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Sample records for aquatic insect assemblages

  1. Aquatic insect assemblages associated with subalpine stream segment types in relict glaciated headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Joshua S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Bolton, Susan M.; Weekes, Anne A.; Gara, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    1. Aquatic habitats and biotic assemblages in subalpine headwaters are sensitive to climate and human impacts. Understanding biotic responses to such perturbations and the contribution of high-elevation headwaters to riverine biodiversity requires the assessment of assemblage composition among habitat types. We compared aquatic insect assemblages among headwater stream segment types in relict glaciated subalpine basins in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. 2. Aquatic insects were collected during summer and autumn in three headwater basins. In each basin, three different stream segment types were sampled: colluvial groundwater sources, alluvial lake inlets, and cascade-bedrock lake outlets. Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis revealed high β diversity in aquatic insect assemblages, and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that spatial and temporal patterns in assemblage composition differed among headwater stream segment types. Aquatic insect assemblages showed more fidelity to stream segment types than to individual basins, and the principal environmental variables associated with assemblage structure were temperature and substrate. 3. Indicator species analyses identified specific aquatic insects associated with each stream segment type. Several rare and potentially endemic aquatic insect taxa were present, including the recently described species, Lednia borealis (Baumann and Kondratieff). 4. Our results indicate that aquatic insect assemblages in relict glaciated subalpine headwaters were strongly differentiated among stream segment types. These results illustrate the contribution of headwaters to riverine biodiversity and emphasise the importance of these habitats for monitoring biotic responses to climate change. Monitoring biotic assemblages in high-elevation headwaters is needed to prevent the potential loss of unique and sensitive biota.

  2. Effects of forest conversion on the assemblages' structure of aquatic insects in subtropical regions

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    Tiago R.N. Bertaso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of forest conversion to agricultural land uses on assemblages of aquatic insects were analyzed in subtropical streams. Organisms and environmental variables were collected in six low-order streams: three streams located in a forested area, and three in areas converted to agricultural land uses. We expected that the aquatic insects' assemblage attributes would be significantly affected by forest conversion, as well as by environmental variables. Streams in converted areas presented lower species richness, abundance and proportion of sensitive insect taxa. The ANOSIM test evidenced strong difference in EPT assemblage structure between streams of forested and converted areas. The ISA test evidenced several EPT genera with high specificity to streams in forested areas and only one genus related to streams in converted areas. Thus, the impacts of the conversion of forested area to agricultural land uses have significantly affected the EPT assemblages, while environmental variables were not affected. We suggest that the effects detected can be influenced by two processes related to vegetation cover: i lower input of allochthonous material, and ii increased input of fine sediments in streams draining converted areas.

  3. Ecosystem Health of Lake Tamrangabeel, Bongaigaon District, Assam, India with Special Reference to Aquatic Insect Assemblage

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    R. R. Bhagawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ecosystem health of a floodplain lake, Tamrangabeel of Bongaigaon district, Assam, India using aquatic insects as bioindicator. The aquatic community of Tamrangabeel was represented by 37 species belonging to 19 families and 5 orders. Shannon –Wiener diversity index (Shannon Hꞌ values were recorded less than 1 in all the sites of the lake which indicated perturbed condition of the lake. Order Hemiptera was found to be the largest order with highest number of species. Eudominant species recorded in this lake were Micronecta siva (order Hemiptera and Cloeon sp. (order Ephemeroptera. Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP Score, Average Score per taxon (ASPT, and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number-Average Level (SIGNAL Score reported from the study reflected good ecological potential as well as slightly impacted nature of the water body. The values of different environmental variables of water of all the sites of the lake were found conducive for aquatic life. This study provided an early warning of perturbation of the lake which is to be addressed before it is too late.

  4. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Edia E.O.; Gevrey M.; Ouattara A.; Brosse S.; Gourène G.; Lek S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method. This metho...

  5. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  6. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. (ed.); Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy's cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  7. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. [ed.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy`s cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  8. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edia E.O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM, an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN method. This method was applied to pattern the samples based on the richness of five major orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata. This permitted to identify three clusters that were mainly related to the local environmental status of sampling sites. Then, we used the environmental characteristics of the sites to predict, using a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP, trained by BackPropagation algorithm (BP, a supervised ANN, the richness of the five insect orders. The BP showed high predictability (0.90 for both Diptera and Trichoptera, 0.84 for both Coleoptera and Odonata, 0.69 for Ephemeroptera. The most contributing variables in predicting the five insect order richness were pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, water temperature, percentage of rock and the canopy. This underlines the crucial influence of both instream characteristics and riparian context.

  9. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

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    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  10. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

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    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  11. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

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    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  12. Aquatic insect populations in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic sampling of aquatic insects was carried out in an experimental plot of the Muda rice agroecosystem. The study which was conducted from August to December 1995, investigated the impact of the pesticides Broadox and Trebon on aquatic insect populations during the rice growing period. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in abundance and diversity of aquatic insects between the treated and non-treated area. The four dominant aquatic insects were from the families; Chironomidae, Dysticidae, Corixidae and Belostomatidae. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen showed changes throughout the rice growing season and the values of these parameters decreased gradually towards the end of the rice growing season in January when the rice plants were maturing. (Author)

  13. Composition and structure of aquatic insect assemblages of Yungas mountain cloud forest streams in NW Argentina Composición y estructura de asociaciones de insectos acuáticos de arroyos de selva nublada de Yungas del NO Argentino

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    Natalia Von Ellenrieder

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three lotic environments in the Yungas mountain cloud forest of NW Argentina were sampled both in undisturbed forest areas and sites altered by human activities. Aquatic insects of 143 taxa in 55 families were collected. Cluster analysis suggested altitude as one of the main structuring variables of aquatic insect communities in these streams, and its importance was confirmed by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS; the environmental parameters measured that were best correlated with the ordination were altitude, water temperature, latitude and channel variables (width, percentage of large and small woody debris, of undercut banks, cobble and coarse gravel. Multi response permutation procedures (MRPP showed streams in well preserved areas to significantly differ in their composition from streams in disturbed areas. Proportion of Elmidae and of Plecoptera individuals and number of Trichoptera taxa were the biological metrics best correlated with the local disturbance gradient, suggesting that an 'ElPT' index could be a useful component in the evaluation of the ecological status of these environments. Indicator species analyses identified some potential indicators of stream condition and disturbance factors affecting these streams.Treinta y tres ambientes lóticos en las selvas nubladas de montaña de las Yungas del NO Argentino, fueron muestreados tanto en ambientes no modificados como alterados por actividades humanas. Insectos acuáticos de 143 taxones en 55 familias fueron colectados. El análisis de agrupamientos sugirió que la altura es una de las variables principales en la estructuración de las comunidades de insectos en estos arroyos, y la importancia de esta variable fue confirmada mediante un ordenamiento no-métrico multi-dimensional (NMS; los parámetros ambientales que mejor se correlacionaron con la ordenación fueron: altura, temperatura del agua, latitud y variables del canal (ancho, porcentaje de detritos le

  14. A review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.

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    Crespo, José G

    2011-01-01

    Insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. The antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. Only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different types of sensilla, or on the behavior of the insect as a whole. In this paper, the literature is exhaustively reviewed and ways in which antennal morphology, brain structure, and associated behavior can advance better understanding of the neurobiology involved in processing of chemosensory information are discussed. Moreover, the importance of studying such group of insects is stated, and at the same time it is shown that many interesting questions regarding olfactory processing can be addressed by looking into the changes that aquatic insects undergo when leaving their aquatic environment. PMID:21864156

  15. Aquatic insect community of lake, Phulbari anua in Cachar, Assam.

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    Gupta, Susmita; Narzary, Rupali

    2013-05-01

    An investigation on the water quality and aquatic insect community of an oxbow lake (Phulbari anua) of south Assam, North-East India was carried out during February to April, 2010. Aquatic insect community of the oxbow lake was represented by 9 species belonging to 9 families and 4 orders during the study period. Order Ephemeroptera and Hemiptera were found to be dominant. Record of 5 species and 5 families from the order Hemiptera showed that this is the largest order in terms of aquatic insect diversity of the lake. Computation of dominance status of different species of aquatic insects of the lake based on Engelmann's Scale revealed that Anisops lundbladiana and Cloeon sp. were eudominant in the system. The Shannon- Weiner's Diversity Index (H') and Shannon evenness values (J') were found to range from 0.3-0.69 and 0.53 -0.97, respectively indicating perturbation of the system. Again in terms of physico-chemical properties of water the lake is in a satisfactory condition where all the parameters are well within the range of IS 10500. The DO values were found to range from 6.8 to 14.8 mgl(-1). Free CO2 fluctuated from 1 to 4.98 mgl(-1) and nitrate in water ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 mgl(-1). Margalef's water quality index values of most of the samplings also indicated clean water condition of the lake. Correlation coefficient analyses of the environmental variables, aquatic insect diversity and density of the lake revealed that aquatic insect diversity of the lake is mainly governed by dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and free carbon dioxide. PMID:24617147

  16. Seasonal change in aquatic insect communities of freshwater streams in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suparoek Watanasit

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic insects in 23 streams of 13 southern provinces of Thailand were collected during wet (October 1944) and dry seasons (March-April 1995) using hand net. Standard time for collection was 20 minutes. The aims of the study were to investigate the composition and distribution of aquatic insects from 23 streams in southern Thailand and to determine seasonal change in the community of aquatic insects.Composition of aquatic insects collected involved 53 families of 9 orders in the dry season. ...

  17. Continental drift and climate change drive instability in insect assemblages

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    Li, Fengqing; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Lek, Sovan; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-06-01

    Global change has already had observable effects on ecosystems worldwide, and the accelerated rate of global change is predicted in the future. However, the impacts of global change on the stability of biodiversity have not been systematically studied in terms of both large spatial (continental drift) and temporal (from the last inter-glacial period to the next century) scales. Therefore, we analyzed the current geographical distribution pattern of Plecoptera, a thermally sensitive insect group, and evaluated its stability when coping with global change across both space and time throughout the Mediterranean region—one of the first 25 global biodiversity hotspots. Regional biodiversity of Plecoptera reflected the geography in both the historical movements of continents and the current environmental conditions in the western Mediterranean region. The similarity of Plecoptera assemblages between areas in this region indicated that the uplift of new land and continental drift were the primary determinants of the stability of regional biodiversity. Our results revealed that climate change caused the biodiversity of Plecoptera to slowly diminish in the past and will cause remarkably accelerated biodiversity loss in the future. These findings support the theory that climate change has had its greatest impact on biodiversity over a long temporal scale.

  18. Leaf litter quality affects aquatic insect emergence: contrasting patterns from two foundation trees.

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    Compson, Zacchaeus G; Adams, Kenneth J; Edwards, Joeseph A; Maestas, Jesse M; Whitham, Thomas G; Marks, Jane C

    2013-10-01

    Reciprocal subsidies between rivers and terrestrial habitats are common where terrestrial leaf litter provides energy to aquatic invertebrates while emerging aquatic insects provide energy to terrestrial predators (e.g., birds, lizards, spiders). We examined how aquatic insect emergence changed seasonally with litter from two foundation riparian trees, whose litter often dominates riparian streams of the southwestern United States: Fremont (Populus fremontii) and narrowleaf (Populus angustifolia) cottonwood. P. fremontii litter is fast-decomposing and lower in defensive phytochemicals (i.e., condensed tannins, lignin) relative to P. angustifolia. We experimentally manipulated leaf litter from these two species by placing them in leaf enclosures with emergence traps attached in order to determine how leaf type influenced insect emergence. Contrary to our initial predictions, we found that packs with slow-decomposing leaves tended to support more emergent insects relative to packs with fast-decomposing leaves. Three findings emerged. Firstly, abundance (number of emerging insects m(-2) day(-1)) was 25% higher on narrowleaf compared to Fremont leaves for the spring but did not differ in the fall, demonstrating that leaf quality from two dominant trees of the same genus yielded different emergence patterns and that these patterns changed seasonally. Secondly, functional feeding groups of emerging insects differed between treatments and seasons. Specifically, in the spring collector-gatherer abundance and biomass were higher on narrowleaf leaves, whereas collector-filterer abundance and biomass were higher on Fremont leaves. Shredder abundance and biomass were higher on narrowleaf leaves in the fall. Thirdly, diversity (Shannon's H') was higher on Fremont leaves in the spring, but no differences were found in the fall, showing that fast-decomposing leaves can support a more diverse, complex emergent insect assemblage during certain times of the year. Collectively, these

  19. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

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    Avit Kumar Bhowmik

    Full Text Available Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent. We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect

  20. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  1. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  2. Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Keniam River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

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    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on biodiversity of aquatic insects was carried out covering the area of Kuala Keniam to Kuala Perkai River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia. The macro invertebrate community was found in the different types of micro-habitat and various flowing speed levels in good quality of water of Keniam Rivers consisted mainly of aquatic insects. There are large numbers and wide species of aquatic insects in aquatic habitats make them of great ecological importance. There are three divided strata with total of nine sampling location were carried out within several varieties of microhabitats such as sandy, cobble, gravel, leaf and the pool area. The aquatic insects were collected and sampled by using a D-framed aquatic kick net. There was a wide variety of aquatic insects belonging to at least 8 orders in the study area. The orders of insect were Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Thysanura, Orthopthera, Hemiptera and Ephemeroptera. Throughout the study period, there is range from total of 140 to 604 individuals of aquatic insect trapped monthly and collected in Keniam River from September 2009 to December 2010. Some group of aquatic insects were found significant (χ2<0.05 different abundance between strata and sampling dates as well as habitat on the diversity of aquatic insects in Keniam River. The abundance and distribution of aquatic insects‟ species were varied and not constant from one month to another during the study period due to biotic and abiotic factors. Species diversity of aquatic insects varied in different strata of the Keniam River. This indicates the richness and diverse groups of aquatic insects in the study area. It adds to the fact that the undisturbed habitat quality is most suitable for insects to breed and multiply under the natural ecosystem with abundant food supply. Moving upstream from Kuala Perkai to lower stream to Kuala Keniam, one can observe various types of habitats for aquatic insects to live.

  3. Differences in fatty acid composition between aquatic and terrestrial insects used as food in human nutrition.

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    Fontaneto, Diego; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Galli, Claudio; Risé, Patrizia; Glew, Robert H; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2011-01-01

    Edible insects may be a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The aim of this article is to test for differences in aquatic and terrestrial insects used in human nutrition. We implemented linear models and discovered that differences in the proportion of LC-PUFA between aquatic and terrestrial insects do exist, with terrestrial insects being significantly richer in particular omega-6 fatty acids. In conclusion, any kind of insect may provide valuable sources of LC-PUFA. Because terrestrial insects are more abundant and easier to collect, they can be considered a better source of LC-PUFA than aquatic ones.

  4. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators.

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    Christina L Mogren

    Full Text Available The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g(-1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142-290 ng g(-1. Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g(-1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies.

  5. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Mae Klong Watershed, Western Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Witwisitpong Maneechan; Taeng On Prommi

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and diversity of aquatic insects and water quality variables were studied among three streams of the Mae Klong Watershed. In each stream, two sites were sampled. Aquatic insects and water quality variables were randomly sampled seven times in February, May, September, and December 2010 and in January, April, and May 2011. Overall, 11,153 individuals belonging to 64 families and nine orders were examined. Among the aquatic insects collected from the three streams, the order Tr...

