of chemicals, which cannot be sufficiently addressed by chemical target analyses. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) enables the identification of toxicants in complex contaminated environmental samples. This study suggests pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as a confirmation tool for EDA to identify contaminants which actually impact on local communities. The effects of three phytotoxic compounds local periphyton communities, cultivated at a reference (R-site) and a polluted site (P-site), were assessed to confirm the findings of a former EDA study on sediments. The sensitivities of R- and P-communities to prometryn, tributyltin (TBT) and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine (PNA) were quantified in short-term toxicity tests and exposure concentrations were determined. Prometryn and PNA concentrations were significantly higher at the P-site, whereas TBT concentrations were in the same range at both sites. Periphyton communities differed in biomass, but algal class composition and diatom diversity were similar. Community tolerance of P-communities was significantly enhanced for prometryn, but not for PNA and TBT, confirming site-specific effects on local periphyton for prometryn only. Thus, PICT enables in situ effect confirmation of phytotoxic compounds at the community level and seems to be suitable to support confirmation and enhance ecological realism of EDA. PMID:26196040

  19. Relationships between aquatic invertebrates, water quality and vegetation in an Andean peatland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oyague Passuni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands (known as bofedales in the Peruvian Andes provide important social and environmental services in the Peruvian Puna ecoregion, especially as sources of water and forage for domestic livestock. In biological terms, these peatlands are key habitats with their own community structure, dynamics and interactions; and they serve as biodiversity hotspots within the High Andes. In this article we assess the relationships between: (i physical structure, (ii water quality, (iii plant communities and (iv the assemblages of aquatic invertebrates (benthic macroinvertebrates in three peatlands located in Cuzco Region, southern Peru. The results suggest that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage is a good indicator of the trophic status of the small pools that are typically present in bofedales. Trophic status is, in turn, primarily related to spatial and seasonal water availability and the types of plant communities present in each peatland.

  20. The Expansion of Dreissena and Long-term Shifts in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in Lake Ontario, 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of Dreissena to the Great lakes has profoundly impacted benthic ecosystems, resulting in the decline of native species and dramatic community restructuring. In Lake Ontario, long-term monitoring has yielded a wealth of detailed information regarding both the exp...

  1. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid: a rebuttal and some new analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina G Vijver

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface waters was hypothesised in a recent paper by Van Dijk, Van Staalduinen and Van der Sluijs (PLOS ONE, May 2013. Although we do not disagree with imidacloprid's inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms, we have fundamental concerns regarding the way the data were analysed and interpreted. Here, we demonstrate that the underlying toxicity of imidacloprid in the field situation cannot be understood except in the context of other co-occurring pesticides. Although we agree with Van Dijk and co-workers that effects of imidacloprid can emerge between 13 and 67 ng/L we use a different line of evidence. We present an alternative approach to link imidacloprid concentrations and biological data. We analysed the national set of chemical monitoring data of the year 2009 to estimate the relative contribution of imidacloprid compared to other pesticides in relation to environmental quality target and chronic ecotoxicity threshold exceedances. Moreover, we assessed the relative impact of imidacloprid on the pesticide-induced potential affected fractions of the aquatic communities. We conclude that by choosing to test a starting hypothesis using insufficient data on chemistry and biology that are difficult to link, and by ignoring potential collinear effects of other pesticides present in Dutch surface waters Van Dijk and co-workers do not provide direct evidence that reduced taxon richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates can be attributed to the presence of imidacloprid only. Using a different line of evidence we expect ecological effects of imidacloprid at some of the exposure profiles measured in 2009 in the surface waters of the Netherlands.

  2. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid: a rebuttal and some new analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijver, Martina G; van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface waters was hypothesised in a recent paper by Van Dijk, Van Staalduinen and Van der Sluijs (PLOS ONE, May 2013). Although we do not disagree with imidacloprid's inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms, we have fundamental concerns regarding the way the data were analysed and interpreted. Here, we demonstrate that the underlying toxicity of imidacloprid in the field situation cannot be understood except in the context of other co-occurring pesticides. Although we agree with Van Dijk and co-workers that effects of imidacloprid can emerge between 13 and 67 ng/L we use a different line of evidence. We present an alternative approach to link imidacloprid concentrations and biological data. We analysed the national set of chemical monitoring data of the year 2009 to estimate the relative contribution of imidacloprid compared to other pesticides in relation to environmental quality target and chronic ecotoxicity threshold exceedances. Moreover, we assessed the relative impact of imidacloprid on the pesticide-induced potential affected fractions of the aquatic communities. We conclude that by choosing to test a starting hypothesis using insufficient data on chemistry and biology that are difficult to link, and by ignoring potential collinear effects of other pesticides present in Dutch surface waters Van Dijk and co-workers do not provide direct evidence that reduced taxon richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates can be attributed to the presence of imidacloprid only. Using a different line of evidence we expect ecological effects of imidacloprid at some of the exposure profiles measured in 2009 in the surface waters of the Netherlands. PMID:24587069

  3. Methane turnover and methanotrophic communities in arctic aquatic ecosystems of the Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osudar, Roman; Liebner, Susanne; Alawi, Mashal; Yang, Sizhong; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Wagner, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Large amounts of organic carbon are stored in Arctic permafrost environments, and microbial activity can potentially mineralize this carbon into methane, a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, we assessed the methane budget, the bacterial methane oxidation (MOX) and the underlying environmental controls of arctic lake systems, which represent substantial sources of methane. Five lake systems located on Samoylov Island (Lena Delta, Siberia) and the connected river sites were analyzed using radiotracers to estimate the MOX rates, and molecular biology methods to characterize the abundance and the community composition of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). In contrast to the river, the lake systems had high variation in the methane concentrations, the abundance and composition of the MOB communities, and consequently, the MOX rates. The highest methane concentrations and the highest MOX rates were detected in the lake outlets and in a lake complex in a flood plain area. Though, in all aquatic systems, we detected both, Type I and II MOB, in lake systems, we observed a higher diversity including MOB, typical of the soil environments. The inoculation of soil MOB into the aquatic systems, resulting from permafrost thawing, might be an additional factor controlling the MOB community composition and potentially methanotrophic capacity. PMID:27230921

  4. Modeling the potential effects of atrazine on aquatic communities in midwestern streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Steven M; Brain, Richard A; Hendley, Paul; Nair, Shyam K

    2013-10-01

    The comprehensive aquatic systems model for atrazine (CASM(ATZ)) estimates the potential toxic effects of atrazine on populations of aquatic plants and consumers in a generic lower-order midwestern stream. The CASM(ATZ) simulates the daily production of 20 periphyton and 6 aquatic vascular plant species. The modeled consumer community consists of 17 functionally defined species of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, bacteria, and fish. Daily values of population biomass (grams of carbon per square meter) are calculated as nonlinear functions of population bioenergetics, physical-chemical environmental parameters, grazing/predator-prey interactions, and population-specific direct and indirect responses to atrazine. The CASM(ATZ) uses Monte Carlo methods to characterize the implications of phenotypic variability, environmental variability, and uncertainty associated with atrazine toxicity data in estimating the potential impacts of time-varying atrazine exposures on population biomass and community structure. Comparisons of modeled biomass values for plants and consumers with published data indicate that the generic reference simulation realistically describes ecological production in lower-order midwestern streams. Probabilistic assessments were conducted using the CASM(ATZ) to evaluate potential modeled changes in plant community structure resulting from measured atrazine exposure profiles in 3 midwestern US streams representing watersheds highly vulnerable to runoff. Deviation in the median values of maximum 30-d average Steinhaus similarity index ranged from 0.09% to 2.52% from the reference simulation. The CASM(ATZ) could therefore be used for the purposes of risk assessment by comparison of site monitoring-based model output to a biologically relevant Steinhaus similarity index level of concern. Used as a generic screening technology or in site-specific applications, the CASM(AT) provides an effective, coherent, and transparent modeling framework for assessing

  5. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface w

  6. Characterization of the hydrology, water chemistry, and aquatic communities of selected springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Gerwig, Robert M.; Tate, William B.

    2006-01-01

    from the Silver Springs group and in both boils at Gemini Springs. No pesticides were detected in water samples from De Leon Spring and Green Spring. Evidence of denitrification was indicated by the presence of excess nitrogen gas in water samples from most of the springs. Aquatic communities varied among the springs. Large floating mats of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), identified as Lyngbya wollei, were observed in De Leon Spring during all sampling events in 2004. At Gemini Springs, the dominant periphyton was Rhizoclonium sp. Of the three springs sampled for benthic invertebrates, De Leon Spring had the highest overall species richness and most disturbance intolerant species (Florida Index = 4). Green Spring had the lowest species richness of the springs sampled. Based on qualitative comparisons, overall macroinvertebrate species richness seemed to be negatively related to magnesium, potassium, sodium, and specific conductance. Invertebrate abundance was greatest when dissolved oxygen and nitrate were high but phosphorus and potassium concentrations were low. Dipteran abundance seemed to be positively associated with specific conductance and total organic carbon but negatively associated with nitrate-N. Amphipods were the numerically dominant group collected in most (six of nine) collections. Shifts in amphipod abundance of the two species collected (Gammarus sp. and Hyalella azteca) varied by season among the three springs, but there were no trends evident in the variation. Fish populations were relatively species-rich at the Silver Springs group, De Leon Spring, and Gemini Springs, but not at Green Spring. Nonindigenous fish species were observed at all springs except Green Spring.

  7. Use of Biotic Community Structure as a Measure of Ecological Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate communities of two lotic aquatic habitats, namely, the Churni River (C-R) and the Jalangi River (J-R) were compared in this study. One lotic aquatic system (C-R) was polluted by organic pollutants due to discharge of unprocessed sewage water, while the other (J-R) was not affected by such pollution. Evaluations of various physico-chemical properties of water, sediment and different macroinvertebrate communities of the two tropical lotic systems were done in a period from January, 2002 to December, 2003. A long term temporal change in the macroinvertebrate communities was recorded due to increase in sediment rH value. Sediment redox potential affected by the anthropogenic activities was found to be an important factor for alteration of macroinvertebrate communities in these aquatic ecosystems. A positive correlation has been established between rH and Margalef index in this study. Potassium and the total count of coliform bacteria in water showed significantly higher values for the polluted Churni River than those for the Jalangi River. Fig 3, Tab 4, Ref 34

  8. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna). PMID:26611055

  9. 黄河三角洲石油生产对东营湿地底栖动物群落结构和水质生物评价的影响%The effects of petroleum exploitation on water quality bio-assessment and benthic macro-invertebrate communities in the Yellow River Delta wetland,Dongying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 肖能文; 王备新; 李俊生

    2012-01-01

    The major environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction (e. G. Oil spills and leaks) are well known. There is a lot of information on the impacts of petroleum exploration on benthic communities in foreign studies. In this study, we probed the effects of petroleum exploration on macro-invertebrate assemblages, which are important components of benthic communities in this wetland ecosystem. The object of the investigation was to provide scientific data to guide the management, ecological restoration, conservation of biodiversity, and sustainable development of aquatic ecosystems. Physicochemical variables were measured at 34 sites in the Yellow River Delta wetland, Dongying, China, in October 2009, and benthic macro-invertebrate assemblages were collected using a D-frame net and a Peterson grab. The water body in the study area was oligohaline, its salinity ranging between 0. 05 and 5 ppt. A total of 84 macro-invertebrate taxa, belonging to 70 genera, 41 families, 12 orders, 6 classes, and 3 phyla, were collected. Insecta comprised 52.4% of all benthic invertebrate taxa, of which Odonata and Diptera accounted for 23% and 24% , respectively. The structure anddiversity of macro-invertebrate assemblages were expressed using the Shannon-Wiener index, the Margalef index and the dominance index. Water quality was assessed by the Shannon-Wiener index and the biotic index. The dominant species at most of the sites were either Chironomus spp. Or Glyptotendipes spp. With overall dominance indices of 0. 0315 and 0. 0522, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the Shannon-Wiener index was negatively correlated with total nitrogen (TN) (r=-0.446, P = 0.02) but was not correlated with any of the other physicochemical variables measured. The biotic index was not correlated with any of the physicochemical variables. The numbers of molluscan taxa were negatively correlated with salinity (r= -0.422, P = 0.028) and positively correlated with pH (r = 0.435, P

  10. [Functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in Gaira river, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barrios, Javier; Ospina-Tórres, Rodulfo; Turizo-Correa, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers are frequently described on their biodiversity but few studies have considered the ecological value of this richness in their food webs. We determined the trophic structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (expressed in the richness and abundance of taxa and biomass proportions of different functional feeding groups) at the level of the river, stretch and microhabitats (functional units - UFs). We evaluated the spatial and temporal variation of these descriptors during wet and dry events, and selected three sites associated with different altitudinal belts. We reported 109 taxa, with 11167 individuals who contributed 107.11g of biomass. Density of macroinvertebrates was favored with increasing height, and biomass showed the opposite pattern (K-W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), due to the addition of large crustaceans (Macrobrachium), and the taxa diversity was higher in the middle stretch of the river (H'=3.16). The Gaira stream runs through a mid-sized river basin, for this reason we found mainly bedrock (epilithon = 50.5%), gravel and sand (43.7%). The functional unit with more habitat and food resources that contains a higher abundance of leaf litter macroinvertebrates was foliage followed by epilithon, fine sediment and gravel-sand (K-W = 25.3, d.f. = 3, p < 0.05). The biomass values of these organisms were higher in leaves followed by gravel-sands, epilithon and sediment (K-W = 15.3, d.f. = 3, p < 0.05). Autochthonous biomass input by different functional feeding groups can be considered very low, but they define the functionality of the stream, being represented almost exclusively by shredders (Macrobrachium, 73%), present only in the lower reaches, followed by shredder Leptonema with 15%, located mostly in the upper reaches and predatory stoneflies of the genus Anacroneuria to 6.56%, which dominated in the middle stretch of stream. Excluding Macrobrachium from the analysis, there was dominance of Anacroneuria in the lower reaches

  11. Effects of multiple but low pesticide loads on aquatic fungal communities colonizing leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talk, Anne; Kublik, Susanne; Uksa, Marie; Engel, Marion; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Welzl, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Mohr, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In the first tier risk assessment (RA) of pesticides, risk for aquatic communities is estimated by using results from standard laboratory tests with algae, daphnids and fish for single pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. However, fungi as key organisms for nutrient cycling in ecosystems as well as multiple pesticide applications are not considered in the RA. In this study, the effects of multiple low pesticide pulses using regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) on the dynamics of non-target aquatic fungi were investigated in a study using pond mesocosm. For that, fungi colonizing black alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves were exposed to multiple, low pulses of 11 different pesticides over a period of 60days using a real farmer's pesticide application protocol for apple cropping. Four pond mesocosms served as treatments and 4 as controls. The composition of fungal communities colonizing the litter material was analyzed using a molecular fingerprinting approach based on the terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (t-RFLP) of the fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) gene(s). Our data indicated a clear fluctuation of fungal communities based on the degree of leaf litter degradation. However significant effects of the applied spraying sequence were not observed. Consequently also degradation rates of the litter material were not affected by the treatments. Our results indicate that the nutrient rich environment of the leaf litter material gave fungal communities the possibility to express genes that induce tolerance against the applied pesticides. Thus our data may not be transferred to other fresh water habitats with lower nutrient availability. PMID:27521943

  12. Temporal and altitudinal variations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an Andean river basin of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Scheibler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were spatially and seasonally examined over two consecutive years (2000-2002 along a glacier and snowmelt river in the central-west of Argentina where lies the highest peak in America, Mount Aconcagua (6956 m elevation. The goal was to assess seasonal and altitudinal variability in benthic community structure and to define whether physical-chemical variables affect distribution of aquatic insects. The Mendoza river basin was characterised by high variability in flow and transparency, high conductivity, hard calcium sulphate water, neutral and alkaline pH, and dominant substrate composed of small blocks, cobbles, pebbles, and sand-silt. Richness of invertebrates was low, with the lowest taxonomic richness being recorded at the mouth. The dominant group with highest taxonomic richness was Diptera, although caddisflies, mayflies, beetles, and stoneflies were present. Seasonal and spatial variations in biotic and abiotic variables were detected. Maximal densities and taxonomic richness were recorded in autumn and winter. From Modified Morisita’s Cluster analysis it was found that the system is divided into two groupings of sites related to each other by faunal composition. INDVAL revealed species turnover along the altitudinal gradient of some taxa: Andesiops, Massartellopsis, Edwarsina, Chelifera, and Ceratopogonidae had preference for the headwaters (2835-2425 m elevation, Smicridea murina and Baetodes for the lower section (1413-1085 m elevation, and Austrelmis for the middle and lower sections. The middle section (1846-1727 m elevation was a transition area where taxa from the headwaters and the lower section coexisted. Generalised Linear Models evidenced that altitude was the major factor determining macroinvertebrate assemblages along the large arid Mendoza River and that the physical-chemical variables that most influenced variation in community structure were: transparency

  13. Efecto del reemplazo de la vegetación nativa de ribera sobre la comunidad de macroinvertebrados bentónicos en arroyos de climas templados, Chile central Replacement effect of riparian native vegetation on benthic macroinvertebrates community in temperate climate streams, Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mancilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El aporte de materia orgánica desde la vegetación ribereña es determinante en la estructura y complejidad de los sistemas fluviales; es identificado como el mayor aporte energético en ríos y una fuente importante de alimento para macroinvertebrados en arroyos de cabecera. No obstante, el paisaje ribereño ha sido altamente degradado por actividades humanas, lo que ha afectado la estructura y composición de las comunidades acuáticas. El presente estudio se desarrolló en Chile central (región del Biobío donde se concentra una intensa actividad forestal con especies exóticas. Se seleccionaron ríos de bajo orden (The organic matter from riparian vegetation is determined by the structure and complexity of streams. It presents a higher energetic input to streams as well as important source of food for macroinvertebrates in head streams. In spite of its importance, riparian landscape has been rapidly degraded by human activity, this affects structure and composition of the aquatic community. The present study was made in Central Chile (Biobio Region which has intensive forest activity with exotic species. Small streams were selected (< 3 order, because they are very particularly sensitive to changes in land use. The sites were grouped identified according to native forest land cover larger than 20% (group 1 and smaller than 20% (group 2. Significant differences (p< 0.05 in Plecoptera abundance (p < 0.05 were found between the two groups. Differences in trophic groups were significant for shredders and predators increased and gathering-collectors decreased their abundance, with native cover smaller than 20%. This showed the dependent on allochthonous material. The vegetation cover and community parameters correlations showed that Diversity (W increased with higher percentage of watershed covered by native vegetation and exotic species mix. Results suggest that a buffer conservation area of native riparian vegetation is necessary in streams

  14. Accounting for both local aquatic community composition and bioavailability in setting site-specific quality standards for zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Simpson, Peter; Moccia, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable improvement in water quality standards (QS) for metals by taking account of the effect of local water chemistry conditions on their bioavailability. We describe preliminary efforts to further refine water quality standards, by taking account of the composition of the local ecological community (the ultimate protection objective) in addition to bioavailability. Relevance of QS to the local ecological community is critical as it is important to minimise instances where quality classification using QS does not reconcile with a quality classification based on an assessment of the composition of the local ecology (e.g. using benthic macroinvertebrate quality assessment metrics such as River InVertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS)), particularly where ecology is assessed to be at good or better status, whilst chemical quality is determined to be failing relevant standards. The alternative approach outlined here describes a method to derive a site-specific species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on the ecological community which is expected to be present at the site in the absence of anthropogenic pressures (reference conditions). The method combines a conventional laboratory ecotoxicity dataset normalised for bioavailability with field measurements of the response of benthic macroinvertebrate abundance to chemical exposure. Site-specific QSref are then derived from the 5%ile of this SSD. Using this method, site QSref have been derived for zinc in an area impacted by historic mining activities. Application of QSref can result in greater agreement between chemical and ecological metrics of environmental quality compared with the use of either conventional (QScon) or bioavailability-based QS (QSbio). In addition to zinc, the approach is likely to be applicable to other metals and possibly other types of chemical stressors (e.g. pesticides). However, the methodology for deriving site-specific targets requires

  15. Effects of Roundup formulations, nutrient addition, and Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on aquatic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Rebecca L; Smith, Geoffrey R; Rettig, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic communities can be affected by herbicides, nutrient addition, and non-native fish species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine the direct and interactive effects of three stressors: (1) Roundup formulations (Roundup Weed and Grass Killer(®) and Roundup Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer Plus(®)), (2) nutrient addition, and (3) the presence of the non-native Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), on experimental pond communities. Roundup formulations had the most widespread effects on the zooplankton community, but effects varied between formulations and among taxa. The only significant effect of nutrient addition was a lowering of Daphnia abundance in the nutrient addition treatments. The abundances of Daphnia, mid-sized cladocerans, and total zooplankton were lowered by mosquitofish, but no other taxa showed significant mosquitofish effects. We found several two-way and three-way interactions among the stressors, but these varied among zooplankton taxa. Chlorophyll a levels were higher with nutrient addition but were not significantly affected by Roundup formulation or mosquitofish. Our results suggest toxicity of Roundup formulations varies among taxa, and Roundup formulations differ in their toxicity to zooplankton, but with no cascading effects on primary producers. In addition, interactions among stressors affected the zooplankton community. PMID:26944427

  16. Community structure characteristics and health assessment of aquatic ecosystem in Weihe Basin, China%渭河流域水生态系统群落结构特征及其健康评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗学; 武玮; 殷旭旺

    2016-01-01

    The community structures of periphytic algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish in the main streams and tributaries of the Weihe Basin were investigated based on aquatic ecological sampling and survey results from 77 sampling sites. An index of biotic integrity ( IBI) was used to evaluate the biological integrity of the three organism groups. The results show that the health assessment results of the Weihe Basin differ with different organism groups, due to their particular responses to environmental disturbance. It was found that the assessment results based on macroinvertebrates were the best, followed by those based on periphytic algae, and the results based on fish were the worst. Generally, the health status of the aquatic ecosystem in the Weihe Basin was poor due to the high level of human disturbance. Throughout the basin, there was a tendency for the health status upstream to be better than that downstream. The main environmental variables that influence the integrity of fish, macroinvertebrates, and periphytic algae in the Weihe Basin were different from one another. Comprehensive investigation of community structure of different organism groups in the Weihe Basin will provide important scientific support for future aquatic ecosystem restoration.%以渭河流域为对象,基于77个点位的水生态采样和调查结果,分析了该流域干支流着生藻类、大型底栖动物和鱼类3种生物类群群落结构特征,采用生物完整性指数评价了渭河流域鱼类、大型底栖动物和着生藻类的完整性,并对3种生物类群进行评价分析与比较。结果表明:基于3种生物类群的水生态系统健康评价结果存在一定差异,主要是由于3种生物类群对环境变化的响应各有不同,其中大型底栖动物的评价结果最好,其次为着生藻类,鱼类健康评价结果最差。综合来看,渭河流域水生态系统健康状况较差,受人类活动影响明显,大体表现为从

  17. Efeito de metais Cobre (Cu e Zinco (Zn sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em riachos do sul do Brasil = The effect of metals (Cu and Zn on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vendruscolo Milesi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de metais (Cu e Zn sobre a comunidade de macroinverterados bentônicos. Foram amostrados, trimestralmente, entre setembro de 2006 e junho de 2007, organismos e água em oito trechos de riachos de duas bacias hidrográficas influenciadas por urbanização e agricultura. Foram estimados os valores de densidade de organismos, riqueza taxonômica e diversidade de Shannon. Para avaliação dos dados, foram utilizados testes de variância e regressão linear simples. Os resultados demonstraram variabilidade das concentrações dos metais e da macrofauna entre as estações do ano e riachos estudados. O metal Cobre (Cu apresentou influência apenas sobre a densidade Chironomidae e o metal Zinco (Zn apresentou efeito sobre a densidade total da macrofauna bentônica e de Chironomidae. Nenhum dos metais apresentou efeitos sobre ariqueza e diversidade de macroinvertebrados. Os resultados indicam potencial bioindicador da comunidade bentônica na avaliação da qualidade integrada do ambiente.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metals (Cu and Zn on the benthic macroinvertebrate community. The organismsand water were collected quarterly between September 2006 and June 2007, in eight sites in streams of two hydrographic basins, influenced by urbanization and agriculture. The values of organism density, taxonomic richness and the Shannon diversity index were calculated. For data evaluation, tests of variance and simple linear regression were used. The results showed variability in the metal concentration and benthic community among seasons and studied streams. Cu showed influence only on Chironomidae density. Zn demonstrated effect on the benthic community and Chironomidae density. None of the metals presented effect on the macroinvertebrate richness and diversity. The results indicate a bioindicatorpotential of the benthic community in the evaluation of integral quality of the environment.

  18. Macroinvertebrate Trophic Groups in an Andean Wetland of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jader Rivera Usme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the wetland Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia the physical and chemical properties of the water and the food dietary guilds of the aquatic macroinvertebrate community were analyzed from April 2009 to January 2010. The wetland waters had a slightly acid character with high values of nitrate, ammonia and orthophosphate, so this ecosystem is classified as eutrophic to hypereutrophic.In the aquatic macroinvertebrate community six food groups were recorded; they were conformed by 27 families, 26 confirmed genera and nine to be confirmed, with a total of 6,403 individuals collected in 28 samples of macrophytes. The highest abundances corresponded to detritivores (43.5 %, collector-scrapers (31.5 %, and collector-shredders (14.1 %, which were more abundantin the months of low rainfall. Stomach contents of some of the organisms showed that most of these individuals consumed more than one food type and high amounts of organic matter. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA showed a spatial (stations and temporal (climatic seasons organization, in which trophic guilds are grouped according to their niche requirements, environmental fluctuations or anthropogenic factors. Variations in dietary groups reflected changes in the macroinvertebrate community from a functional perspective and indicated that the wetland is very disturbed by urban activities.GRUPOS TRÓFICOS DE MACROINVERTEBRADOS ACUÁTICOS EN UN HUMEDAL URBANO ANDINO DE COLOMBIAEn el humedal Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia se analizaron las condiciones físicas y químicas del agua y se estudió la comunidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos por grupos dietarios entre abril de 2009 y enero de 2010. Las aguas del humedal presentaron un carácter ligeramente ácido con valores altos de nitratos, nitrógeno amoniacal y fósforo, por lo que este ecosistema se clasificacomo eutrófico a hipereutrófico. La comunidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos registró seis grupos alimenticios, los cuales

  19. Biomarkers of toxicological responses in aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus. Variegatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Gooneratne; Drewes C

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oligochaete worms are key, non-target,macroinvertebrates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems.Aquatic and terrestrial pollution has attracted a great deal of public interest in the past 2 decades.

  20. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid: A Rebuttal and Some New Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Martina G.; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface waters was hypothesised in a recent paper by Van Dijk, Van Staalduinen and Van der Sluijs (PLOS ONE, May 2013). Although we do not disagree with imidacloprid's inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms...

  1. A Stream Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) for the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the Southeastern Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnicki, Ely; Sefick, Stephen A.; Paller, Michael H.; Jerrell, Miller S.; Prusha, Blair A.; Sterrett, Sean C.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Feminella, Jack W.

    2016-10-01

    A macroinvertebrate multimetric index is an effective tool for assessing the biological integrity of streams. However, data collected under a single protocol may not be available for an entire region. We sampled macroinvertebrates from the full extent of the Sand Hills ecoregion Level IV of the Southeastern Plains with a standard protocol during the summers of 2010-2012. We evaluated the performance of 94 metrics through a series of screening criteria and built 48 macroinvertebrate multimetric indexs with combinations of the best performing metrics, representing richness, habit, functional feeding guild, sensitivity, and community composition. A series of narrative-response tests for each macroinvertebrate multimetric index was used to find the best performing macroinvertebrate multimetric index which we called the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index. The Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index consisted of the measures Biotic Index, % Shredder taxa, Clinger taxa2/total taxa, Plecoptera and Trichoptera richness, and Tanytarsini taxa2/Chironomidae taxa. Comparison of the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index with existing assessment tools calculated with our data indicated that the Sand Hills macroinvertebrate multimetric index performs at a high level with regard to identifying degraded sites and in its response to stress gradients.