  6. An "assemblage toxicity index" to improve characterization of effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic risk assessments are made uncertain by the use of measures of effect for only one level of effect and by the use of only one percentile in sensitivity distributions for the variation of this measure of effect across an assemblage of taxa. This leaves undefined the severi...

  7. Insect assemblages in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stumps in the Eastern Sudetes

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzecz, Iwona; Bulka, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of insect assemblages colonising stumps of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in mountain conditions. Investigations were carried out in the Eastern Sudetes (south –western Poland) in forest stands situated at 600– 700 m above sea level. The observations were conducted on stumps left behind after felling 70– 90 years old Norway spruces. The analysed stumps were colonised by insects from 21 families of 3 orders: Coleopt...

  8. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

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    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  9. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  10. A survey of insect assemblages responding to volatiles from a ubiquitous fungus in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    We report here a first survey of insect orientation to fungal cultures and fungal volatiles from a community ecology perspective. We tested whether volatiles from a ubiquitous yeast-like fungus (Aureobasidium pullulans) are broadly attractive to insects in an agricultural landscape. We evaluated insect attraction to fungal cultures and synthetic compounds identified in fungal headspace (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol) in a spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) plantation. Three findings emerged: (1) 1,315 insects representing seven orders and 39 species oriented to traps, but 65 % of trapped insects were Dipterans, of which 80 % were hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae); (2) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 481 % more insects than unbaited control traps on average, and contained more diverse (Shannon's H index) and species rich assemblages than control traps, traps baited with Penicillium expansum, or uninoculated media; and (3) insects oriented in greatest abundance to a 1:1:1 blend of A. pullulans volatiles, but mean diversity scores were highest for traps baited with only 2-phenylethanol or 2-methyl-1-butanol. Our results show that individual components of fungal headspace are not equivalent in terms of the abundance and diversity of insects that orient to them. The low abundance of insects captured with P. expansum suggests that insect assemblages do not haphazardly orient to fungal volatiles. We conclude that volatiles from a common fungal species (A. pullulans) are attractive to a variety of insect taxa in an agricultural system, and that insect orientation to fungal volatiles may be a common ecological phenomenon. PMID:23564294

  11. Effect of riparian vegetation cover and season on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Ecuadorian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallegos-Sánchez, Silvana Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of season and changes in the riparian vegetation cover on diversity, structure, temporal variability, and trophic structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in the Sambache River, Pasochoa Wildlife Refuge, Ecuador. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected using a Surber bottom sampler during the dry and rainy seasons from sections of the river dissecting three different riparian vegetation types with varying degrees of disturbanc...

  12. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano José Corbi; Claudio Gilberto Froehlich; Susana Trivinho Strixino; Ademir dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated b...

  13. The Identification, Types, Taxonomic Orders, Biodiversity and Importance of Aquatic Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification, types, taxonomic orders, biodiversity and importance of aquatic insects was reviewed to facilitate sustainable culture fisheries management and practice. Aquatic insects contribute significantly to fresh water ecosystems, one of many groups of organisms that, together, must be considered in the study of aquatic ecology. As such their study may be a significant part of understanding the ecological state of a given ecosystem and in gauging how that ecosystem will respond to stress. Aquatic insects and the larvae attack fish eggs and fry. They also compete for food and space in the pond. However, mosquito larvae are a food for fish. So, some insect larvae can serve to increase fish production. Insect bioagents can control the alligator weed, Alternanthera philloxeriodes. The flea beetle Agasilles hydrophila; alligator, Amnothrips andersonu and the alligator stem borer, Vegtia mallio can control the weed effectively. Other insects that can control water hyacinth are nevil (Nechetina circhbornae warmer (Atustache bruchi and hycinthmite (Orthoguma terebranths. Paropoynk alliondis and Litodactylus leucogaster can control the water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatium. The article reviews and discusses the identification, economic importance, life cycle, biodiversity, roles and taxonomic orders of aquatic insects to facilitate sustainable culture fisheries management and practice.

  14. The impact of sediment removal on the aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a fishpond littoral zone

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    Zdeněk ADÁMEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediment removal, a widely used technique in restoration management of standing water bodies, has a strong influence on communities of aquatic organisms. As most information on the impact of sediment removal on the aquatic environment comes from studies on lakes, the aim of this study was to describe macroinvertebrate assemblage succession in a fishpond (Štěpánek fishpond, Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Czech Republic littoral zone following restoration by sediment removal during the winter of 2003/2004. Semi-quantitative hand net sampling was undertaken one year before (2003 and in each of the following five years (2004–2008 after sediment removal. A significant decrease in both abundance (approx. 90% of individuals and diversity (approx. 30% of taxa of macroinvertebrates was detected immediately after pond restoration. The values gradually increased over subsequent years, reaching comparable abundance and diversity three years after sediment removal. A significant shift was recorded in the taxonomic and functional composition of the macroinvertebrate assemblage after sediment removal. Mayfly larvae were the dominant invertebrates before restoration, while chironomid larvae and oligochaetes dominated after sediment removal. Phytophilous taxa, grazers and scrapers, and swimming or diving invertebrates were common in 2003, whilst open-water taxa preferring mud and other mostly inorganic microhabitats, gatherers/collectors, and burrowing/boring invertebrates were relatively common after sediment removal. In 2008, the assemblage reverted towards the situation before sediment removal, probably connected with a lower water level and accelerated macrophyte bed succession. Principal Component Analysis on the species data confirmed the differences in invertebrate taxonomic structure among sampling years. Succession of the fishpond invertebrate assemblage in the years following sediment removal was mainly influenced by fish farming practice and

  15. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform cons...

  16. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated tra...

  17. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Satoru eSuzuki; Mitsuko eOgo; Tatsuya eKoike; Hideshige eTakada; Brent eNewman

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3 and tet(M), in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP) in South Africa. There ...

  18. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Koike, Tatsuya; Takada, Hideshige; Newman, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3, and tet(M), in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP) in South Africa. There was no ...

  19. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  20. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability.

  1. New North American records of aquatic insects as paratenic hosts of pheromermis (nematoda : mermithidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, D. P.; Vinikour, W. S.; Anderson, R. V.; Environmental Assessment; New York State Museum; Western Illinois Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Several species of aquatic insects in Trout Park Nature Preserve (Elgin, IL) were observed to have small, black spots (<0.1 mm diameter) visible within their bodies. Microscopic examination revealed these spots to be coiled juveniles of a mermithid (Nematoda: Mermithidae). Based on host habitat (seepage areas and rivulets), host species (aquatic insects), and size (mean diameter of coiled juveniles = 79 {mu}m), it is likely that these mermithids were in the genus Pheromermis. Since adult mermithids were not found, species determination was not feasible, and the possibility of a new species cannot be ruled out. Pheromermis pachysoma and Pheromermis vesparum, however, are two species known to use aquatic insects as paratenic (i.e., transport) hosts in order to reach their definitive hosts, vespid wasps. Wasp larvae are infected by consuming the flesh of adult aquatic insects that contain the coiled juveniles of these Pheromermis spp. Of the 19 macroinvertebrate species examined in this study, Pheromermis juveniles were found in 4 caddisfly species (Hesperophylax designatus, Lepidostoma liba, Glossosoma intermedium, and Diplectrona modesta) and in 2 stonefly species (Clioperla clio and Amphinemura delosa). In addition to all 6 insect species being new host records for Pheromermis infection, this also represents the first report of nematode infection in stoneflies within the Western Hemisphere and of a Pheromermis sp. in Illinois. Among trophic groups, insect detritivores have been frequently recorded infected with coiled Pheromermis juveniles because of their direct consumption of eggs, and we also observed this for detritivores in our investigation (e.g., L. liba and A. delosa). Because C. clio was intensively infected, however, our study also provided evidence that predatory insects can be paratenic hosts. Coiled juveniles were typically present in muscle and fat body and present in almost all body regions. Not every infected paratenic host had external signs of

  2. Protection against Mycobacterium ulcerans lesion development by exposure to aquatic insect saliva.

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    Laurent Marsollier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is a severe human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is primarily diagnosed in West Africa with increasing incidence. Antimycobacterial drug therapy is relatively effective during the preulcerative stage of the disease, but surgical excision of lesions with skin grafting is often the ultimate treatment. The mode of transmission of this Mycobacterium species remains a matter of debate, and relevant interventions to prevent this disease lack (i the proper understanding of the M. ulcerans life history traits in its natural aquatic ecosystem and (ii immune signatures that could be correlates of protection. We previously set up a laboratory ecosystem with predatory aquatic insects of the family Naucoridae and laboratory mice and showed that (i M. ulcerans-carrying aquatic insects can transmit the mycobacterium through bites and (ii that their salivary glands are the only tissues hosting replicative M. ulcerans. Further investigation in natural settings revealed that 5%-10% of these aquatic insects captured in endemic areas have M. ulcerans-loaded salivary glands. In search of novel epidemiological features we noticed that individuals working close to aquatic environments inhabited by insect predators were less prone to developing Buruli ulcers than their relatives. Thus we set out to investigate whether those individuals might display any immune signatures of exposure to M. ulcerans-free insect predator bites, and whether those could correlate with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We took a two-pronged approach in this study, first investigating whether the insect bites are protective in a mouse model, and subsequently looking for possibly protective immune signatures in humans. We found that, in contrast to control BALB/c mice, BALB/c mice exposed to Naucoris aquatic insect bites or sensitized to Naucoris salivary gland homogenates (SGHs displayed no lesion at the site of inoculation of M. ulcerans

  3. TESTING OF INSECT MICROSPORIDIAN (MICROSPORA: NOSEMATIDAE) IN NONTARGET AQUATIC SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports results of single-species tests with the mosquito microsporidian Nosema algerae and the orthopteran microsporidian N. locustae on nontarget aquatic organisms. rganisms tested were the freshwater grass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis), the estuarine grass shrim...

  4. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José Corbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and that the collector organisms as Chironomus species accumulated higher concentration of metals than the predator organisms.

  5. Flow management for hydropower extirpates aquatic insects, undermining river food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Lytle, D.A.; Miller, S.A.; Dibble, Kimberly L.; Kortenhoeven, Eric W.; Metcalfe, Anya; Baxter, Colden V.

    2016-01-01

    Dams impound the majority of rivers and provide important societal benefits, especially daily water releases that enable on-peak hydroelectricity generation. Such “hydropeaking” is common worldwide, but its downstream impacts remain unclear. We evaluated the response of aquatic insects, a cornerstone of river food webs, to hydropeaking using a life history–hydrodynamic model. Our model predicts that aquatic-insect abundance will depend on a basic life-history trait—adult egg-laying behavior—such that open-water layers will be unaffected by hydropeaking, whereas ecologically important and widespread river-edge layers, such as mayflies, will be extirpated. These predictions are supported by a more-than-2500-sample, citizen-science data set of aquatic insects from the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon and by a survey of insect diversity and hydropeaking intensity across dammed rivers of the Western United States. Our study reveals a hydropeaking-related life history bottleneck that precludes viable populations of many aquatic insects from inhabiting regulated rivers.

  6. ISOLATION OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TWO COMMON EDIBLE AQUATIC INSECTS, HYDROPHILUS PICEUS AND DYTISCUS MARGINALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Gur; Ahmet Polat; Umit Incekara; Murat Ozdal; Esabi Basaran Kurbanoglu,Gani Erhan Tasar

    2012-01-01

    Insects are widely used for their potential source of protein, lipids, carbohydrates and certain vitamins in many parts of the world. As in terrestial ones, aquatic insects can also carry fungal structures. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated microfungal flora of internal and external surface of Hydrophilus piceus and Dytiscus marginalis collected from their natural habitats in Erzurum (Turkey). We isolated total 19 different species of fungi belonging to Penicillium, Alternaria, Be...

  7. Assessment of the effects of the dry period on the faunal composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two temporary ponds in NW Spain

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    Amaia Pérez-Bilbao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds are habitats that undergo periods of drying and flooding. They have been neglected for many years and changes produced by climatic change will greatly affect them. Thus, nowadays they constitute an endangered ecosystem due to their characteristics and to human pressures. These habitats support a high biological richness with species adapted to extreme conditions. Assuming that hydroperiod is the main factor structuring aquatic assemblages in this type of ecosystem, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the dry period on the faunal composition and the natural succession process of macroinvertebrate assemblages in two temporary ponds and to analyze the differences between two periods, before and after the dry period. A total of 7225 individuals belonging to 93 macroinvertebrate taxa (Nematoda, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Acari, Insecta were collected. The most abundant and richest group were insects. Cluster and Non-Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS analyses showed the clustering of the samples in two groups, before and after the dry period, as we had expected. Thus, there was a change in faunal composition in both ponds, corresponding to a successional process. According to the SIMPER analysis, the most contributive taxa in both ponds were mostly insects and crustaceans. Regarding feeding traits, predators and shredders were the dominant groups. However, there was a change in the trophic structure of the assemblages between the two periods. Most taxa resist the drying season with resting eggs, cocoons or simply by flying to more permanent freshwater bodies. Although the two studied ponds are temporary habitats, they support a different faunal composition hosting species that are endemic or rare at regional or national level. 

  8. Tracking the Footprints of the People without History - Insect Assemblages and Environmental Change in Northern Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopulu, E.

    2014-12-01

    Using palaeocology and in particular palaeoentomology to understand climate, environmental change and impacts by indigenous groups in the North Atlantic Arctic fringe provides the opportunity to obtain refined details about both the rates of impact and the timing of the change from hunting and gathering to farming. In northern Norway and Sweden the Sami coastal fisher-hunters and inland reindeer herders shared the landscape with incoming agriculturalists and were often assimilated or marginalised. While inside their settled areas there is a palaeoentomological record for the Sami and often information about resource use and seasonality is evident from the fossil insect record, their footprint on the wider landscape tends to be slight and difficult to discern. The diverse and often intermittent nature of Sami activities, which may range from reindeer herding, fishing and even some agricultural activities, makes the task of firmly identifying impacts and differentiating these from climate change a complex task. On the other hand, the transition from a diverse subsistence to intensified pastoralism leaves a clear record in the fossil insect assemblages, both from midden deposits and natural profiles. To add to the complexities of the interpretation, farmers in northern Norway for example, were actively involved in fishing and the fur trade, and introduced grain faunas found in the farm mounds attest to the returns on this, but there is no way to be certain whether the occupiers of the farms were Sami or Norse, or a mixture of both. For a group where both archaeological and historical evidence is sparse, the insect record may unfold the poorly known ecological impact of the Sami.

  9. Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection–polarization signals

    OpenAIRE

    Kriska, György; Csabai, Zoltán; Boda, Pál; Malik, Péter; Horváth, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    We reveal here the visual ecological reasons for the phenomenon that aquatic insects often land on red, black and dark-coloured cars. Monitoring the numbers of aquatic beetles and bugs attracted to shiny black, white, red and yellow horizontal plastic sheets, we found that red and black reflectors are equally highly attractive to water insects, while yellow and white reflectors are unattractive. The reflection–polarization patterns of black, white, red and yellow cars were measured in the red...