  2. Co-occurrence patterns in aquatic bacterial communities across changing permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, J.; Lovejoy, C.; Crevecoeur, S.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds and lakes are widespread across the northern landscape and may play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet knowledge about their microbial ecology is limited. We sampled a set of thaw ponds and lakes as well as shallow rock-basin lakes that are located in distinct valleys along a north-south permafrost degradation gradient. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine co-occurrence patterns among bacterial taxa (operational taxonomic units, OTUs), and then analyzed these results relative to environmental variables to identify variables controlling bacterial community structure. Network analysis was applied to identify possible ecological linkages among the bacterial taxa and with abiotic and biotic variables. The results showed an overall high level of shared taxa among bacterial communities within each valley; however, the bacterial co-occurrence patterns were non-random, with evidence of habitat preferences. There were taxonomic differences in bacterial assemblages among the different valleys that were statistically related to dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity and phytoplankton biomass. Co-occurrence networks revealed complex interdependencies within the bacterioplankton communities and showed contrasting linkages to environmental conditions among the main bacterial phyla. The thaw pond networks were composed of a limited number of highly connected taxa. This "small world network" property would render the communities more robust to environmental change but vulnerable to the loss of microbial "keystone species". These highly connected nodes (OTUs) in the network were not merely the numerically dominant taxa, and their loss would alter the organization of microbial consortia and ultimately the food web structure and functioning of these aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Method for assessment and classification of water courses by using the community of aquatic macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies about aquatic macrophytes as bio indicator community in Europe have been carried out since 70s. Efficient macrophytes indices, mainly for the assessment of trophic state, have been defined in nineties. In 2000, WFD includes macrophytes among the ecological quality elements for running waters. To implement Directive 2000/60/C E, European countries had to define methodologies to evaluate the ecological status of water bodies by macrophytes assessment, but almost all Member States continue to use trophic indexes. Researches carried out in Italy during last 10 years confirm the presence and the evaluability in all river types, and the efficiency of macrophytes community as bio indicator. Besides, many European indices have been tested to assess their applicability throughout the country. Particularly, the Index Macrofitique Biologique en Riviere (IBMR), formalized in France in 2003 as trophic index and currently used as french national method, is applicable in Italy. This index not only allows to evaluate the trophic level metric, but can also be used, as proposed in France, as index of ecological status, expressed as distance from the expected trophic state.

  4. Effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation on community structure of the aquatic microbial microcosm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shikano, Shuichi [Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University, 41 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8576 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Marine Environment Section, Water and Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    To characterise indirect effects of ionising radiation on aquatic microbial communities, effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation were investigated in a microcosm consisting of populations of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer; a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as consumer; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. Population changes in the constituent organisms were observed over 160 days after irradiation. Prokaryotic community structure was also examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. Principle response curve analysis revealed that the populations of the microcosm as a whole were not significantly affected at 100 Gy while they were adversely affected at 500-5000 Gy in a dose-dependent manner. However, some effects on each population, including each bacterial population detected by DGGE, did not depend on radiation doses, and some populations in the irradiated microcosm were larger than those of the control. These unexpected results are regarded as indirect effects through interspecies interactions, and possible mechanisms are proposed originating from population changes in other organisms co-existing in the microcosm. For example, some indirect effects on consumers and decomposers likely arose from interspecies competition within each trophic level. It is also likely that prey-predator relationships between producers and consumers caused some indirect effects on producers.

  5. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  6. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America.

  7. Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

    2010-01-01

    State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on benthic macroinvertebrate communities of urban streams in Vereda habitats, Central Brazil Influência de variáveis ambientais na comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de córregos urbanos de Veredas, Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Moura Guimaraes Souto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Veredas and the aquatic and semi-aquatic communities play a key role in watershed protection in the Cerrado Biome. Information about the effects of physical and chemical variables and habitat integrity on benthic communities has been increased in recent years; however, there is no study evaluating the influence of urbanization on macroinvertebrates of Vereda streams. Thus, improving the knowledge of the relationship between abiotic properties and benthic fauna is very important for understanding the functioning of ecological processes and health of aquatic ecosystems. This study investigated the influence of physical and chemical variables on benthic macroinvertebrate communities along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance in four Vereda streams in Uberlândia (MG, one in a preserved area and three in the urban area; METHODS: samplings were collected during the dry and rainy seasons; RESULTS: principal component analysis separated the stream in the preserved area from those in the urban area by having lower values of BOD, COD, sediment size, conductivity, detergents, pH, deposited solids and total dissolved solids. Pollution sensitive groups (e.g., Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera were associated to the stream in the preserved area, and more tolerant groups (e.g., Chironomidae and Oligochaeta had greater abundance in the streams of the urban area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis indicated that dissolved oxygen, conductivity, BOD, oil and grease, and turbidity explained 56% of the variance in the distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates; CONCLUSIONS: Benthic communities of Vereda streams in urban areas in the Cerrado Biome seem to be highly affected by human activities that increase water organic pollution and sedimentation.OBJETIVO: Veredas e comunidades aquáticas e semi-aquáticas desempenham importante papel na proteção das bacias hidrográficas no Bioma Cerrado. Informações sobre efeitos de variáveis físico-químicas e da

  9. Mesocosms of aquatic bacterial communities from the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (Mexico): a tool to test bacterial community response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Travisano, Michael; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Microbial communities are responsible for important ecosystem processes, and their activities are regulated by environmental factors such as temperature and solar ultraviolet radiation. Here we investigate changes in aquatic microbial community structure, diversity, and evenness in response to changes in temperature and UV radiation. For this purpose, 15 mesocosms were seeded with both microbial mat communities and plankton from natural pools within the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (Mexico). Clone libraries (16S rRNA) were obtained from water samples at the beginning and at the end of the experiment (40 days). Phylogenetic analysis indicated substantial changes in aquatic community composition and structure in response to temperature and UV radiation. Extreme treatments with elevation in temperature or UV radiation reduced diversity in relation to the Control treatments, causing a reduction in richness and increase in dominance, with a proliferation of a few resistant operational taxonomic units. Each phylum was affected differentially by the new conditions, which translates in a differential modification of ecosystem functioning. This suggests that the impact of environmental stress, at least at short term, will reshape the aquatic bacterial communities of this unique ecosystem. This work also demonstrates the possibility of designing manageable synthetic microbial community ecosystems where controlled environmental variables can be manipulated. Therefore, microbial model systems offer a complementary approach to field and laboratory studies of global research problems associated with the environment.

  10. Mesocosms of aquatic bacterial communities from the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (Mexico): a tool to test bacterial community response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Travisano, Michael; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Microbial communities are responsible for important ecosystem processes, and their activities are regulated by environmental factors such as temperature and solar ultraviolet radiation. Here we investigate changes in aquatic microbial community structure, diversity, and evenness in response to changes in temperature and UV radiation. For this purpose, 15 mesocosms were seeded with both microbial mat communities and plankton from natural pools within the Cuatro Cienegas Basin (Mexico). Clone libraries (16S rRNA) were obtained from water samples at the beginning and at the end of the experiment (40 days). Phylogenetic analysis indicated substantial changes in aquatic community composition and structure in response to temperature and UV radiation. Extreme treatments with elevation in temperature or UV radiation reduced diversity in relation to the Control treatments, causing a reduction in richness and increase in dominance, with a proliferation of a few resistant operational taxonomic units. Each phylum was affected differentially by the new conditions, which translates in a differential modification of ecosystem functioning. This suggests that the impact of environmental stress, at least at short term, will reshape the aquatic bacterial communities of this unique ecosystem. This work also demonstrates the possibility of designing manageable synthetic microbial community ecosystems where controlled environmental variables can be manipulated. Therefore, microbial model systems offer a complementary approach to field and laboratory studies of global research problems associated with the environment. PMID:22460437

  11. Next-Generation Sequencing of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Comparison of Experimental Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, Régis; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are a common group of freshwater benthic invertebrates known to be very sensitive to environmental changes and currently used as bioindicators in some countries. However, more extensive application of oligochaetes for assessing the ecological quality of sediments in watercourses and lakes would require overcoming the difficulties related to morphology-based identification of oligochaetes species. This study tested the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) of a standard cytochrome c oxydase I (COI) barcode as a tool for the rapid assessment of oligochaete diversity in environmental samples, based on mixed specimen samples. To know the composition of each sample we Sanger sequenced every specimen present in these samples. Our study showed that a large majority of OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit) could be detected by NGS analyses. We also observed congruence between the NGS and specimen abundance data for several but not all OTUs. Because the differences in sequence abundance data were consistent across samples, we exploited these variations to empirically design correction factors. We showed that such factors increased the congruence between the values of oligochaetes-based indices inferred from the NGS and the Sanger-sequenced specimen data. The validation of these correction factors by further experimental studies will be needed for the adaptation and use of NGS technology in biomonitoring studies based on oligochaete communities. PMID:26866802

  12. Next-Generation Sequencing of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Comparison of Experimental Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Vivien

    Full Text Available Aquatic oligochaetes are a common group of freshwater benthic invertebrates known to be very sensitive to environmental changes and currently used as bioindicators in some countries. However, more extensive application of oligochaetes for assessing the ecological quality of sediments in watercourses and lakes would require overcoming the difficulties related to morphology-based identification of oligochaetes species. This study tested the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS of a standard cytochrome c oxydase I (COI barcode as a tool for the rapid assessment of oligochaete diversity in environmental samples, based on mixed specimen samples. To know the composition of each sample we Sanger sequenced every specimen present in these samples. Our study showed that a large majority of OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit could be detected by NGS analyses. We also observed congruence between the NGS and specimen abundance data for several but not all OTUs. Because the differences in sequence abundance data were consistent across samples, we exploited these variations to empirically design correction factors. We showed that such factors increased the congruence between the values of oligochaetes-based indices inferred from the NGS and the Sanger-sequenced specimen data. The validation of these correction factors by further experimental studies will be needed for the adaptation and use of NGS technology in biomonitoring studies based on oligochaete communities.

  13. Aquatic community response in a groundwater-fed desert lake to Holocene desiccation of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Verschuren, Dirk; Fagot, Maureen; Rumes, Bob; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Kröpelin, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The finely laminated sediment record of a permanent, hypersaline, desert oasis lake in the Ounianga region of northeastern Chad presents a unique opportunity to document the hydrological evolution of this groundwater-fed aquatic ecosystem during mid- and late-Holocene desiccation of the Sahara. In this study we reconstruct long-term changes in zoobenthos and zooplankton communities of Lake Yoa as their early-Holocene freshwater habitat changed into the hypersaline conditions prevailing today. Chironomid production peaked during the fresh-to-saline transition period, then stabilized at about half that of the earlier freshwater ecosystem. Quantitative salinity inferences based on fossil chironomid assemblages indicate that the fresh-to-saline transition occurred fairly abruptly between ˜4100 and 3400 cal yr BP, but that the ecosystem was buffered against shorter-term climate fluctuations due to continuous inflow of fossil groundwater. The mixture of tropical-African and southern Palaearctic chironomid faunas in the Lake Yoa fossil record required us to address several methodological issues concerning chironomid-based salinity reconstruction, and the applicability of a calibration dataset based on tropical East and West African lakes to this Sahara desert locality. The most coherent reconstruction was obtained with an inference model that applies a weighted best-modern-analogue (WMAT) transfer function to the African calibration dataset expanded with six Sahara lakes.

  14. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  15. 长江口互花米草生长区大型底栖动物的群落特征%The Community Structure of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Associated with Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze Estuary, in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志发; 章飞军; 刘文亮; 陆健健

    2007-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Spartina alterniflora zones in the Yangtze Estuary, in China, were investigated seasonally in 2005, and their structure and biodiversity were analyzed. Twenty-one species were identified, across four Classes;10 species of Crustacea, five species of Polychaeta, five species of Gastropoda, and one species of Lamellibranchia. Dominant species included: Assiminea sp., Notomastus latericeus, Cerithidea largillierl, Glauconome chinensi and Gammaridae sp. Functional groups were comprised of a phytophagous group and a detritivorous group. The average density of all benthic macroinvertebrates was 650.5±719.2 inds/m2 in the survey area. The high value of the standard deviation of the average density was a result of abundant Assiminea sp. at Beihu tidal flats. The average density of macroinvertebrates from Beihu tidal flat, Chongming Dongtan to Jinshanwei tidal flat decreased gradually. There was significant difference between compositions and abundance of macroinvertebrates along the estuary gradient (P<0.05). The density and biodiversity were highest in summer and lowest in winter. The mean biomass of macroinvertebrates was 20.8±6.1?g/m2. Biomass changed seasonally in the same way as density, with the change in biomass being: summer (Aug.) >autumn (Oct.) >spring (Apr.) > winter (Dec.). A BIO-ENV analysis showed that the mean grain size of sediment, height of Spartina and salinity were the major factors which affected the structure of the macroinvertebrate community. Variations in the community structure were probably caused by the population dynamics of S.alterniflora along with the variation in sampling time and location.%2005年对长江口潮滩湿地互花米草(Spartina alterniflora)生长区不同季节大型底栖动物群落特征的研究表明:长江口互花米草生长区的大型底栖动物有21种,其中甲壳纲10种、多毛纲5种、腹足纲5种、辨鳃纲1种.主要种类有拟沼螺(Assiminea sp

  16. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  18. Macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics in Cerna River (western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina-Simona Răescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine water quality in Cerna River, researchers carried out analyses into thestructure and dynamics of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as well as into the physical-chemicalfactors. 12 Groups of macroinvertebrates were identified. Density, abundance and frequency values recordedfor benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each samplecollecting station. Researchers noticed a direct influence of Băile Herculane town and dam upon thecommunity submitted to study, the maximum density and percentage numerical abundance beingestablished for Oligochaeta and Diptera, benthic groups tolerant to changes in aquatic ecosystemsqualitative parameters. The community of organisms including Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera,Odonata and Coleoptera was characterized by a decrease in density and abundance values upstream -downstream as water quality is more and more degraded. This deterioration is also emphasized by the bioticindex EPT/Ch values.

  19. Comparing effects of lake- and watershed-scale influences on communities of aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hanson

    Full Text Available Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships.

  20. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-05

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years.

  1. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years

  2. Estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de um riacho de serra em Itatinga, São Paulo, Brasil Structure of a benthic macroinvertebrates community in a mountain stream in Itatinga, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla O. Ribeiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de um riacho de terceira ordem foi analisada em duas estações do ano, chuvosa e seca. Substratos artificiais foram amostrados semanalmente, ao longo de 56 dias para a coleta de macroinvertebrados, nas duas estações do ano. A composição da comunidade foi caracterizada por uma baixa diversidade, ou seja, presença de muitas espécies raras e poucas espécies abundantes nas duas estações do ano. Uma alta dominância de Chironomidae (Diptera nas duas estações, seguida de Baetidae (Ephemeroptera e Ancylidae (Mollusca, respectivamente nas estações chuvosa e seca, foi característico. Os resultados obtidos reforçam a grande importância de Chironomidae na comunidade bentônica de riachos e salientam a influência da sazonalidade sobre a estruturação destes organismos.The benthic macroinvertebrates community of a third order stream was studied during the wet and dry seasons. The community was analyzed using artificial substrates sampled weekly during 56 days in each season. The community composition was characterized by low species diversity, with high number of rare species and few abundant species for both seasons. A high dominance of Chinonomidae (Diptera for both seasons, followed by Baetidae (Ephemeroptera and Ancylidae (Mollusca, respectively for the wet and dry seasons, was found. The results reinforced the high importance of Chironomidae and the seasonal effect determining the stream benthic community structure.

  3. Do Cement Boulders Mimic Natural Boulders for Macro-Invertebrates in the Southern Caspian Sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Pourjomeh, Fatemeh; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Kiabi, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    The macro-invertebrates on natural (rock) and artificial (cement) boulders were compared along the southern Caspian Sea and the effect of structural features of boulders (i.e. orientation, facing, surface complexity, the degree of exposure to the wave action) on macro-invertebrate communities were investigated. Ten locations with rock walls in the southern Caspian Sea were investigated in which the isolated boulders of natural and artificial types with similar dimensions were haphazardly ...

  4. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stanley E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  5. An "assemblage toxicity index" to improve characterization of effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic risk assessments are made uncertain by the use of measures of effect for only one level of effect and by the use of only one percentile in sensitivity distributions for the variation of this measure of effect across an assemblage of taxa. This leaves undefined the severi...

  6. Jumping into the deep-end: results from a pilot impact evaluation of a community-based aquatic exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Morello, Renata T; Nolan, Genevieve A; De Silva, Renee D; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    This multi-center quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to evaluate changes in pain, joint stiffness, physical function, and quality of life over 12 weeks in adults with musculoskeletal conditions attending 'Waves' aquatic exercise classes. A total of 109 adults (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 24-93 years) with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited across 18 Australian community aquatic centers. The intervention is a peer-led, 45 min, weekly aquatic exercise class including aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises (n = 67). The study also included a control group of people not participating in Waves or other formal exercise (n = 42). Outcomes were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQoL five dimensions survey (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12 weeks. Satisfaction with Waves classes was also measured at 12 weeks. Eighty two participants (43 Waves and 39 control) completed the study protocol and were included in the analysis. High levels of satisfaction with classes were reported by Waves participants. Over 90 % of participants reported Waves classes were enjoyable and would recommend classes to others. Waves participants demonstrated improvements in WOMAC and EQ-5D scores however between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. Peer-led aquatic exercise classes appear to improve pain, joint stiffness, physical function and quality of life for people with musculoskeletal conditions. The diverse study sample is likely to have limited the power to detect significant changes in outcomes. Larger studies with an adequate follow-up period are needed to confirm effects.

  7. Impact assessment of agricultural driven stressors on benthic macroinvertebrates using simulated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, K; Panagopoulos, Y; Mimikou, M

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural land use poses a significant threat to the ecological integrity of rivers in Europe. Particularly in the Mediterranean, water abstraction and nutrient application are anthropogenic pressures that have a significant impact on aquatic habitats and biodiversity. In this article, we assessed the effects of agricultural management practices on benthic macroinvertebrates in a large river basin of central Greece using simulated data based on the application of SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model. Physicochemical and hydrological output variables of the model were used as predictors of the ASPT (Average Score Per Taxon) metric based on a correlated component regression analysis (CCR) built on empirical data. The estimation of ASPT was performed for the wet and dry seasons within a 20-year period for a total of 47 subbasins under the baseline conditions and after implementing three management scenarios that reduced: a) irrigation water applied to crops by 30%, b) chemical fertilization applied to crops by 30% and c) both irrigation and fertilization by 30%. The results revealed that application of the reduced irrigation resulted to a slight increase of the simulated dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration (DIN), which in turn decreased the mean ASPT in 21 of the 47 subbasins implying a negative effect on the macroinvertebrate communities. On the contrary, the reduction of fertilization as well as the combined scenario decreased both the simulated DIN and phosphate concentration causing an increase of the mean ASPT for a total of 40 of the 47 subbasins. Based on these results, we suggest that the best management option is a combined practice of deficit irrigation and fertilization reduction since it improved water quality, increased ASPT values and saved a considerable amount of water. Overall, this work demonstrates a simple methodology that can efficiently assess the effects of agricultural management practices on biotic indicators. PMID:26311349

  8. Impact assessment of agricultural driven stressors on benthic macroinvertebrates using simulated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, K; Panagopoulos, Y; Mimikou, M

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural land use poses a significant threat to the ecological integrity of rivers in Europe. Particularly in the Mediterranean, water abstraction and nutrient application are anthropogenic pressures that have a significant impact on aquatic habitats and biodiversity. In this article, we assessed the effects of agricultural management practices on benthic macroinvertebrates in a large river basin of central Greece using simulated data based on the application of SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model. Physicochemical and hydrological output variables of the model were used as predictors of the ASPT (Average Score Per Taxon) metric based on a correlated component regression analysis (CCR) built on empirical data. The estimation of ASPT was performed for the wet and dry seasons within a 20-year period for a total of 47 subbasins under the baseline conditions and after implementing three management scenarios that reduced: a) irrigation water applied to crops by 30%, b) chemical fertilization applied to crops by 30% and c) both irrigation and fertilization by 30%. The results revealed that application of the reduced irrigation resulted to a slight increase of the simulated dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration (DIN), which in turn decreased the mean ASPT in 21 of the 47 subbasins implying a negative effect on the macroinvertebrate communities. On the contrary, the reduction of fertilization as well as the combined scenario decreased both the simulated DIN and phosphate concentration causing an increase of the mean ASPT for a total of 40 of the 47 subbasins. Based on these results, we suggest that the best management option is a combined practice of deficit irrigation and fertilization reduction since it improved water quality, increased ASPT values and saved a considerable amount of water. Overall, this work demonstrates a simple methodology that can efficiently assess the effects of agricultural management practices on biotic indicators.

  9. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nishadh, K. A.; K.S.A. Das

    2012-01-01

    In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8%) belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), Heteroptera (bugs), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles) and T...

  10. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  11. Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Robert M.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    We illustrate the importance of subsurface refuges for conservation of aquatic fauna with our studies of karstic wetlands in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Managers have proposed that water levels there should not fall more than 46 cm below ground level for more than 90 days annually. In four areas, 84% of solution holes were less than 46 cm deep and holes deeper than lm were rare (communities early in the dry season, but that structure emerged as drying progressed. Native cyprinodontiforms were abundant in shallow solution holes that dry annually under current management, while predatory species (often non-native) tended to dominate deeper holes. Water quality was correlated with hole volume and with composition of late dry-season fish communities. Tremendous losses of fish biomass occurred when water levels fell below 46 cm from ground surface. Most native taxa were unlikely to survive in the deep refuges that held predatory non-native taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aquatic Communities and Selected Water Chemistry in St. Vrain Creek near the City of Longmont, Colorado, Wastewater-Treatment Plant, 2005 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Sprague, Lori A.; Collins, Jim A.; Cox, Oliver N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Longmont, Colo., began a study to document chemical characteristics of St. Vrain Creek that had previously been unavailable either due to high cost of analysis or lack of analytical capability. Stream samples were collected at seven sites on St. Vrain Creek during the spring of 2005 and 2006 for analysis of wastewater compounds. A Lagrangian-sampling design was followed during each sampling event, and time-of-travel studies were conducted just prior to each sampling event to determine appropriate sampling times for the synoptic. In addition, semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate hydrophobic organic chemicals, were installed at six sites during the spring of 2005 and 2006 for approximately 4 weeks. After retrieval, contaminant residues concentrated in the semipermeable membrane devices were recovered and used in a toxicity assay that provided a screen for aryl hydrocarbon receptor type compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey summarized information on macroinvertebrate and fish communities known from St. Vrain Creek dating back to the early 1900s in order to assess their utility in evaluating wastewater-treatment plant upgrades and habitat improvement projects. Unfortunately, because of inconsistencies in data collection these data cannot be used as intended; however, they are useful for understanding to some degree gross patterns in fish species distribution, but less so for macroinvertebrates.

  13. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette;

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy...... stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate...... the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence...

  14. Effect of zinc on diversity of riverine benthic macroinvertebrates: estimation of safe concentrations from field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kagaya, Takashi; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Sakakibara, Mayu

    2011-10-01

    We conducted field surveys at 25 sites in three Japanese catchments to provide conservative estimates of the safe concentration of zinc (Zn) for the protection of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity. The relationships between the Zn concentration and six macroinvertebrate metrics for taxon richness were determined by using regression analysis; this included a piecewise regression model, where two lines are joined at an unknown point. For each metric the piecewise regression model with a zero slope below a threshold concentration was selected as the best model to explain the influence of Zn. Under the assumption that macroinvertebrate diversity reductions of overprotective for macroinvertebrate diversity. Field studies are useful for evaluating the level of protectiveness of safe concentrations (water quality standards) based on individual-level effects from laboratory toxicity tests, and this evaluation process will have a crucial role in implementing more purpose-driven ecological risk managements that aim to protect natural populations and communities. PMID:21721036

  15. Macroinvertebrate diets reflect tributary inputs and turbidity-driven changes in food availability in the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical changes to rivers associated with large dams (e.g., water temperature) directly alter macroinvertebrate assemblages. Large dams also may indirectly alter these assemblages by changing the food resources available to support macroinvertebrate production. We examined the diets of the 4 most common macroinvertebrate taxa in the Colorado River through Glen and Grand Canyons, seasonally, at 6 sites for 2.5 y. We compared macroinvertebrate diet composition to the composition of epilithon (rock and cliff faces) communities and suspended organic seston to evaluate the degree to which macroinvertebrate diets tracked downstream changes in resource availability. Diets contained greater proportions of algal resources in the tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam and more terrestrial-based resources at sites downstream of the 1st major tributary. As predicted, macroinvertebrate diets tracked turbidity-driven changes in resource availability, and river turbidity partially explained variability in macroinvertebrate diets. The relative proportions of resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates ranged from dominance by algae to terrestrial-based resources, despite greater assimilation efficiencies for algal than terrestrial C. Terrestrial resources were most important during high turbidity conditions, which occurred during the late-summer monsoon season (July–October) when tributaries contributed large amounts of organic matter to the mainstem and suspended sediments reduced algal production. Macroinvertebrate diets were influenced by seasonal changes in tributary inputs and turbidity, a result suggesting macroinvertebrate diets in regulated rivers may be temporally dynamic and driven by tributary inputs.

  16. The Impact of Endothall on the Aquatic Plant Community of Kress Lake, Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Jenifer K.; Hamel, K. S.; O'Neal, S. L,; Moore,, James E.

    2004-01-01

    CA dense mat-forming population of Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L . ) was interfering with fishing and recreation in a small western Washington lake. A low concentration (1.5 mg/L active ingredient) of the herbicide endothall formulated as Aquathol® K was used in 2000 to attempt to selectively control the Eurasian watermilfoil. Aquatic plant biomass and frequency data were collected before treatment, ten weeks after treatment and during the gr...

  17. Response of aquatic hyphomycete communities to enhanced stream retention in areas impacted by commercial forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Laitung, Beryl; Pretty, James L.; Chauvet, Eric; Dobson, Mike

    2002-01-01

    International audience 1. Aquatic hyphomycetes are an important component of detritus processing in streams. Their response to enhanced stream retentiveness was tested by manipulating three streams located in Kielder Forest (northern England), a large plantation of exotic conifers, and two streams in Montagne Noire (south-west France) dominated by native broadleaf woodland. Treatment was by placement of logs or plastic litter traps into a 10-20 m stream section. Fungal spores were collecte...

  18. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Friberg, Nikolai; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a ...

  19. The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC₅₀ of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. PMID:23830885

  20. A bioassessment of lakes in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, using benthic macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. SOMERS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and other pollutants have increased in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric pollutants impact aquatic communities through a number of processes, but due to a lack of regional monitoring programs potential biological impacts have not been assessed. In this study, a bioassessment was conducted using approaches borrowed from a variety of protocols to establish a baseline dataset, determine appropriate methodologies, and to assess the current impact of emissions on benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI communities in the AOSR. As a result, 32 lakes, including 5 test lakes located in a modelled high deposition region, were sampled for water chemistry and BMI. The Reference Condition Approach (RCA was used because a baseline dataset does not exist and data were evaluated using three separate statistical techniques. All of the statistical methods used: One Sample T-Tests, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA and Test Site Analysis (TSA, showed that BMI assemblages in test lakes differed from BMI assemblages in reference lakes. Traditional statistics classified all 5 test lakes as "significantly impaired" whereas TSA identified 3 of the 5 test lakes as only potentially impaired and 2 lakes were in "reference condition". The variability in lake attributes present challenges in interpreting BMI data and establishing an accurate biomonitoring program in the AOSR which need to be addressed in future assessment studies.

  1. Effects of grade control structures on the macroinvertebrate assemblage of an agriculturally impacted stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvan, M.E.; Stewart, T.W.; Pierce, C.L.; Larson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 400 rock rip-rap grade control structures (hereafter GCS) were recently placed in streams of western Iowa, USA to reduce streambank erosion and protect bridge infrastructure and farmland. In this region, streams are characterized by channelized reaches, highly incised banks and silt and sand substrates that normally support low macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity. Therefore, GCS composed of rip-rap provide the majority of coarse substrate habitat for benthic macroinvertebrates in these streams. We sampled 20 sites on Walnut Creek, Montgomery County, Iowa to quantify macroinvertebrate assemblage characteristics (1) on GCS rip-rap and at sites located (2) 5-50 m upstream of GCS, (3) 5-50 m downstream of GCS and (4) at least 1 km from any GCS (five sites each). Macroinvertebrate biomass, numerical densities and diversity were greatest at sites with coarse substrates, including GCS sites and one natural riffle site and relatively low at remaining sites with soft substrates. Densities of macroinvertebrates in the orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Acariformes were abundant on GCS rip-rap. Increases in macroinvertebrate biomass, density and diversity at GCS may improve local efficiency of breakdown of organic matter and nutrient and energy flow, and provide enhanced food resources for aquatic vertebrates. However, lack of positive macroinvertebrate responses immediately upstream and downstream of GCS suggest that positive effects might be restricted to the small areas of streambed covered by GCS. Improved understanding of GCS effects at both local and ecosystem scales is essential for stream management when these structures are present. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  3. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  4. Off-site impacts of agricultural composting: role of terrestrially derived organic matter in structuring aquatic microbial communities and their metabolic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Thomas; Merroune, Asmaa; Bettarel, Yvan; Got, Patrice; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal; Thu, Thuy D; Toan, Tran D; Rochelle-Newall, Emma

    2014-12-01

    While considered as sustainable and low-cost agricultural amendments, the impacts of organic fertilizers on downstream aquatic microbial communities remain poorly documented. We investigated the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter leaching from agricultural soil amended with compost, vermicompost or biochar and assessed their effects on lake microbial communities, in terms of viral and bacterial abundances, community structure and metabolic potential. The addition of compost and vermicompost significantly increased the amount of dissolved organic carbon in the leachate compared with soil alone. Leachates from these additions, either with or without biochar, were highly bioavailable to aquatic microbial communities, although reducing the metabolic potential of the community and harbouring more specific communities. Although not affecting bacterial richness or taxonomic distributions, the specific addition of biochar affected the original lake bacterial communities, resulting in a strongly different community. This could be partly explained by viral burst and converging bacterial abundances throughout the samples. These results underline the necessity to include off-site impacts of agricultural amendments when considering their cascading effect on downstream aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25195703

  5. Spatial and seasonal variation in the macro-invertebrates and physico-chemical parameters of the Enfranz River, Lake Tana sub-basin (Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehari, A.K.; Wondie, A.; Mingist, M.; Vijverberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the water quality of the Enfranz River by studying the distribution of macro-invertebrate taxa on the longitudinal gradient of the river. The macro-invertebrate community of the Enfranz River, located northwest of Bahir Dar city in the southern part of L

  6. Stream Macroinvertebrate Occurrence along Gradients in Organic Pollution and Eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik;

    2010-01-01

    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part...... to be slightly less sensitive than Leuctra. Other plecopterans such as Isoperla showed a similar type of response curve to Leuctra (negative exponential) but occurred at sites with relatively high concentrations of BOD5 up to 3-4 mg L-1. In contrast, the response curve of the isopod Asellus aquaticus followed...... a saturation function reaching a plateau above 3-4 mg L-1 BOD5 and the dipteran Chironomus showed an exponential increase in occurrence with increasing BOD5 concentration. Macroinvertebrate occurrence appeared to be related primarily to concentrations of BOD5, NH4-N and total-P whereas there were almost...

  7. Genetic fingerprinting of plankton community provides new insights into aquatic ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qingyun; YU Yuhe; FENG Weisong

    2006-01-01

    Over the past two decades, molecular techniques have been widely used in ecological study and molecular ecology has been one of the most important branches of ecology. Meanwhile, genetic fingerprinting analyses have significantly enhanced our knowledge of the diversity and evolutionary relations of the planktonic organisms. Compared with conventional approaches in ecological study ( e. g.morphological classification), genetic fingerprinting techniques are simpler and much more effective. This review provides an overview of the principles, advantages and limitations of the commonly used DNA fingerprinting techniques in plankton research. The aim of this overview is to assess where we have been, where we are now and what the future holds for solving aquatic ecological problems with molecular-level information.

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA COMUNIDAD DE MACROINVERTEBRADOS DE LA QUEBRADA PALOBLANCO DE LA CUENCA DEL RÍO OTÚN (RISARALDA, COLOMBIA Characterization of the Macroinvertebrate Community of Paloblanco Gulch, Otun River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA BERNAL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de las comunidades de macroinvertebrados presentes en la quebrada Paloblanco, ubicada en la cuenca del río Otún (Risaralda, Colombia. Los puntos de muestreo seleccionados corresponden a la cabecera y la zona cercana a la desembocadura en el río Otún, ambos con características geomorfológicas de corrientes de primer orden. En cada punto se colectaron los macroinvertebrados de las unidades funcionales hojarasca, epiliton, musgo y grava, junto con una muestra de deriva y fauna general (sin discriminar unidad funcional. Se encontraron 42 familias de Insecta, además de Acari, Annelida, Crustacea e Hirudinea. Igualmente se encontraron familias de presencia exclusiva en cada punto, mostrando diferencias en la composición de las comunidades. Los índices ecológicos empleados mostraron una mayor diversidad en punto bajo y diferencias entre algunas de las unidades funcionales, relacionados con el medio y los hábitos presentes. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta los conceptos de continuo y zonación de los ríos. A pesar de tener condiciones de primer orden, existen variaciones a pequeña escala entre los puntos de muestreo, que están relacionadas con la intervención antrópica en la zona aledaña a punto bajo.A research on the macroinvertebrate community was made in the Paloblanco gulch, located in the Otun River basin, (Risaralda, Colombia. Two sample points were selected, the headwaters and the mouth’s closer zone in the Otun River and both presented first order river geomorphology characteristics. The functional units (litter, stone, moss and gravel were collected and conjunctly with derive and general fauna samples (not including discrimination in the functional units were taken at each point. 42 Insecta families were founded, also Acari, Annelida, Crustacea and Hirudinea. Equally, exclusive families were found in each point, showing a difference in the community composition. The ecological indexes were

  9. An evaluation of the relative quality of dike pools for benthic macroinvertebrates in the Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B.C.; Allert, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A habitat-based aquatic macroinvertebrate study was initiated in the Lower Missouri River to evaluate relative quality and biological condition of dike pool habitats. Water-quality and sediment-quality parameters and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure were measured from depositional substrates at 18 sites. Sediment porewater was analysed for ammonia, sulphide, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. Whole sediments were analysed for particle-size distribution, organic carbon and contaminants. Field water-quality parameters were measured at subsurface and at the sediment-water interface. Pool area adjacent and downstream from each dike was estimated from aerial photography. Macroinvertebrate biotic condition scores were determined by integrating the following indicator response metrics: % of Ephemeroptera (mayflies), % of Oligochaeta worms, Shannon Diversity Index and total taxa richness. Regression models were developed for predicting macroinvertebrate scores based on individual water-quality and sediment-quality variables and a water/sediment-quality score that integrated all variables. Macroinvertebrate scores generated significant determination coefficients with dike pool area (R2=0.56), oxidation–reduction potential (R2=0.81) and water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.71). Dissolved oxygen saturation, oxidation-reduction potential and total ammonia in sediment porewater were most important in explaining variation in macroinvertebrate scores. The best two-variable regression models included dike pool size + the water/sediment-quality score (R2=0.84) and dike pool size + oxidation-reduction potential (R2=0.93). Results indicate that dike pool size and chemistry of sediments and overlying water can be used to evaluate dike pool quality and identify environmental conditions necessary for optimizing diversity and productivity of important aquatic macroinvertebrates. A combination of these variables could be utilized for measuring the success of habitat enhancement

  10. Effects of burn status and conditioning on colonization of wood by stream macroinvertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, P. G.; Dias, S; Pinto, P.; Merten, E. C.; Robinson, C.T.; Warren, D. R.; Rego, F. C.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of changing climate and anthropogenic activities is increasing the probability of fire around the world. When fires occur in riparian zones, associated tree mortality can add wood to streams directly, or wood may fall onto the forest floor and remain there for some time before moving into stream channels. Because wood provides critical structure for aquatic macroinvertebrates, our objectives were to assess the effects of wood burn status, conditioning, and their interactio...

  11. Impacts of Sedimentation from Oil and Gas Development on Stream Macroinvertebrates in Two Adjacent Watersheds of the Allegheny National Forest of Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, K.; Harris, S.; Edenborn, H.M.; Sams, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fritz, Kelley'*, Steven Harris', Harry Edenborn2, and James Sams2. 'Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, PA 16214, 2National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236. Impacts a/Sedimentation/rom Oil and Gas Development on Stream Macroinvertebrates in Two Adjacent Watersheds a/the Allegheny National Forest a/Northwestern Pennsylvania - The Allegheny National Forest (ANF), located in northwestern Pennsy Ivania, is a multiuse forest combining commercial development with recreational and conservation activities. As such, portions of the ANF have been heavily logged and are now the subject of widespread oil and gas development. This rapid increase in oil and gas development has led to concerns about sediment runoff from the dirt and gravel roads associated with development and the potential impact on the aquatic biota of the receiving streams. We examined and compared the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in two adjacent watersheds of similar size and topography in the ANF; the Hedgehog Run watershed has no oil and gas development, while the adjacent Grunder Run watershed has extensive oil and gas development. In Hedgehog and Grunder Run, we collected monthly kicknet samples from riffles and glides at two sites from April to October 2010. At the same intervals, we measured standard water quality parameters, including conductivity and turbidity. Preliminary results have indicated much higher turbidity in Grunder Run, but little difference in the diversity and abundance of benthic macro invertebrates inhabiting the two streams.

  12. Catchment land-use effects on littoral macroinvertebrates in response to local habitat structure and trophic state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGoff, Elaine; Sandin, Leif Leonard

    2012-01-01

    macroinvertebrate community structure: trophic status, substrate variables or riparian variables. We also investigated what influence each of these groups of variables has on the other. The impact of large scale land use patterns was also investigated, to determine if macroinvertebrates responded differently in two...... different catchment land use types: impaired and unimpaired. Partial canonical ordination analysis showed that substrate variables were the most important for describing macroinvertebrate community variation in both catchment land use classes, followed by riparian descriptors, with the trophic signal only...... within substrate habitat effects, and were masked by local habitat heterogeneity. This indicates that, at least in the Swedish situation, greater care needs to be taken in stratifying the substrate sampled in order to see this nutrient pressure-macroinvertebrate response relationship...

  13. [Spatial-temporal variation of the macroinvertebrate epibiont community on red mangrove prop roots Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) at La Mancha coastal lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marcela; López-Portillo, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    La Mancha lagoon is connected to the Gulf of Mexico through an estuarine ephemeral inlet, a sand bar, which opens during the rainy season and closes during the late fall and the winter storm season. As the lagoon fills up with the permanent stream flow into its Southern part, the water level increases and the sand bar opens up, releasing huge volumes of water into the ocean and leaving the previously flooded intertidal zone exposed to drying. In this study, we described the spatial and temporal variations of structure and composition of the community living on the surface of red mangrove prop roots, related to the hydrodynamic of the estuarine inlet. Four red mangrove prop roots were collected every three months, over an annual period, at ten sampling stations. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water depth and transparency were also measured at each sampling event. To describe the identity, abundance, biomass, and specific richness of epibiont coverage on the prop roots, measurements were taken at 10 cm intervals (herein called "horizons"). A total of 59,632 specimens and a total biomass of 172 g/cm2 were registered, and a maximum of eleven horizons presented at least one" species of epibionts. Two species of polychaetes, 12 of mollusks and 14 of crustaceans were identified, with Mytilopsis leucophaeata as the most abundant, Ficopomatus miamiensis as the most common and Crassostrea rhizophorae with the highest contribution in biomass. Sampling effort was assessed using species accumulation curves, resulting that the efficiency was, in general, greater than 90% of the richness predicted by asymptotic models. The hydrodynamics of the estuarine inlet had a great influence on the environmental conditions of the lagoon and on the spatial and temporal variation of the epibiont community: (a) when the inlet is open, there is a North-South gradient in environmental parameters (b) when the inlet is closed and the water level increases, the epibionts especially

  14. Periphytic photosynthetic stimulation of extracellular enzyme activity in aquatic microbial communities associated with decaying typha litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Steven N; Schaecher, Mark; Neely, Robert K; Kuehn, Kevin A

    2006-11-01

    We examined the effect of light on extracellular enzyme activities of periphytic/endogenous microbial assemblages associated with decomposing litter of an emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia within a small inland wetland in southeastern Michigan. Standing-dead Typha leaf litter was collected, placed into floating wire mesh litter baskets, and submerged in a wetland pool. Enzyme saturation assays were conducted on three occasions following litter submergence (days 9, 28, and 44) to generate saturation curves for the individual enzymes tested and to examine potential differences in enzyme saturation kinetics during microbial colonization and development. Experimental light manipulations were conducted on two occasions during microbial development (days 10 and 29). Short-term (30 min) light exposure significantly increased extracellular beta-glucosidase activity of litter-associated microbial communities. Activities of beta-xylosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase were not stimulated, and stimulation of phosphatase activity was variable. The exact mechanism for increased enzyme activity remains unknown, but it may have been increased pH arising from periphytic algal photosynthesis. These results suggest that extracellular enzyme activity in microbial communities colonizing natural organic substrata may be influenced by light/photosynthesis, as has previously been demonstrated for periphyton communities grown on artificial, inert substrata. Thus, light/photosynthetic mediated stimulation of extracellular enzyme activities may be a common occurrence in microbial communities associated with natural decaying plant litter in wetlands and might engender diurnal patterns in other microbial decay processes (e.g., production, organic matter decomposition, and mineralization). PMID:17082997

  15. Co-occurrence patterns in aquatic bacterial communities across changing permafrost landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Comte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost thaw ponds and lakes are widespread across the northern landscape and may play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet knowledge about their microbial ecology is limited. We sampled a set of thaw ponds and lakes as well as shallow rock-basin lakes that are located in distinct valleys along a North–South permafrost degradation gradient. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine co-occurrence patterns among bacterial taxa, and then analyzed these results relative to environmental variables to identify factors controlling bacterial community structure. Network analysis was applied to identify possible ecological linkages among the bacterial taxa and with abiotic and biotic variables. The results showed an overall high level of shared taxa among bacterial communities within each valley, however the bacterial co-occurrence patterns were non-random, with evidence of habitat preferences. There were taxonomic differences in bacterial assemblages among the different valleys that were statistically related to dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity and phytoplankton biomass. Co-occurrence networks revealed complex interdependencies within the bacterioplankton communities and showed contrasting linkages to environmental conditions among the main bacterial phyla. The thaw pond networks were composed of a limited number of highly connected taxa. This "small world network" property would render the communities more robust to environmental change but vulnerable to the loss of microbial keystone species.

  16. Study on Community Structure of Macro-invertebrates in Tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir%三峡库区支流底栖动物群落结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池仕运; 胡菊香; 陈胜; 张原圆

    2011-01-01

    Macro-invertebrates samples were collected in 26 major tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir region in April,2010.A total of 97 species were recorded,including 78 species of aquatic insects,10 species of mollusks,and 6 species of Oligochaeta.Common species occurred in 26 tributaries mainly included Ephemeridae sp.,Ephemerellidae sp.,Baetis sp.,Caenis sp.,Choroterpes sp.,Ecdyonurus sp.,Othacladius sp.and Thieneminimyia sp..The average density was 673.22 ind./m2,while the average biomass was 9.9398 g/m2.The result of MDS analysis showed that the locations of Yulinhe River,Longxihe River,Changtanxi River and Jialingjiang River were far away from the other 22 rivers.Clustering analysis result showed that there was high species similarity between Baolonghe River and Tongxihe River,as well as Tongzhuanghe River and Dalinghe River,Zhaxihe River and Huangjinhe River,Modaoxi River and Xiaojiang River,Daxihe River and Guanduhe River,Longhe River and Lixiangxi River,Yulinghe River and Qijiang River,Longxihe River and Changtanxi River.Biodiversity analysis results showed that Shannon-Wiener indexes ranged from 0.6365 to 2.9329,averating at 1.6120,while Margalef indexes ranged from 0.6266 to 5.3074,averaging at 2.2976.%2010年4月对三峡库区26条主要支流的底栖动物进行了采集,经鉴定共检出97种;其中,水生昆虫78种,软体动物10种,寡毛纲6种。常见种为蜉蝣科(Ephemeridae)、小蜉科(Ephemerellidae)、四节蜉属(Baetis)、细蜉属(Caenis)、宽基蜉属(Choroterpes)、扁蚴蜉属(Ecdyonurus)稚虫及直突摇蚊属(Orthocladius)、斑特突摇蚊属(Thienemanimyia)幼虫,平均密度673.22个/m2,平均生物量9.9398g/m2。MDS分析表明,御临河、龙溪河、长滩溪和嘉陵江站点明显偏离其他22条河流;种类组成聚类分析表明,抱龙河和汤溪河、童庄河和大宁河、咤溪河和黄金河、磨刀溪和小江、大溪河和官渡河、龙河与梨香溪、御临河与綦江

  17. Zooplankton community resilience and aquatic environmental stability on aquaculture practices: a study using net cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, J D; Simões, N R; Bonecker, C C

    2012-02-01

    Fish farming in net cages causes changes in environmental conditions. We evaluated the resilience of zooplankton concerning this activity in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples were taken near the net cages installed at distances upstream and downstream, before and after net cage installation. The resilience was estimated by the decrease in the groups' abundance after installing the net cages. The zooplankton community was represented by 106 species. The most abundant species were Synchaeta pectinata, S. oblonga, Conochilus coenobasis, Polyarthra dolichoptera and C. unicornis (Rotifera), Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Moina minuta, Bosmina hagmanni and C. silvestrii (Cladocera) and Notodiaptomus amazonicus (Copepoda). The resilience of microcrustaceans was affected in the growing points as this activity left the production environment for longer, delaying the natural ability of community responses. Microcrustaceans groups, mainly calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, had a different return rate. The net cage installation acted as a stress factor on the zooplankton community. Management strategies that cause fewer risks to the organisms and maximize energy flow may help in maintaining system stability. PMID:22437379

  18. Chemical, biological and toxicological investigation of oil drilling impacts to aquatic resources in the Yellowbank Slough region near New Haven, Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of contaminants in sediments and aquatic macroinvertebrates at several locations on the proposed Yellowbank Slough National Wildlife Refuge was conducted...

  19. Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Everaert

    Full Text Available We assessed and compared abiotic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates in three river basins located in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Upon using logistic regression models we analyzed the relationship between the probability of occurrence of five macroinvertebrate families, ranging from pollution tolerant to pollution sensitive, (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Hydroptilidae, Libellulidae and Leptophlebiidae and physical-chemical water quality conditions. Within the investigated physical-chemical ranges, nine out of twenty-five interaction effects were significant. Our analyses suggested river basin dependent associations between the macroinvertebrate families and the corresponding physical-chemical conditions. It was found that pollution tolerant families showed no clear abiotic preference and occurred at most sampling locations, i.e. Chironomidae were present in 91%, 84% and 93% of the samples taken in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Pollution sensitive families were strongly associated with dissolved oxygen and stream velocity, e.g. Leptophlebiidae were only present in 48%, 2% and 18% of the samples in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Despite some limitations in the study design, we concluded that associations between macroinvertebrates and abiotic conditions can be river basin-specific and hence are not automatically transferable across river basins in the tropics.

  20. Comparison of the abiotic preferences of macroinvertebrates in tropical river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Gert; De Neve, Jan; Boets, Pieter; Dominguez-Granda, Luis; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Ambelu, Argaw; Hoang, Thu Huong; Goethals, Peter L M; Thas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We assessed and compared abiotic preferences of aquatic macroinvertebrates in three river basins located in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Upon using logistic regression models we analyzed the relationship between the probability of occurrence of five macroinvertebrate families, ranging from pollution tolerant to pollution sensitive, (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Hydroptilidae, Libellulidae and Leptophlebiidae) and physical-chemical water quality conditions. Within the investigated physical-chemical ranges, nine out of twenty-five interaction effects were significant. Our analyses suggested river basin dependent associations between the macroinvertebrate families and the corresponding physical-chemical conditions. It was found that pollution tolerant families showed no clear abiotic preference and occurred at most sampling locations, i.e. Chironomidae were present in 91%, 84% and 93% of the samples taken in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Pollution sensitive families were strongly associated with dissolved oxygen and stream velocity, e.g. Leptophlebiidae were only present in 48%, 2% and 18% of the samples in Ecuador, Ethiopia and Vietnam. Despite some limitations in the study design, we concluded that associations between macroinvertebrates and abiotic conditions can be river basin-specific and hence are not automatically transferable across river basins in the tropics.

  1. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  2. Synthesis and interpretation of surface-water quality and aquatic biota data collected in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 1979-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Rice, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shenandoah National Park in northern and central Virginia protects 777 square kilometers of mountain terrain in the Blue Ridge physiographic province and more than 90 streams containing diverse aquatic biota. Park managers and visitors are interested in the water quality of park streams and its ability to support healthy coldwater communities and species, such as the native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), that are at risk in the eastern United States. Despite protection from local stressors, however, the water quality of streams in the park is at risk from many regional stressors, including atmospheric pollution, decline in the health of the surrounding forests because of invasive forest pests, and global climate change. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, undertook a study to compile, analyze, and synthesize available data on water quality, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and fish within Shenandoah National Park. Specifically, the effort focused on creating a comprehensive water-resources database for the park that can be used to evaluate temporal trends and spatial patterns in the available data, and characterizing those data to better understand interrelations among water quality, aquatic macroinvertebrates, fish, and the landscape. Data from three primary sources, namely the Shenandoah Watershed Study, the Shenandoah National Park Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Monitoring Program, and the Springs and Headwater Streams Study, were compiled and loaded into the National Park Service’s NPSTORET database. This effort yielded a comprehensive database containing nearly 1.3 million measurements of habitat characteristics, approximately 442,000 measurements of water-quality characteristics, and over 438,000 measurements of biological taxa (fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates), collected across 673 sites over a period of more than 30 years. Temporal trends in water quality indicate conflicting patterns in terms of

  3. Efeito de metais Cobre (Cu e Zinco (Zn sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em riachos do sul do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.677 The effect of metals (Cu and Zn on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in streams in southern Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.677

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ubiratan Hepp

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de metais (Cu e Zn sobre a comunidade de macroinverterados bentônicos. Foram amostrados, trimestralmente, entre setembro de 2006 e junho de 2007, organismos e água em oito trechos de riachos de duas bacias hidrográficas influenciadas por urbanização e agricultura. Foram estimados os valores de densidade de organismos, riqueza taxonômica e diversidade de Shannon. Para avaliação dos dados, foram utilizados testes de variância e regressão linear simples. Os resultados demonstraram variabilidade das concentrações dos metais e da macrofauna entre as estações do ano e riachos estudados. O metal Cobre (Cu apresentou influência apenas sobre a densidade Chironomidae e o metal Zinco (Zn apresentou efeito sobre a densidade total da macrofauna bentônica e de Chironomidae. Nenhum dos metais apresentou efeitos sobre a riqueza e diversidade de macroinvertebrados. Os resultados indicam potencial bioindicador da comunidade bentônica na avaliação da qualidade integrada do ambiente.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metals (Cu and Zn on the benthic macroinvertebrate community. The organisms and water were collected quarterly between September 2006 and June 2007, in eight sites in streams of two hydrographic basins, influenced by urbanization and agriculture. The values of organism density, taxonomic richness and the Shannon diversity index were calculated. For data evaluation, tests of variance and simple linear regression were used. The results showed variability in the metal concentration and benthic community among seasons and studied streams. Cu showed influence only on Chironomidae density. Zn demonstrated effect on the benthic community and Chironomidae density. None of the metals presented effect on the macroinvertebrate richness and diversity. The results indicate a bioindicator potential of the benthic community in the evaluation of integral quality of the environment.

  4. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999 and November 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2001-08-27

    Qualitative assessments of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch were performed in June 1999 and November 2000 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the receiving stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc in 1999; copper in 2000).

  5. Developing a novel approach to analyse the regimes of temporary streams and their controls on aquatic biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gallart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporary streams are those water courses that undergo the recurrent cessation of flow or the complete drying of their channel. The biological communities in temporary stream reaches are strongly dependent on the temporal changes of the aquatic habitats determined by the hydrological conditions. The use of the aquatic fauna structural and functional characteristics to assess the ecological quality of a temporary stream reach can not therefore be made without taking into account the controls imposed by the hydrological regime. This paper develops some methods for analysing temporary streams' aquatic regimes, based on the definition of six aquatic states that summarize the sets of mesohabitats occurring on a given reach at a particular moment, depending on the hydrological conditions: flood, riffles, connected, pools, dry and arid. We used the water discharge records from gauging stations or simulations using rainfall-runoff models to infer the temporal patterns of occurrence of these states using the developed aquatic states frequency graph. The visual analysis of this graph is complemented by the development of two metrics based on the permanence of flow and the seasonal predictability of zero flow periods. Finally, a classification of the aquatic regimes of temporary streams in terms of their influence over the development of aquatic life is put forward, defining Permanent, Temporary-pools, Temporary-dry and Episodic regime types. All these methods were tested with data from eight temporary streams around the Mediterranean from MIRAGE project and its application was a precondition to assess the ecological quality of these streams using the current methods prescribed in the European Water Framework Directive for macroinvertebrate communities.

  6. Conservation unit and water quality: the influence of environmental integrity on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessé Renan Scapini Sobczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a Conservation Unit (CU in maintaining the quality of freshwater habitats and to evaluate the influence of environmental integrity on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. METHODS: The research was conducted at sampling sites located within and outside of the CU in the Alto Uruguai region, southern Brazil, and included two stages: (i the collection of benthic macroinvertebrates and (ii the application of a Rapid Assessment Protocol (RAP to characterise the habitat quality. RESULTS: A total of 1,362 benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during the study, totalling 30 taxa. The densities within and outside the CU were significantly different (F= 160.08; p= 0.05, and the Shannon diversity and taxa richness followed the same pattern (F= 118.72, p= 0.05; and F= 176.33, p= 0.04, respectively. In contrast, the Pielou equitability did not differ within and outside the CU (F= 0.19, p= 0.74. The biotic index (Biological Monitoring Working Party indicated that water quality was good or very good in the majority of cases. Most of the sampling sites were classified as ‘natural’ according to the RAP. The taxa richness was significantly related to habitat diversity (F= 7.24; p = 0.05, but no significant relationship was found between the habitat diversity and the Shannon diversity (F= 2.13, p = 0.22. CONCLUSION: The CU was effective for the conservation of water quality and the freshwater biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates. The results show that the environmental integrity was related to the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates, primarily to the taxa richness. More detailed investigations need to be developed to better understand these relationships and to take into account the temporal scale. An analysis of the most significant sources of stress on the aquatic life outside the area is recommended.

  7. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Porders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  8. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Nishadh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8% belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, Heteroptera (bugs, Diptera (flies, Coleoptera (beetles and Trichoptera (caddisflies. The study reports the first record of toe-winged beetle larvae (Ptilodactylidae in a tree hole aquatic habitat. The most significant observation is the prolific occurrence of trichopteran larvae as the second most abundant taxa in tree holes of Silent Valley National Park, and this stands as the first comprehensive record of the entire order in the habitat studied. The study upholds the importance of less explored microhabitats in the Western Ghats region in terms of sustaining unique community composition in the most delicate and extreme habitat conditions. It also puts forward important ecological research questions on biodiversity ecosystem functionality which could impart important lessons for managing and conserving the diminishing tropical evergreen forests which are significant for these unique habitats.