  10. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Mae Klong Watershed, Western Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witwisitpong Maneechan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and diversity of aquatic insects and water quality variables were studied among three streams of the Mae Klong Watershed. In each stream, two sites were sampled. Aquatic insects and water quality variables were randomly sampled seven times in February, May, September, and December 2010 and in January, April, and May 2011. Overall, 11,153 individuals belonging to 64 families and nine orders were examined. Among the aquatic insects collected from the three streams, the order Trichoptera was most diverse in number of individuals, followed by Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Megaloptera, and Lepidoptera. The highest Shannon index of diversity of 2.934 and 3.2 was recorded in Huai Kayeng stream and the lowest was in Huai Pakkok stream (2.68 and 2.62. The high diversity of insect fauna in streams is an indication of larger microhabitat diversity and better water quality conditions prevailing in the streams. The evenness value was recorded as high in most sites. The high species diversity and evenness in almost all sites indicated good water quality.

  11. Relationship between aquatic insects and heavy metals in an urban stream using multivariate techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, the relationship between some aquatic insect species (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata) and some heavy metals (cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, iron and manganese) and boron were assessed using data obtained from the Ankara Stream, which flows through Ankara, the capital city of Turkey and receives high organic and industrial wastes. Sampling was carried out monthly along the Ankara Stream in 1991. Environmental data were used to explain biological variation using multivariate techniques provided by the program canonical correspondence analysis ordination. The ordination method canonical correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships between environmental variables and distribution of aquatic insect larvae. Data sets were classified by two way indicator species analysis. In this study, aquatic insecta communities have been shown by canonical correspondence analysis ordination as related to total hardness, p H, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, iron, manganese and boron. Cadmium, lead, copper and boron exceeded limits of the United States Environmental Protection Agency criteria for aquatic life. Trichopteran, Dinarthrum iranicum was an indicator of two way indicator species analysis and was placed close to the arrow representing copper. Odonate, Aeschna juncea was an indicator of two way indicator species analysis in site 10 and was placed close to the arrows representing manganese, lead, and nickel. Trichopteran, Cheumatopsyche lepida and odonate, Platycnemis pennipes were indicators of two way indicator species analysis for sites 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18 and were placed close to the arrows representing cadmium, boron, iron and total hardness.

  12. Aquatic Insects of New York Salt Marsh Associated with Mosquito Larval Habitat and their Potential Utility as Bioindicators

    OpenAIRE

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E.; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonom...

  13. Distribution of aquatic insects in phumdis (floating island of Loktak Lake, Manipur, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Takhelmayum

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was made on the temporal fluctuations of distribution of aquatic insects around Phumdi Live (PL, Phumdi Mixed (PM and Phumdi Dry (PD areas of Loktak Lake. Phumdis are a heterogeneous mass of soil, vegetation and organic matter. The study revealed the presence of predators, and the absence of herbivores and detritivores in both PL and PM, the PD area was totally devoid of insects. Although both the habitats supported the same predator groups hemiptera and odonata, diversity and density in terms of family and species were higher in PL than in PM. Temporal fluctuations revealed that the Shannon-Weiner’s Diversity Index values were highest in June for both PL (0.726 and PM (0.47. In both the sites the highest density was recorded in February. The relative abundance of hemiptera was higher than that of odonata in most of the months in PL. Phumdi Mixed was represented by one species of hemiptera only, in the month of February and dominated by odonates otherwise. Community composition of odonata larvae did not show any difference between the two habitats. Although the study revealed low diversity and density of insects in both sites, the PL community provided a better habitat to aquatic insects than that of PM. These are of value as fish food and in turn for fish production.

  14. ISOLATION OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TWO COMMON EDIBLE AQUATIC INSECTS, HYDROPHILUS PICEUS AND DYTISCUS MARGINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Gur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Insects are widely used for their potential source of protein, lipids, carbohydrates and certain vitamins in many parts of the world. As in terrestial ones, aquatic insects can also carry fungal structures. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated microfungal flora of internal and external surface of Hydrophilus piceus and Dytiscus marginalis collected from their natural habitats in Erzurum (Turkey. We isolated total 19 different species of fungi belonging to Penicillium, Alternaria, Beauveria, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Acremonium, Paecilomyces genera. The relationship between these fungi and edible insects was discussed further in the light of the existing literature. Among the isolated fungi, species that were recognized as pathogenic or toxigenic, and ones having biotechnological importance were found.

  15. Comparative sodium transport patterns provide clues for understanding salinity and metal responses in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibener, S A; Richardi, V S; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-02-01

    The importance of insects in freshwater ecosystems has led to their extensive use in ecological monitoring programs. As freshwater systems are increasingly challenged by salinization and metal contamination, it is important to understand fundamental aspects of aquatic insect physiology (e.g., osmoregulatory processes) that contribute to insect responses to these stressors. Here we compared the uptake dynamics of Na as NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 in the caddisfly Hydropsyche betteni across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) encompassing the vast majority of North American freshwater ecosystems. Sulfate as the major anion resulted in decreased Na uptake rates relative to the chloride and bicarbonate salts. A comparison of Na (as NaHCO3) turnover rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna and the mayfly Maccaffertium sp. revealed different patterns in the 2 species. Both species appeared to tightly regulate their whole body sodium concentrations (at ∼47±1.8 μmol/g wet wt) across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) over 7 days. However, at the highest Na concentration (15.22 mM), Na uptake rates in H. sparna (419.1 μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) appeared close to saturation while Na uptake rates in Maccaffertium sp. were considerably faster (715 g μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) and appeared to not be close to saturation. Na efflux studies in H. sparna revealed that loss rates are commensurate with uptake rates and are responsive to changes in water Na concentrations. A comparison of Na uptake rates (at 0.57 mM Na) across 9 species representing 4 major orders (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Diptera) demonstrated profound physiological differences across species after accounting for the influence of body weight. Faster Na uptake rates were associated with species described as being sensitive to salinization in field studies. The metals silver (Ag) and copper (Cu), known to be antagonistic to Na uptake in other aquatic taxa did not generally

  16. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  17. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system. PMID:26830433

  18. Fauna aquatic insects in sewage maturation ponds of Kashan University of Medical Science 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Rouhollah; Miranzadeh, Mohhamad Bagher; Yosefzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Zamani, Soheyla

    2007-03-15

    Organic materials in maturation ponds, the personal study was carried out to determine the aquatic insects living in the maturation pond of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2005. This was a descriptive study, 9 series of sampling including 1032 of larva, nymph and adults were collected and sent to a laboratory. Then they were diagnosed using stereo microscope and morphologic identification key. At of 1032 collected samples from 4 maturation ponds, the orders if Diptera (52%), Hempitera (24%), Ciclopodidade (12%), Hydroacarina (9.5%), Coleptera (0.77%), Aranida (0.67%), Hymenoptera (0.58%), Odonata (0.48%), were determined. The families of Chironomidae and Culicidae from Diptera order, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Cupepodae and Copepodidae families from Hemiptera order, Hydrophilidae family from Coleptera order, Aranidae family from Aranida order, Vospidae family from Hymenoptera order, Anizoptera suborder from Odonata order were determined. Maturation ponds are the artificial places where are appropriate for the growth and development of aquatic insects and also for their predators with taking in to account that some of these insects are the carriers of pathogens, make inconvenience for human and also has significant role in the cycle of changing materials, it is recommended that further specialized studies carry out in this regard. PMID:19069891

  19. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Koike, Tatsuya; Takada, Hideshige; Newman, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3, and tet(M), in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP) in South Africa. There was no correlation between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs, suggesting the targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to selection pressure. Among sul genes, sul1 and sul2 were major genes in the total (over 10-2 copies/16S) and colony forming bacteria assemblages (∼10-1 copies/16S). In urban waters, the sul3 gene was mostly not detectable in total and culturable assemblages, suggesting sul3 is not abundant. tet(M) was found in natural assemblages with 10-3 copies/16S level in STP, but was not detected in colony forming bacteria, suggesting the non-culturable (yet-to-be cultured) bacterial community in urban surface waters and STP effluent possess the tet(M) gene. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistant (SMXr) and oxytetracycline (OTC) resistant (OTCr) bacterial communities in urban waters possessed not only sul1 and sul2 but also sul3 and tet(M) genes. These genes are widely distributed in SMXr and OTCr bacteria. In conclusion, urban river and estuarine water and STP effluent in the Durban area were highly contaminated with ARGs, and the yet-to-be cultured bacterial community may act as a non-visible ARG reservoir in certain situations. PMID:26300864

  20. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3 and tet(M, in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP in South Africa. There was no correlation between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs, suggesting the targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to selection pressure. Among sul genes, sul1 and sul2 were major genes in the total (over 10-2 copies/16S and colony forming bacteria assemblages (approx 10-1 copies/16S. In urban waters, the sul3 gene was mostly not detectable in total and culturable assemblages, suggesting sul3 is not abundant. tet(M was found in natural assemblages with 10-3 copies/16S level in STP, but was not detected in colony forming bacteria, suggesting the non-culturable (yet-to-be cultured bacterial community in urban surface waters and STP effluent possess the tet(M gene. Sulfamethoxazole resistant (SMXr and oxytetracycline resistant (OTCr bacterial communities in urban waters possessed not only sul1 and sul2 but also sul3 and tet(M genes. These genes are widely distributed in SMXr and OTCr bacteria. In conclusion, urban river and estuarine water and STP effluent in the Durban area were highly contaminated with ARGs, and the yet-to-be cultured bacterial community may act as a non-visible ARG reservoir in certain situations.

  1. Aquatic bacterial assemblage variability in the supra littoral zone of Appledore Island, Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Joseph L; Neuharth-Keusch, Dani; Hewson, Ian

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the abundance and assemblage variability of bacteria in 10 spatially distinct freshwater pools on Appledore Island, Gulf of Maine. Assemblages were strongly heterogeneous between pools separated by even short distances. To gain insight into factors that may lead to the establishment of novel assemblages, we conducted an ecosystem-open choromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) enrichment experiment within mesocosms inoculated with a standardized microbial community and observed patterns of their composition over time. Assemblages were strongly divergent from each other in composition after only 3 days of incubation. Divergence among mesocosms was significantly higher with increasing levels of CDOM. CDOM addition initially had a strong positive impact on bacterial operation taxonomic unit (OTU) richness and negative impact on bacterial OTU evenness, but no impact on total bacterial abundance, suggesting that factors controlling abundance are decoupled from those influencing overall composition.

  2. Effects of the herbicides hexazinone and triclopyr ester on aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, D P; Holmes, S B; Behmer, D J

    1992-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure acute lethal response of aquatic insects to hexazinone (Velpar L) and triclopyr ester (Garlon 4) in flow-through laboratory bioassays, and to determine lethal and behavioral effects of these herbicides on insects in outdoor stream channels. No significant mortality (chi 2 P greater than 0.05) occurred in 13 test species exposed to hexazinone in laboratory flow-through bioassays (1-hr exposure, 48-hr observation) at the maximum test concentration of 80 mg/liter. The survival of insects exposed to 80 mg/liter hexazinone in outdoor stream channels was likewise unaffected. Significant drift (chi 2 P less than 0.001) of Isonychia sp. occurred during a hexazinone treatment of the stream channels, but only at the maximum concentration of 80 mg/liter, and survival of the displaced Isonychia sp. was not affected. In flow-through bioassays with triclopyr ester, 10 of 12 test species showed no significant mortality at concentrations greater than 80 mg/liter. Survival of Isogenoides sp. and Dolophilodes distinctus was significantly affected at less than 80 mg/liter. Lethal concentrations were estimated by probit analysis of concentration-response data (1-hr exposure, 48-hr observation) for Simulium sp. (LC50 = 303 mg/liter), Isogenoides sp. (LC50 = 61.7 mg/liter), and D. distinctus (LC50 = 0.6 mg/liter). Triclopyr ester applications to the stream channels resulted in significant drift and mortality of D. distinctus at 3.2 mg/liter (no effects at 0.32 mg/liter), Isogenoides sp. at 32 mg/liter, and Hydropsyche sp. and Epeorus vitrea at 320 mg/liter. The risk to aquatic insects of these herbicides used in forest vegetation management is discussed. PMID:1376240

  3. Composition and Longitudinal Patterns of Aquatic Insect Emergence in Small Rivers of Palawan Island, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Hendrik

    2004-09-01

    This study presents the first emergence trap samples from streams in the Philippines and Greater Sunda. Aquatic insect emergence from two small rivers and longitudinal patterns including estuaries are compared. A decline of total emergence towards estuaries was observed, affecting all major orders. Diptera, namely Chironomidae, dominated all sites. High abundances in Ceratopogonidae, Odonata, and Coleoptera were found, compared to other emergence studies from tropical and temperate latitudes. Ephemeroptera displayed a highly variable contribution to the emergence from Palawan as well as in other comparative studies either supported by the appropriate conditions for certain functional groups or limited by environmental variables such as pH. Trichoptera are likely to tolerate a wider range of environmental conditions and they are consequently able to fill further niches where Ephemeroptera are under-represented. Except for scarce abundances of Plecoptera observed in this and other studies from the tropics, no substantial differences in emergence composition at order level existed between temperate and tropical rivers, however, with a remarkable local variation. Components of riparian and non-aquatic insects and non-emergent fauna contributing to the collections are discussed based on trap features. (

  4. Rapid Bioassessment of Magura Haor (Floodplain Wetland, Cachar District, Assam, India Using Aquatic Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Dalal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the water quality of the floodplain wetland, Magura through rapid assessment survey using aquatic insects for the four seasons had been done during 2013-14. Aquatic insects were collected from the two sites and were identified up to family level. All together 5 orders (Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Diptera and 21 families had been recorded from the wetland. 17 families from site 1 (Hemiptera- 7 families, Coleoptera- 4 families, Odonata- 3 families, Ephemeroptera- 1 family and Diptera- 2 families and 18 families from site 2 (Hemiptera- 6 families, Coleoptera- 6 families, Odonata- 2 amilies, Ephemeroptera- 1 family and Diptera- 3 families were recorded. Four family level biotic indices- SIGNAL 2, ASPT, BMWP and FBI had been used to determine the status of the water quality. According to SIGNAL 2 and BMWP scores it was moderately polluted, whereas ASPT showed doubtful quality but FBI proved very good (site 1 and good water condition (site 2. This study revealed that only one biotic index cannot give proper justification of the water quality status of a wetland.

  5. Why do red and dark-coloured cars lure aquatic insects? The attraction of water insects to car paintwork explained by reflection-polarization signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, György; Csabai, Zoltán; Boda, Pál; Malik, Péter; Horváth, Gábor

    2006-07-01

    We reveal here the visual ecological reasons for the phenomenon that aquatic insects often land on red, black and dark-coloured cars. Monitoring the numbers of aquatic beetles and bugs attracted to shiny black, white, red and yellow horizontal plastic sheets, we found that red and black reflectors are equally highly attractive to water insects, while yellow and white reflectors are unattractive. The reflection-polarization patterns of black, white, red and yellow cars were measured in the red, green and blue parts of the spectrum. In the blue and green, the degree of linear polarization p of light reflected from red and black cars is high and the direction of polarization of light reflected from red and black car roofs, bonnets and boots is nearly horizontal. Thus, the horizontal surfaces of red and black cars are highly attractive to red-blind polarotactic water insects. The p of light reflected from the horizontal surfaces of yellow and white cars is low and its direction of polarization is usually not horizontal. Consequently, yellow and white cars are unattractive to polarotactic water insects. The visual deception of aquatic insects by cars can be explained solely by the reflection-polarizational characteristics of the car paintwork. PMID:16769639

  6. Effects of single-tree selection harvesting on hymenopteran and saproxylic insect assemblages in the canopy and understory of northern temperate forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandy M.Smith; Nurul Islam; M.Isabel Bellocq

    2012-01-01

    Insects respond to changes in microhabitat caused by canopy disturbance,and thus can be used to examine the ecological impacts of harvesting.Single-tree selection harvesting is the most common silvicultural system used to emulate local small-scale natural disturbance and maintain uneven-aged forest structure in temperate forests.Here,we test for differences in richness,abundance,and composition of hymenopteran and saproxylic insect assemblages at four different taxon levels (selected insect orders; and all hymenopteran families,and braconid subfamilies and morphospecies) between the canopy and understory of unharvested and single-tree selection harvested sites in a northern temperate forest from central Canada.Harvesting had no effect on insect assemblage richness,composition or abundance at the three highest taxon levels (order,family and subfamily).Similarly,richness and abundance at the lowest-taxon level (braconid morphospecies) were similar,although composition differed slightly between unharvested and harvested stands.Insect assemblages were vertically stratified,with generally higher abundance (for Diptera,Hymenoptera,some hymenopteran families and braconid subfamilies) and richness (for braconid morphospecies) in the understory than the canopy.In particular,composition of the braconid morphospecies assemblage showed relatively low similarity between the understory and canopy.Single-tree selection harvesting appears to influence wood-associated insect taxa only subtly through small changes in community composition at the lowest taxon level,and thus is recommended as a conservative approach for managing these northern temperate forests.

  7. Composition and structure of aquatic insect assemblages of Yungas mountain cloud forest streams in NW Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia VON ELLENRIEDER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Treinta y tres ambientes lóticos en las selvas nubladas de montaña de las Yungas del NO Argentino, fueron muestreados tanto en ambientes no modificados como alterados por actividades humanas. Insectos acuáticos de 143 taxones en 55 familias fueron colectados. El análisis de agrupamientos sugirió que la altura es una de las variables principales en la estructuración de las comunidades de insectos en estos arroyos, y la importancia de esta variable fue confirmada mediante un ordenamiento no-métrico multi-dimensional (NMS; los parámetros ambientales que mejor se correlacionaron con la ordenación fueron: altura, temperatura del agua, latitud y variables del canal (ancho, porcentaje de detritos leñosos grandes y pequeños, de bancos excavados, de piedras y grava gruesa. Procedimientos de permutación de respuestas múltiples (MRPP, mostraron que los arroyos en áreas bien conservadas difieren significativamente en su composición de los arroyos en áreas modificadas. La proporción de individuos de Elmidae y Plecoptera, y el número de taxones de Trichoptera, fueron los métricos biológicos mejor correlacionados con el gradiente de alteración ambiental local, sugiriendo que un índice ‘ElPT’ podría ser un componente útil para la evaluación del estado ecológico de estos ambientes. Los análisis de indicadores de especies, identificaron algunos indicadores potenciales de la condición de los arroyos y de los factores de alteración que los afectan.

  8. Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: A bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal regime immediately downstream from bottom release reservoirs is often characterized by reduced diel and seasonal (winter warm/summer cool) conditions. These unusual thermal patterns have often been implicated as a primary factor underlying observed downstream changes in the species composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. The potential mechanisms for selective elimination of benthic species by unusual thermal regimes has been reviewed. Although the effects of temperature on the rate and magnitude of larval growth and development has been included in the list of potential mechanisms, only recently have field studies below dams focused on this interrelationship. This study investigates the overall community structure as well as the seasonal pattern of larval growth and development for several univoltine species of insects in the Delaware River below or near the hypolimnetic discharge of the Cannonsville and Pepeacton dams. These dams, which are located on the West and East branches of the Delaware River, respectively, produce a thermal gradient extending about 70 km downstream

  9. Successional colonization of temporary streams: An experimental approach using aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Bruno Spacek; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; Lodi, Sara; Nascimento de Jesus, Jhonathan Diego; Oliveira, Leandro Gonçalves

    2016-11-01

    The metacommunity concept studies the processes that structure communities on local and regional scales. This concept is useful to assess spatial variability. However, temporal patterns (e.g., ecological succession and colonization) are neglected in metacommunity studies, since such patterns require temporally extensive, and hard to execute studies. We used experimental habitats in temporary streams located within the Brazilian Cerrado to evaluate the importance of succession for the aquatic insect metacommunity. Five artificial habitats consisting of wrapped crushed rock were set transversally to the water flow in five streams. The habitats were sampled weekly to assess community composition, and replaced after sampling to identify new potential colonizers. We analyzed the accumulation of new colonizers after each week using a logistic model. We selected pairs of experimental habitats and estimated the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index to assess the community composition trajectory during the experiment. We used the dissimilarity values in ANOVA tests, identifying the importance of time and space for the community. The number of new taxa stabilized in the third week, and we estimated a weekly increase of 1.61 new taxa in the community after stabilization. The overall pattern was a small change on community composition, but one stream had a higher weekly turnover. Our results showed a relevant influence of time in the initial communities of aquatic insects of temporary streams. However, we must observe the temporal pattern in a spatial context, once different streams have different successional history regarding number of taxa and community turnover. We highlight the importance of aerial dispersal and movement to seek oviposition sites as an important factor in determining colonization patterns.

  10. Resilience of insect assemblages to climate change in mature temperate mountain forests of NE China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The turnover patterns in species assemblages along gradients of abiotic or biotic conditions are indicative of the assemblages’ sensitivity to changes in these conditions. Studies of such gradients allow an evaluation of the degree of habitat specialization in different taxa, which will strongly

  11. Experimental evidence for cadmium uptake via calcium channels in the aquatic insect Chironomus staegeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the chironomid Chironomus staegeri to investigate the mechanism of cadmium (Cd) uptake in aquatic insects. We exposed C. staegeri larvae to a low nominal Cd concentration (50 nM) for 3 days and measured the effects of calcium (Ca) concentration (0.1-10 mM Ca) as well as the Ca channel blockers lanthanum and verapamil on Cd accumulation. When Ca2+ concentrations were increased above a control (0.1 mM Ca2+) to 1-10 mM, Cd accumulation by larvae was inhibited by from 46 to 88%, respectively. A simple theoretical model of Cd-Ca competition for uptake sites fitted our observations well. Cadmium accumulation was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by both La (73% at 10 μM and 92% at 100 μM) and verapamil (59% at 100 μM and 85% at 300 μM). Our findings represent strong evidence that Cd entry into these insects occurs through Ca channels. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Dispersal ability and habitat requirements determine landscape-level genetic patterns in desert aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipsen, Ivan C; Kirk, Emily H; Bogan, Michael T; Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D; Lytle, David A

    2015-01-01

    Species occupying the same geographic range can exhibit remarkably different population structures across the landscape, ranging from highly diversified to panmictic. Given limitations on collecting population-level data for large numbers of species, ecologists seek to identify proximate organismal traits-such as dispersal ability, habitat preference and life history-that are strong predictors of realized population structure. We examined how dispersal ability and habitat structure affect the regional balance of gene flow and genetic drift within three aquatic insects that represent the range of dispersal abilities and habitat requirements observed in desert stream insect communities. For each species, we tested for linear relationships between genetic distances and geographic distances using Euclidean and landscape-based metrics of resistance. We found that the moderate-disperser Mesocapnia arizonensis (Plecoptera: Capniidae) has a strong isolation-by-distance pattern, suggesting migration-drift equilibrium. By contrast, population structure in the flightless Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) is influenced by genetic drift, while gene flow is the dominant force in the strong-flying Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The best-fitting landscape model for M. arizonensis was based on Euclidean distance. Analyses also identified a strong spatial scale-dependence, where landscape genetic methods only performed well for species that were intermediate in dispersal ability. Our results highlight the fact that when either gene flow or genetic drift dominates in shaping population structure, no detectable relationship between genetic and geographic distances is expected at certain spatial scales. This study provides insight into how gene flow and drift interact at the regional scale for these insects as well as the organisms that share similar habitats and dispersal abilities.

  13. Aquatic insects as the main food resource of fish the community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vidotto-Magnoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the feeding of fish species of the Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, low Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fishes were collected in two stretches of the reservoir: Santa Bárbara (14 samples and Bonito (two samples between September 2002 and March 2004, using gill and seining nets. The results of stomach contents analysis were expressed with the frequency of occurrence and gravimetric method, combined in the Alimentary Index (AI. The 20 species studied consumed 52 food items, grouped in 10 food categories: aquatic insects, terrestrial insects, crustaceans, fish, macroinvertebrates, microcrustaceans, algae, vegetal matter, detritus/sediment and scales. The aquatic insects (mainly Chironomidae, Odonata and Ephemeroptera were the most common food resources, consumed by 18 species. The diet composition of the community (species grouped indicated that the dominant food category in the diet of fishes was aquatic insects (AI = 77.6%, followed by crustaceans (AI = 7.1%. Four trophic guilds were identified according a cluster analysis (Pearson distance: insectivorous (10 species, omnivorous (4 species, detritivorous (3 species and piscivorous/carcinophagous (3 species. Despite the highest number of species, the insectivorous guild was responsible for more than 80% in captures in number and biomass (CPUEn and CPUEb. The low values of niche breadth presented by all species, along with the low values of diet overlap between species pairs indicate a high degree of food resources partitioning among species. The aquatic insects, despite being the main food resource of insectivorous fishes, also complemented the diet of other species, which demonstrate the importance of this food resource for the fish community, sustaining a high diversity, abundance and biomass of fishes.Neste estudo foi avaliada a dieta das espécies de peixes do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava, baixo rio Tietê, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados em dois

  14. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  15. LATERAL DISPERSAL OF ADULT AQUATIC INSECTS FOLLOWING EMERGENCE FROM THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE CHIKUMA RIVER(HONSHU ISLAND,JAPAN)IN RELATION TO WATERFRONT VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kimio; HIRABAYASHI; Goro; KIMURA; Yachiyo; FUKUNAGA; Kumiko; TSUKADA; Makoto; ANDO; Atsushi; HATTORI

    2006-01-01

    Adults of aquatic insects emerge fromstreamslive inthe nearby riparian zone where they can select streamsidevegetations as preferred sites in order to(a)completemetamorphosis,(b)rest while awaiting proper swarmingtime,(c)feedin order to produce eggs,or(d)mate toreproduce[1—3].Most adult aquatic insect dispersal studies have fo-cused on quantifying the degree of upstream move-ment[4,5].Some researchers have shown distinct patternsof upstreammovement related to post-mating ovipositionalbehavior[6],while there...

  16. Larval aquatic insect responses to cadmium and zinc in experimental streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the risks of metal mixture effects to natural stream communities under ecologically relevant conditions, the authors conducted 30-d tests with benthic macroinvertebrates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in experimental streams. The simultaneous exposures were with Cd and Zn singly and with Cd+Zn mixtures at environmentally relevant ratios. The tests produced concentration–response patterns that for individual taxa were interpreted in the same manner as classic single-species toxicity tests and for community metrics such as taxa richness and mayfly (Ephemeroptera) abundance were interpreted in the same manner as with stream survey data. Effect concentrations from the experimental stream exposures were usually 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those from classic single-species tests. Relative to a response addition model, which assumes that the joint toxicity of the mixtures can be predicted from the product of their responses to individual toxicants, the Cd+Zn mixtures generally showed slightly less than additive toxicity. The authors applied a modeling approach called Tox to explore the mixture toxicity results and to relate the experimental stream results to field data. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (hydrogen, Cd, and Zn) on organisms using a 2-pKa bidentate model that defines interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands) and relates that accumulation through a logistic equation to biological response. The Tox modeling was able to predict Cd+Zn mixture responses from the single-metal exposures as well as responses from field data. The similarity of response patterns between the 30-d experimental stream tests and field data supports the environmental relevance of testing aquatic insects in experimental streams.

  17. Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for

  18. Influence of hydrological regime and land cover on traits and potential export capacity of adult aquatic insects from river channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Booker, D J

    2016-02-01

    Despite many studies highlighting the widespread occurrence and effects of resource movement between ecosystems, comparatively little is known about how anthropogenic alterations to ecosystems affect the strength, direction and importance of such fluxes. Hydrological regime and riparian land use cause well-documented changes in riverine larval invertebrate communities. Using a dataset from 66 sites collected over 20 years, we showed that such effects led to spatial and temporal differences in the density and type of larvae with winged adults within a river reach, altering the size and composition of the source pool from which adult aquatic insects can emerge. Mean annual larval densities varied 33-fold and the temporal range varied more than 20-fold between sites, associated with the hydrological regime and land cover and antecedent high and low flows, respectively. Densities of larvae with winged adults were greater in sites that had more algal coverage, agricultural land use, seasonally predictable flow regimes and faster water velocities. More interestingly, by influencing larval communities, riparian land use and the magnitude and frequency of high and low flows affected the size structure, dispersal ability and longevity of adults available to emerge from river reaches, potentially influencing the spatial extent and type of terrestrial consumers supported by aquatic prey. This suggests that anthropogenic alterations to land use or river flows will have both spatial and temporal effects on the flux and potential availability of adult aquatic insects to terrestrial consumers in many rivers.

  19. Influence of hydrological regime and land cover on traits and potential export capacity of adult aquatic insects from river channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Booker, D J

    2016-02-01

    Despite many studies highlighting the widespread occurrence and effects of resource movement between ecosystems, comparatively little is known about how anthropogenic alterations to ecosystems affect the strength, direction and importance of such fluxes. Hydrological regime and riparian land use cause well-documented changes in riverine larval invertebrate communities. Using a dataset from 66 sites collected over 20 years, we showed that such effects led to spatial and temporal differences in the density and type of larvae with winged adults within a river reach, altering the size and composition of the source pool from which adult aquatic insects can emerge. Mean annual larval densities varied 33-fold and the temporal range varied more than 20-fold between sites, associated with the hydrological regime and land cover and antecedent high and low flows, respectively. Densities of larvae with winged adults were greater in sites that had more algal coverage, agricultural land use, seasonally predictable flow regimes and faster water velocities. More interestingly, by influencing larval communities, riparian land use and the magnitude and frequency of high and low flows affected the size structure, dispersal ability and longevity of adults available to emerge from river reaches, potentially influencing the spatial extent and type of terrestrial consumers supported by aquatic prey. This suggests that anthropogenic alterations to land use or river flows will have both spatial and temporal effects on the flux and potential availability of adult aquatic insects to terrestrial consumers in many rivers. PMID:26453520

  20. Persistence of aquatic insects across managed landscapes: effects of landscape permeability on re-colonization and population recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Galic

    Full Text Available Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a combination of riparian vegetation (edge permeability and other vegetation (landscape matrix permeability, and distance between waterbodies on the colonization and recovery potential of weakly flying insects. For this purpose, we developed two models, a movement and a population model of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, an aquatic insect with weak flying abilities. With the movement model we predicted the outcome of dispersal in a landscape with several linear water bodies (ditches under different assumptions regarding landscape-dependent movement. Output from the movement model constituted the probabilities of encountering another ditch and of staying in the natal ditch or perishing in the landscape matrix, and was used in the second model. With this individual-based model of midge populations, we assessed the implications for population persistence and for recovery potential after an extreme stress event. We showed that a combination of landscape attributes from the movement model determines the fate of dispersing individuals and, once extrapolated to the population level, has a big impact on the persistence and recovery of populations. Population persistence benefited from low edge permeability as it reduced the dispersal mortality which was the main factor determining population persistence and viability. However, population recovery benefited from higher edge permeability, but this was conditional on the low effective distance that ensured fewer losses in the landscape matrix. We discuss these findings with respect to possible landscape management scenarios.