  9. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  10. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems. Ecological effects of lithium and beryllium on important aquatic organisms and associted communities. Teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing studies of the sublethal effects of tritium on freshwater species emphasize the potential for genetic transmission of suppressed immune competence in offspring of parental rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to tritium (0, 0.04, 0.4, 40.0 rads) during embryogenesis. We plan to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta irradiation when compared to 60Co gamma irradiation using the relatively radiosensitive immune process of rainbow trout. During FY 1979, we concluded genetic effects studies and prepared a manuscript for open literature publication summarizing FY 1977 and FY 1978 studies on the permanence of suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout sublethally irradiated during embryogenesis. We are also studying the potential effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems. Because of mining and refining subsequent to the use of these metals in the construction of fusion reactors, increased levels of each are likely to be encountered in surface waters. Studies included an evaluation of potential toxicity of lithium on embryological life stages of rainbow trout and an assessment of fate and effects in artificial stream habitats. Levels of lithium necessary to cause an observed effect would have to be at least three orders of magnitude above observed background. Studies initiated in FY 1978 include evaluation of effects of low-level magnetic fields on embryologic development of rainbow trout. The objective of these studies to provide data useful in assessing potentially harmful effects of low-level magnetic fields encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. This approach is less costly than using mammalian systems, provides large numbers of experimental organisms for meaningful statistical analysis and permits examination of potential latent effects in a representative vertebrate

  11. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in agricultural, mining, and urban tropical streams: implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwedzi, Tongayi; Bere, Taurai; Mangadze, Tinotenda

    2016-06-01

    The study evaluated the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages to changes in water quality in different land-use settings in Manyame catchment, Zimbabwe. Four land-use categories were identified: forested commercial farming, communal farming, Great Dyke mining (GDM) and urban areas. Macroinvertebrate community structure and physicochemical variables data were collected in two seasons from 41 sites following standard methods. Although not environmentally threatening, urban and GDM areas were characterised by higher conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, magnesium and hardness. Chlorides, total phosphates, total nitrogen, calcium, potassium and sodium were significantly highest in urban sites whilst dissolved oxygen (DO) was significantly higher in the forested commercial faming and GDM sites. Macroinvertebrate communities followed the observed changes in water quality. Macroinvertebrates in urban sites indicated severe pollution (e.g. Chironomidae) whilst those in forested commercial farming sites and GDM sites indicated relatively clean water (e.g. Notonemouridae). Forested watersheds together with good farm management practices are important in mitigating impacts of urbanisation and agriculture. Strategies that reduce oxygen-depleting substances must be devised to protect the health of Zimbabwean streams. The study affirms the wider applicability of the South African Scoring System in different land uses. PMID:26920532

  12. Effect of streambed substrate on macroinvertebrate biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua DUAN; Zhaoyin WANG; Shimin TIAN

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates are important components of stream ecosystems, and are often used as indicator spe-cies for the assessment of river ecology. Numerous studies have shown that substrate is the primary physical envir-onmental variable affecting the taxa richness and density of macroinvertebrates. The aim of this work is to study the effects of the characteristics of streambed substrate, such as grain size, shape, and roughness, on the composition and biodiversity of macroinvertebrates. A field experi-ment was done on the Juma River, a second-order moun-tain stream in northern China. Substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, pebbles, coarse sand, and fine sand were used to replace the original gravel and sand bed in a stretch of 30 m in length. The sampling results indicated that the macroinvertebrate assemblage is significantly affected by the grain size, porosity and interstitial dimension of the substrate, while it is rarely affected by the shape and the surface roughness of the experimental substrata. Macroinvertebrate compositions in cobbles and hewn stones were stable and changed least over time. The taxa richness and density of individuals in the substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, and pebbles are much higher than in those of the coarse sand and fine sand.

  13. Fire and aquatic ecosystems in forested biomes of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of the literature suggests that physical, chemical, and biological elements of a watershed interact with long-term climate to influence fire regime, and that these factors, in concordance with the postfire vegetation mosaic, combine with local-scale weather to govern the trajectory and magnitude of change following a fire event. Perturbation associated with hydrological processes is probably the primary factor influencing postfire persistence of fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and diatoms in fluvial systems. It is apparent that salmonids have evolved strategies to survive perturbations occurring at the frequency of wildland fires (100a??102 years), but local populations of a species may be more ephemeral. Habitat alteration probably has the greatest impact on individual organisms and local populations that are the least mobile, and reinvasion will be most rapid by aquatic organisms with high mobility. It is becoming increasingly apparent that during the past century fire suppression has altered fire regimes in some vegetation types, and consequently, the probability of large stand-replacing fires has increased in those areas. Current evidence suggests, however, that even in the case of extensive high-severity fires, local extirpation of fishes is patchy, and recolonization is rapid. Lasting detrimental effects on fish populations have been limited to areas where native populations have declined and become increasingly isolated because of anthropogenic activities. A strategy of protecting robust aquatic communities and restoring aquatic habitat structure and life history complexity in degraded areas may be the most effective means for insuring the persistence of native biota where the probability of large-scale fires has increased.

  14. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Simon; Charles Morris; Joseph Robb; William McCoy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and...

  15. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by

  16. Sensitivity and accuracy of DNA based methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For biomonitoring efforts aimed at early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS), the ability to detect rare individuals is key and requires accurate species level identification to maintain a low occurrence probability of non-detection errors (failure to detect a present spe...

  17. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  18. Explaining dissimilarities in macroinvertebrate assemblages among stream sites using environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between community structure and environmental factors usually varies according to ecosystem type, group of organisms, and spatial scale. In this study I assessed whether dissimilarities among assemblages of stream macroinvertebrates are related to differences in environmental variables. Data consisted of macroinvertebrate samples of 10 stream sites during the dry season. Seven environmental variables were assessed. The relationship among dissimilarities in assemblage structure and dissimilarities in environmental variables was assessed using the BioEnv approach. Conductivity and measures related to stream size were the most important variables. However, part of the correlation with conductivity was due to the high value observed in a single stream site, which presented a relatively distinct macroinvertebrate fauna. There was an abrupt change in assemblage structure between 4th and 5th order streams. Although the study included a single 5th order site and thus only weak generalizations are possible, this finding corroborates scattered evidence observed in previous studies. The finding that nearby sites may harbor distinct macroinvertebrate assemblages implies whole-catchment conservation strategies. As most of the remaining Atlantic Rain Forest is restricted to small fragments, restoration projects near fragments should be implemented so as to properly conserve lotic ecosystems.

  19. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  20. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and biodiversity levels: ecological role of constructed wetlands and artificial ponds in a natural park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sartori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Constructed wetlands play an important role in water supply, floodwater retention and nutrient removal, at the same time allowing the restoration of lost habitat and the preservation of biodiversity. There is little knowledge about the biodiversity that can be found in these artificial environments along time, especially at the invertebrate community level. Macroinvertebrate assemblages, water chemistry, morphology, and environmental characteristics of natural ponds, artificial pools and constructed wetlands in Parco Pineta (Northern Italy were studied to evaluate the effects of local factors on macroinvertebrate communities. The objective was to verify if each ecosystem could equally contribute to local biodiversity, regardless of its natural or artificial origin. Principal Components Analysis showed that ponds were divided into clusters, based on their morphology and their water quality, independently from their origin. The composition of macroinvertebrate communities was similar among natural wetlands and ponds artificially created to provide new habitats in the park, while it was different among natural wetlands and constructed wetlands created for wastewater treatment purposes. Biodiversity of natural ponds and constructed wetlands, evaluated using taxa richness, Shannon index, and Pielou index, was comparable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted differences in macroinvertebrate community composition and pointed out the relationships among macroinvertebrates and various environmental variables: habitat heterogeneity resulted as the most relevant factor that influences taxa richness. Water quality also affects the macroinvertebrate community structure. We determined that constructed wetlands with higher pollutant concentrations show different assemblage compositions but comparable overall macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Constructed wetlands became valuable ecological elements

  1. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the occurrence and potential functions of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), a potent and ubiquitous metabolic regulatory molecule in heterotrophic organisms, in phytoplankton and in natural aquatic communities. Laboratory-cultured phytoplankton were grown under both optimal and suboptimal nutrient regimes under constant temperature and illumination regimes. Cellular and extracellular cAMP production, characterized by a number of biochemical techniques, was correlated with growth rate dynamics, chlorophyll a synthesis, /sup 14/C-bicarbonate uptake, alkaline phosphatase activity, and heterocyst formation. The blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae was used as a model system in the examination of these metabolic variables. Additionally, this alga was used to test the effects of perturbation of cAMP levels on the aforementioned metabolic variables. Investigations on the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of cAMP in aquatic systems were conducted on Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and on Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan. Putative cAMP from both systems was characterized by several biochemical techniques. Weekly sampling of particulate and dissolved cAMP in the epilimnia of both lakes was correlated with data on the rates of primary productivity, alkaline phosphatase activity, chlorophyll a synthesis and changes in phytoplankton community structure.

  2. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Examining spatial patterns in polycyclic aromatic compounds measured in stream macroinvertebrates near a small subarctic oil and gas operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, J B; Eickmeyer, D C; Chin, K S; Palmer, M J; Kimpe, L E; Blais, J M

    2016-03-01

    The Cameron River runs through a small, remote petrochemical development in the Cameron Hills (Northwest Territories, Canada). In order to evaluate the exposure of aquatic biota to contaminants from oil and gas activities, we measured polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in macroinvertebrates collected from sites and tributaries along the Cameron River, including upstream and downstream of the development, and sites located near drilled wells (developed). Macroinvertebrate tissue PAC burdens ranged from 0.2-2.8 μg g(-1) lipid for unsubstituted compounds, and from 4.2-63.2 μg g(-1) lipid for alkylated compounds, relatively low compared to similar studies from more industrialized regions in North America. There was no significant difference in tissue PAC burdens between upstream, downstream, or developed sites (p = 0.12), although alkyl PACs in five out of seven developed sites were higher than the regional average. Petrogenic PACs were dominant in most samples, including alkyl fluorines, alkyl phenanthrene/anthracenes, and alkyl dibenzothiophenes. Minimal changes in PAC composition in macroinvertebrate tissues were detected along the Cameron River, with the exception of the two sites furthest downstream that had high concentrations of C3-C4 naphthalene. Overall, our results suggest that oil and gas development in the Cameron Hills has not resulted in substantial increases in PAC bioaccumulation in stream macroinvertebrates, although the potential that alkyl naphthalenes are being transported downstream from the development warrants further attention.

  4. DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE LA HOJARASCA Y SU RELACIÓN CON LOS MACROINVERTEBRADOS ACUÁTICOS DEL RÍO GAIRA (SANTA MARTA ­ COLOMBIA Leaf Litter Decomposition and its Relation with Aquatic Macroinvertebrates of the Gaira River (Santa Marta ­ Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELISA EYES-ESCALANTE

    2012-04-01

    at different heights. Furthermore, it was evaluated the richness, abundance and trophic function of macroinvertebrates that colonized the artificial substrates containing leaf packs or meshes. The middle part had the greatest rate of decomposition of native and exotic species (KW = 15.9, n = 23, p = 0.001 and KW = 15.5, n = 36, p = 0.0014 respectively. The native species had the highest rates (KW = 4, n = 47, p = 0.04, with the species Pithecellobium longifolium in the middle stretch, which had the greatest mass loss over time. Descriptively a relationship between decomposition rate and current velocity is presented. The macroinvertebrate assemblage was represented by 41 taxa, with an abundance of 1895 individuals which provided a biomass of 2.27 g. The functional structure of macroinvertebrates associated with leaf litter was represented in the upper, middle and low reaches by Plecoptera (Predators of the genus Anacroneuria with 10.14%, 68.43% and 7.60% respectively. The taxon Tanypodinae (Diptera predators were dominant in the mouth with 0.51%. The result of this study can determinate whether the presence of macroinvertebrates associated with leaf litter, is not conditioned by the plant species (native or exotic, and not enter these differences that create an effect on the rate of descomposition.

  5. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units≥-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams.

  6. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units≥-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams. PMID:26282741

  7. The Benthic Macroinvertebrate Fauna of Sarikum Lake and Spring Waters (Sinop)

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Mehmet; Oztürk, Mehmet; Öztürk, Meral

    2002-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the community composition of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna from Sarikum Lake and spring waters were investigated monthly between June 1995 and May 1996. Physico-chemical parameters of the sampling stations were measured. The fauna were represented with 26 species belonging to 6 systematic groups (Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Insecta (larvae), Crustacea, Polychaete and Turbellaria classis). Insecta was found as predominant in respect to species diversity. The species b...

  8. Bruce nuclear power development (BNPD) postoperational aquatic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of three years of postoperational aquatic study conducted between 1979 and 1981 at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. An increase in the rate of organic and inorganic sedimentation during the summer was noted, and was possibly related to construction activity at the Bruce GS 'B' intake site. Vertical thermal stratification persisted later in the year at the 7 m contour of Bruce GS 'A' discharge than at other locations sampled. Water quality conditions reflected the oliogtrophic state of Lake Huron. Several changes were noted in the biotic community. The taxonomic composition of attached algae, zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates varied between sampling years. The number of common naids, amphipods and the trichopteran Cheumatopsyche increased substantially in the 1981 rock cage collections. The relative abundance of adult walleye, channel catfish and round whitefish in gill nets increased, with the former two species being more abundant (15 fish per net in September, 1980, and 33 fish per net in July, 1981, respectively) at the 3 m contour of the Bruce GS 'A' discharge transect than at other shoreline sampling locations

  9. Aquatic Ecosystem Response to Timber Harvesting for the Purpose of Restoring Aspen

    OpenAIRE

    Bobette E Jones; Monika Krupa; Kenneth W Tate

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located ...

  10. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  12. Direct and indirect effects of glaciers on aquatic biodiversity in high Andean peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenta, Estefania; Molina-Rodriguez, Jorge; Gonzales, Karina; Rebaudo, François; Casas, Jérôme; Jacobsen, Dean; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The rapid melting of glacier cover is one of the most obvious impacts of climate change on alpine ecosystems and biodiversity. Our understanding of the impact of a decrease in glacier runoff on aquatic biodiversity is currently based on the 'glacier-heterogeneity-diversity' paradigm, according to which there is high α-diversity at intermediate levels of glacial influence due to the high degree of environmental heterogeneity caused by glacier water. This α-diversity pattern generates high levels of between-site aquatic community variation (high β diversity) and increases regional diversity (γ-diversity). There is a rich conceptual background in favor of this paradigm, but empirical data supporting it are scarce. We investigated this paradigm by analyzing the different diversity patterns (α, β and γ-diversity) of four aquatic groups (zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes) living in high-elevation peatlands (>4500 m above sea level). We sampled 200 pools from 20 peatlands along a glacier gradient in the Cordillera Real of Bolivia. We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the potential mechanisms underlying the observed diversity patterns. Intermediate levels of glacial influence (15-20% cover) resulted in high heterogeneity, but α-diversity responded to glacial influence only for the zooplankton group (Cladocera). Our SEM analysis did not identify environmental heterogeneity as a significant variable explaining the relationship between glacier and α-diversity. Peatland area had a strong positive effect on heterogeneity and diversity. β-diversity was significantly associated with glacier gradient, and 12.9% of the total regional diversity (γ-diversity) was restricted to peatlands with a high degree of glacial influence. These species might be lost in a context of glacial retreat. These findings provide new insight into the potential effects of glacial retreat on the aquatic environment and biodiversity in the peatlands of

  13. The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Noumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

  14. Permafrost thaw and intense thermokarst activity decreases abundance of stream benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Krista S; Lento, Jennifer; Culp, Joseph M; Lacelle, Denis; Kokelj, Steven V

    2016-08-01

    Intensification of permafrost thaw has increased the frequency and magnitude of large permafrost slope disturbances (mega slumps) in glaciated terrain of northwestern Canada. Individual thermokarst disturbances up to 40 ha in area have made large volumes of previously frozen sediments available for leaching and transport to adjacent streams, significantly increasing sediment and solute loads in these systems. To test the effects of this climate-sensitive disturbance regime on the ecology of Arctic streams, we explored the relationship between physical and chemical variables and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches in the Peel Plateau, Northwest Territories, Canada. Highly disturbed and undisturbed stream reaches differed with respect to taxonomic composition and invertebrate abundance. Minimally disturbed reaches were not differentiated by these variables but rather were distributed along a disturbance gradient between highly disturbed and undisturbed sites. In particular, there was evidence of a strong negative relationship between macroinvertebrate abundance and total suspended solids, and a positive relationship between abundance and the distance from the disturbance. Increases in both sediments and nutrients appear to be the proximate cause of community differences in highly disturbed streams. Declines in macroinvertebrate abundance in response to slump activity have implications for the food webs of these systems, potentially leading to negative impacts on higher trophic levels, such as fish. Furthermore, the disturbance impacts on stream health can be expected to intensify as climate change increases the frequency and magnitude of thermokarst. PMID:26766394

  15. Forestry and the aquatic environment: studies in an Irish context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Giller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the interaction between plantation forestry and aquatic environments is essential to develop environmentally compatible and sustainable management further. Given, in Ireland, the generally low levels of atmospheric pollution, its geology and maritime climate, and the unique fauna and flora due to its island history, such studies are important not only in the regional context, but also internationally, as they provide an opportunity to examine the effect of forestry and forest management practices on aquatic systems per se, without the complications of acidification. Here, some of the major findings of forestry and water research in Ireland have been reviewed and compared with those from the UK and elsewhere. Plantation forests do not exacerbate acidification in the south of Ireland (Munster as a whole so that the influence of forestry on water chemistry is far less important than in other parts of the country (such as Wicklow and Mayo. The main forestry influence on streams in Munster is more likely through physical factors, but their nature is unclear. In a few catchments some negative effects are evident, but in many others apparently positive forest effects occur. In this context, smaller scale catchment-level effects appear to be more important in explaining the various relationships between plantation forests and stream ecology than larger scale regional factors. The management of riparian zones, particularly in forested catchments, is of major importance for the structure and functioning of aquatic communities and further work is needed on best management practices. It is suggested that it is unreasonable to base forest management on national Forest-Fisheries guidelines since regions vary too much and the signal from local conditions is too strong. The approach for environmentally benign, scientifically sound forestry management has to be at the catchment scale. Trees in the right places may be beneficial ecologically but

  16. Evidence against small dam removal as an ecological disturbance: Benthic macroinvertebrate and channel responses to dam removals in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    A dominant concern for environmental managers is often the biological consequences of the physical disturbance generated by sediment pulses, such as those associated with dam removal or sediment flushing from existing dams. However, limited field data exists against which concerns regarding planned removals can be evaluated. This study documents an investigation of biophysical interactions related to sediment pulses from dam removals, with emphasis on a) the spatial extent and magnitude of disturbance to channel habitat and benthic macroinvertebrate community, and b) the rate and spatial patterns of channel and invertebrate community recovery over time. We analyzed field observations, collected in an upstream-downstream BACI study design, from three dam removals of varying size and channel substrate: Brownsville Dam, Calapooia River (height = 2.5 m, D50 = 59 m), Chiloquin Dam, Sprague River (height = 3.4 m, D50 = 0.15 mm), and Savage Rapids Dam, Rogue River (height = 12 m, D50 = 8 m). At each site, we investigated how elements of the physical channel related to disturbance (grain size and variability, bed stability, bed complexity) and benthic macroinvertebrate community (species richness, functional traits) changed over space and time. We projected that hypothesized changes in the physical channel (reduction in bed complexity, site-specific changes in bed mobility, site-specific grain size changes) following the sediment pulse would lead to reduction in species richness and a transition to functional traits (short lived, rapid reproduction, tolerant of mobile beds) affiliated with sediment disturbance. However, results indicate that our hypothesized channel changes were not consistently validated across the sites. Further, we found little evidence of substantial impact of the sediment pulse on the invertebrate communities, though some variability in functional traits may be attributable to dam removal at Savage Rapids. More specifically, we found that: a) Channel

  17. Influence of agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic stresses on the distribution and diversity of macroinvertebrates in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2011-07-01

    Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated rivers (ANOVA, P<0.05). The WQI classified CTKR, PR, and JR into class III (slightly polluted). However, PRR and KUR fell into class IV (polluted). High diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, especially the intolerant taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were observed in the least polluted river, CTKR. Decreasing abundance of macroinvertebrates followed the deterioration of river water quality with the least number of the most tolerant taxa collected from PR. On the basis of composition and sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to pollutants in each river, the highest Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index score of 93 was reported in CTKR (good water quality). BMWP scores in PRR and JR were 38.7 and 20.1, respectively, classifying both of them into "moderate water quality" category. Poor water quality was reported in PR and KUR. The outcome of the multivariate analysis (CCA) was highly satisfactory, explaining 43.32% of the variance for the assemblages of macroinvertebrates as influenced by 19 physical and chemical variables. According to the CCA model, we assert that there were three levels of stresses on macroinvertebrate communities in the investigated rivers: Level 1, characterized of undisturbed or slightly polluted as in the case of CTKR; Level 2, characterized by a lower habitat quality (the JR) compared to the CTKR; and Level 3 showed severe environmental stresses (PRR, PR, and KUR) primarily contributed by agricultural, industrial, and municipal discharges.

  18. Above- and below-ground vertebrate herbivory may each favour a different subordinate species in an aquatic plant community

    OpenAIRE

    Hidding, B.; Nolet, B.A.; de Boer, T.; De Vries, P.P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    At least two distinct trade-offs are thought to facilitate higher diversity in productive plant communities under herbivory. Higher investment in defence and enhanced colonization potential may both correlate with decreased competitive ability in plants. Herbivory may thus promote coexistence of plant species exhibiting divergent life history strategies. How different seasonally tied herbivore assemblages simultaneously affect plant community composition and diversity is, however, largely unk...

  19. The assemblage characteristics of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Yalutsangpo River, the highest major river in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Pan, Baozhu; Yu, Guoan

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of highland rivers are different from those of low altitude rivers because of the specific topography and environmental parameters associated with high altitudes. Yalutsangpo, the upper course of the Brahmaputra River, is the highest major river in the world, flowing from west to east across Tibet, China and pouring into India. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from Yalutsangpo and its tributaries, the Lhasa, Niyang, and Parlong Tsangpo Rivers, from October 2009 to June 2010, to study characters of the highland aquatic ecosystem. Altogether, 110 macroinvertebrate taxa belonging to 57 families and 102 genera were identified from the basin. The biodiversity and composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages were strongly affected by altitude gradients. Local diversity represented by taxa richness and the improved Shannon-Wiener index were high at altitudes of 3,300-3,700 m, among which suitability of habitat was higher due to the better integrated environmental conditions of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and aquatic vegetation, etc. Macroinvertebrates were grouped into shredders, scrapers, predators, collector-filterers, and collector-gatherers according to their feeding behaviors. It was found that the distributions of the functional feeding groups varied with habitat altitudes. Shredders were present at altitudes of 2,900-4,400 m, while scrapers mainly inhabited altitudes of 3,500-4,500 m, and collector-filterers preferred 3,500-4,000 m. Even though the local taxa richness was not high at each site, the taxonomic composition and density of the assemblages varied greatly among the different sites, resulting in much higher regional diversity compared to the lowland river with similar flow and substrate conditions. The regional cumulative taxa richness of Yalutsangpo decreased and more families were lost as the altitude increased. However, some families that were newly present as the altitude increased were essential for sustaining the high

  20. Open, Sharable, and Extensible Data Management for the Korea National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Program: A RESTful API-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meilan Jiang; Karpjoo Jeong; Jung-Hwan Park; Nan-Young Kim; Soon-Jin Hwang; Sang-Hun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Implemented by a national law, the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program (NAEMP) has been assessing the ecological health status of surface waters, focusing on streams and rivers, in Korea since 2007. The program involves ecological monitoring of multiple aquatic biota such as benthic diatoms, macroinvertebrates, fish, and plants as well as water quality and habitat parameters. Taking advantage of the national scale of long-term aquatic ecological monitoring and the standardization o...

  1. Effects of carbofuran and metsulfuron-methyl on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in flooded ricefields Efeito do carbofurano e metsulfuron-methyl sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de lavoura de arroz irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joele Baumart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the effect of the insecticide carbofuran and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a paddy ricefield. METHODS: To achieve this goal, two pesticide treatments [the insecticide carbofuran (IC and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (HM] and a control (Co treatment with no added pesticide were established in an experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. Soil samples were collected in triplicate from each treatment 30 days before and 1, 10, and 51 days after the pesticide application, for macrofauna identification. RESULTS: Among the 21 taxa identified, Trichoceridae was present only in Co, Hydroptilidae was recorded only in IC, and Corixidae in HM. In Co, the most abundant group was Annelida, while in IC and HM Diptera (Chironomidae was dominant. Significant differences were observed between Co and IC, in the density of Odontoceridae (Control>IC and Hydrophilidae (ControlHM and Hirudinea (ControlOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do inseticida carbofurano e do herbicida metsulfuron-methyl na abundância e diversidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em campo de arroz irrigado. MÉTODOS: Para isto, dois tratamentos com agrotóxicos [o inseticida carbofurano (IC e o herbicida metsulfuron-methyl (HM] e um controle (Co, tratamento sem pesticida, foram aplicados em uma área experimental no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em triplicatas em cada tratamento 30 dias antes (DBA e 1, 10 e 51 dias após a aplicação dos pesticidas, posteriormente a macrofauna foi identificada. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (21 taxa foram identificados, entre esses Trichoceridae esteve presente apenas em Co, enquanto que Hydroptilidae foi coletado apenas em IC, e Corixidae em HM. Em Co e IC, o grupo mais abundante foi Annelida, e em HM foi Diptera (Chironomidae que

  2. Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. Highlights: • Pesticide sources and landscape parameters important for holistic risk assessment. • Riparian buffer strips of at least 5 m in width can reduce diffuse pesticide input. • Forested upstream reaches enhance recovery of pesticide-affected communities. • Screening approach allows quick and cost-effective identification of problem sites. -- Our results show the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities

  3. Co-occurrence between macrophytes and macroinvertebrates: towards a new approach for the running waters quality evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Traversetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on concordance between macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities were carried out for decades while any investigation on co-occurrence of single pair of taxa of these two groups was never addressed. Our main aim was to verify the existence of co-occurrence of single macrophyte–macroinvertebrate pair in a Mediterranean river of central Italy. We compared the co-occurrence frequencies of different plant and animal taxa with those expected by chance through the null model approach. Specifically, we proposed two main co-occurrence patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate taxa in terms of aggregation (when groups co-occur more frequently than expected and segregation (when groups co-occur less frequently than expected. This approach was supported by correlations and analysis of covariance in order to identify the most significant co-occurring pairs. In this study we collected a total of 123 taxa (50 macrophytes + 73 macroinvertebrates in October 2008 and 102 (42+60 in June 2009. We obtained a total of 379 significantly correlating macrophyte-macroinvertebrate pairs. Amongst all these correlating pairs, 83.7% of them correlated in October session while 90.3% in June. All the correlating pairs showed a high relationships with human alterations in both the sampling sessions. Our results confirmed that direct correlations there are between macrophytes and macroinvertebrates, highlighting how these two biological groups co-occur mainly following the aggregative model in both sampling sessions. Therefore, it was possible to observe significant relationships between macrophyte and macroinvertebrate pairs along an entire river ecosystem. It allows us to demonstrate that there are some prospective for trying to increase the knowledge on macrophytes-macroinvertebrates co-occurrence and for suggesting to use only single pair of co-occurring taxa in the monitoring running water quality. Aware that more investigations ought to be

  4. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Evaluation of alternative macroinvertebrate sampling techniques for use in a new tropical freshwater bioassessment scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Eleanor Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of benthic macroinvertebrate dredge net sampling procedures as an alternative method to kick net sampling in tropical freshwater systems, specifically as an evaluation of sampling methods used in the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS river bioassessment scheme. Tropical freshwater ecosystems are sometimes dangerous or inaccessible to sampling teams using traditional kick-sampling methods, so identifying an alternative procedure that produces similar results is necessary in order to collect data from a wide variety of habitats.MethodsBoth kick and dredge nets were used to collect macroinvertebrate samples at 16 riverine sites in Zambia, ranging from backwaters and floodplain lagoons to fast flowing streams and rivers. The data were used to calculate ZISS, diversity (S: number of taxa present, and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT scores per site, using the two sampling methods to compare their sampling effectiveness. Environmental parameters, namely pH, conductivity, underwater photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, temperature, alkalinity, flow, and altitude, were also recorded and used in statistical analysis. Invertebrate communities present at the sample sites were determined using multivariate procedures.ResultsAnalysis of the invertebrate community and environmental data suggested that the testing exercise was undertaken in four distinct macroinvertebrate community types, supporting at least two quite different macroinvertebrate assemblages, and showing significant differences in habitat conditions. Significant correlations were found for all three bioassessment score variables between results acquired using the two methods, with dredge-sampling normally producing lower scores than did the kick net procedures. Linear regression models were produced in order to correct each biological variable score collected by a dredge net to a score similar to that of one collected by kick net

  6. Patterns of macroinvertebrate assemblages in a long-term watershed-scale study to address the effects of pulp and paper mill discharges in four US receiving streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Camille A; Minshall, G Wayne; Ragsdale, Renee L; Hall, Timothy J

    2009-04-01

    Changes in macroinvertebrate communities exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) have been seen in mesocosm and short-term field studies. However, long-term patterns of macroinvertebrates in PPME receiving streams have not been examined. We conducted a study of 4 PPME receiving streams (Codorus Creek, PA; the Leaf River, MS; and the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, OR) over 9 y to assess temporal patterns in macroinvertebrate community structure and metrics related to PPME discharge. Study streams represented different ecoregions, warm-/cold-water systems, gradients of PPME concentration (<1%-33%), and mill process types. Bray-Curtis similarity and nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed significant community differences across sites in Codorus Creek, but differences were related to stream temperature patterns and not PPME. In the other study streams, seasonal community differences across years were greater than differences across sites. General linear models were used to examine spatial and temporal variation in macroinvertebrate metric response (% dominant taxa, density, richness, Hilsenhoff Biotic Index [HBI], Simpson's Index, and ash-free dry mass). Mean HBI scores indicated that the macroinvertebrate community reflected fair to very good water quality conditions, with water quality typically classified as "good" at most sites. Significant site differences in macroinvertebrate metric response were uncommon in the Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers but were seen in all metrics in Codorus Creek, where metric response was spatially variable. In the McKenzie River, there was an increase in mean HBI scores at sites downstream of the mill relative to 1 of the 2 upstream sites. However, significant differences were seen only between 1 upstream and downstream site, and HBI scores at all downstream sites consistently reflected "good" water quality. Significant annual differences in metric response were typical in all rivers. Water quality (pH, conductivity

  7. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling. Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater- treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  8. Experimental insights into the importance of aquatic bacterial community composition to the degradation of dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logue, J.B.; Stedmon, Colin; Kellerman, A.M.;

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria play a central role in the cycling of carbon, yet our understanding of the relationship between the taxonomic composition and the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still poor. In this experimental study, we were able to demonstrate a direct link between community composition...