  1. Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Maolan Karst Forest Rivulets%茂兰喀斯特森林溪流水生昆虫的多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰洪波; 冉景丞

    2014-01-01

    为了解茂兰喀斯特森林溪流水生昆虫的群落组成与特征,对其3条溪流中水生昆虫进行采集、鉴定,并分析了水生昆虫群落组成、结构、特征和 ETP 昆虫季节变化。结果表明:共采集到水生昆虫4256个,分别隶属于7目34科,其中,蜉蝣目、!翅目、毛翅目和鞘翅目为四大优势类群,个体数量占水生昆虫总数量的82.07%;干排溪流中水生昆虫个体数量最多,占总数的53.55%,板寨溪流次之(31.71%),尧兰溪流最少(14.74%);ETP昆虫的个体数量最多,占水生昆虫总数的69.48%;干排溪流水生昆虫群落优势度最高,而水生昆虫群落多样性和均匀性都较小。%To explore the community composition and features of aquatic insects in Maolan karst forest rivulets,the community composition, structure, features and ETP insect seasonal change of aquatic insects,which were collected and identified from three rivulets,were analyzed.The results showed that totally 4 256 aquatic insect individuals were collected and identified to 34 families,seven orders. Trichoptera,Ephemeroptera,Plecoptera and Coleoptera were dominant groups,accounting for 82.07% of all the aquatic insects collected.Most aquatic insects were found in Ganpai rivulet in Maolan karst forest, accounting for 5 3 .5 5% of the total,much more than that found in Banzhai rivulet(3 1 .7 1%),and the least were found in Yaolan rivulet(14.74%).The number of individual ETP insects was the most,accounting for 69.48% of the total number of aquatic insects;the dominance of Ganpai rivulet insect communities was the highest,and aquatic insect community diversity and evenness were smaller.

  2. Influence of certain forces on evolution of synonymous codon usage bias in certain species of three basal orders of aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T

    2012-12-01

    Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages. PMID

  3. Longitudinal Distribution of the Functional Feeding Groups of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, L S; Juen, L; Batista, J D; Pavan, M G; Cabette, H S R

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that the distribution of the functional feeding groups of aquatic insects is related to hierarchical patch dynamics. Patches are sites with unique environmental and functional characteristics that are discontinuously distributed in time and space within a lotic system. This distribution predicts that the occurrence of species will be based predominantly on their environmental requirements. We sampled three streams within the same drainage basin in the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, focusing on waterfalls and associated habitats (upstream, downstream), representing different functional zones. We collected 2,636 specimens representing six functional feeding groups (FFGs): brushers, collector-gatherers, collector-filterers, shredders, predators, and scrapers. The frequency of occurrence of these groups varied significantly among environments. This variation appeared to be related to the distinct characteristics of the different habitat patches, which led us to infer that the hierarchical patch dynamics model can best explain the distribution of functional feeding groups in minor lotic environments, such as waterfalls. PMID:27193952

  4. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  5. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. PMID:26314044

  6. Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: a bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannote, R L; Sweeney, B W

    1980-04-01

    This report summarizes the first 9 months of field and laboratory work to test our central hypothesis. Five river systems were selected for intensive studies on insect growth, metabolism, and fecundity as well as determination of community structure for distinct assemblages of insect species exploiting various trophic and habitat resources. Laboratory studies were initiated to test the relative importance of temperature and food quality on growth, size, and fecundity of insects. Our project is intended to test the hypothesis that population stability, within the geographic range of many stream species, reflects largely a dynamic equilibrium between temperature and individual growth, metabolism, reproductive potential, and generation time. We propose to delineate the significance of natural thermal variation by quantifying the bioenergetics, developmental dynamics, and spatial distribution of major representative groups of stream insects throughout their geographic range.

  7. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stanley E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  8. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Simon; Charles Morris; Joseph Robb; William McCoy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and...

  9. Building a better sticky trap: description of an easy-to-use trap and pole mount for quantifying the abundance of adult aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Insect emergence is a fundamental process in freshwaters. It is a critical life-history stage for aquatic insects and provides an important prey resource for terrestrial and aquatic consumers. Sticky traps are increasingly being used to sample these insects. The most common design consists of an acetate sheet coated with a nondrying adhesive that is attached to a wire frame or cylinder. These traps must be prepared at the deployment site, a process that can be time consuming and difficult given the vagaries of field conditions. Our goals were to develop a sturdy, low-cost sticky trap that could be prepared in advance, rapidly deployed and recovered in the field, and used to estimate the flight direction of insects. We used 150-mm Petri dishes with lids. The dishes can be coated cleanly and consistently with Tangle-Trap® adhesive. Deploying traps is simple and requires only a pole set near the body of water being sampled. Four dishes can be attached to the pole using Velcro and aligned in 4 different directions to enable quantification of insect flight direction. After sampling, Petri dishes can be taped closed, packed in boxes, and stored indefinitely. Petri traps are comparable in price to standard acetate sheet traps at ∼US$0.50/directional deployment, but they require more space for storage than acetate sheet traps. However, a major benefit of Petri traps is that field deployment times are ⅓ those of acetate traps. Our study demonstrated that large Petri dishes are an ideal platform for sampling postemergent adult aquatic insects, particularly when the study design involves estimating flight direction and when rapid deployment and recovery of traps is critical.

  10. Is there a risk associated with the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) commonly found in aquatic environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, S.D.; Watkinson, A.J.; Murby, E.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the active ingredient of most commercial insect repellents. This compound has commonly been detected in aquatic water samples from around the world indicating that DEET is both mobile and persistent, despite earlier assumptions that DEET was unlikely to enter aquatic ecosystems. DEET's registration category does not require an ecological risk assessment, thus information on the ecological toxicity of DEET is sparse. This paper reviews the presence of DEET in aqueous samples from around the world (e.g. drinking water, streams, open seawater, groundwater and treated effluent) with reported DEET concentrations ranging from 40–3000 ng L− 1. In addition, new DEET data collected from 36 sites in coastal waterways from eastern Australia (detections ranging from 8 to 1500 ng L− 1) are examined. A summary of new and existing toxicity data are discussed with an emphasis on preparing a preliminary risk assessment for DEET in the aquatic environment. Collated information on DEET in the aquatic environment suggests risk to aquatic biota at observed environmental concentrations is minimal. However, the information available was not sufficient to conduct a full risk assessment due to data deficiencies in source characterisation, transport mechanisms, fate, and ecotoxicity studies. These risks warrant further investigation due to the high frequency that this organic contaminant is detected in aquatic environments around the world.

  11. Biological diversity, ecological health and condition of aquatic assemblages at national wildlife refuges in southern indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Robb, Joseph R; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  12. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  13. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piauí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Allan Paulo Moreira; Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Carvalho, Alcimar do Lago; Sampaio, Brunno Henrique Lanzellotti; Clarkson, Bruno; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Avelino-Capistrano, Fernanda; Gonçalves, Inês Corrêa; Cordeiro, Isabelle da Rocha Silva; Câmara, Josenir Teixeira; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; de Souza, W. Rafael Maciel; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Diversity and distribution of Neotropical aquatic insects is still poorly known, with many species to be recorded and many others to be described, due to the small number of taxonomists and sparse faunistic studies. This knowledge is especially poor in the Caatinga Domain in Northeastern Brazil, even though, this region may have played an important historical role in the spatial evolution of faunas of forested areas in northern South America. New information Aquatic insect checklists of 96 species from Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Ceará State, Brazil) and 112 species from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades (Piauí State, Brazil) are presented, representing the following taxa: Elmidae, Epimetopidae, Hydrophilidae, and Torridincolidae (Coleoptera), Hemerodromiinae (Diptera: Empididae), Ephemeroptera, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Hemiptera), Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Because of the scarce number of biological inventories in Northeastern Brazil, several new distributional records (of species, genera, and families) for Brazil, Northeastern Brazil, and Ceará and Piauí states are provided. In addition, several undescribed species were detected, being 26 from Ubajara and 20 from Sete Cidades. Results represent a significant increase to the known fauna of these states, ranging from 13%-70% increase for Ceará and 41% to 91% increase for Piauí. Although both parks are relatively close to each other and within the Caatinga domain, their aquatic fauna display a very high complementarity (89% species), possibly due to structural differences of water bodies sampled in each park. Rarefaction curves based on quantitative light trap samples suggest a much higher expected species richness of aquatic insects at Sete Cidades than at Ubajara National Park. Discussion on biogeographical affinities of this sample of the Caatinga fauna is provided. PMID:27660528

  14. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R. [Environmental Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  15. Characterization of the potential impact of metal contaminated sediments on aquatic plants and insects at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tim's Branch is an ephemeral second order tributary of Upper Three Runs Creek at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At present, Tim's Branch is the receiving stream for eight NPDES outfalls. Historic contamination of Tim's Branch through untreated discharges has resulted in significant levels of natural uranium, nickel, aluminum, mercury, copper, lead, chromium, and zinc in the stream sediments and flood plain. Indigenous plant and chironomid species in the area were identified. Sediment, benthic invertebrate and aquatic plant samples were harvested from several sites to determine metal concentrations. Physical and chemical parameters of sediment including acid volatile sulfides, pH, oxidation/reduction potential, organic carbon and particle size distribution were assessed to determine their influence on metal bioavailability. Laboratory tests indicated that significant levels of heavy metals are translocated from sediment to Hydrilla verticillata with a concurrent elevation of plant peroxidase activity. Laboratory sediment toxicity bioassays were also performed with laboratory-reared Chironomus tentans. In situ sediment toxicity bioassays were performed with indigenous chironomids and plants to validate laboratory results

  16. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar Aquatic insects from Somuncura plateau, Patagonia, Argentina. Preliminary inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.ABSTRACT. A preliminary inventory of the aquatic insects from the Somuncura plateau and its area of influence (Patagonia, Argentina is presented. It was done on the basis of the study of collections and previous records of species belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (families Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, and Psychodidae and Coleoptera. Different kinds of environments were surveyed in 14 localities. Seventy eigth species grouped in 51 genera and 26 families were registered, and 33 species are new records for the area. Eighty three % of the registered genera are widely distributed (neotropical, american or cosmopolitan, while 41 % of the species exhibit patagonic or andean distribution.

  17. 食蚊鱼对水生昆虫的捕食选择性研究%Predacious Selection of Gambusia affinis on Aquatic Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 童晓立

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis on aquatic insect biodiversity in South China, three common species of aquatic insects in mosquitofish habitat, I. E. , Cloeon bengalense, Chironomus kiiensis and Aedes albopictus, were selected under the lab condition to test the feeding preference of mosquitofish. The resulted showed that mosquitofish had no significant feeding selection on all preys in low density under the single-predator-and-multiple-preys experimental design. But mosquitofish preferred the larvae and pupa of A. Albopictus to other preys with the increase of prey density. When the prey ratio was 1' 1 under the single-predator-and-two-prey experimental design, mosquitofish frequently prefer larvae of A. Albopictus to the other prey. However, there was no significant influence to total prey consumption for mosquitofish when prey ratio was changed but total prey numbers unchanged. The results suggested that G. Affinis preferred to feed on the mobile prey close to water surface and showed no interest in the unmoving or dead prey, and mosquito larvae were the favorite prey of mosquitofish compared with mayflies and chironomids.%为了解食蚊鱼Gambusia affinis对华南地区水生昆虫多样性的影响,在实验室条件下,以食蚊鱼栖境中有代表性的3种水生昆虫为猎物,研究食蚊鱼的捕食选择性.结果表明,在单捕食者-多种猎物作用系统中,当猎物密度较低时,食蚊鱼对不同猎物的捕食选择性差异不显著.但随猎物密度的增加,食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊Aedesalbopictus幼虫和蛹的捕食量明显增加,对摇蚊Chironomus kiiensis幼虫和蜉蝣Cloeon bengalense稚虫的捕食量下降.在单捕食者-2种猎物的作用系统中,在猎物比例相同的情况下,食蚊鱼更喜欢捕食白纹伊蚊幼虫;但是在猎物总数不变的情况下,改变猎物比例,对食蚊鱼总的捕食量影响不大.说明食蚊鱼喜欢捕食漂浮于水面上、会动的活体猎物,对

  18. 云南高原水生昆虫研究概况%Review on Aquatic Insect in Yunnan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和秋菊; 易传辉; 杨宇明; 李旭; 王琳

    2012-01-01

    The aquatic insects in Yunnan province included about ten orders, and Diptera was comprehensively studied. And there was few report of other orders besides Trichoptera, Megaloptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. Hymenoptera have not been researched till today in Yunnan Province. Most of the research were focused on species investigation, and many new species were reported for the first time in the world. There was few research involving in biology, ecology, biogeography andphylogeny, molecular biology. On the other hand, the investigation was mainly in dynamic inhabit area, including river and brook, but few static inhabits, such as lake, swamp and marsh were included.%对云南水生昆虫研究概况进行了总结.云南水生昆虫研究涉及10目,其中研究最为详尽的为双翅目,其次是毛翅目、广翅目、半翅目和蜻蜓目,其它类群研究报道较少,膜翅目水生昆虫未见报道.研究报道中以种类调查为主,并有多个新种报道,对生物学、生态学、生物地理与系统发育、分子生物学等领域缺乏报道;调查以江河溪流等流动栖境为主,湖泊沼泽和湿地等静态栖境相对较少.