  9. Estimation and application of indicator values for common macroinvertebrate genera and families of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Moulton, S.R., II; Ruhl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance of macroinvertebrate taxa to chemical and physical stressors is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of bioassessment data, but many estimates lack empirical bases. Our main objective was to estimate genus- and family-level indicator values (IVs) from a data set of macroinvertebrate communities, chemical, and physical stressors collected in a consistent manner throughout the United States. We then demonstrated an application of these IVs to detect alterations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along gradients of urbanization in New England and Alabama. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create synthetic gradients of chemical stressors, for which genus- and family-level weighted averages (WAs) were calculated. Based on results of PCA, WAs were calculated for three synthetic gradients (ionic concentration, nutrient concentration, and dissolved oxygen/water temperature) and two uncorrelated physical variables (suspended sediment concentration and percent fines). Indicator values for each stress gradient were subsequently created by transforming WAs into ten ordinal ranks based on percentiles of values across all taxa. Mean IVs of genera and families were highly correlated to road density in Alabama and New England, and supported the conclusions of independent assessments of the chemical and physical stressors acting in each geographic area. Family IVs were nearly as responsive to urbanization as genus IVs. The limitations of widespread use of these IVs are discussed.

  10. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  11. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes J; McKnight, Ursula S; Sonne, Anne Th; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L

    2016-02-01

    Legislative and managing entities of EU member states face a comprehensive task because the chemical and ecological impacts of contaminated sites on surface waters must be assessed. The ecological assessment is further complicated by the low availability or, in some cases, absence of ecotoxicity data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown ecotoxicity, but they are continuously discharged into the stream by way of a long-lasting source generating long-term chronic exposure of the stream biota. Our results show that taxonomical density and diversity of especially sediment dwelling taxa were reduced by >50 % at the sampling sites situated in the primary inflow zone of the contaminated GW. Moreover, macroinvertebrate communities at these sampling sites could be distinguished from those at upstream control sites and sites situated along a downstream dilution gradient using multidimensional scaling. Importantly, macroinvertebrate indices currently used did not identify this impairment, thus underpinning an urgent need for developing suitable tools for the assessment of ecological effects of contaminated sites in streams.

  12. Effects of uranium mine effluents (Caldas, Southeastern Brazil) on the aquatic biota: preliminary study on the phytoplankton community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study assessed the composition of the phytoplankton community and the physicochemical variables in an area located within the ore treatment unit - Brazilian Nuclear Industries, in Caldas and also in 'Antas' dam, which is under the influence of the treatment unit. Water samples were taken from three sites; one located within the treatment unit (site CM), which receives non-treated effluents generated during the mining process; and the other sites are located in 'Antas' dam (sites Cab and 41). We determined the values of dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll a, hardness, thorium, uranium, sulfate and total organic nitrogen in water samples, and identified the phytoplankton community in October 2008 and January 2009. Water samples from the site CM exhibited lower pH medium values (3.9) than from the site 41 (6.9). The highest medium value of chlorophyll a was detected in water samples at site CM (5 μg L-1), whereas the lowest value was recorded at site 41 (0.47 μg L-1). Higher medium values of sulfate were detected in water samples from site CM (1743 mg L-1) compared to site Cab (110.11 mg L-1). We identified six classes in the phytoplankton community at site CM and eight classes at sites Cab and 41. Total average density of phytoplankton were 444 ind mL-1, 316 ind mL-1 and 303 ind mL-1 at points Cab, 41 and CM, respectively. The results obtained show that the environmental conditions at site CM are not favorable to the maintenance of a high density in the phytoplankton community. (author)

  13. Summary of information on aquatic biota and their habitats in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, through 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Henson, C.M.; Waite, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Available information on aquatic biota of the Willamette Basin was reviewed and summarized to describe current and historical conditions as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Biological parameters emphasized include the status, distribution, and trends of aquatic biota, particularly algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish; the condition of aquatic and riparian habitat in which these biota reside; and the response of these biota to natural and human-associated impacts, including the level, type, and effect of contaminants.

  14. Impact of extreme oxygen consumption by pollutants on macroinvertebrate assemblages in plain rivers of the Ziya River Basin, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuekui; Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of oxygen depletion on macroinvertebrate community structure in benthic space. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and potential of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption were investigated simultaneously in the plain rivers of the Ziya River Basin. The degree of DO depletion was represented by sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and DO, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) in the overlying water. The results showed an all-around hypoxia environment formed, and the values of DO, SOD, CODCr, and NH4 (+)-N were separately 0.11-4.03 mg L(-1), 0.41-2.60 g m(-2) day(-1), 27.50-410.00 mg L(-1), and 1.79-101.41 mg L(-1). There was an abnormal macroinvertebrate assemblage, and only 3 classes, Insecta, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta, were found, which included 9 orders, 30 families, and 54 genera. The biodiversity was at a low level, and Shannon-Wiener index was 0.00-1.72. SOD, and NH4 (+)-N had major impact on the macroinvertebrate community, and the former had negative effect on most taxa, for instance, Nais, Branchiura, Paraleptophlebia, etc., which were sensitive or had a moderate-high tolerance to pollution. NH4 (+)-N had both positive and negative impacts on benthic animals, for instance, Dicrotendipes, Gomphus, Cricotopus, etc., for the former, and Procladius, Limnodrilus, Hippeutis, etc., for the latter. They all had a moderate-high tolerance to pollution. It is significant to improve DO condition and macroinvertebrate diversity in river harnessing and management. PMID:27048327

  15. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as recovery pattern was different among cladocerans and rotifers. Consequently, B[a]P showed insecticide-like impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary. PMID:23358147

  16. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary.

  17. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  18. Biomonitoring of Pollution by Microalgae Community in Aquatic System with Special Reference to Water Quality of River Kolong, Nagaon, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Banti Buragohain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With growing urbanization and industrialization India faces the challenge of providing clean and safe drinking water. In the name of economic growth most rivers and streams are turning into sewers. Pollution effect is equally damaging both biotic and abiotic components. Microalgae play an interesting role in forecasting changing environment. Pollution in aquatic environment like changing pH; addition of oil, heavy metals; increase of organic matter and chemical fertilizers can be traced by studying algal community. Abundant growth of particular algae, drastic change in species diversity and depletion of long inhabitant algal flora indicates the pollution in a very initial stage. In the present study, attempt has been made to point out some indicator algae of Kolong River which is getting polluted day by day and in placed among the 71 most polluted stretch of river in the country. In our investigation, we have found microalgae mainly from groups Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Desmidiaceae which can be identified as indicator species in biomonitoring purpose.

  19. USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2007-01-12

    Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

  20. Synthesis and interpretation of surface-water quality and aquatic biota data collected in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 1979-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Rice, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shenandoah National Park in northern and central Virginia protects 777 square kilometers of mountain terrain in the Blue Ridge physiographic province and more than 90 streams containing diverse aquatic biota. Park managers and visitors are interested in the water quality of park streams and its ability to support healthy coldwater communities and species, such as the native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), that are at risk in the eastern United States. Despite protection from local stressors, however, the water quality of streams in the park is at risk from many regional stressors, including atmospheric pollution, decline in the health of the surrounding forests because of invasive forest pests, and global climate change. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, undertook a study to compile, analyze, and synthesize available data on water quality, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and fish within Shenandoah National Park. Specifically, the effort focused on creating a comprehensive water-resources database for the park that can be used to evaluate temporal trends and spatial patterns in the available data, and characterizing those data to better understand interrelations among water quality, aquatic macroinvertebrates, fish, and the landscape. Data from three primary sources, namely the Shenandoah Watershed Study, the Shenandoah National Park Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Monitoring Program, and the Springs and Headwater Streams Study, were compiled and loaded into the National Park Service’s NPSTORET database. This effort yielded a comprehensive database containing nearly 1.3 million measurements of habitat characteristics, approximately 442,000 measurements of water-quality characteristics, and over 438,000 measurements of biological taxa (fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates), collected across 673 sites over a period of more than 30 years. Temporal trends in water quality indicate conflicting patterns in terms of

  1. Spatial and seasonal variation in the macro-invertebrates and physico-chemical parameters of the Enfranz River, Lake Tana sub-basin (Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehari, A.K.; Wondie, A.; Mingist, M.; Vijverberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the water quality of the Enfranz River by studying the distribution of macro-invertebrate taxa on the longitudinal gradient of the river. The macro-invertebrate community of the Enfranz River, located northwest of Bahir Dar city in the southern part of Lake Tana watershed, was studied to family taxonomic level in wet and dry seasons from August 2010 to May 2011. The river was sampled along its whole length at four sites from headwaters until its o...

  2. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Kartikasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the water quality of tertiary irrigation in several subdistricts in Malang, namely Kepanjen, Karangploso, and Tumpang. The water quality depends on the water quality indices (National Sanitation Foundation’s-NSF Indices and O’Connor’s Indices based on variables TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and Nitrate concentrate and ecological indices of benthic macroinvertebrate (Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener, Hilsenhof Biotic Indices-HBI, Average Score per Taxon-ASPT which is calculated by Biological Monitoring Working Party-BMWP, Ephemeroptera Indices, Plecoptera, Trichoptera-EPT. Observation of the physico-chemical water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate on May 2012 to April 2013. The sampling in each subdistrict was done at two selected stations in tertiary irrigation channel with three plot at each station. The data of physico-chemical quality of water were used to calculate the water quality indices, while the benthic macroinvertebrate data were used to calculate the ecological indices. The research findings showed that 27 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belong 10 classes were found in the three subdistrict. The pH, DO, Nitrate, TSS and TDS in six tertiary irrigation channels in Malang still met the water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control Class III. Based on NSF-WQI indices and O'Connor's Indices, water qualities in these irrigation channels were categorized into medium or moderate (yellow to good (green category. However, based on benthic macroinvertebrate communities which was used to determine the HBI, the water quality in the irrigation channels were categorized into the fair category (fairly significant organic pollution to fairly poor (significant organic pollution, while based on the value of ASPT, the water were categorized into probable moderate pollution to probable severe pollution. The irrigation water which was

  3. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan;

    2010-01-01

    1. Methods are needed to relate changing river flows to ecological response, particularly those which do not require collection of extensive new data for river segments that lack historical data. Using time-series of river biomonitoring data from wadeable lowland streams in Denmark and the East...... Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...

  4. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  5. Macroinvertebrate sampling on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the results of macroinvertebrate sampling that was conducted on Fish Springs National Refuge between May and August 1983. The purpose of...

  6. Impacts of agricultural land use on stream benthic macroinvertebrates in tributaries of the Mekong River, northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumon Sangpradub

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological impacts of non-intensive agricultural activities on stream community, especially inheadwater streams adjacent to conserved areas, are poorly known in Thailand. We investigated theimpacts of non-intensive agricultural activities on stream habitat characteristics and benthicmacroinvertebrate community in the headwater streams, tributaries of the Mekong River, northeastThailand. We compared the streams running through forests in National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuariesand those through agricultural areas. Twenty kick samples of benthic macroinvertebrates werecollected using a D-frame dipnet (0.3 m wide, 450 μm mesh size from each sampling site. Sixteenphysicochemical parameters of stream characteristics were measured. The results suggested that thisdisturbance had an impact on stream habitats more than its community. Agricultural land use alteredthe streams to be wider, deeper, and more discharged with less percentage of riparian coverage andhigh water temperature. Benthic macroinvertebrate composition did not differ in both areas, butintolerant benthic fauna decreased, while tolerant taxa were predominant and more abundant in theagricultural areas. In this study, water velocity and water temperature are the major importantvariables related to the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates.

  7. Effects of an oil spill on leafpack-inhabiting macroinvertebrates in the Chariton river, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, B.C.; Callahan, E.V.; Hurtubise, R.D.; Mueller, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    Artificial leaf packs were used to determine the effects of an oil spill on stream macroinvertebrate communities in the Chariton River, Missouri. Plastic mesh leaf retainers with approximately 10 g of leaves from five tree species were deployed at five sites (two upstream of the spill and three downstream) immediately after the spill and one year later. Four macroinvertebrate species dominating the community at upstream sites were virtually eliminated below the spill, including the stonefly Isoperla bilineata, the caddisfly Potamyia flava, the midge Thienemanniella xena, and blackfly larvae (Simulium sp.). Density of collector and shredder functional groups, and number of shredder taxa differed between upstream sites and the two furthest downstream sites during the 1990 sample period (Kruskal-Wallis w/Bonferroni paired comparisons, experiment wise error rate = 0.05). With one exception, no differences between sites were detected in the 1991-1992 sample period, indicating that the benthic community had at least partially recovered from the oil spill after one year. The odds of obtaining a sample with a small abundance of shredders (abundance spill than upstream, and the odds of obtaining a sample with a small abundance of shredders at downstream sites was greater in 1990 than in 1991-1992. A similar pattern was observed in abundance and taxa richness of the collector functional group. No significant differences between the two sampling periods were detected at upstream sites. Observed effects appeared to be associated with oil sorption and substrate coating, creating conditions unsuitable for successful colonization.

  8. Macroinvertebrate and organic matter export from headwater tributaries of a Central Appalachian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headwater streams export organisms and other materials to their receiving streams and macroinvertebrate drift can shape colonization dynamics in downstream reaches while providing food for downstream consumers. Spring-time macroinvertebrate drift and organic matter export was me...

  9. UPPER YELLOWSTONE RIVER, MONTANA: MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION AND WATER ANALYSIS 1973-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macroinvertebrate and water chemistry samples were taken at seven stations in the Yellowstone River between August 1973 and August 1974. The stations were located between Gardiner and Laurel, Montana. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected on six, and water chemistry samples on...

  10. Tolerance of benthic macroinvertebrates to organic enrichment in highland streams of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Mazzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: the aim of this study was to determine the ecological valence of benthic macroinvertebrates at different pollution levels in highland rivers and streams of Rio Grande do Sul; METHODS: the dataset proceeds from samplings performed between 2002-2011 in 35 lotic ecosystems. The Chemical Index was used to determine pollution levels. Indices of richness and Shannon diversity were applied to characterize the structure of benthic communities. The descriptors used to determine taxa's ecological valence were selected according to Coefficient of Variation and regression analyses. Groups of tolerance were identified using Interquartile range and cluster analysis; RESULTS: Conductivity and Chemical Index were the descriptors best related with diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate community. These metrics were used to determine the tolerance range of 38 taxa. Interquartile range and cluster analysis revealed three groups of taxa, according to their occurrence in different levels of pollution: taxa with narrow amplitudes, present at sites with very low or very high load of organic enrichment; taxa with moderate amplitude, found until moderately polluted sites; and taxa with occurrence in widespread environmental conditions. The results, when compared to other studies in Brazil, showed differences in some taxa's tolerance. This observation indicates the need to assess the bioindication potential of these taxa in genus and species level; CONCLUSION: the present study contributes to increase knowledge about the bioindicator potential of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the study supports an advanced biomonitoring of ecological quality in mountain streams of southern Brazil.

  11. Staunton 1 reclamation demonstration project. Aquatic ecosystems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W. S.

    1981-02-01

    To provide long-term indications of the potential water quality improvements following reclamation efforts at the Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project, macroinvertebrates were collected from three on-site ponds and from the receiving stream (Cahokia Creek) for site drainage. Implications for potential benthic community differences resulting from site runoff were disclosed, but macroinvertebrate diversity throughout Cahokia Creek was limited due to an unstable, sandy substrate. The three ponds sampled were the New Pond, which was created as part of the reclamation activities; the Shed Pond, which and the Old Pond, which, because it was an existing, nonimpacted pond free of site runoff, served as a control. Comparisons of macroinvertebrates from the ponds indicated the potential for the New Pond to develop into a productive ecosystem. Macroinvertebrates in the New Pond were generally species more tolerant of acid mine drainage conditions. However, due to the present limited faunal densities and the undesirable physical and chemical characteristics of the New Pond, the pond should not be stocked with fish at this time.

  12. 江西省水生维管束植物群落与 环境因子关系的初步研究%Primary Study on Interrelation between Aquatic Vascular Plant Communities and Environmental Factors in Jiangxi Province.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海龙; 叶居新

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-two aquatic vascular plant communities and their water environments were surveyed in Jiangxi province.The communities were analysed using PCA(principal component analysis) ordination to determine the relationship between the communities and environmental factors,according to pH value,depth of water,COD, DO,NP and HM.The results showed that information in original environmental data of communities was held 71.0% in the first two components of PCA ordination,COD, DO,NP and HM were the principal factors to determine the ecological distribution of aquatic vascular plant..

  13. Environmental and spatial controls of macroinvertebrate functional assemblages in seagrass ecosystems along the Pacific coast of northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Yamada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of environmental and spatial processes in macroinvertebrate community structure (i.e.,  β-diversity for three functional groups classified on the basis of dispersal ability and microhabitat selection (seagrass-associated [SA], drift-faunal [DF], and benthic-faunal [BF] groups were examined in a seagrass ecosystem along the Sanriku coast of Japan. Variation partitioning was conducted to explain the environmental heterogeneity and spatial arrangement of local communities (i.e., degree of variation in the community for each functional group. Processes determining community structure and metacommunity type differed among the functional groups. The SA group was under greater influence of environmental control, whereas the fractions of β-diversity in the DF and BF groups were explained by only spatial predictors. Thus, even if macroinvertebrate communities live in the same ecosystem, different mechanisms may determine the functional community structure, which depends on ecological traits such as dispersal ability and microhabitat. Ecological processes underlying community assembly differ among functional groups, indicating that the existence and/or dynamics of seagrass patches may affect the variation of faunal functions in an ecosystem.

  14. Does water level affect benthic macro-invertebrates of a marginal lake in a tropical river-reservoir transition zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerlin, R A; Henry, R

    2014-05-01

    Benthic macro-invertebrates are important components of freshwater ecosystems which are involved in ecological processes such as energy transfer between detritus and consumers and organic matter recycling. The aim of this work was to investigate the variation in organism richness, diversity and density of benthic fauna during the annual cycle in Camargo Lake, a lake marginal to Paranapanema River, southeast Brazil. The correlation of environmental factors with community attributes of the macro-benthic fauna was assessed. Since Camargo Lake is connected to the river, we tested the hypothesis that water level variation is the main regulating factor of environmental variables and of the composition and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates. The results indicated that lake depth varied with rainfall, being the highest at the end of the rising water period and the lowest at the beginning of this period. The sediment granulometry was more heterogeneous at the bottom of the lake by the end of the high water period. The benthic macro-invertebrate fauna was composed by 15 taxa. The Diptera order was represented by seven taxa and had greater richness in relation to other taxa. This group was responsible for 60% of the total abundance of organisms, followed by Ephemeroptera (22%) and Anellida (16%). Significant differences were observed over time in total richness and, in density of Narapa bonettoi, Chaoborus, Ablabesmyia gr. annulata, Chironomus gigas, Larsia fittkau, and Procladius sp. 2. Total taxa richness correlated negatively with water pH, transparency, conductivity, and bottom water oxygen. Higher positive correlations were found between the densities of some taxa and bottom water oxygen, conductivity and very fine sand, silt + clay of sediment, while negative correlations were recorded with organic matter, and fine, medium and coarse sand, bottom water temperature, mean temperature and rainfall. The significant temporal difference in water level was associated

  15. Effects of Seven Fungicides on Non-Target Aquatic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Dijksterhuis, Jan; van Doorn, Tineke; Samson, Rob; Postma, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic risk assessments for fungicides are carried out without information on their toxicity to non-target aquatic fungi. This might cause an underestimation of the toxic effects to the aquatic fungal community. This study focuses on the question whether recently derived concentrations limits for fungicides considered to protect populations of primary producers and (in)vertebrates also do protect the aquatic fungi. A panel of fungal species and Oomycetes was isolated and identified from unpo...

  16. Quantitative tolerance values for common stream benthic macroinvertebrates in the Yangtze River Delta, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Jin; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Hughes, Robert M; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic organisms' tolerance to water pollution is widely used to monitor and assess freshwater ecosystem health. Tolerance values (TVs) estimated based on statistical analyses of species-environment relationships are more objective than those assigned by expert opinion. Region-specific TVs are the basis for developing accurate bioassessment metrics particularly in developing countries, where both aquatic biota and their responses to human disturbances have been poorly documented. We used principal component analysis to derive a synthetic gradient for four stressor variables (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, and % silt) based on 286 sampling sites in the Taihu Lake and Qiantang River basins (Yangtze River Delta), China. We used the scores of taxa on the first principal component (PC1), which explained 49.8% of the variance, to estimate the tolerance values (TV(r)) of 163 macroinvertebrates taxa that were collected from at least 20 sites, 81 of which were not included in the Hilsenhoff TV lists (TV(h)) of 1987. All estimates were scaled into the range of 1-10 as in TV(h). Of all the taxa with different TVs, 46.3% of TV(r) were lower and 52.4% were higher than TV(h). TV(r) were significantly (p streams in China, particularly in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24865385

  17. Invertebrate footprints on detritus processing, bacterial community structure, and spatiotemporal redox profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Hunting, E.R.; Whatley, M. H.; Geest, van der, A.H.M.; Mulder, C; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A M; Admiraal, W.

    2012-01-01

    Detritus processing is driven by a complex interplay between macroinvertebrate and microbial activities. Bioturbation/feeding activities of invertebrates in sediments are known to influence decomposition rates. However, direct effects of invertebrates on bacterial communities and detritus processing remain ill-defined, mainly because identifying interactions between invertebrates and sediments is methodologically challenging. We incubated 5 macroinvertebrate species with various bioturbation/...

  18. Effects of agricultural and urban impacts on macroinvertebrates assemblages in streams (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ubiratan Hepp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of agricultural and urban activities on the structure and composition of benthic communities of streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in streams influenced by urbanization and agriculture and in streams with no anthropogenic disturbances (reference streams. Organism density was superior in urban streams when compared with streams in the other two areas. The taxonomic richness and Shannon diversity index were higher in reference streams. The benthic fauna composition was significantly different among land uses. The classification and ordination analyses corroborated the results of variance analyses demonstrating the formation of clusters corresponding to streams with similar land use. Seasonality was also found to influence the benthic community, though in a lesser degree than land use.

  19. Macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics in Cerna River (western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmina-Simona Răescu; Mălina Dumbravă-Dodoacă; Milca Petrovici

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine water quality in Cerna River, researchers carried out analyses into thestructure and dynamics of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as well as into the physical-chemicalfactors. 12 Groups of macroinvertebrates were identified. Density, abundance and frequency values recordedfor benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each samplecollecting station. Researchers noticed a direct influence of Băile Herculane town and dam upon ...

  20. The use of enclosed plankton communities in aquatic ecotoxicology : fate effects of mercury, cadmium and selected aromatic organics in a marine model ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1982-01-01

    Most investigations in ecotoxicology are carried out in the laboratory. Although laboratory experiments are indispensable and yield useful information, it is difficult if not impossible to extrapolate results of short-term laboratory tests currently in use to real field situations. The need in aquat

  1. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration benchmark. We sampled water chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish throughout the watershed during the spring and summer of 2011. Water chemistry results indicated that pH and total alkalinity increased post-restoration, while acidity, sulfate, and iron concentrations decreased. Watershed-level taxa richness, local taxa richness, biomass, diversity, and density of macroinvertebrates were significantly higher post-restoration; however, %EPT was not significantly different. Fish species richness, density, and brook trout density were all significantly higher post-restoration. These results provide clear evidence that both abiotic and biotic components of streams can recover from AMD pollution.

  2. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  3. STUDY UPON THE MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES FROM THE DANUBE RIVER BY BAZIAŞ-PORŢILE DE FIER SECTOR (SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA-MIRELA PANĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different sensitivity of benthic macroinvertebrates was used in determining water quality of the eight major tributaries of the Danube, which drains two mountain ranges: Locvei and Almăjului, within the context in which the macrozoobenthic community is influenced by changes in the qualitative parameters of aquatic ecosystems. To get an overview, a series of physical- chemical parameters (water temperature, pH, oxygen, conductivity, cyanide, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates was studied in parallel with the study of benthic community. Elevated abundance of benthic groups in the case of water quality characteristic (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, along with their high frequency in all the monitored tributaries in the present study and the water quality parameters maintained within normal limits fits these lotic ecosystems in the A class of surface water quality.

  4. Invertebrate communities of Lake Nabisojjo

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, L.M.; Kiggundu, V.; Pabire Ghandi, W.

    2000-01-01

    Invertebrates are organisms without a backbone on the basis of body size. Aquatic invertebrates can be divided into two broad categories: micro-and macro-invertebrates. The former commonly known as zooplankton, ranging in size from < 100um 10 ca.1500um and are mainly planktonic (i.e living suspended in the water column). The latter, also known as benthos, (bottom dwelling) are associated with bottom sediments(ie, living on sediment surface or burrowing in sediments), are much bigger organism ...

  5. 斧头湖水生植物多样性及群落演替研究%DIVERSITY VARIATION AND COMMUNITY SUCCESSION OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES IN LAKE FUTOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中强; 任慧; 郝孟曦; 张萌; 徐军

    2012-01-01

    Due to extensive human activities, habitat loss and segmentation induce destruction and disappearance of aquatic plants in the shallow lakes. These activities cause secondary extinctions of aquatic animals, leading to loss of biodiversity in lakes and animal reproduction. Lake Futou, locates in southeastern Hubei Province, China, has the same functions, such as irrigation and aquaculture, as other shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. However, in recent 50 years, human disturbances, including reclamation, damming and over-fishing, have caused accelerated loss of diversity of aquatic plants. This worsened the ecosystem faction and seriously affected the productivity of aquatic resources and the quality of species. Thus, the aims of the this study were to understand the succession of aquatic plants in Lake Futou in recent decades and to comprehend the reasons associated with exploitation and utilization of resources in this lake. In order to investigate the aquatic plant diversity in Lake Futou, the species and community diversity were studied using field investigation in 2009, and the topology were analysed by geographical information system technique with ARC/INFO. Based on the results obtained from field investigation and previous studies, species diversity variations and succession of aquatic macrophytes community in Lake Futou from 1988 to 2009 were investigated and the reasons between the changes and some controlling factors were analyzed. The results showed that there were some variations on the number of species and dominant species of aquatic plants. Some species that were sensitive to disturbances such as Nymphaea stellata disappeared and some dominant species such as Potamogeton maackianus, Vallisneria denseserrulata and Hydrilla verticillata became sub-dominant species or accompanying species from 1988 to 2009. In addition, the introduced species such as Elodea nuttalli occurred in Lake Futou and became dominant species

  6. Progressive recovery of a tropical deforested stream community after a flash flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cerqueira Marques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, we evaluated and compared community attributes from a tropical deforested stream, located in a pasture area, in a period before (PRED I and three times after (POSD I, II, and III a flash flood, in order to investigate the existence of temporal modifications in community structure that suggests return to conditions previous to the flash flood. METHODS: Biota samples included algae, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates, and fish assemblages. Changes in stream physical structure we also evaluated. Similarity of the aquatic biota between pre and post-disturbance periods was examined by exploratory ordination, known as Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling associated with Cluster Analysis, using quantitative and presence/absence Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients. Presence and absence data were used for multivariate correlation analysis (Relate Analysis in order to investigate taxonomic composition similarity of biota between pre and post-disturbance periods. RESULTS: Our results evidenced channel simplification and an expressive decrease in richness and abundance of all taxa right after the flood, followed by subsequent increases of these parameters in the next three samples, indicating trends towards stream community recovery. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients evidenced a greater community structure disparity among the period right after the flood and the subsequent ones. Multivariate correlation analysis evidenced a greater correlation between macroinvertebrates and algae/macrophytes, demonstrating the narrow relation between their recolonization dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite overall community structure tended to return to previous conditions, recolonization after the flood was much slower than that reported in literature. Finally, the remarkably high flood impact along with the slow recolonization could be a result of the historical presence of anthropic impacts in the region, such as siltation, riparian forest complete depletion

  7. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  8. The use of enclosed plankton communities in aquatic ecotoxicology : fate effects of mercury, cadmium and selected aromatic organics in a marine model ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, J.

    1982-01-01

    Most investigations in ecotoxicology are carried out in the laboratory. Although laboratory experiments are indispensable and yield useful information, it is difficult if not impossible to extrapolate results of short-term laboratory tests currently in use to real field situations. The need in aquatic ecotoxicology for experiments with complex systems, more closely approximating natural conditions, led to the use of large, flexible plastic bags, isolating part of the ecosystem, and suspended ...

  9. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  10. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  11. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  12. The influence of geomorphology on the composition of aquatic flora and fauna withim a temporary pond network

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, Margarita; Serrano Martín, Laura; Siljestrom, Patricia; Fernández Zamundio, María del Rocio; García Murillo, Pablo; Díaz Paniagua, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Geomorphological and hydrological features can provide a sound basis for global wetland classification. Temporary ponds located on the sandy area of Doñana can be classified into five different geomorphological areas. We hypothesised that these ponds would differ in soil characteristics, which may also explain differences in the composition of their macroinvertebrate, amphibian, and aquatic plant species assemblages. The study ponds were significantly segregated into southern and nor...

  13. Sensitivity of Ethiopian aquatic macroinvertebrates to the pesticides endosulfan and diazinon, compared to literature data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, Berhan M.; Retta, Negussie; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to present a methodology for toxicity tests that can be used when analytical resources to verify the test concentrations are limited, and to evaluate whether the sensitivity of a limited number of Ethiopian species to pesticides differs from literature values fo

  14. Effects of intra- ans interspecific competition on the sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates to carbendazim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arco, Del A.I.; Parra, G.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ecological Risk Assessment of pesticides and other potentially toxic chemicals is generally based on toxicity data obtained from single-species laboratory experiments. In the field, however, contaminant effects are ubiquitously co-occurring with ecological interactions such as species competitio

  15. Diversity of aquatic insects and other associated macroinvertebrates in an arid wetland (Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. SCHEIBLER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue expandir la evaluación de la diversidad de insectos acuáticos y macroinvertebrados asociados a lo largo del Bañado Carilauquen, usando red de mano para la columna de agua y draga de Petersen para el bentos. Adicionalmente, se exploraron diferencias y similitudes espacio-temporales en la composición cualitativa de los ensambles de invertebrados. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales en cinco tramos del Bañado Carilauquen, desde la cabecera hasta la desembocadura. Se identificaron 47 taxa; 37 fueron insectos, principalmente Coleoptera, Diptera y Hemiptera, en ese orden. La composición de macroinvertebrados estuvo mejor condicionada por la variable espacial que por la temporal, en los extremos del gradiente espacial estudiado. Fueron detectados tres grupos faunísticos: cabecera, tramo medio y desembocadura. La mayor riqueza detectada en la cabecera se correspondió con los valores más bajos de conductividad del Bañado Carilauquen. La menor diversidad y la mayor diferencia en la composición faunística fueron observadas en la desembocadura (mayores niveles de conductividad. En el tramo medio, la riqueza fue mayor a la esperada según niveles de conductividad, debido posiblemente, a la presencia de especies transitorias.

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Schoenoplectus litter in a constructed wetland in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.M.; Thullen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Culm processing characteristics were associated with differences in invertebrate density in a study of invertebrates and senesced culm packs in a constructed treatment wetland. Invertebrate abundance differed by location within the wetland and there were differences between the two study years that appeared to be related to water quality and condition of culm material. Open areas in the wetland appeared to be critical in providing dissolved oxygen (DO) and food (plankton) to the important invertebrate culm processor, Glyptotendipes. As culm packs aged, invertebrate assemblages became less diverse and eventually supported mostly tubificid worms and leeches. It appears from this study that wetland design is vital to processing of plant material and that designs that encourage production and maintenance of high DO's will encourage microbial and invertebrate processing of material.

  17. Decreasing fallow duration in tropical slash-and-burn agriculture alters soil macro-invertebrate diversity: a case study in southern French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Celini, Léonide; Mora, Philippe; Mathieu, Jerome; Lapied, Emmanuel; Nahmani, Johanne; PONGE, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    International audience In the humid tropics, slash-and-burn cultivation causes changes in the composition of soil biota communities. We investigated the soil macro-invertebrates (body length higher or equal to 2 mm) in five sites, two at Maripasoula, an Aluku village along the Maroni river (French Guiana), with short fallow ( around 8 years), and the other three at Elahe, a Wayana village along the same river, with long fallow ( around 25 years). We report observed species richness, the co...

  18. Combined effects of drought and the fungicide tebuconazole on aquatic leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Stéphane; Zoghlami, Olfa; Margoum, Christelle; Artigas, Joan; Chaumot, Arnaud; Foulquier, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Loss of biodiversity and altered ecosystem functioning are driven by the cumulative effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors affecting both quantity and quality of water resources. Here we performed a 40-day laboratory microcosm experiment to assess the individual and combined effects of drought and the model fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) on leaf litter decomposition (LLD), a fundamental biogeochemical process in freshwater ecosystems. Starting out from a worst-case scenario perspective, leaf-associated microbial communities were exposed to severe drought conditions (four 5-day drought periods alternated with 4-day immersion periods) and/or a chronic exposure to TBZ (nominal concentration of 20μgL(-1)). We assessed the direct effects of drought and fungicide on the structure (biomass, diversity) and activity (extracellular enzymatic potential) of fungal and bacterial assemblages colonizing leaves. We also investigated indirect effects on the feeding rates of the amphipod Gammarus fossarum on leaves previously exposed to drought and/or TBZ contamination. Results indicate a stronger effect of drought stress than fungicide contamination under the experimental conditions applied. Indeed, the drought stress strongly impacted microbial community structure and activities, inhibiting the LLD process and leading to cascading effects on macroinvertebrate feeding. However, despite the lack of significant effect of TBZ applied alone, the effects of drought on microbial functions (i.e., decrease in LLD and in enzymatic activities) and on Gammarus feeding rates were more pronounced when drought and TBZ stresses were applied together. In a perspective of ecological risk assessment and ecosystem management for sustainability, these findings stress the need for deeper insight into how multiple stressors can affect the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and associated services.

  19. Larval aquatic insect responses to cadmium and zinc in experimental streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the risks of metal mixture effects to natural stream communities under ecologically relevant conditions, the authors conducted 30-d tests with benthic macroinvertebrates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in experimental streams. The simultaneous exposures were with Cd and Zn singly and with Cd+Zn mixtures at environmentally relevant ratios. The tests produced concentration–response patterns that for individual taxa were interpreted in the same manner as classic single-species toxicity tests and for community metrics such as taxa richness and mayfly (Ephemeroptera) abundance were interpreted in the same manner as with stream survey data. Effect concentrations from the experimental stream exposures were usually 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those from classic single-species tests. Relative to a response addition model, which assumes that the joint toxicity of the mixtures can be predicted from the product of their responses to individual toxicants, the Cd+Zn mixtures generally showed slightly less than additive toxicity. The authors applied a modeling approach called Tox to explore the mixture toxicity results and to relate the experimental stream results to field data. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (hydrogen, Cd, and Zn) on organisms using a 2-pKa bidentate model that defines interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands) and relates that accumulation through a logistic equation to biological response. The Tox modeling was able to predict Cd+Zn mixture responses from the single-metal exposures as well as responses from field data. The similarity of response patterns between the 30-d experimental stream tests and field data supports the environmental relevance of testing aquatic insects in experimental streams.

  20. A comparison of macroinvertebrate and habitat methods of data collection in the Little Colorado River Watershed, Arizona 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Patrice; Paretti, Nick V.

    2007-01-01

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), use different field methods for collecting macroinvertebrate samples and habitat data for bioassessment purposes. Arizona’s Biocriteria index was developed using a riffle habitat sampling methodology, whereas the EMAP method employs a multi-habitat sampling protocol. There was a need to demonstrate comparability of these different bioassessment methodologies to allow use of the EMAP multi-habitat protocol for both statewide probabilistic assessments for integration of the EMAP data into the national (305b) assessment and for targeted in-state bioassessments for 303d determinations of standards violations and impaired aquatic life conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the two methods yield similar bioassessment results, such that the data could be used interchangeably in water quality assessments. In this Regional EMAP grant funded project, a probabilistic survey of 30 sites in the Little Colorado River basin was conducted in the spring of 2007. Macroinvertebrate and habitat data were collected using both ADEQ and EMAP sampling methods, from adjacent reaches within these stream channels. All analyses indicated that the two macroinvertebrate sampling methods were significantly correlated. ADEQ and EMAP samples were classified into the same scoring categories (meeting, inconclusive, violating the biocriteria standard) 82% of the time. When the ADEQ-IBI was applied to both the ADEQ and EMAP taxa lists, the resulting IBI scores were significantly correlated (r=0.91), even though only 4 of the 7 metrics in the IBI were significantly correlated. The IBI scores from both methods were significantly correlated to the percent of riffle habitat, even though the average percent riffle habitat was only 30% of the stream reach. Multivariate analyses found that the percent riffle was an important

  1. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Wyoming. Especially in the winter, the proportionately large, continuous gain of groundwater into Fish Creek in the perennial section keeps most of the creek free of ice. Because sunlight can still reach the streambed in Fish Creek and the water is still flowing, aquatic plants continue to photosynthesize in the winter, albeit at a lower level of productivity. Additionally, the cobble and large gravel substrate in Fish Creek provides excellent attachment points for aquatic plants, and when combined with Fish Creek’s channel stability allows rapid growth of aquatic plants once conditions allow during the spring. The aquatic plant community of Fish Creek was different than most streams in Wyoming in that it contains many different macrophytes—including macroalgae such as long streamers of Cladophora, aquatic vascular plants, and moss; most other streams in the state contain predominantly algae. From the banks of Fish Creek, the bottom of the stream sometimes appeared to be a solid green carpet. A shift was observed from higher amounts of microalgae in April/May to higher amounts macrophytes in August and October, and differences in the relative abundance of microalgae and macrophytes were statistically significant between seasons. Differences in dissolved-nitrate concentrations and in the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio were significantly different between seasons, as concentrations of dissolved nitrate decreased from April/May to August and October. It is likely that dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Fish Creek were lower in August and October because macrophytes were quickly utilizing the nutrient, and a negative correlation between macro-phytes and nitrate was found. Macroinvertebrates also were sampled because of their role as indicators of water quality and their documented responses to perturbation such as degradation of water quality and habitat. Statistically significant seasonal differences were noted in the macroinvertebrate community. Taxa richness and

  2. Effects of modifications of aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies under this program historically have been concerned with the effects of a variety of stress factors on aquatic populations and communities. Current research was focused principally on ionizing radiation, and includes studies on the interaction of acute radiation and temperature on fish, the in situ measurement of radiation exposure in an aquatic environment, and the uptake and retention of tritium in a simulated pond community. In response to the expanded responsibilities of the recently formed Energy Research and Development Administration in dealing with all forms of energy related problems, this program will be redirected in the coming year to nonnuclear energy research

  3. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The solubility of oxygen in water increases with decreasing temperature. This has led to a general perception of cold, high mountain streams as more oxygen rich than warmer lowland streams, and that macroinvertebrates inhabiting high altitude streams have had no need to adapt to critical oxygen...... streams from sea level to 4000 m a.s.l. in Ecuador, we determined predicted oxygen availability, oxygen demand and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure along this wide altitudinal gradient. 3. We show that the predicted oxygen availability at 4000 m a.s.l. is only one fifth of that at sea level, whereas...... relatively few groups normally regarded as oxygen-sensitive. Nevertheless, high altitude assemblages react more strongly to lowering of oxygen saturation, and are thus more sensitive to organic pollution. 5. Oxygen deficiency has been overlooked completely in studies of the altitudinal distribution...

  4. Biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Jan; Eekhout, Joris; Verdonschot, Piet

    2016-04-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Currently, stream restoration measures are being implemented in these degraded lowland streams, where design principles are often based on outdated relationships between biological and physical conditions. Little is known about the reference conditions in these streams. Therefore, the aim of this research is to quantify the relationships between biological and physical conditions of macroinvertebrates in reference lowland streams. The research was conducted in four near-natural lowland streams in Central Poland. Field data were obtained during a field campaign in 2011. The following data were obtained in a 50-m reach in each of the four streams: macroinvertebrate sampling, spatial habitat patterns, bathymetry, and flow-velocity. Furthermore, water level, light sensitivity and temperature sensors were installed to obtain the temporal dynamic of these streams. Macroinvertebrates were sampled in 9 different habitat types, i.e. sand, gravel, fine organic matter, stones, branches, leaves, silt, vegetation, and wood. Macroinvertebrates were determined to the highest taxonomic level possible. Data from the bathymetrical surveys were interpolated on a grid and bathymetrical metrics were determined. Flow velocity measurements were related to habitats and flow velocity metrics were determined. Analysis of the data shows that flow conditions vary among the different habitat, with a gradient from hard substrates towards soft substrates. Furthermore, the data show that stream as a unit best explains species composition, but also specific habitat conditions, such as substrate type and flow velocity, correlate with species composition. More specific, the data shows a strong effect of wood on species composition. These findings may have implications for stream restoration design, which

  5. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Moslem Sharifinia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal...

  6. Weak Concordance between Fish and Macroinvertebrates in Mediterranean Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Larsen; Laura Mancini; Giorgio Pace; Massimiliano Scalici; Lorenzo Tancioni

    2012-01-01

    Although anthropogenic degradation of riverine systems stimulated a multi-taxon bioassessment of their ecological integrity in EU countries, specific responses of different taxonomic groups to human pressure are poorly investigated in Mediterranean rivers. Here, we assess if richness and composition of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages show concordant variation along a gradient of anthropogenic pressure in 31 reaches across 13 wadeable streams in central Italy. Fish and invertebrate taxo...

  7. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study demonstrates, on the basis of several analyanalytical criteria, that the production and extracellular release of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is widespread among phytoplankton species. The production and release of CAMP varied markedly among different species grown under similar environmental conditions, and intraspecifically during the life cycle of a given algal species. This investigation marks the first time cAMP has been investigated in natural aquatic systems. An examination of epilimnetic lakewater samples from Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan, demonstrated that cAMP existed in both particulate-associated and dissolved forms in these systems.

  8. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  9. Multivariate and Phylogenetic Analyses Assessing the Response of Bacterial Mat Communities from an Ancient Oligotrophic Aquatic Ecosystem to Different Scenarios of Long-Term Environmental Disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Pajares; Valeria Souza; Luis E. Eguiarte

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term envir...

  10. Biological diversity, ecological health and condition of aquatic assemblages at national wildlife refuges in southern indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Robb, Joseph R; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  11. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  12. Multivariate and phylogenetic analyses assessing the response of bacterial mat communities from an ancient oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem to different scenarios of long-term environmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x) mesocosm experiment: a) Control; b) Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c) 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d) UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f) UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months) and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8%) and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%) were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin) had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus), which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp) through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data, can

  13. Multivariate and phylogenetic analyses assessing the response of bacterial mat communities from an ancient oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem to different scenarios of long-term environmental disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pajares

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x mesocosm experiment: a Control; b Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8% and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5% were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus, which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular

  14. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented. PMID:26408112

  15. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented.

  16. Organic-matter retention and macroinvertebrate utilization of seasonally inundated bryophytes in a mid-order Piedmont River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James; Pattillo, Meryom; Freeman, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased understanding of the role of bryophytes in supporting invertebrate biomass and for their influence on nutrient cycling and carbon balance in aquatic systems, but the structural and functional role of bryophytes growing in seasonally inundated habitats is substantially less studied. We conducted a study on the Middle Oconee River, near Athens, GA, to assess invertebrate abundance and organic-matter retention in seasonally inundated patches of the liverwort Porella pinnata, a species that tends to be submerged only when water levels in rivers are substantially above base flow. Aquatic invertebrate utilization of these seasonally inundated habitats has rarely been investigated. Macroinvertebrate biomass, insect density, and organic-matter content were significantly greater in patches of P. pinnata than on adjacent bare rock. Bryophyte biomass explained additional variation in organic matter, insect biomass, and density. The most abundant insects in P. pinnata patches were Dipterans and Plecopterans. Our results suggest an important structural role of seasonally inundated bryophyte habitats in riverine ecosystems.

  17. Physical Thresholds as Ecological Proxies in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, M. B.; Gaines, D. B.; Morrison, R. R.; Sada, D. W.; Scoppettone, G. G.; Stone, M. C.; Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Wilson, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    It is often difficult to directly quantify ecological thresholds and predict ecological responses to changing environmental conditions. Here, we present two case studies from Death Valley National Park - Devils Hole and Travertine Springs - in which physical parameters are used as proxies for ecological processes to assess the consequences of environmental change on aquatic ecosystems. In Devils Hole, seasonal thresholds for water temperature and food availability are defined to quantify the optimal recruitment window for the Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). At Travertine Springs, physical thresholds of water depth, velocity, and temperature are used to define the spatial extent of the preferred habitat of several threatened macroinvertebrate species. In both systems, mechanistic models are developed to predict the response of those physical thresholds to changing environmental conditions informed by climate change scenarios and potential changes in water availability. By examining the temporal and spatial response of targeted physical parameters to alternative scenarios, we can assess potential ecosystem impacts without direct measurement of ecological processes.

  18. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  19. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S.; Bilton, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this

  20. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate patterns of spatial and temporal variability of mobile macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat. A multi-factorial sampling design was used to test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages and their spatial and temporal variability changed in relation to substrate inclination. Moreover, macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates were also investigated in order to detect eventual relationship between sessile and mobile assemblages. A total of 236 mobile macro-invertebrate taxa were identified, among them 2 Platyhelminthes, 4 Sipuncula, 6 Nemertea, 27 Mollusca, 86 Annelida, 103 Arthropoda, 8 Echinodermata. Results of the study showed that mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages of coralligenous habitat were little influenced by the inclination of substrate and by the morphology of sessile organisms, as patterns of variation were different between the two assemblages. Mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages changed among sampling dates within one year period and they showed high variability at the spatial scale examined.

  2. UNDERSTANDING LANDSCAPE PATTERNS OF AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY IN DITCH SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlincx, Sven; Van Donk, Ellen; Declerck, Steven A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving aquatic biodiversity requires thorough understanding of the processes shaping biodiversity at the landscape level. Knowledge on the partitioning of diversity into local diversity (alpha) and differences between communities (beta) is of vital importance to understand the spatial structure

  3. Selenium in aquatic habitats at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During 1991 and 1992, selenium levels were studied in aquatic communities at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge on the lower Colorado River. Composite samples of...

  4. Spatial-temporal variability in water quality and macro-invertebrate assemblages in the Upper Mara River basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Fidelis; Masese, Frank O.; Van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy; Obando, Joy; Lens, Piet N. L.

    Tropical rivers display profound temporal and spatial heterogeneity in terms of environmental conditions. This aspect needs to be considered when designing a monitoring program for water quality in rivers. Therefore, the physico-chemical composition and the nutrient loading of the Upper Mara River and its two main tributaries, the Amala and Nyangores were monitored. Initial daily, and later a weekly monitoring schedule for 4 months spanning through the wet and dry seasons was adopted. Benthic macro-invertebrates were also collected during the initial sampling to be used as indicators of water quality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the physico-chemical status and biological integrity of the Upper Mara River basin. This was achieved by examining trends in nutrient concentrations and analyzing the structure, diversity and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates in relation to varying land use patterns. Sampling sites were selected based on catchment land use and the level of human disturbance, and using historical records of previous water quality studies. River water pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, and turbidity were determined in situ. All investigated parameters except iron and manganese had concentration values within allowable limits according to Kenyan and international standards for drinking water. The Amala tributary is more mineralized and also shows higher levels of pH and EC than water from the Nyangores tributary. The latter, however, has a higher variability in both the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations. The variability in TP and TN concentrations increases downstream for both tributaries and is more pronounced for TN than for TP. Macro-invertebrate assemblages responded to the changes in land use and water quality in terms of community composition and diversity. The study recommends detailed continuous monitoring of the water quality at shorter time intervals and to identify

  5. Who possesses drug resistance genes in the aquatic environment?: sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance genes among the bacterial community in water environment of Metro-Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Miller, Todd W.; Shimizu, Akiko; Takada, Hideshige; Siringan, Maria Auxilia T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are ubiquitous in natural environments, including sites considered pristine. To understand the origin of ARGs and their dynamics, we must first define their actual presence in the natural bacterial assemblage. Here we found varying distribution profiles of sul genes in “colony forming bacterial assemblages” and “natural bacterial assemblages.” Our monitoring for antibiotic contamination revealed that sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a major contaminant in aquatic environments of Metro-Manila, which would have been derived from human and animal use, and subsequently decreased through the process of outflow from source to the sea. The SMX-resistant bacterial rate evaluated by the colony forming unit showed 10 to 86% of the total colony numbers showed higher rates from freshwater sites compared to marine sites. When sul genes were quantified by qPCR, colony-forming bacteria conveyed sul1 and sul2 genes in freshwater and seawater (10−5–10−2 copy/16S) but not sul3. Among the natural bacterial assemblage, all sul1, sul2, and sul3 were detected (10−5–10−3 copy/16S), whereas all sul genes were at an almost non-detectable level in the freshwater assemblage. This study suggests that sul1 and sul2 are main sul genes in culturable bacteria, whereas sul3 is conveyed by non-culturable bacteria in the sea. As a result marine bacteria possess sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes in the marine environment. PMID:23641240

  6. Who Possesses Drug Resistance Genes in the Aquatic Environment? : Sulfamethoxazole (SMX Resistance Genes among the Bacterial Community in Water Environment of Metro-Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has shown that antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG are ubiquitous in natural environments, including sites considered pristine. To understand the origin of ARGs and their dynamics, we must first define their actual presence in the natural bacterial assemblage. Here we found varying distribution profiles of sul genes in colony forming bacterial assemblages and natural bacterial assemblages. Our monitoring for antibiotic contamination revealed that sulfamethoxazole (SMX is a major contaminant in aquatic environments of Metro-Manila, which would have been derived from human and animal use, and subsequently decreased through the process of outflow from source to the sea. The SMX-resistant bacterial rate evaluated by the colony forming unit showed 10 to 86 % of the total colony numbers showed higher rates from freshwater sites compared to marine sites. When sul genes were quantified by qPCR, colony-forming bacteria conveyed sul1 and sul2 genes in freshwater and seawater (10-5-10-2 copy/16S but not sul3. Among the natural bacterial assemblage, all sul1, sul2 and sul3 were detected (10-5-10-3 copy/16S, whereas all sul genes were at an almost non-detectable level in the freshwater assemblage. This study suggests that sul1 and sul2 are main sul genes in culturable bacteria, whereas sul3 is conveyed by non-culturable bacteria in the sea. As a result marine bacteria possess sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes in the marine environment.

  7. Science for Managing Riverine Ecosystems: Actions for the USGS Identified in the Workshop "Analysis of Flow and Habitat for Instream Aquatic Communities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Hamilton, David B.; Petersen, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state agencies need improved scientific analysis to support riverine ecosystem management. The ability of the USGS to integrate geologic, hydrologic, chemical, geographic, and biological data into new tools and models provides unparalleled opportunities to translate the best riverine science into useful approaches and usable information to address issues faced by river managers. In addition to this capability to provide integrated science, the USGS has a long history of providing long-term and nationwide information about natural resources. The USGS is now in a position to advance its ability to provide the scientific support for the management of riverine ecosystems. To address this need, the USGS held a listening session in Fort Collins, Colorado in April 2006. Goals of the workshop were to: 1) learn about the key resource issues facing DOI, other Federal, and state resource management agencies; 2) discuss new approaches and information needs for addressing these issues; and 3) outline a strategy for the USGS role in supporting riverine ecosystem management. Workshop discussions focused on key components of a USGS strategy: Communications, Synthesis, and Research. The workshop identified 3 priority actions the USGS can initiate now to advance its capabilities to support integrated science for resource managers in partner government agencies and non-governmental organizations: 1) Synthesize the existing science of riverine ecosystem processes to produce broadly applicable conceptual models, 2) Enhance selected ongoing instream flow projects with complementary interdisciplinary studies, and 3) Design a long-term, watershed-scale research program that will substantively reinvent riverine ecosystem science. In addition, topical discussion groups on hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic habitat and populations, and socio-economic analysis and negotiation identified eleven important complementary actions required to advance the state of the science and to

  8. Stable isotope analysis of energy dynamics in aquatic ecosystems suggests trophic shifts following severe wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, A. M.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Luchkow, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire alters landscapes and can have significant impacts on stream ecosystems. The 2003 Lost Creek wildfire was one of the most severe on Alberta's eastern rocky mountain slopes, resulting in elevated sediment production and nutrient (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) export in impacted streams. These resulted in increased algal productivity and macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity, and as a result, fish in watersheds draining wildfire affected catchments were larger than those in the same age class from reference (unburned) watersheds. In the present investigation, stable isotope analysis of C and N was utilized to evaluate ecosystem energy dynamics and describe trophic relationships in those watersheds. Aquatic invertebrates from burned catchments showed enrichment in δ13C and δ15N relative to algae suggesting a reliance on algae (autochthony) as a primary source of energy. Invertebrates from unburned systems were depleted in δ13C relative to algae indicating reliance on allochthonous or terrestrial primary energy sources. Preliminary analysis of δ15N in macroinvertebrates showed slight enrichment in burned catchments suggesting a trophic shift. More comprehensive macroinvertebrate sampling and identification has been conducted; isotopic analysis will provide greater resolution of how specific families within feeding guilds have been affected by wildfire. This will provide more robust insights into how wildfires may impact stream ecology in mountain environments.