  19. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  20. Relación entre características del hábitat y estructura del ensamble de insectos en humedales palustres urbanos del centro-sur de Chile Relationship between habitat characteristics and insect assemblage structure in urban freshwater marshes from central-south Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMINA VILLAGRÁN-MELLA

    2006-06-01

    los efectos de la urbanización sobre el funcionamiento de estos ecosistemas. Sin embargo, dada la falta de información biológica y taxonómica en especies de insectos asociados a humedales palustres, solo características del hábitat con efectos significativos a un nivel taxonómico alto podrían ser consideradas para establecer recomendaciones iniciales de planes de manejoWetlands are one of the most productive ecosystems which provide a number of ecosystem functions, maintaining also a high biodiversity. Nevertheless, almost half of the wetlands in the world have disappeared in the last century due to urban development process. Along the Chilean landscape a great variety of aquatic habitats exist. Due to urban expansion those ecosystems have been exposed to strong anthropogenic pressures. In the intercomunal area Concepción-Talcahuano- San Pedro (Biobío Region, more than 23 % (1,734 ha of the wetland areas have been lost in the last three decades. We evaluated the relationship between habitat characteristics (morphometric, limnology and vegetation and the insect assemblage's structure in seven freshwater marshes in this intercomunal area. Our aim was to assess the influence of urbanization on the diversity patterns of these ecosystems. Insect abundance and species diversity were positively correlated to matrix pristinness and oxygen concentration of the water, this last feature was the best predictor for the structure of the insect assemblage. Of the 24 insect morphospecies included in the analysis, the abundance of only seven species was significantly related to the quantified habitat characteristics. Matrix pristinness, wetland area, vegetation heterogeneity and water oxygen concentration were positively related to species abundance, however, conductivity and water density showed a negative effect on the abundance. The insect species diversity decrease determined by the habitat characteristics associated to habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, habitat

  1. Strange Assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the power of Deleuze & Guattari’s (1988 notion of assemblage as theorised in 1000 Plateaus can be normalised and reductive with reference to its application to any social-cultural context where an open system of dynamic and fluid elements are located. Rather than determining the assemblage in this way, this paper argues for an alternative conception of ‘strange assemblage’ that must be deliberately and consciously created through rigorous and focused intellectual, creative and philosophical work around what makes assemblages singular. The paper will proceed with examples of ‘strange assemblage’ taken from a film by Peter Greenaway (A Zed and 2 Noughts; the film ‘Performance’; educational research with Sudanese families in Australia; the book, Bomb Culture by Jeff Nuttall (1970; and the band Hawkwind. Fittingly, these elements are themselves chosen to demonstrate the concept of ‘strange assemblage’, and how it can be presented. How exactly the elements of a ‘strange assemblage’ come together and work in the world is unknown until they are specifically elaborated and created ‘in the moment’. Such spontaneous methodology reminds us of the 1960s ‘Happenings’, the Situationist International and Dada/Surrealism. The difference that will be opened up by this paper is that all elements of this ‘strange assemblage’ cohere in terms of a rendering of ‘the unacceptable.'

  2. Observing Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Ilil

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

  3. Little effects of reduced-impact logging on insect communities in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denis Silva; Calvão, Lenize Batista; de Assis Montag, Luciano Fogaça; Juen, Leandro; De Marco, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Selective logging has become a major source of threats to tropical forest, bringing challenges for both ecologists and managers to develop low-impact forestry. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is a prominent activity accounting for such forestry practices to prevent strong forest disturbances. Our aims were to evaluate the effects of RIL on insect communities of forested streams from Eastern Amazon and to test the hypothesis of negative effects of RIL on species richness, abundance, and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect assemblages. Neither of the evaluated metrics of the studied assemblages were negatively affected by RIL. Environmental metrics, such as substrate heterogeneity, woody canopy cover, and hill slope height, varied more among RIL streams than in reference streams, indicating a gradient according to logging impacts, and are suitable candidates to monitor RIL impacts in Amazonian streams. In addition, the PHI index also varied among REF and RIL, according to age class and year of logging, which could reflect trends to recover the forest structure after logging in a time frame of only 10 years. We conclude that RIL impacts have not had detrimental impacts on insect communities, but have changed little of the environmental conditions, especially of the riparian vegetation around streams. PMID:27353133

  4. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno José; Ramos-Elorduy Julieta; Camacho Victor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the record...

  5. Spatial distribution and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect communities in Serra da Bocaina streams, southeastern Brazil Distribuição espacial e categorização funcional trófica de comunidades de insetos aquáticos em rios na Serra da Bocaina, Sudeste Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Henriques de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the spatial distribution and functional feeding structure of aquatic insect communities of 18 streams at different altitudes in Mambucaba River Basin, Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil; METHODS: Samples were collected in two consecutive dry periods (August of 2003 and 2004 being sampled four substrate types in each stream: litter from riffles, litter from pools, rocks and gravel; RESULTS: We identified 75,581 aquatic insect individuals belonging to 201 taxa. Most of the fauna was found in litter substrates (64%, and riffle litter substrate had the majority of the specimens (32,572 individuals. Gravel was the substrate with highest values of richness (29.84 taxa expected for 187 individuals; rarefaction method and Shannon's diversity (H' = 2.370. Rock substrate showed the lowest richness (20.24 taxa. Distribution of taxa across substrates shows that only 28 taxa are restricted to a single substrate, while 78 taxa occurred in all substrates. The indicator analysis showed that 20 taxa were characteristic of pool litter, 25 of riffle litter, 22 of gravel and only nine to rock. In relation to organic and inorganic substrates, 29 taxa were characteristic of litter, and 17 of inorganic substrates. Cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index and UPGMA linkage method showed that aquatic insects were distributed according to substrate and food resource. In all substrates, the main functional feeding group was collector-gatherer (40.64%, and the least representative was shredder (6.67%. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests showed that collector-gatherers and shredders were predominant in pool substrates, collector-filters in riffle substrate and scrapers in hard substrates; CONCLUSION: Ours results show that independently of stream or altitude, substrate of the same type have similar faunal assemblages. The abundance and relative proportion of the functional feeding group showed variation across habitats

  6. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Fontanarrosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 taxones, seguidos por los dípteros (27, heterópteros (17, odonatos (4 y efemerópteros (1. Se observaron altos valores de riqueza en los charcos temporarios (58 taxones y las lagunas sin vegetación flotante (64 taxones. La diversidad estimada de los charcos temporarios fue significativamente (pWe studied the community of aquatic insects inhabiting both temporary pools and permanent ponds occuring in Buenos Aires City. A total of 3436 rain pools were examined, and six permanent ponds at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" in the Río de la Plata riverside were visited 149 times. A total of 85 taxa were recorded from both habitats, included in five orders of Insecta. The order Coleoptera showed the highest diversity values (36 taxa, followed by Diptera (27, Heteroptera (17, Odonata (4, and Ephemeroptera (1. High values of richness were observed in temporary pools (58 taxa and permanent ponds without floating vegetation (64 taxa. The diversity index for temporary ponds was significantly (p<0,05 lower than in permanent habitats.

  7. 40 CFR 161.590 - Nontarget insect data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic insect life-cycle study (5) 142-1 Simulated or actual field testing for aquatic insects (5) 142-3...; =Brackets (ie, ) indicate data requirements that apply to products for which an experimental use permit is being sought; TGAI=Technical grade of the active ingredient; TEP=Typical end-use product. (b) Notes....

  8. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  9. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle R. Piller; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish a...

  10. Insect Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis. PMID:27545732

  11. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Kyle R; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish assemblage structure in the impacted area following the event. We compared downstream (impacted) assemblages to upstream (unimpacted) assemblages to determine initial impacts on structure. Additionally, we incorporated historic fish collections (1988-2011) to examine impacts on assemblage structure across broad temporal scales. Based on NMDS, upstream and downstream sites generally showed similar assemblage structure across sample periods with the exception of the 2 months postdischarge, where upstream and downstream sites visually differed. Multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicated significant seasonal variation among samples, but found no significant interaction between impacted and unimpacted assemblages following the discharge event. However, multivariate dispersion (MVDISP) showed greater variance among assemblage structure following the discharge event. These results suggest that 2 months following the disturbance represent a time period of stochasticity in regard to assemblage structure dynamics, and this was followed by rapid recovery. We term this dynamic the "hangover effect" as it represents the time frame from the cessation of the perturbation to the assemblage's return to predisturbance conditions. The availability and proximity of tributaries and upstream refugia, which were not affected by the disturbance, as well as the rapid recovery of abiotic parameters likely played a substantial role in assemblage recovery. This study not only demonstrates

  12. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  13. Mangrove macrobenthos: Assemblages, services, and linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2008-02-01

    Macrobenthic assemblages are relatively poorly known compared to other components of the mangrove ecosystem. Tropical mangroves support macrobenthic biodiversity resources yet to be properly documented and interpreted. Some methodological challenges, such as the generally high spatial heterogeneity and complexity of the habitat, evidently reduce sampling efficiency and accuracy, while also leaving some microhabitats under-sampled. Macrobenthic assemblage structure seems to be influenced by local environmental conditions, such as hydroperiod, organic matter availability and sediment characteristics. Brachyurans, gastropods and oligochaetes dominate in the sediment, with the former two groups also common on hard surfaces provided by tree trunks, while insects and arachnids inhabit the canopy. Traditionally, studies of mangrove macrobenthos have focused on assemblage structure or the biology of individual species, but more complex inter-specific interactions and the inter-relationship between habitat and the biota are recently being addressed. Brachyuran crabs are the best-studied macrobenthos group, but many issues about their role in mangrove ecosystem dynamics are still controversial. Despite many species of mangrove macrobenthos being referred to as 'trophic dead ends', most serve as important links between recalcitrant mangrove organic matter and estuarine secondary production, through feeding excursion by mobile nekton during the high tide, and macrobenthos-mediated processing and exportation of organic matter. A significant difference in the standing crop biomass of forests between the Indo-west-Pacific (IWP)' and Atlantic-east-Pacific (AEP) mangroves may be related to the difference in species richness of mangrove as well as macrobenthos diversity in the two bioregions. Such differences in assemblage structure may also result in different ecosystem functioning, but the nature of the links is, however, yet to be explored. There is also a strong need for

  14. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    and cultural geopgraphy. On this backdrop the paper states that affects and assemblages could serve as key notions for the reassembling the aesthetics of urban space. Thus, the paper suggest a less formal understanding of urban space and aesthetics, proposing an understanding of aesthetics......Affects and assemblages are Deleuzian Guattarian notions related to aesthetics and spatial territories. In recent urban geography and urban studies these notions are increasingly gaining more impact (Amin & Thrift 2002, Pile 2008, Farías & Bender 2010, Andersen & Harrison 2010, Thrift 2008). What...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  16. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  17. Temporal trends in algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish assemblages in streams and rivers draining basins of varying land use in the south-central United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Mabe, Jeffrey A.; Mize, Scott V.

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific temporal trends in algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish assemblages were investigated in 15 streams and rivers draining basins of varying land use in the south-central United States from 1993–2007. A multivariate approach was used to identify sites with statistically significant trends in aquatic assemblages which were then tested for correlations with assemblage metrics and abiotic environmental variables (climate, water quality, streamflow, and physical habitat). Significant temporal trends in one or more of the aquatic assemblages were identified at more than half (eight of 15) of the streams in the study. Assemblage metrics and abiotic environmental variables found to be significantly correlated with aquatic assemblages differed between land use categories. For example, algal assemblages at undeveloped sites were associated with physical habitat, while algal assemblages at more anthropogenically altered sites (agricultural and urban) were associated with nutrient and streamflow metrics. In urban stream sites results indicate that streamflow metrics may act as important controls on water quality conditions, as represented by aquatic assemblage metrics. The site-specific identification of biotic trends and abiotic–biotic relations presented here will provide valuable information that can inform interpretation of continued monitoring data and the design of future studies. In addition, the subsets of abiotic variables identified as potentially important drivers of change in aquatic assemblages provide policy makers and resource managers with information that will assist in the design and implementation of monitoring programs aimed at the protection of aquatic resources.

  18. Temporal and altitudinal variations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an Andean river basin of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Scheibler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were spatially and seasonally examined over two consecutive years (2000-2002 along a glacier and snowmelt river in the central-west of Argentina where lies the highest peak in America, Mount Aconcagua (6956 m elevation. The goal was to assess seasonal and altitudinal variability in benthic community structure and to define whether physical-chemical variables affect distribution of aquatic insects. The Mendoza river basin was characterised by high variability in flow and transparency, high conductivity, hard calcium sulphate water, neutral and alkaline pH, and dominant substrate composed of small blocks, cobbles, pebbles, and sand-silt. Richness of invertebrates was low, with the lowest taxonomic richness being recorded at the mouth. The dominant group with highest taxonomic richness was Diptera, although caddisflies, mayflies, beetles, and stoneflies were present. Seasonal and spatial variations in biotic and abiotic variables were detected. Maximal densities and taxonomic richness were recorded in autumn and winter. From Modified Morisita’s Cluster analysis it was found that the system is divided into two groupings of sites related to each other by faunal composition. INDVAL revealed species turnover along the altitudinal gradient of some taxa: Andesiops, Massartellopsis, Edwarsina, Chelifera, and Ceratopogonidae had preference for the headwaters (2835-2425 m elevation, Smicridea murina and Baetodes for the lower section (1413-1085 m elevation, and Austrelmis for the middle and lower sections. The middle section (1846-1727 m elevation was a transition area where taxa from the headwaters and the lower section coexisted. Generalised Linear Models evidenced that altitude was the major factor determining macroinvertebrate assemblages along the large arid Mendoza River and that the physical-chemical variables that most influenced variation in community structure were: transparency

  19. Evidence of temporary mining in the Cretaceous fossil mine assemblage of Negev,Israel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentin A.Krassilov

    2008-01-01

    Temporary mining is a peculiar behavioral trait in leaf parasites requiring adaptations of consecutive larval stages to the endophytic and ectophytic life.The first fossil evidence for the origin of the trait comes from the Cretaceous (Turonian) plant-insect locality of the Negev Desert containing rich trace assemblages of leaf parasites,including blotch mines with leaf pieces cut out for case construction,as well as attached larval cases.The host plants are deciduous broadleafs or aquatic angiosperms with emergent leaves,suggesting that initial acquisition of the habit might have been related to leaf abscission and the risk for the larva being chocked in the mine during floods.Unlike tracks of permanent miners,temporary mines never co-occur on leaves with other type mines,which attests to their effect of enhancing plant resistance.Mine predation appears to have been widespread in the Cretaceous biotic community,suggesting a possibility of top-down regulation of mining habits at this early stage of their evolutionary development.

  20. A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Chandana, E.P.S.; Rajapaksha, A.C.D.; Samarasekara, W.G.K.H.

    2012-01-01

    The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata) associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka), “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism...

  1. Fluvial geomorphology and aquatic-to-terrestrial Hg export are weakly coupled in small urban streams of Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Boaz, Lindsey E.; Hossler, Katie

    2016-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) contamination is common in stream ecosystems, mechanisms governing bioavailability and bioaccumulation in fluvial systems remain poorly resolved as compared to lentic systems. In particular, streams in urbanized catchments are subject to fluvial geomorphic alterations that may contribute to Hg distribution, bioaccumulation, and export across the aquatic-to-terrestrial boundary. In 12 streams of urban Columbus, Ohio, we investigated the influence of fluvial geomorphic characteristics related to channel geometry, streamflow, and sediment size and distribution on (1) Hg concentrations in sediment and body burdens in benthic larval and adult emergent aquatic insects and (2) aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transfer to common riparian spiders of the families Pisauridae and Tetragnathidae via changes in aquatic insect Hg body burdens as well as in aquatic insect density and community composition. Hydrogeomorphic characteristics were weakly related to Hg body burdens in emergent insects (channel geometry) and tetragnathid spiders (streamflow), but not to Hg concentrations in sediment or benthic insects. Streamflow characteristics were also related to emergent insect density, while wider channels were associated with benthic insect community shifts toward smaller-bodied and more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironomidae). Thus, our results provide initial evidence that fluvial geomorphology may influence aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant Hg transfer through the collective effects on emergent insect body burdens as well as on aquatic insect community composition and abundance.