  9. [Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Laura Cristina; Longo, Magnolia; John Jairo, Ramirez; Guillermo, Chalar

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia. Available indices to assess the ecological status of rivers in Colombia are mostly based on subjective hypotheses about macroinvertebrate tolerance to pollution, which have important limitations. Here we present the application of a method to establish an index of ecological quality for lotic systems in Colombia. The index, based on macroinvertebrate abundance and physicochemical variables, was developed as an alternative to the BMWP-Col index. The method consists on determining an environmental gradient from correlations between physicochemical variables and abundance. The scores obtained in each sampling point are used in a standardized correlation for a model of weighted averages (WA). In the WA model abundances are also weighted to estimate the optimum and tolerance values of each taxon; using this information we estimated the index of ecological quality based also on macroinvertebrate (ICE(RN-MAE)) abundance in each sampling site. Subsequently, we classified all sites using the index and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in a cluster analysis. Using TP and ICE(RN-MAE), mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation, we defined threshold values corresponding to three categories of ecological status: good, fair and critical. PMID:25189081

  10. Evaluating the feasibility of planting aquatic plants for habitat restoration in shallow Mississippi lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planting aquatic plants is a technique used to restore native aquatic plant communities in lakes lacking aquatic plants. However, the feasibility of using this restoration technique in Mississippi lakes has not been evaluated. We conducted two exclosure experiments to evaluate the success of planti...

  11. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  12. SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES OF NEW CALEDONIAN STREAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one sites located on 14 New Caledonian streams were surveyed four times between October 1996 and October 1997 in order to examine the spatial and temporal changes in the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. About 250 000 invertebrates representing 167 taxa were collected in the streams. Seventy-five percent of identified taxa and 67% of individuals were insects. Major spatial and temporal changes in the composition of the fauna were detected by multivariate analyses (ordination and classification. Overall, the number of individuals was significantly higher in the dry season (October than in the wetter seasons (January and June. However, a low temporal variability was detected in the structure of benthic communities during the sampling period. A cluster analysis based on taxonomic composition separated five groups of sites in relation with rock type, land use, and geographic characteristics. Several metrics (total invertebrate density, taxon richness, relative abundance of major invertebrate groups, diversity indices were used to characterize each group of sites. Forested streams, where the highest specific diversity occurred, represented the most speciose habitat for benthic fauna. A less rich and abundant fauna occurred in streams draining ultramafic rocks probably because of their low content in food resources and organic matter.

  13. Land use Controls on Water Quality and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Andean Amazon, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, L. A.; McClain, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Agro-pastoral systems are replacing many of the tropical forests in the world, and much of this deforestation occurs in watersheds where people's livelihoods rely directly on water and aquatic resources in local streams and rivers. We examined relationships between land use and aquatic ecosystems in 34 catchments exhibiting a gradient of land use disturbance and human settlement in the Andean Amazon of Peru. Our research objectives were to 1) classify and characterize watershed land use and physical properties using remotely sensed data, 2) characterize the physical, biological and chemical conditions of streams 3) examine relationships between land use and water quality parameters at 3 scales: watershed, riparian and reach habitat and 4) translate research findings into management strategies that minimize disturbance and maximize ecosystem services. Primary forest was the dominant cover (68%) across the catchments, and the remaining study area was composed of: mixed forest (11.5%), grassland (10.75%) cropland (9.17%) and bare rock (0.02%). Among watersheds, forest cover ranged from 14% to 100%, mixed forest ranged from 0% to 26%, grassland ranged from 0% to 45% and cropland ranged from 0% to 26%. Physical habitat index scores ranged from 12.80 (very impaired) to 29.50 (reference conditions). Although nitrogen, phosphorous, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, electric conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO), varied across sites, total concentrations remained within acceptable levels. Simpson's diversity and Family Biotic Index (FBI) were calculated for macroinvertebrates collected at each site; Simpson's diversity ranged from 0.24 to 0.95 and FBI ranged from 1.97 (excellent) to 7.49 (fairly poor). Forest cover at the watershed scale was the best explanatory variable and was positively correlated with inorganic phosphate (0.50), DO (0.90) and Simpson's diversity (0.46) and negatively correlated with organic phosphate (- 0.64), DOC (-0.75), water temperature (-0

  14. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...

  15. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  16. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event

  17. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  18. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  19. Persistance of a surrogate for a genetically engineered cellulolytic microorganism and effects on aquatic community and ecosystem properties: Mesocosm and stream comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidental or deliberate release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) into the environment raises concerns related to their potential to alter natural processes and biological communities. Research was conducted to determine the persistance of an introduced surrogate for a GEM in lotic habitats, to test the responses to the introduced bacterial, and to evaluate the utility of flowing water mesocosms as tools for assessing the fates and effects of bacteria introduced into streams. Cellulolomonas cellulose-degrading bacteria were selcted as the GEM surrogate because cellulose superdegrader bacteria are being genetically engineered and are of interest to the food and paper industries and in the conversion of biomass to fuels. Cellulomonas densities were determined using fluorescent antibodies, and declined from postinoculation maxima faster in sediments than in Chlorophyta growths and leaf packs. Cellulomonas persisted in leaf packs at densities much greater than background. Cellulomonas had no statistically significant effects on primary productivity, community respiration, photosynthesis/respiration ratios, assimilation ratios, bacterial productivity, and rates of leaf litter decomposition. Cellulase concentrations were positively correlated with Cellulolomonas densities ≥7x108 cells/g dry mass in fresh leaf litter for 2 d following exposure. Mesocosms were good tools for studying bacterial population dynamics in leaf litter and physiological aspects of litter degradation. 45 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sharifinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.

  1. The effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate detritivores and leaf litter decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Buckingham

    Full Text Available High severity wildfire events are a feature of forests globally and are likely to be more prevalent with climate change. As a disturbance process, fire has the potential to change important ecological functions, such as decomposition, through its impact on biodiversity. Despite the recognised importance of decomposition in terms of fuel loads and energy flow, little is known about the post-fire effects of fire severity on decomposition by litter-dwelling macroinvertebrate detritivores. We tested the hypotheses that: 1 increasing fire severity is associated with decreased rates of leaf litter decomposition by macroinvertebrate detritivores; and 2 the abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrate detritivores decreases with increasing fire severity, while body size increases. We used a litterbag experiment at long-unburnt, ground-burnt and crown-burnt sites (n = 7 for all treatments to test the effect of fire severity on: a macroinvertebrate-driven break-down of litter fuel loads; and b the size and abundance of macroinvertebrate detritivores three years after fire. Microhabitat conditions differed among fire severity classes. Macroinvertebrate exclusion reduced litter decomposition by 34.7%. Macroinvertebrate detritivores were larger and less abundant following higher severity fires, possibly as a result of fire-induced changes in habitat structure. Opposing effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate abundance and body size resulted in both similar detritivore biomass and, most interestingly, no differences in leaf litter decomposition under different fire severities. This suggests that the diversity of macroinvertebrates enhances functional resilience of litter decomposition to fire and that litter-breakdown is not inhibited within three years following a high severity fire in this forest type and where recolonisation sources are readily available. We found no support for the hypothesis that high severity fires reduce litter decomposition and

  2. The effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate detritivores and leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Sebastian; Murphy, Nick; Gibb, Heloise

    2015-01-01

    High severity wildfire events are a feature of forests globally and are likely to be more prevalent with climate change. As a disturbance process, fire has the potential to change important ecological functions, such as decomposition, through its impact on biodiversity. Despite the recognised importance of decomposition in terms of fuel loads and energy flow, little is known about the post-fire effects of fire severity on decomposition by litter-dwelling macroinvertebrate detritivores. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) increasing fire severity is associated with decreased rates of leaf litter decomposition by macroinvertebrate detritivores; and 2) the abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrate detritivores decreases with increasing fire severity, while body size increases. We used a litterbag experiment at long-unburnt, ground-burnt and crown-burnt sites (n = 7 for all treatments) to test the effect of fire severity on: a) macroinvertebrate-driven break-down of litter fuel loads; and b) the size and abundance of macroinvertebrate detritivores three years after fire. Microhabitat conditions differed among fire severity classes. Macroinvertebrate exclusion reduced litter decomposition by 34.7%. Macroinvertebrate detritivores were larger and less abundant following higher severity fires, possibly as a result of fire-induced changes in habitat structure. Opposing effects of fire severity on macroinvertebrate abundance and body size resulted in both similar detritivore biomass and, most interestingly, no differences in leaf litter decomposition under different fire severities. This suggests that the diversity of macroinvertebrates enhances functional resilience of litter decomposition to fire and that litter-breakdown is not inhibited within three years following a high severity fire in this forest type and where recolonisation sources are readily available. We found no support for the hypothesis that high severity fires reduce litter decomposition and therefore

  3. Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: a bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannote, R L; Sweeney, B W

    1980-04-01

    This report summarizes the first 9 months of field and laboratory work to test our central hypothesis. Five river systems were selected for intensive studies on insect growth, metabolism, and fecundity as well as determination of community structure for distinct assemblages of insect species exploiting various trophic and habitat resources. Laboratory studies were initiated to test the relative importance of temperature and food quality on growth, size, and fecundity of insects. Our project is intended to test the hypothesis that population stability, within the geographic range of many stream species, reflects largely a dynamic equilibrium between temperature and individual growth, metabolism, reproductive potential, and generation time. We propose to delineate the significance of natural thermal variation by quantifying the bioenergetics, developmental dynamics, and spatial distribution of major representative groups of stream insects throughout their geographic range.

  4. Water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate bioassessment of Gallinas Creek, San Miguel County, New Mexico, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, H.S.; Jacobi, G.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Gallinas Creek in north-central New Mexico serves as the public water supply for the City of Las Vegas. The majority of this 84-square-mile watershed is within national forest lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service. In 1985, the Forest Service planned to conduct timber harvesting in the headwaters of Gallinas Creek. The City of Las Vegas was concerned about possible effects from logging on water quality and on water-supply treatment costs. The U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 1987 to (1) assess the baseline water-quality characteristics of Gallinas Creek upstream from the Las Vegas water-supply diversion, (2) relate water quality to State water- quality standards, and (3) determine possible causes for spatial differences in quality. During 1987-90, water-quality constituents and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed at five sampling sites in the watershed. Specific conductance, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations increased in a downstream direction, probably in response to differences in geology in the watershed. The water-quality standard for temperature was exceeded at the two most downstream sites probably due to a lack of riparian vegetation and low streamflow conditions. The standards for pH and turbidity were exceeded at all sites except the most upstream one. Concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus generally were small at all sites. The maximum total nitrogen concentration of 2.1 milligrams per liter was at the mouth of Porvenir Canyon; only one sample at this site exceeded the water-quality standard for total inorganic nitrogen. At each of the sites, 10 to 15 percent of the samples exceeded the total phosphorus standard of less than 0.1 milligram per liter. Except for aluminum and iron, almost all samples tested for trace elements contained concentrations less than the laboratory detection limit. No trace-element concentrations exceeded the State standard for domestic

  5. Effects of the global changes on the aquatic ecosystems in West Europe - role of the plankton communities; Effets des changements globaux sur les ecosystemes aquatiques d'Europe Occidentale - role des communautes planctoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souissi, S. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Ecosystem COmplexity REsearch Group, Station Marine de Wimereux, CNRS - FRE 2816 ELICO, 62 - Wimereux (France)

    2007-07-01

    Examination of long-term records of aquatic ecosystems has provided useful information to find out their major driving forces. Understanding the impact of climate change on these ecosystems, the management of their resources and the extrapolation between sites are the main scopes of actual and emerging studies. Such goals can be achieved by inter-site and inter-ecosystem comparisons. This approach was undertaken during our project which has the originality to tackle with marine and freshwater ecosystems. It allowed us to compile and validate several multi-decadal time series of planktonic and other physical driving forces at local and regional scales. Then, the same methodology based on the analysis of the variability of climate indices and biological data across several spatial scales was used. The different ecosystems analyzed here showed clear response to the North Atlantic climate variability. Although the local differences abrupt changes in community composition occurred in all ecosystems in the middle of the years 80. During this period there was also a major shift in climatic conditions during winter and early spring, suggesting an impact of climatic factors. Phenological changes were also observed in plankton communities in all sites. The consequences of the modifications of plankton dynamics on higher trophic levels were also showed. Fluctuations in plankton have resulted in long-term changes in cod recruitment in the North Sea (bottom-up control). On the other hand, both climate change and the improvement of trophic status in Geneva Lake favored the outbreak of whitefish during the years 90. Lower larval mortality and better recruitment are supposed to be linked to faster growth associated with warmer temperatures and better food conditions induced by better temporal overlap between larvae hatching and zooplankton development. (author)

  6. Selected Field Parameters from Streams and Analytical Data from Water and Macroinvertebrate Samples, Central Colorado Assessment Project, Environmental Assessment Task, 2004 and 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stanley E.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) began in October 2003 and is planned to last through September 2008. One major goal of this project is to compare the relationships between surface-water chemistry and aquatic fauna in mined and unmined areas. To accomplish this goal, we are conducting a State-scale reconnaissance sampling program, in which we are collecting water and macroinvertebrate samples. Selected results from the first two years of project analyses are reported here. We plan to develop statistical models and use geographic information system (GIS) technology to quantify the relationships between ecological indicators of metal contamination in Rocky Mountain streams and water quality, landscape and land-use characteristics (for example, mine density, geology, geomorphology, vegetation, topography). Our research will test the hypothesis that physicochemical variables and ecological responses to metal concentrations in stream water in Rocky Mountain streams are ultimately determined largely by historical land uses.

  7. A field-based method to derive macroinvertebrate benchmark for specific conductivity adapted for small data sets and demonstrated in the Hun-Tai River Basin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Jia, Xiaobo; Xia, Rui; Lin, Jianing; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Ionic mixtures, measured as specific conductivity, have been increasingly concerned because of their toxicities to aquatic organisms. However, identifying protective values of specific conductivity for aquatic organisms is challenging given that laboratory test systems cannot examine more salt-intolerant species nor effects occurring in streams. Large data sets used for deriving field-based benchmarks are rarely available. In this study, a field-based method for small data sets was used to derive specific conductivity benchmark, which is expected to prevent the extirpation of 95% of local taxa from circum-neutral to alkaline waters dominated by a mixture of SO4(2-) and HCO3(-) anions and other dissolved ions. To compensate for the smaller sample size, species level analyses were combined with genus level analyses. The benchmark is based on extirpation concentration (XC95) values of specific conductivity for 60 macroinvertebrate genera estimated from 296 sampling sites in the Hun-Tai River Basin. We derived the specific conductivity benchmark by using a 2-point interpolation method, which yielded the benchmark of 249 μS/cm. Our study tailored the method that was developed by USEPA to derive aquatic life benchmark for specific conductivity for basin scale application, and may provide useful information for water pollution control and management.

  8. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  9. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  10. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  11. Linkages between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and landscape stressors in the US Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used multiple linear regression analysis to investigate relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the nearshore region of the Laurentian Great Lakes and landscape characteristics in adjacent watersheds. Benthic invertebrate data were obtained from the 201...

  12. ANALYSIS OF MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we assessed relationships among chemical and physical characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages at stream sites sampled by the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) in...

  13. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T C M; Bas, D A; Belgers, J D M; Bibbe, L; Boerwinkel, M-C; Crum, S J H; Diepens, N J; Kraak, M H S; Vonk, J A; Roessink, I

    2016-08-01

    Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79μg a.s./g OC. The treatment-related responses observed in the microcosms are in accordance with the results of the 28-d laboratory toxicity tests. These tests showed that the insect C. riparius and the crustacean H. azteca were approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the oligochaete L. variegatus. In our laboratory tests, using field-collected sediment, the lowest 28-d EC10 (0.49μg a.s./g OC) was observed for C. riparius (endpoint survival), while for the standard OECD test with this species, using artificial sediment, a NOEC of 2.35μg a.s./g OC (endpoint emergence) is reported. In this particular case, the sediment tier-1 effect assessment using the chronic EC10 (field-collected sediment) or chronic NOEC (artificial sediment) of C

  14. Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: Advances and challenges in dna-based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrender, M.E.; Ferrington, L.C., Jr.; Hawkins, C.P.; Hartzell, P.L.; Bagley, M.; Jackson, S.; Courtney, G.W.; Larsen, D.P.; Creutzburg, B.R.; Levesque, C.A.; Epler, J.H.; Morse, J.C.; Fend, S.; Petersen, M.J.; Ruiter, D.; Schindel, D.; Whiting, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify water quality and measure the efficacy of remediation and restoration efforts. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications are often limited by taxonomic resolution and sample size. Morphologically based identifications are laborious and costly, significantly constraining the sample sizes that can be processed. We suggest that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Advances in this area will be particularly relevant for benthic and planktonic invertebrates, which are often monitored by regulatory agencies. Adopting a genetic assessment platform will alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with DNA-based assessments and the methods that are currently available. As recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies will facilitate a transition to DNA-based assessment approaches, future research efforts should focus on methods for data collection, assay platform development, establishing linkages between DNA signatures and well-resolved taxonomies, and bioinformatics. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago Press.

  15. Amphibian and benthic macroinvertebrate response to physical and chemical properties of Themi River, Arusha, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lyimo, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    I hypothesized that variation in physical and chemical properties and habitat destruction of the Themi River as a result of human activities would affect abundance and diversity of amphibian and benthic macroinvertebrates. Variation in habitat physical and chemical conditions, and amphibian and benthic macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance were assessed in the Themi River of Arusha municipality. These physical, chemical and biological conditions were assessed at forty sampling stations...

  16. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    ) multiple regression analyses showed high temporal variability between sampling dates in factor loadings of specific stone micro habitat variables. In spite of this, there was a clear negative effect of depth and a positive effect of current on density and number of families. Stone size was consistently......Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS...

  17. Life cycle impacts of topsoil erosion on aquatic ecosystems: case study on Eucalyptus globulus forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Paula; Van de Broek, Marijn; Cláudia Dias, Ana; Ridoutt, Bradley; Arroja, Luís

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of suspended solids (SS), particularly in the clay and silt size fractions, reaching lotic environments and remaining in suspension can be a significant stressors to the biodiversity of these aquatic systems, degrading the water quality and directly affecting the aquatic biota, namely macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. This damage is presently not considered in Life Cycle Assessment studies. This study is devoted to the effects of SS into freshwater systems due to topsoil erosion by water (environmental mechanism), translated into damage to aquatic ecosystem diversity (endpoint impact category), namely to macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. For this, we have developed a framework to conduct an erosion inventory using the WaTEM/SEDEM model and linked this with, a method to derive regional characterisation for endpoint damage on aquatic ecosystem diversity. A case study was performed for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal, with a functional unit of one hectare of land under production forestry management. To demonstrate how this newly SS ecosystem method can help to improve the environmental assessment in forestry, results were compared with the earlier commonly used impact categories from ReCiPe method. The relevance of the impact from SS delivery to freshwater streams is shown, providing a more comprehensive assessment of the SS impact from land use systems on aquatic environments. The SS impacts ranged from 15.5 to 1234.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for macroinvertebrates, and from 5.2 to 411.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for algae and macrophytes. For some stands, SS potential impacts on macroinvertebrates have the same order of magnitude than freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and terrestrial acidification impacts. For algae and macrophytes, most of the stands present SS impacts of the same order of magnitude as terrestrial ecotoxicity, one order of magnitude higher than freshwater

  18. Response of shallow aquatic ecosystems to different nutrient loading levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portielje, R.

    1994-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface waters leads to a decline of water quality, which becomes manifest as an impoverishment of the aquatic community. Insight into the effects of eutrophication on the structure and functioning of these communities and knowlegde on underlying interactions is needed to quant

  19. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Fontanarrosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 taxones, seguidos por los dípteros (27, heterópteros (17, odonatos (4 y efemerópteros (1. Se observaron altos valores de riqueza en los charcos temporarios (58 taxones y las lagunas sin vegetación flotante (64 taxones. La diversidad estimada de los charcos temporarios fue significativamente (pWe studied the community of aquatic insects inhabiting both temporary pools and permanent ponds occuring in Buenos Aires City. A total of 3436 rain pools were examined, and six permanent ponds at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" in the Río de la Plata riverside were visited 149 times. A total of 85 taxa were recorded from both habitats, included in five orders of Insecta. The order Coleoptera showed the highest diversity values (36 taxa, followed by Diptera (27, Heteroptera (17, Odonata (4, and Ephemeroptera (1. High values of richness were observed in temporary pools (58 taxa and permanent ponds without floating vegetation (64 taxa. The diversity index for temporary ponds was significantly (p<0,05 lower than in permanent habitats.

  20. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  1. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.;

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  2. Methane carbon supports aquatic food webs to the fish level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Sanseverino

    Full Text Available Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4 are produced by anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in lakes. In spite of extensive freshwater CH(4 emissions, most of the CH(4 is typically oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB before it can reach the lake surface and be emitted to the atmosphere. In turn, it has been shown that the CH(4-derived biomass of MOB can provide the energy and carbon for zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific fatty acids synthesized by MOB in fish tissues having low carbon stable isotope ratios. Fish species, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes were collected from a shallow lake in Brazil and analyzed for fatty acids (FA and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13C. The fatty acids 16:1ω8c, 16:1ω8t, 16:1ω6c, 16:1ω5t, 18:1ω8c and 18:1ω8t were used as signature for MOB. The δ(13C ratios varied from -27.7‰ to -42.0‰ and the contribution of MOB FA ranged from 0.05% to 0.84% of total FA. Organisms with higher total content of MOB FAs presented lower δ(13C values (i.e. they were more depleted in (13C, while organisms with lower content of MOB signature FAs showed higher δ(13C values. An UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out to distinguish grouping of organisms in relation to their MOB FA contents. This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level.

  3. Effects of municipal wastewater on aquatic ecosystem structure and function in the receiving stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Dominic; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2013-06-01

    During recent years, increasing incidences of summer droughts - likely driven by climate change - reduced the dilution potential of low-order streams for secondary treated wastewater also in temperate Europe. Despite the potential risks to ecosystem integrity, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the effects of different wastewater dilution potentials on ecosystem functions. The present study investigated the implications of secondary treated wastewater released into a third-order stream (Queich, southwest Germany) during a season with low dilution potential (summer; ~90% wastewater) as compared to a season with high dilution potential (winter; ~35% wastewater) in terms of leaf litter decomposition and macroinvertebrate communities. Adverse effects in macroinvertebrate mediated leaf mass loss (~65%), gammarids' feeding rate (~80%), leaf associated fungal biomass (>40%) and shifts in macroinvertebrate community structure were apparent up to 100 and 300 m (partially 500 m) downstream of the wastewater treatment plant effluent during winter and summer, respectively. In addition, a Gammarus fossarum laboratory feeding trial demonstrated the potential of powdered activated carbon to reduce the ecotoxicity of released wastewater. These results urge the development and evaluation of adequate management strategies, e.g. the application of advanced wastewater treatment technologies, to protect the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, which is required by the European Water Framework Directive - also considering decreasing dilution potential of streams as projected by climate change scenarios. PMID:23562693

  4. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...

  5. Aquatic fungi: targeting the forgotten in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor

    2016-06-01

    Fungi constitute important and conspicuous components of aquatic microbial communities, but their diversity and functional roles remain poorly characterized. New methods and conceptual frameworks are required to accurately describe their ecological roles, involvement in global cycling processes, and utility for human activities, considering both cultivation-independent techniques as well as experiments in laboratory and in natural ecosystems. Here we highlight recent developments and extant knowledge gaps in aquatic mycology, and provide a conceptual model to expose the importance of fungi in aquatic food webs and related biogeochemical processes.

  6. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  7. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  8. Cyanobacteria blooms: effects on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Karl E

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria become increasingly dominant as concentrations of TP and TN increase during eutrophication of lakes, rivers and estuaries. Temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria blooms are variable--in some systems persistent blooms occur in summer to fall, whereas in other systems blooms are more sporadic. Cyanobacteria blooms have a wide range of possible biological impacts including potential toxic effects on other algae, invertebrates and fish, impacts to plants and benthic algae due to shading, and impacts to food web function as large inedible algae produce a bottleneck to C and energy flow in the plankton food web. In lakes with dense blooms of cyanobacteria, accumulation of organic material in lake sediments and increased bacterial activity also may lead to anoxic conditions that alter the structure of benthic macro-invertebrates. Diffusive internal P loading may increase, and hypolimnetic anoxia may lead to a loss of piscivorous fish that require a summer cold water refuge in temperate lakes. Ecosystem changes associated with frequent blooms may result in delayed response of lakes, rivers and estuaries to external nutrient load reduction. Despite numerous case studies and a vast literature on species-specific responses, community level effects of cyanobacterial blooms are not well understood--in particular the realized impacts of toxins and changes in food web structure/function. These areas require additional research given the prevalence of toxic blooms in the nation's lakes, rivers and coastal waters--systems that provide a wide range of valued ecosystem services. PMID:18461790

  9. Non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species in Lithuanian fresh waters, Part 2: Macroinvertebrate assemblage deviation from naturalness in lotic systems and the consequent potential impacts on ecological quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbačiauskas K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological pressure represented by non-indigenous macroinvertebrate species (NIMS should be addressed in the implementation of EU Water Framework Directive as this can have a direct impact on the ’naturalness’ of the invaded macroinvertebrate assemblage. The biocontamination concept allows assessment of this deviation from naturalness, by evaluation of abundance and disparity contamination of an assemblage. This study aimed to assess the biocontamination of macroinvertebrate assemblages in Lithuanian rivers, thereby revealing the most high-impact non-indigenous species, and to explore the relationship between biocontamination and conventional metrics of ecological quality. Most of the studied rivers appeared to be impacted by NIMS. The amphipods Pontogammarus robustoides, Chelicorophium curvispinum and snail Litoglyphus naticoides were revealed as high-impact NIMS for Lithuanian lotic systems. Metrics of ecological quality which largely depend upon the richness of indicator taxa, such as the biological monitoring working party (BMWP score and Ephemeroptera/Plecoptera/Trichoptera (EPT taxa number, were negatively correlated with biocontamination, implying they could provide unreliable ecological quality estimates when NIMS are present. Routine macroinvertebrate water quality monitoring data are sufficient for generation of the biocontamination assessment and thus can provide supplementary information, with minimal extra expense or effort. We therefore recommend that biocontamination assessment is included alongside established methods for gauging biological and chemical water quality.

  10. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  11. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  12. Transfer of mercury and methylmercury along macroinvertebrate food chains in a floodplain lake of the Beni River, Bolivian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Carlos Israel, E-mail: camoar6088@gmail.com [Instituto de Ecologia, Unidad de Limnologia, UMSA, Casilla postal 10077, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Gibon, Francois-Marie [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); IRD, UMR BOREA, Museum national d' Histoire Naturelle MNHN, Case postale 26, 75231, Paris cedex 05 (France); Duprey, Jean-Louis [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Dominguez, Eduardo [CONICET-Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Miguel Lillo 205, 4 000, Tucuman (Argentina); Guimaraes, Jean-Remy D. [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco G-CCS, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Roulet, Marc [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement IRD, Casilla postal 9214, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2010-07-15

    We have evaluated the mercury and methylmercury transfers to and within the macroinvertebrate communities of a floodplain lake of the Beni River basin, Bolivia, during three hydrological seasons and in two habitats (open water and vegetation belt). Using the stable isotopes {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N, six trophic chains were identified during a previous study. Four are based on only one source: seston, organic matter from the bottom sediment, periphyton and macrophytes. Two are based on mixed sources (seston and periphyton in one case, periphyton and macrophytes in the other). During sampling, we found only one taxon that had surface sediment organic matter as food source and very few taxa whose trophic source was constituted by macrophytes. The periphyton was the most important source during all seasons; it produced the longest chain, with three trophic positions. Whatever the season and trophic source, all collected macroinvertebrates contained methyl mercury and the latter was biomagnified in all trophic chains that we identified. The biomagnification of methylmercury through invertebrate trophic chains accurately reflected the existence and length of these chains. Biomagnification was virtually non-existent in the sediment-based chain, low and restricted to the dry season in the macrophyte-based chain. It was significant in the seston-based chain, but limited by the existence of only two trophic levels and restricted to the wet season. Finally, it was very effective in the periphyton-based chain, which offers the highest rate of contamination of the source but, above all, the largest number of trophic levels.