  2. Correlation between Aquatic Insect Community Characteristics and Environmental Factors in Yabuli Mountain Streams%亚布力山涧溪流秋季水生昆虫群落特征及其与环境因子的关系1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚春梅; 于洪贤

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the correlation between aquatic insect community characteristics and environ-mental factors in Yabuli Mountain streams by Multidimensional Scaling ( MDS ) , Canonical Correspondence Analysis ( CCA) , Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H′) , Pielou evenness index ( J) and Margalef species richness index ( d) in autumn.52 species of aquatic insects were collected, belonging to six orders and 23 families.Among them, 27 species were diptera accounting for 51.92%of all species.12 species were trichoptera accounting for 23.08%.Six species were ephemeroptera accounting for 11.54%.Five species were plecoptera accounting for 9.62%.The other two were mega-loptera and coleoptera, respectively, accounting for 1.92%.The predominated species were Tvetenia bavarica, Rheocri-cotopus sp., Psychoda sp., Ephemerella sp., Baetis sp.and Mystrophora inops.The diversity index (H′) was 1.98-3.32, pielou index (J) was 0.63-0.79 and the richness index (d) was 0.90-2.49.By CCA, water temperature, dissolved ox-ygen, chlorine ionic, conductivity and turbidity had great influences on the diversity of aquatic insect communities in the stream.%利用多维排序尺度( MDS)、典范对应分析( CCA )、以及Shannon-Wiener多样性指数( H′)、Pielou均匀度指数( J)、Margalef种类丰度指数( d)等方法,研究了亚布力山涧溪流秋季水生昆虫群落特征及其与环境因子的相关性。共采集水生昆虫52种,录属于6目23科。其中,双翅目27种,占51.92%;毛翅目12种,占23.08%;蜉蝣目6种,占11.54%;襀翅目5种,占9.62%;广翅目和鞘翅目各1种,占1.92%。优势种为巴瓦特维摇蚊( Tvetenia bavarica)、流环足摇蚊( Rheocricotopus sp.)、毛蠓( Psychoda sp.)、小蜉( Ephemerella sp.)、四节蜉( Baetis sp.)和Mystrophora inops。 H′为1.98~3.32、J为0.63~0.79、d为0.90~2.49。 CCA结果表明

  3. Similarity and diversity between aquatic insect populations in streams of first and second order, south of Brazil Diversidade e similaridade entre populações de insetos aquáticos em riachos de primeira e segunda ordem, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Bender Raio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic communities of macroinvertebrates are influencied by rapid velocity, habitat heterogeneity and other characteristics. This study examined a relationship between aquatic insects diversity with hydrologic order of two streams. We tested following hypothesis: diversity of insects associated with the same substrate in equal parts of streams, classified in different orders, are similar. Samples of litter were collected in middle stretches of stream Cascatinha (first order and stream João Pinheiro (second order, Tibagi river basin, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil. Diversity of each stream was obtained by Shannon index. Diversity values were low for both streams (0.8 for the first order stream and 0.89 for the second order stream with no statistical difference (t = -1.12; p = 0. 27. Similarity between the streams was 0.51. These results allowed us to verify that, to studied streams, hydrological order has no effect on aquatic insects diversity (F= 0.14, p= 0.71, so the hypothesis was accepted. The most abundant taxon in both streams was Chironomidae (Diptera, representing 82.7% of total collected. However when Chironomidae was removed from analysis, the hypotesis was refused. An high abundance of Chironomidae individuals had influenced values of local diversity. A estrutura das comunidades de macroinvertebrados aquáticos é influenciada pela velocidade da correnteza do curso d’água e da heterogeneidade de habitats entre outras características. Este trabalho verificou a relação da diversidade de insetos aquáticos com a ordem hidrológica de dois riachos. Para isso, foi testada a seguinte hipótese: a diversidade de insetos associados ao mesmo substrato em trechos equivalentes de riachos classificados em diferentes ordens é semelhante. Amostras de folhiço foram coletas nos trechos médios do riacho Cascatinha (primeira ordem e do riacho João Pinheiro (segunda ordem, pertencentes à bacia do rio Tibagi, Telêmaco Borba, Paran

  4. 日本千曲川河中游成年水生昆虫羽化后的沿边扩散与沿岸植被的关系%LATERAL DISPERSAL OF ADULT AQUATIC INSECTS FOLLOWING EMERGENCE FROM THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE CHIKUMA RIVER ( HONSHU ISLAND, JAPAN) IN RELATION TO WATERFRONT VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kimio HIRABAYASHI; Goro KIMURA1; Yachiyo FUKUNAGA; Kumiko TSUKADA; Makoto ANDO; Atsushi HATTORI

    2006-01-01

    To clarify the role of waterfront vegetation of floodplains for adult aquatic insects, Trichoptera and Diptera (Tipulidae and Chironomidae), in the middle reaches of the Chikuma River from May to July, an investigation of the number of these insects was conducted by trapping in each type of vegetation using board traps. A total of 2608.5 adults/m2 were collected, and we identified a total of 26 species belonging to three taxa, i. e., seven species of Trichoptera, four species of Tipulidae and 15 species of Chironomidae. The most abundant species was Psychomyia acutipennis in Trichoptera (95.7%). There was a significant difference between the number of P. acutipennis in the all vegetation area (especially, Salix subfragilis ) and the control area (no vegetation)during the investigation periods (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test). Other taxa did not show a significant difference between the all vegetation area and the control. Moreover, the numbers of adult P. acutipennis showed a significant difference in height on each vegetation. In the case of Vicia villosa varia and V. villosa varia plus dead Phragmites australis, the highest number was caught in the traps set in the boundary between one plant and the plant above (P<0.05, Steel-Dwass Test) in May. On the other hand,in the case of almost all vegetation during the investigation periods (except of S. subfragilis in May, Melilotus officinalis plus dead P. australis in June), the highest number was caught in the traps set up within the vegetation (P < 0.05, Steel-Dwass Test). As a result, a significant difference was observed in the number of trapped P. acutipennis according to the vegetation and its height.It is suggested that the existence of multiple types of vegetation in the floodplain plays an important role for maintaining the diversity of the fauna there.

  5. The role of macrophytes in habitat structuring in aquatic ecosystems: methods of measurement, causes and consequences on animal assemblages' composition and biodiversity O papel das macrófitas na estruturação de habitat em ambientes aquáticos: métodos de medida, causas e consequências para a composição das assembléias animais e biodiversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in structuring communities in aquatic environments. These plants provide physical structure, increase habitat complexity and heterogeneity and affect various organisms like invertebrates, fishes and waterbirds. The complexity provided by macrophytes has been exhaustively studied in aquatic environments. However, macrophyte complexity has rarely been measured in a standardized fashion, making comparisons among different studies and the establishment of general conclusions difficult. To address this issue, this review is focused on questions related to the habitat structural complexity provided by these plants, exploring: i how complexity has been viewed by ecologists, with an emphasis on macrophyte studies; ii the pros and cons of several methods used to quantify plant complexity; iii the consequences of habitat structuring by macrophytes on invertebrates and fish and possible causes, mediated by habitat complexity, that lead to changes in these animal assemblages; iv potential impacts of non-native macrophyte species on habitat complexity and v the importance of complexity provided by macrophytes to management strategies for maintaining aquatic biodiversity. We examined literature produced in both temperate and tropical regions, but prioritized the latter. We found a great variety of habitat complexity measurements that are applied to aquatic macrophytes to understand their influence on attached animal assemblages. A lack of standardization (considering the wide range of techniques and scales of resolution used limits comparisons between different studies exploring this subject, in which biological samples and physical substrates were used to explore these relationships. Macrophytes affect animal assemblages and promote biodiversity through a chain of mechanisms, related to habitat complexity, that involve the availability of shelter and feeding sites. Invasive macrophyte species may modify habitat

  6. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attracts these insects.  Use insect repellents and keep insecticide available. Treatment tips:  Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing subsequent sting ...

  7. Insect Growth Regulators for Insect Pest Control*

    OpenAIRE

    TUNAZ, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    Insecticides with growth regulating properties (IGR) may adversely affect insects by regulating or inhibiting specific biochemical pathways or processes essential for insect growth and development. Some insects exposed to such compounds may die due to abnormal regulation of hormone-mediated cell or organ development. Other insects may die either from a prolonged exposure at the developmental stage to other mortality factors (susceptibility to natural enemies, environmental conditions etc) or ...

  8. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José Manuel Pino; Camacho, Victor Hugo Martínez

    2009-04-20

    Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic waters. The family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries.

  9. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno José

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic watersThe family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries.

  10. Improving cluster-based methods for investigating potential for insect pest species establishment: region-specific risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Michael J.; Worner, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Existing cluster-based methods for investigating insect species assemblages or profiles of a region to indicate the risk of new insect pest invasion have a major limitation in that they assign the same species risk factors to each region in a cluster. Clearly regions assigned to the same cluster have different degrees of similarity with respect to their species profile or assemblage. This study addresses this concern by applying weighting factors to the cluster elements used to calculate regi...

  11. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  12. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  13. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Itterbeeck Joost; van Huis Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in...

  14. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, A; Galante, E; Micó, E

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what extent these can affect conservation decisions. Beetles were sampled using hollow emergence and window traps in three protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Species richness, composition, and diversity turnover were analyzed for each sampling method and showed high variation depending on the analyzed assemblage. Beta diversity was clearly higher among forests for the assemblage captured using window traps. This method collects flying insects from different tree microhabitats and its captures are influenced by the forest structuring. Within forests, the assemblages captured by hollow emergence traps, which collect the fauna linked to tree hollows, showed the largest turnover of species, as they are influenced by the characteristics of each cavity. Moreover, the selection of the forest showing the highest species richness strongly depended on the studied assemblage. This study demonstrates that differences in the studied assemblages (group of species co-occurring in the same habitat) can also lead to significant differences in the identified patterns of species distribution and diversity turnover. This fact will be necessary to take into consideration when making decisions about conservation and management. PMID:27252483

  15. Climate and elevational range of a South African dragonfly assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Samways

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevation and climate are interrelated variables which have a profound affect on biota. Flying insects such as dragonflies can rapidly disperse and optimal habitat conditions at appropriate elevations. Such behaviour is likely to be especially important in geographical areas which are subject to major climatic events such as El Niño. Accordingly, we studied dragonflies and environmental variables in a series of reservoirs over an elevational range of 100–1350 m a.s.l. at the same latitude on the eastern seaboard of South Africa. The aim was to determine how elevation and climate (as regional processes, as well as local factors, influence species assemblage variability, habitat preference and phenology. Certain environmental variables strongly explained the main variation in species assemblage. These included local factors such as pH, marginal grasses, percentage shade, exposed rock, marginal forest and to a lesser extent, marshes and flow. Different species showed various tolerance levels to these variables. Elevation and climate as regional processes had very little influence on dragonfly assemblages in comparison with these environmental factors. These odonate species are essentially sub-tropical, and are similar to their tropical counterparts in that they have long flight periods with overlapping generations. Yet they also have temperate characteristics such as over-wintering mostly as larvae. These results indicate evolutionary adaptations from both temperate and tropical regions. Furthermore, most were also widespread and opportunistic habitat generalists. The national endemics Pseudagrion citricola and Africallagma sapphirinum only occurred at high elevations. However, the endemic Agriocnemis falcifera was throughout all elevations, suggesting regional endemism does not necessarily equate to elevational intolerance. Overall, the results suggest that many millennia of great climatic variation have led to a highly vagile and elevation

  16. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    OpenAIRE

    MANAN EFENDI; EDWI MAHAJOENO; ARDIANSYAH

    2001-01-01

    Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net) in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m ...

  17. A nuclear insect appears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is dairy of a nuclear insect in A. F. era. It consists of 6 parts, which have fun pictures and titles. The contents are the letter that is sent the Homo sapiens by insect, exodus of nuclear insect F 100 years latter. The time that a nuclear insect is attacked in F 101, the time that a nuclear dinosaur is beat in AF 102, the time that a nuclear insect struggles in AF 104 and the time that a nuclear insect drifts in AF 104.

  18. Effect of Water Quality on the Distribution of Aquatic Entomofauna of Great Kwa River, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oku, E. E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects are very significant as indicators of water quality. The study was carried out between January and August, 2013 for both seasons. Sampling of aquatic insects of Great Kwa River was done with sampling nets in three stations: Unical Female Hostel, Unical Staff quarters and Obufa Esuk Beach. A total of 261.0 aquatic insects were collected with Unical Female Hostel accounting for the highest abundance. Unical Staff quarters had the highest Ephemenoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT richness. The result of the study shows that the aquatic ecosystem health of the Great Kwa River varied significantly (P<0.05 along the course of flow with some areas slightly and moderately polluted while others are in useable conditions. The Diptera obtained during the study, are pollution tolerant species. They were more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season suggesting that the level of pollution was higher during the wet season.

  19. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  20. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  1. Flying insects and robots

    CERN Document Server

    Ellington, Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Understanding flight mechanics of insects can aid engineers in developing intelligent flying robots. In this seminal book, biologists and engineers detail the mechanics, technology, and intelligence of insects then discuss potential benefits of their research.

  2. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  3. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior.

  4. Insect Barcode Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally ...

  5. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  6. Effects of radiation on aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the onset of nuclear age, nuclear fuel cycle products, nuclear medicine techniques, disposal of radio active wastes on land or in water, fall out of testing nuclear weapons has contributed large amount of radio nuclides to the water bodies. Radio nuclides can imbalance aquatic ecosystem resulting in danger to natural life. The biological effects of radiation on aquatic life are mortality, pathophysiological, reproductive, developmental and genetic changes. A broad review of the results obtained about the aquatic organisms related to different phyla indicates that the lower or less developed or more primitive organisms are more resistant than the higher or more advanced, developed and complex organisms to ionizing radiation. The algae, protozoa are more resistant than the insects, crustaceans, molluscs and fishes. The changes in sensitivity between different stages of development have also been noted. A review of the results of exposing salmonoid gametes, eggs, fingerlings and adults to X-rays supports the concepts that radio sensitivity decreases with age. This paper presents a selective review on effects of radiation and radio nuclides on the aquatic life. It include uses and sources of radiation, effective quantity of radiation, lethal and sub lethal effect, effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behaviour, metabolism, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (author)

  7. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, James R.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  8. Insect diversity and water quality parameters of two ponds of Chatla wetland, Barak valley, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Gupta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on two ponds of Chatla floodplain, Barak valley, Assam with special reference to aquatic insects. Pond 1 is purely a fish pond where as pond 2 is a community pond too. Present study revealed the status of water quality and in turn diversity, density, dominance and abundance of aquatic insects in both the ponds. Almost all the physico chemical parameters of both the ponds were found within permissible range for aquatic life .However in pond 2 level of phosphate was found little higher than pond 1 due to release of soaps and detergents by human influence. In both the ponds order Hemiptera showed maximum relative abundance ( 98% in pond 1 and 94% in pond 2. The study revealed lower diversity of aquatic insects in pond 2 than that in pond 1.

  9. UV light pan traps for collecting aquatic insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Calor

    2012-07-01

    Resumo. Armadilha luminosa simples e de baixo custo é apresentada para coleta de insetos noturnos. Os componentes necessários para a construção da armadilha luminosa são descritos, assim como suas vantagens e desvantagens são discutidas.