  13. Avoidance and tolerance to avian herbivores in aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hidding, A.

    2009-01-01

    Tolerance and avoidance are the two contrasting strategies that plants may adopt to cope with herbivores. Tolerance traits define the degree to which communities remain unaffected by herbivory. Trade-offs between herbivore avoidance and competitive strength and between avoidance and colonization ability may shape population traits and communities under herbivory. In this thesis I present comparative and experimental studies on populations and communities of aquatic plants and how they deal wi...

  14. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Zhichun Niu,; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  15. Does Nutrient Enrichment Alter the Response of Stream Macroinvertebrates to Disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafner, K.; Robinson, C. T.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the influence of nutrient enrichment on the response of benthic macroinvertebrates to disturbance in springbrooks of an alpine floodplain. Individual stones in three different springs were physically disturbed at frequencies of 0, 4, 8 and 16 days, and then collected on day 32. In another experiment, nutrients (slow-release fertilizer pellets) were added to one of two streams, and stones in both treated as in the first experiment. In both experiments, stones were analyzed for periphyton biomass, total invertebrate density, and the density and relative abundance of four common families: Baetidae, Nemouridae, Chironomidae, and Simuliidae. N, P, and C were analyzed for periphyton, benthic sediments and invertebrates in the 2nd experiment to test for stoichiometric changes resulting from nutrient enrichment. In the 1st experiment, disturbance affected the relative abundance of the four families. Fertilization changed the stoichiometry of periphyton, invertebrates and sediments and altered macroinvertebrate assemblages. Here, the effect of disturbance differed between the two streams, and the non-fertilized stream displayed a similar disturbance response pattern by macroinvertebrates as in the 1st experiment. These results suggest that nutrient enrichment alters the effects of physical disturbance on macroinvertebrates by changing food resource stoichiometry and shifting macroinvertebrate assemblage structure.

  16. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to further......Many macrofauna species co-ingest large quantities of microorganisms some of which survive the gut passage. Denitrifying bacteria, in particular, become metabolically induced by anoxic conditions, nitrate, and labile organic compounds in the gut of invertebrates. A striking consequence of the short......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...

  17. Ultraviolet-B-driven pigmentation and genetic diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates from high-altitude Andean streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Loayza Muro; J.K. Marticorena-Ruíz; E.J. Palomino; C Merrit; J.A.J. Breeuwer; P. Kuperus; M.H.S. Kraak; W. Admiraal

    2013-01-01

    Photoprotective pigments in benthic macroinvertebrates may reduce the damage caused by the blistering UV-B radiation in Andean high-altitude streams above 3500 m. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether melanisation in macroinvertebrates inhabiting high-altitude Andean streams is an

  18. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obt

  19. The Effect of Mulching Technology to Enhance the Diversity of Soil Macroinvertebrates in Sengon-based Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil macroinvertebrate are strongly influenced by environmental factors. The change of agronomic technology may affect their role in maintaining soil fertility and crop production. The aims of this study was to know the effect of technology of mulching to enhance diversity of soil macroinvertebrate in sengon-based agroforestry system. Field experiment was arranged in randomized block design with treatment i.e: with and without organic matter mulching. Sweet potato used as tested intercrop. Collection of soil macroinvertebrate was carried out using a hand sorting and pit-fall trap methods. Result of the study showed that application of maize residue as mulch enhanced diversity index of surface and deep soil macroinvertebrate, i.e: 0.215 and 0.214 (by 44% and 73% respectively compared no mulching. Organic mulching technology can support diversity of beneficial soil macroinvertebrates.

  20. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  1. Nestedness and successional trajectories of macroinvertebrate assemblages in man-made wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Quintana, Xavier D

    2013-02-01

    Current successional models, primarily those based on floral succession, propose several distinct trajectories based on the integration of two key hypotheses from succession theory: convergence versus divergence in species composition among successional sites, and progression towards versus deviation from a desired reference state. We applied this framework to faunal succession, including differential colonization between active and passive dispersers, and the nested patterns generated as a consequence of this peculiarity. Nine man-made wetlands located in three different areas, from 0-3 years from wetland creation, were assessed. In addition, 91 wetlands distributed throughout the region were used as references for natural macroinvertebrate communities. We predicted the following: (1) highly nested structures in pioneering assemblages will decrease to lower mid-term values due to a shift from active pioneering taxa to passive disperser ones; (2) passive idiosyncratic taxa will elicit divergent successional trajectories among areas; (3) the divergent trajectories will provoke lower local and higher regional diversity values in the mid-term assemblages than in pioneer assemblages. Our results were largely congruent with hypotheses (1) and (2), diverging from the anticipated patterns only in the case of the temporary wetlands area. However, overall diversity trends based on hypothesis (3) did not follow the expected pattern. The divergent successional trajectories did not compensate for regional biodiversity losses that occurred as a consequence of pioneering colonizer decline over time. Consequently, we suggest reconsidering wetland construction for mitigation purposes within mid-term time frames (≤ 3 years). Wetlands may not offset, within this temporal scenario, regional biodiversity loss because the ecosystem may not support idiosyncratic taxa from natural wetlands. PMID:22965268

  2. Long-Term Impacts on Macroinvertebrates Downstream of Reclaimed Mountaintop Mining Valley Fills in Central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Gregory J.; Passmore, Margaret E.; Pointon, Nancy D.; Felbinger, John K.; Walker, Craig A.; Krock, Kelly J. G.; Fulton, Jennifer B.; Nash, Whitney L.

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have documented adverse effects to biological communities downstream of mountaintop coal mining and valley fills (VF), but few data exist on the longevity of these impacts. We sampled 15 headwater streams with VFs reclaimed 11-33 years prior to 2011 and sampled seven local reference sites that had no VFs. We collected chemical, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate data in April 2011; additional chemical samples were collected in September 2011. To assess ecological condition, we compared VF and reference abiotic and biotic data using: (1) ordination to detect multivariate differences, (2) benthic indices (a multimetric index and an observed/expected predictive model) calibrated to state reference conditions to detect impairment, and (3) correlation and regression analysis to detect relationships between biotic and abiotic data. Although VF sites had good instream habitat, nearly 90 % of these streams exhibited biological impairment. VF sites with higher index scores were co-located near unaffected tributaries; we suggest that these tributaries were sources of sensitive taxa as drifting colonists. There were clear losses of expected taxa across most VF sites and two functional feeding groups (% scrapers and %shredders) were significantly altered. Percent VF and forested area were related to biological quality but varied more than individual ions and specific conductance. Within the subset of VF sites, other descriptors (e.g., VF age, site distance from VF, the presence of impoundments, % forest) had no detectable relationships with biological condition. Although these VFs were constructed pursuant to permits and regulatory programs that have as their stated goals that (1) mined land be reclaimed and restored to its original use or a use of higher value, and (2) mining does not cause or contribute to violations of water quality standards, we found sustained ecological damage in headwaters streams draining VFs long after reclamation was completed.

  3. Ecological relevance of biomarkers in monitoring studies of macro-invertebrates and fish in Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Porte, Cinta; Fernandes, Denise; Barata, Carlos; Padrós, Francesc; Carrassón, Maite; Monroy, Mario; Cano-Rocabayera, Oriol; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Piña, Benjamín; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are probably one of the most singular and endangered ecosystems worldwide due to the presence of many endemic species and a long history of anthropogenic impacts. Besides a conservation value per se, biodiversity is related to the services that ecosystems provide to society and the ability of these to cope with stressors, including climate change. Using macro-invertebrates and fish as sentinel organisms, this overview presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the application of biomarkers (stress and enzymatic responses, endocrine disruptors, trophic tracers, energy and bile metabolites, genotoxic indicators, histopathological and behavioural alterations, and genetic and cutting edge omic markers) to determine the causes and effects of anthropogenic stressors on the biodiversity of European Mediterranean rivers. We also discuss how a careful selection of sentinel species according to their ecological traits and the food-web structure of Mediterranean rivers could increase the ecological relevance of biomarker responses. Further, we provide suggestions to better harmonise ecological realism with experimental design in biomarker studies, including statistical analyses, which may also deliver a more comprehensible message to managers and policy makers. By keeping on the safe side the health status of populations of multiple-species in a community, we advocate to increase the resilience of fluvial ecosystems to face present and forecasted stressors. In conclusion, this review provides evidence that multi-biomarker approaches detect early signs of impairment in populations, and supports their incorporation in the standardised procedures of the Water Frame Work Directive to better appraise the status of European water bodies.

  4. The influence of habitat integrity and physical-chemical water variables on the structure of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Dias-Silva; Helena S. R. Cabette; Leandro Juen; Paulo De Marco Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to assess the effect of certain physical-chemical variables and the Habitat Integrity Index (HII) have on an aquatic and semi-aquatic heteropteran community. We collected in five streams (from 1st to 4th order) that differed in habitat integrity, in order to test 1) whether heteropteran richness decreases with the Habitat Integrity Index; and 2) whether richness responds to alterations in water physical-chemical variables, since these influence community structure. In each str...

  5. Influence of Disturbance on Habitats and Biological Communities in Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Friberg, N.

    2009-01-01

    We studied 68 small lowland streams in Denmark of which the majority were affected by physical and chemical stress or a combination of both. Using DCA analyses, we analysed macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities along a combined disturbance gradient. Both macrophytes and macroinvertebrate...... communities responded to the combined pressure gradient. We used a rigorous classification of the 68 sites, into 5 disturbance groups, with respect to physical and chemical disturbance and studied the effects of disturbance on physical habitat structure and density and diversity of macrophytes......, macroinvertebrates and fish. Physical habitat structure in the disturbed streams was similar, except for variations in width which was lowest, and coverage of mud, which was highest in heavily disturbed streams. Macrophyte communities were impacted by disturbance. Average species richness and diversity were...

  6. Evaluation of ecological quality in peri-urban rivers in Mexico City: a proposal for identifying and validating reference sites using benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Caro-Borrero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems that are significantly influenced by urban activities requires the classification and establishment of potential reference sites. However, in Latin American countries, policies are not available that outlines the identification and evaluation of such sites. Therefore, this study represents a proposal for evaluating the ecological quality of peri-urban rivers in the conservation soil (CS areas/zones of Mexico City. The proposal accounts for the zone’s physicochemical, hydromorphological, and bacteriological characteristics along with its macroinvertebrate richness. Our evaluation was performed using a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and indicator values (IndVal calculated for different species. River headwaters serve/work as a good physicochemical point for potential references sites. However, the hydromorphology of the CS has been gradually modified by numerous hydraulic alterations within the peri-urban zone. Using the CCA and IndVal, two types of sites were confirmed: sites in a good state of conservation and quality and sites modified by human activity, featuring lower discharge flow, poor quality hydromorphological values and Oligochaeta class organisms. At the sites featuring a good state of conservation and quality, higher hydromorphological values were positively correlated with discharge flow and certain macroinvertebrate taxa, including Nemouridae, Podonominae, Tanypodinae, Acarina, Baetis, Tipula, Antocha, Atopsyche, Glossosoma, Polycentropus, Hesperophylax and Limnephilus. In the sites modified by human activity, the genus Simulium was classified as a disturbance-tolerant organism. The river reach within the urban zone is basically an open-air drainage ditch. Evaluations of the ecological quality of the riparian zone were used to identify the most important hydromorphological qualities and discharge flow parameters and to select the most appropriate factors that should be

  7. Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  8. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  9. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  10. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  11. Investigations of Altered Aquatic Ecosystems: Biomonitoring, Disease, and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Kevin Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Changes to hydrology, water chemistry, physical habitat, and the landscape surrounding aquatic ecosystems can have profound effects on their biological communities, potentially reducing important ecosystem services and functions provided to wildlife and humans. In this dissertation, I examine how environmental variables, human activities, and management practices have affected stream and wetland biota throughout Northern California. The parasitic trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to...

  12. Influence of Water Quality on the Diversity and Distribution of Macro-Invertebrates in Hiwane Second Order Stream, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the pattern and process related to biodiversity is a greatest challenge to the science of biological conservation. Furthermore, diversity of tropical aquatic ecosystems is severely threatened by anthropogenic activities. What is more, the continuum of most of the tropical river is interrupted by several man-made activities contributing to adverse effects which hamper provision of good quality of water. Traditionally the quality of water is assessed by physico-chemical means but recent studies have focused on the use of organisms (biota in water quality assessment for streams and lakes. Here we assessed the influence of water quality on the diversity and distribution of macroinvertebrates in Hiwane second order stream with primary objective to determine the ecological water quality status of Hiwane stream at different sampling sites using rapid field assessment screening methodology. A total of 5 sites (stream sections were selected and 4 of the sampling sites were within the city Hiwane. However, a reference site outside of the city of Hiwane was included. There were 29 taxa of benthic invertebrates belonging to ephemeroptera, odonata, plecoptera, coleoptera, trichoptera, diptera and hirudenia, among others, recorded from the river. Among these, members of Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera were predominant in density. Furthermore, species diversity is positively correlated with water quality. Since, man-made activities has lead to depletion of biota, any human activity in the drainage area which may cause changes among physico-chemical parameter could lead to a severe impact on the benthic invertebrates of Hiwane stream river. Thus, we recommend that effluent from the town should be carefully managed.

  13. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  14. Terrestrial-aquatic linkage in stream food webs along a forest chronosequence: multi-isotopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Togashi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiyazu; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ohte, Nobuhito; Tokuchi, Naoko; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecosystem succession provides baseline data for conservation and management, as well as for understanding the dynamics of underlying biogeochemical processes. We examined the effects of deforestation and subsequent afforestation of a riparian forest of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ¹³C) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and natural abundances of radiocarbon (Δ¹⁴C) in stream biota in the Mt. Gomadan Experimental Forest and the Wakayama Forest Research Station, Kyoto University, central Japan. Macroinvertebrates, periphytic algae attached to rock surfaces (periphyton), and leaf litter of terrestrial plants were collected from six headwater streams with similar climate, topography, and bedrock geology, except for the stand ages of riparian forests (from 3 to 49 yr old in five stands and > 90 yr old in one reference stand). Light intensity and δ¹³C values of both periphyton and macroinvertebrates decreased synchronously with forest age in winter. A Bayesian mixing model indicates that periphyton contributions to the stream food webs are maximized in 23-yr-old forests. Except for grazers, most macroinvertebrates showed Δ¹⁴C values similar to those of terrestrial leaf litter, reflecting the influence of modern atmospheric CO₂ Δ¹⁴C values. On the other hand, the Δ¹⁴C values of both periphyton and grazers (i.e., aquatic primary consumers) were significantly lower than that of modern atmospheric CO₂, and were lowest in 23-yr-old forest stands. Previous studies show that root biomass of C. japonica peaks at 15-30 yr after planting. These evidences suggest that soil CO₂ released by root respiration and dispersed by groundwater weathers carbonate substrata, and that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with low Δ¹⁴C is incorporated into stream periphyton and some macroinvertebrates. The ecological response in the studied streams to clear-cutting and replanting of Japanese cedar is much

  15. Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Keniam River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on biodiversity of aquatic insects was carried out covering the area of Kuala Keniam to Kuala Perkai River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia. The macro invertebrate community was found in the different types of micro-habitat and various flowing speed levels in good quality of water of Keniam Rivers consisted mainly of aquatic insects. There are large numbers and wide species of aquatic insects in aquatic habitats make them of great ecological importance. There are three divided strata with total of nine sampling location were carried out within several varieties of microhabitats such as sandy, cobble, gravel, leaf and the pool area. The aquatic insects were collected and sampled by using a D-framed aquatic kick net. There was a wide variety of aquatic insects belonging to at least 8 orders in the study area. The orders of insect were Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Thysanura, Orthopthera, Hemiptera and Ephemeroptera. Throughout the study period, there is range from total of 140 to 604 individuals of aquatic insect trapped monthly and collected in Keniam River from September 2009 to December 2010. Some group of aquatic insects were found significant (χ2<0.05 different abundance between strata and sampling dates as well as habitat on the diversity of aquatic insects in Keniam River. The abundance and distribution of aquatic insects‟ species were varied and not constant from one month to another during the study period due to biotic and abiotic factors. Species diversity of aquatic insects varied in different strata of the Keniam River. This indicates the richness and diverse groups of aquatic insects in the study area. It adds to the fact that the undisturbed habitat quality is most suitable for insects to breed and multiply under the natural ecosystem with abundant food supply. Moving upstream from Kuala Perkai to lower stream to Kuala Keniam, one can observe various types of habitats for aquatic insects to live.

  16. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using...

  17. Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Periphyton: Taxonomic and Functional Insights into Biofilm Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal eSanli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Periphyton communities are complex phototrophic, multispecies biofilms that develop on surfaces in aquatic environments. These communities harbor a large diversity of organisms comprising viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoans and metazoans. However, thus far the total biodiversity of periphyton has not been described. In this study, we use metagenomics to characterize periphyton communities from the marine environment of the Swedish west coast. Although we found approximately ten times more eukaryotic rRNA marker gene sequences compared to prokaryotic, the whole metagenome-based similarity searches showed that bacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in these biofilms. We show that marine periphyton encompass a range of heterotrophic and phototrophic organisms. Heterotrophic bacteria, including the majority of proteobacterial clades and Bacteroidetes, and eukaryotic macro-invertebrates were found to dominate periphyton. The phototrophic groups comprise Cyanobacteria and the alpha-proteobacterial genus Roseobacter, followed by different micro- and macro-algae. We also assess the metabolic pathways that predispose these communities to an attached lifestyle. Functional indicators of the biofilm form of life in periphyton involve genes coding for enzymes that catalyze the production and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances, mainly in the form of complex sugars such as starch and glycogen-like meshes together with chitin. Genes for 278 different transporter proteins were detected in the metagenome, constituting the most abundant protein complexes. Finally, genes encoding enzymes that participate in anaerobic pathways, such as denitrification and methanogenesis, were detected suggesting the presence of anaerobic or low-oxygen micro-zones within the biofilms.

  18. Assessing the Effects of Hydromorphological Degradation on Macroinvertebrate Indicators in Rivers: Examples, Constraints and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, N.; Sandin, L.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    An extensive amount of literature on linkages between the in-stream physical environment and river benthic macroinvertebrates reports a number of relationships across multiple spatial scales. We analyzed data on different spatial scales to elucidate the linkages between different measurements...... and macroinvertebrates specifically, we found only relatively weak relationships between various measures of hydromorphological stress and commonly used macroinvertebrate assessment tools. We attribute this to a combination of factors, including 1) the mixed nature of pressures acting on the majority of river reaches, 2...

  19. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  20. On the role of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack for macroinvertebrates of a Tyrrhenian sandy shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Isabella; Mateo, Miguel Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Serrano, Laura; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The use of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack by macroinvertebrates of the sandy beach at Burano (Tuscany, Italy) was assessed by following the colonisation dynamics of the wrack and analysing the stable isotopes 'scenario' of the main local carbon and nitrogen sources and consumers. One-hundred experimental cylinders, filled with P. oceanica wrack, were placed on the beach and sampled over a 1-month period. Abundance and species richness of macroinvertebrates in wracks varied through time. Wrack was colonised by crustaceans almost immediately after deployment of the experimental cylinders. The amphipod Talitrus saltator largely dominated the faunal assembly and, together with the isopod Tylos europaeus, occupied the wracks closer to the sealine. These were followed by dipterans, staphylinids, pselaphids and tenebrionids that occurred in drier wracks higher up on the eulittoral. Moisture content of the wrack and sand decreased through space and time. This was the primary factor explaining the spatial and temporal changes observed in macroinvertebrate abundance, with species colonising or abandoning wracks according to thresholds of environmental parameters. Isotopic analysis clearly established the absence of any direct dietary link between P. oceanica wrack and macroinvertebrates. Terrestrial food sources were also discarded. Both our experimental data and a literature search showed that the organic matter from seston as filtered by the sand is the most plausible carbon and nitrogen source for beach food webs. Even if P. oceanica wrack is not a trophic source for macroinvertebrates, it is vitally important as a physical structure that provides detritivorous and predatory species with refuge from environmentally stressful conditions.

  1. Relative influence of chemical and non-chemical stressors on invertebrate communities: a case study in the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study

  2. Ecological assessment of an intermitent Mediterranean river using community structure and function: evaluating the role of different organism groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Caraça, Rute; Mendes, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Reliable lotic ecological monitoring requires knowledge of river typology, environmental factors, the effect of stressors known here as ‘pressures’ and appropriate indicators of anthropogenically induced change. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrate, fish, bird and macrophyte communities along an intermittent Mediterranean river and analysed community structure (relative abundance) and function (metrics) relative to environmental and pressure gradients in order to identify su...

  3. Report on stakeholder evaluation of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report gives an overview of completed research activities on the value ascribed by users, local communities and stakeholders to functions, goods and services (including non‐use values) derived from the aquatic resources in the study areas. The perceived impact of factors such as environmental...... degradation, changing demand for goods and services and modified highland aquatic resources management practices on these values has also been assessed. To help structure this analysis stakeholder Delphi studies have been undertaken in each country involving representatives from all stakeholder groups...

  4. Mesohabitat-specific Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Responses to Water Quality Variation in Mid-continent (North America) Great Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared the responsiveness of macroinvertebrate assemblages to water quality stressors (ions, nutrients, dissolved metals and suspended sediment) in two mesohabitats within the main-channel macrohabitat of three mid-continent North American rivers, the Upper Mississippi, Miss...

  5. The Relative Influence of Catchment and Site Variabbles on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Richness in Cerrado Biome Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape and site-scale data aid the interpretation of biological data and management alternatives. We evaluated how three classes of environmental variables (natural landscape, anthropogenic pressures, and local physical habitat), influence fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage...

  6. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  7. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  8. Long-term trends in Loch Leven invertebrate communities

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, I.D.M.; O'Hare, M.T.; Maitland, P.S.; May, L.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed studies of the macroinvertebrate benthos and zooplankton communities in Loch Leven, the largest shallow lowland lake in Scotland, UK, were carried out from 1966 to 1973 as part of the International Biological Programme (IBP). The results revealed a reduction in species diversity that was attributed to increasing eutrophication. This work provides a baseline against which the response of the invertebrate communities to subsequent changes in management can be...

  9. The definition of species richness used by species sensitivity distributions approximates observed effects of salinity on stream macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@uts.edu.a [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Centre for Environmental Sustainability, Department of Environmental Science, University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Marchant, Richard [Department of Entomology, Museum of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Schaefer, Ralf B. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Metzeling, Leon [EPA Victoria, Macleod, Victoria (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Queensland (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); Goonan, Peter [South Australia Environment Protection Authority, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The risk of chemicals for ecological communities is often forecast with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) which are used to predict the concentration which will protect p% of species (PC{sub p} value). However, at the PC{sub p} value, species richness in nature would not necessary be p% less than at uncontaminated sites. The definition of species richness inherent to SSDs (contaminant category richness) contrasts with species richness typically measured in most field studies (point richness). We determine, for salinity in eastern Australia, whether these definitions of stream macroinvertebrate species richness are commensurable. There were strong relationships (r{sup 2} {>=} 0.87) between mean point species, family and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera species richness and their respective contamination category richness. Despite differences in the definition of richness used by SSDs and field biomonitoring, their results in terms of relative species loss from salinity in south-east Australia are similar. We conclude that in our system both definitions are commensurable. - Definitions of species richness inherit in SSDs and biomonitoring are for salinity in south-east Australia commensurable.

  10. The contribution of a niche-based approach to ecological risk assessment: Using macroinvertebrate species under multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose that a niche-based experimental approach at population level could be used to solve some uncertainties in traditional approaches in ecotoxicology. We tested this approach in the context of multiple stressors (i.e. chemical and physical) in a selection of six run-of-river reservoirs with different levels of sediment contamination and associated upstream and downstream river sites. A niche-based approach was tested using three functional traits (habitat, food preferences and body size) and discrepancy between the realized and theoretical niches. We first identified three groups of taxa and then recorded differences along the disturbance gradients, such as an increase in competition, a narrowing of spatial and trophic niche breadth (e.g. of Leuctra major and Gammarus pulex), a widening of spatial niche breadth (e.g. of Ephemerella ignita), a greater proportion of small individuals (e.g. of G. pulex) and a decreasing or an increasing (e.g. L. major) discrepancy between realized and theoretical niches. -- Highlights: • We test a niche-based approach for ecological risk assessment methodologies. • We explore inter-population variability of functional traits of macroinvertebrates species. • Competition, habitat occupancy, diet and size vary significantly. • Discrepancy between niches increases significantly with the metal contamination. • Niches shifts reveal population vulnerability. -- Niche-based approach provides early indicators of disturbance and relevant endpoints to impacts on communities and ecosystem functioning

  11. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, J.; A Esmaili Sari; Abdoli, A; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den, R.B.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem qua...

  12. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  13. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  14. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  15. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America. PMID:25148081

  16. Proceedings of the 36. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, L.; Triffault-Bouchet, G. [Centre d' expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Fournier, M. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, Laval, PQ (Canada). Inst. Armand Frappier; Berryman, D.; Guay, I. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Campbell, P.G.C. [Quebec Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, Terre et Environnement; Lebeuf, M.; Couillard, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne; Parent, L. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Pellerin, J. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski; Benoit, P. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs du Quebec, Longueil, PQ (Canada); Lacroix, E. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Burridge, L.E. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB (Canada)] (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This workshop was held to discuss topics related to aquatic and environmental toxicology. Principles, issues, and recent innovations in aquatic toxicology were reviewed. New developments in environmental monitoring were discussed, as well as issues related to environmental regulation. The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders from governments, universities, and industry. The sessions were entitled: legacy contaminants 1 organics; nanotoxicology; environmental effects monitoring; oil sands; BFR and other emerging contaminants; biomarkers; neuro and endocrine disrupting compounds; remediation of degraded aquatic environments; legacy contaminants 2 hydrocarbons; waterborne and diet-borne metals; water and sediment standards and criteria; pesticides; amphibians and wildlife toxicology; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 2; environmental risk assessment; genomics, protemics, and metabolomics; contamination in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine park; legacy contaminants 3 organics and metals; community level indicators; toxicity tests; toxicity mechanisms; areas of concern; general aquatic toxicology; general legacy contaminants; emerging contaminants; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 1; omics in aquatic ecotoxicology; organism or population level indicators; and toxicity tests. The workshop featured 250 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  17. Proceedings of the 36. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was held to discuss topics related to aquatic and environmental toxicology. Principles, issues, and recent innovations in aquatic toxicology were reviewed. New developments in environmental monitoring were discussed, as well as issues related to environmental regulation. The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders from governments, universities, and industry. The sessions were entitled: legacy contaminants 1 organics; nanotoxicology; environmental effects monitoring; oil sands; BFR and other emerging contaminants; biomarkers; neuro and endocrine disrupting compounds; remediation of degraded aquatic environments; legacy contaminants 2 hydrocarbons; waterborne and diet-borne metals; water and sediment standards and criteria; pesticides; amphibians and wildlife toxicology; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 2; environmental risk assessment; genomics, protemics, and metabolomics; contamination in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine park; legacy contaminants 3 organics and metals; community level indicators; toxicity tests; toxicity mechanisms; areas of concern; general aquatic toxicology; general legacy contaminants; emerging contaminants; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 1; omics in aquatic ecotoxicology; organism or population level indicators; and toxicity tests. The workshop featured 250 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  18. New North American records of aquatic insects as paratenic hosts of pheromermis (nematoda : mermithidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, D. P.; Vinikour, W. S.; Anderson, R. V.; Environmental Assessment; New York State Museum; Western Illinois Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Several species of aquatic insects in Trout Park Nature Preserve (Elgin, IL) were observed to have small, black spots (<0.1 mm diameter) visible within their bodies. Microscopic examination revealed these spots to be coiled juveniles of a mermithid (Nematoda: Mermithidae). Based on host habitat (seepage areas and rivulets), host species (aquatic insects), and size (mean diameter of coiled juveniles = 79 {mu}m), it is likely that these mermithids were in the genus Pheromermis. Since adult mermithids were not found, species determination was not feasible, and the possibility of a new species cannot be ruled out. Pheromermis pachysoma and Pheromermis vesparum, however, are two species known to use