  10. Does tourism impact aquatic insects in a high altitude stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Resumo. A atividade humana tem afetado negativamente a qualidade dos ambientes lóticos e a biodiversidade da fauna aquática. O presente estudo investigou os padrões de distribuição das populações de insetos aquáticos no córrego Sentinela no Parque Estadual do Biribiri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e correlacionou esses padrões com possíveis impactos causados pelas atividades do turismo. As populações de insetos aquáticos foram amostradas alguns dias antes e alguns dias após dos feriados e mensalmente durante o ano, totalizando quinze amostras entre os meses de janeiro e dezembro de 2011 em quatro locais diferentes. Para cada local, foram realizadas três sub-amostras com a ajuda de rede entomológica e o substrato foi revolvido com os pés. Foram coletados 3601 indivíduos, os quais foram identificados 8 ordens e 41 famílias. Por meio dos índices ambientais foi possível observar que os pontos 1 e 2 possuem excelente qualidade da água e são minimamente afetados pelo turismo, por outro lado os pontos 3 e 4 possuem uma qualidade de água intermediária e são altamente impactados pelo turismo. Três dos quatro feriados estudados mostraram uma diminuição significativa na abundância de insetos após o feriado. A riqueza e a diversidade da fauna de insetos aquáticos não mostraram flutuações sazonais, apesar da ocorrência de diferentes velocidades de vazão durante os períodos seco e chuvoso. Nossos resultados indicaram que os distúrbios causados pelo turismo afetam diretamente na diversidade e abundância dos insetos aquáticos no córrego Sentinela. Além disso, esses insetos se mostraram adequados para a avaliação de impactos antropogênicos causados pelo turismo na conservação de ecossistemas lóticos.

  11. Insect Barcode Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client– server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. Availability http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode PMID:24616562

  12. Climate change effects on North American inland fish populations and assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Myers, Bonnie; Chu, Cindy; Eby, Lisa A.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Krabbenhoft, Trevor J.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Lyons, John; Paukert, Craig P.; Whitney, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Climate is a critical driver of many fish populations, assemblages, and aquatic communities. However, direct observational studies of climate change impacts on North American inland fishes are rare. In this synthesis, we (1) summarize climate trends that may influence North American inland fish populations and assemblages, (2) compile 31 peer-reviewed studies of documented climate change effects on North American inland fish populations and assemblages, and (3) highlight four case studies representing a variety of observed responses ranging from warmwater systems in the southwestern and southeastern United States to coldwater systems along the Pacific Coast and Canadian Shield. We conclude by identifying key data gaps and research needs to inform adaptive, ecosystem-based approaches to managing North American inland fishes and fisheries in a changing climate.

  13. Anthropogenic disturbance and environmental associations with fish assemblage structure in two nonwadeable rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, T. P.; Quist, Michael; Pierce, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    Nonwadeable rivers are unique ecosystems that support high levels of aquatic biodiversity, yet they have been greatly altered by human activities. Although riverine fish assemblages have been studied in the past, we still have an incomplete understanding of how fish assemblages respond to both natural and anthropogenic influences in large rivers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between fish assemblage structure and reach-scale habitat, dam, and watershed land use characteristics. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, comprehensive fish and environmental data were collected from 33 reaches in the Iowa and Cedar rivers of eastern-central Iowa. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate environmental relationships with species relative abundance, functional trait abundance (e.g. catch rate of tolerant species), and functional trait composition (e.g. percentage of tolerant species). On the basis of partial CCAs, reach-scale habitat, dam characteristics, and watershed land use features explained 25.0–81.1%, 6.2–25.1%, and 5.8–47.2% of fish assemblage variation, respectively. Although reach-scale, dam, and land use factors contributed to overall assemblage structure, the majority of fish assemblage variation was constrained by reach-scale habitat factors. Specifically, mean annual discharge was consistently selected in nine of the 11 CCA models and accounted for the majority of explained fish assemblage variance by reach-scale habitat. This study provides important insight on the influence of anthropogenic disturbances across multiple spatial scales on fish assemblages in large river systems.

  14. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-06-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  15. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S.; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects. PMID:27386568

  16. Proteomics and insect immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Shi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.

  17. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...

  18. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  19. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  20. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  1. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  2. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Article Body Mosquitoes , ... protect your child from insect bites. Types of Repellents Insect repellents come in many forms, including aerosols, ...

  3. Floral neighborhood influences pollinator assemblages and effective pollination in a native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Daniela; Campbell, Diane R

    2014-10-01

    Pollinators represent an important intermediary by which different plant species can influence each other's reproductive fitness. Floral neighbors can modify the quantity of pollinator visits to a focal species but may also influence the composition of visitor assemblages that plants receive leading to potential changes in the average effectiveness of floral visits. We explored how the heterospecific floral neighborhood (abundance of native and non-native heterospecific plants within 2 m × 2 m) affects pollinator visitation and composition of pollinator assemblages for a native plant, Phacelia parryi. The relative effectiveness of different insect visitors was also assessed to interpret the potential effects on plant fitness of shifts in pollinator assemblage composition. Although the common non-native Brassica nigra did not have a significant effect on overall pollinator visitation rate to P. parryi, the proportion of flower visits that were made by native pollinators increased with increasing abundance of heterospecific plant species in the floral neighborhood other than B. nigra. Furthermore, native pollinators deposited twice as many P. parryi pollen grains per visit as did the nonnative Apis mellifera, and visits by native bees also resulted in more seeds than visits by A. mellifera. These results indicate that the floral neighborhood can influence the composition of pollinator assemblages that visit a native plant and that changes in local flower communities have the potential to affect plant reproductive success through shifts in these assemblages towards less effective pollinators. PMID:25047026

  4. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  5. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  6. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to cause itching than pain. Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... are harmless. If possible, bring the insect or spider that bit you with you when you go for medical treatment so it can be identified.

  7. Reversing insect pollinator decline

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Simon; Wentworth, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Pollination by insects enables the reproduction of flowering plants and is critical to UK agriculture.1 Insect pollinators have declined globally, with implications for food security and wild habitats. This POSTnote summarises the causes for the recent trends, gaps in knowledge and possible strategies for reversing pollinator decline.

  8. Reducing the maladaptive attractiveness of solar panels to polarotactic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Kriska, György; Seres, István; Robertson, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    Human-made objects (e.g., buildings with glass surfaces) can reflect horizontally polarized light so strongly that they appear to aquatic insects to be bodies of water. Insects that lay eggs in water are especially attracted to such structures because these insects use horizontal polarization of light off bodies of water to find egg-laying sites. Thus, these sources of polarized light can become ecological traps associated with reproductive failure and mortality in organisms that are attracted to them and by extension with rapid population declines or collapse. Solar panels are a new source of polarized light pollution. Using imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of different solar panels and in multiple-choice experiments in the field we tested their attractiveness to mayflies, caddis flies, dolichopodids, and tabanids. At the Brewster angle, solar panels polarized reflected light almost completely (degree of polarization d ≈ 100%) and substantially exceeded typical polarization values for water (d ≈ 30-70%). Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Trichoptera), dolichopodid dipterans, and tabanid flies (Tabanidae) were the most attracted to solar panels and exhibited oviposition behavior above solar panels more often than above surfaces with lower degrees of polarization (including water), but in general they avoided solar cells with nonpolarizing white borders and white grates. The highly and horizontally polarizing surfaces that had nonpolarizing, white cell borders were 10- to 26-fold less attractive to insects than the same panels without white partitions. Although solar panels can act as ecological traps, fragmenting their solar-active area does lessen their attractiveness to polarotactic insects. The design of solar panels and collectors and their placement relative to aquatic habitats will likely affect populations of aquatic insects that use polarized light as a behavioral cue.

  9. Reducing the maladaptive attractiveness of solar panels to polarotactic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Kriska, György; Seres, István; Robertson, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    Human-made objects (e.g., buildings with glass surfaces) can reflect horizontally polarized light so strongly that they appear to aquatic insects to be bodies of water. Insects that lay eggs in water are especially attracted to such structures because these insects use horizontal polarization of light off bodies of water to find egg-laying sites. Thus, these sources of polarized light can become ecological traps associated with reproductive failure and mortality in organisms that are attracted to them and by extension with rapid population declines or collapse. Solar panels are a new source of polarized light pollution. Using imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of different solar panels and in multiple-choice experiments in the field we tested their attractiveness to mayflies, caddis flies, dolichopodids, and tabanids. At the Brewster angle, solar panels polarized reflected light almost completely (degree of polarization d ≈ 100%) and substantially exceeded typical polarization values for water (d ≈ 30-70%). Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Trichoptera), dolichopodid dipterans, and tabanid flies (Tabanidae) were the most attracted to solar panels and exhibited oviposition behavior above solar panels more often than above surfaces with lower degrees of polarization (including water), but in general they avoided solar cells with nonpolarizing white borders and white grates. The highly and horizontally polarizing surfaces that had nonpolarizing, white cell borders were 10- to 26-fold less attractive to insects than the same panels without white partitions. Although solar panels can act as ecological traps, fragmenting their solar-active area does lessen their attractiveness to polarotactic insects. The design of solar panels and collectors and their placement relative to aquatic habitats will likely affect populations of aquatic insects that use polarized light as a behavioral cue. PMID:20455911

  10. Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Weimer, L.M.; Riegel, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 170 pollen assemblages from surface samples in eight vegetation types in the Florida Everglades indicates that these wetland sub-environments are distinguishable from the pollen record and that they are useful proxies for hydrologic and edaphic parameters. Vegetation types sampled include sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, sloughs with floating aquatics, wet prairies, brackish marshes, tree islands, cypress swamps, and mangrove forests. The distribution of these vegetation types is controlled by specific environmental parameters, such as hydrologic regime, nutrient availability, disturbance level, substrate type, and salinity; ecotones between vegetation types may be sharp. Using R-mode cluster analysis of pollen data, we identified diagnostic species groupings; Q-mode cluster analysis was used to differentiate pollen signatures of each vegetation type. Cluster analysis and the modern analog technique were applied to interpret vegetational and environmental trends over the last two millennia at a site in Water Conservation Area 3A. The results show that close modern analogs exist for assemblages in the core and indicate past hydrologic changes at the site, correlated with both climatic and land-use changes. The ability to differentiate marshes with different hydrologic and edaphic requirements using the pollen record facilitates assessment of relative impacts of climatic and anthropogenic changes on this wetland ecosystem on smaller spatial and temporal scales than previously were possible. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) depends greatly on the production of good quality sterile male insects that are released into target wild populations. Quality is assured through a system of bioassays of quality parameters that reflect the insect's ability to survive, interact with its environment, and locate, mate and fertilize females of the target population. The system was developed by compartmentalizing the essential survival and mating behaviours of the species involved, and then developing a series of tests to confirm that these behavioural traits are present in the mass-reared insects. The system also has a feedback loop to correct problems in the production portion of the system before they become evident. Nevertheless, regular implementation of field or field-cage tests under semi-natural conditions, where sterile males have to compete with wild males for wild females, is required to provide the ultimate assurance that the sterile insects have the ability to fulfil their mission after release. (author)

  12. Survey of arthropod assemblages responding to live yeasts in an organic apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos S Andreadis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between yeasts and insect herbivores are widespread, and these inter-kingdom interactions play a crucial role in yeast and insect ecology and evolution. We report a survey of insect attraction to live yeast from a community ecology perspective. In the summer of 2013 we screened live yeast cultures of Metschnikowia pulcherrima, M. andauensis, M. hawaiiensis, M. lopburiensis, and Cryptococcus tephrensis in an organic apple orchard. More than 3,000 arthropods from 3 classes, 15 orders, and 93 species were trapped; ca. 79% of the trapped specimens were dipterans, of which 43% were hoverflies (Syrphidae, followed by Sarcophagidae, Phoridae, Lauxaniidae, Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, and Chironomidae. Traps baited with M. pulcherrima, M. andauensis, and C. tephrensis captured typically 2.4 times more specimens than control traps; traps baited with M. pulcherrima, M. hawaiiensis, M. andauensis, M. lopburiensis and C. tephrensis were more species-rich than unbaited control traps. We conclude that traps baited with live yeasts of the genera Metschnikowia and Cryprococcus are effective attractants and therefore of potential value for pest control. Yeast-based monitoring or attract-and-kill techniques could target pest insects or enhance the assemblage of beneficial insects. Manipulation of insect behavior through live yeast cultures should be further explored for the development of novel plant protection techniques.

  13. Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LENCIONI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone where they can remain active. Less frequently they migrate to habitats that will freeze at the onset of winter. Insects have developed a complex of strategies to survive at their physiological temperature minimum, comprising (a morphological (melanism, reduction in size, hairiness/pubescence, brachyptery and aptery, (b behavioural (basking in the sun, changes in feeding and mating habit, parthenogenesis, polyploidy, ovoviviparity, habitat selection and cocoon building, (c ecological (extension of development to several years by quiescence or diapause and reduction of the number of generations per year, (d physiological and biochemical (freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance adaptations. Most species develop a combination of these survival strategies that can be different in the aquatic and terrestrial phase. Freezing avoidance and freezing tolerance may be accompanied by diapause. Both cold hardiness and diapause manifest during the unfavourable season and: (i involve storage of food resources (commonly glycogen and lipids; (ii are under hormonal control (ecdysone and juvenile hormone; (iii involve a depression or suppression of the oxidative metabolism with mitochondrial degradation. However, where the growing season is reduced to a few weeks, insects may develop cold hardiness without entering diapause, maintaining in the haemolymph a high concentration of Thermal Hysteris Proteins (THPs for the entire year and a slow but continuous growth. A synthesis of

  14. Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

  15. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  16. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.;

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  17. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  18. INSECT FLIGHT - BIOACOUSTICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Gopala Krishna, G.; Krishna Shankar, B.; Ahmad, A.

    1990-01-01

    Insect aerodynamics is drawing the attention of a number of researchers belonging to different disciplines with a view to understand its aerodynamic capabilities so as to revolutionise the aircraft technology. It is possible to understand, to some extent, the insect aerodynamics by experimentally determining the frequency of wing beat in its fethered state of flight by using flight sound technique and computing rate of mass flow, velocity, acceleration and mass of air induced in downward dire...

  19. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  20. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...... that they have on basic insect science and pest control....

  1. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Cunningham, Saul A; Macdonald, Ben C T; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes.

  2. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Barton

    Full Text Available Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes.

  3. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Cunningham, Saul A; Macdonald, Ben C T; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes. PMID:23326549

  4. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. PMID:26695127

  5. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  6. Are edible insects really green?

    OpenAIRE

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Alabi, Taofic; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Edible insects are considered as one of the future and sustainable sources of animal protein. Insects for food or feed could have several origins. In Asia, Africa, South America or Oceania, the diversity of edible insects is very high (approximately 2000 species) and these insects are principally collected from the wild or semi-cultivated. However, in Western countries, entomophagy promoters rely on a few numbers of insect species (approximately 10 species) and on the development of industria...

  7. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  8. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANAN EFENDI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m asl., Mrutu (1875 m asl., and Air Terjun (1600 m asl.. The screened insect-larvae were grouped its family and counted their individual number. The diversity was counted using Shanon-Weiner diversity indices. In this research was found 12 families of insect-larvae consisted of two families of Odonata order, 3 families of Coleopteran order, and a family of Lepidoptera. Nine families identified, while the three insect-larvae i.e. 2 of Coleoptera and 1 of Lepidoptera were not identified yet. The Parkiran station indicated the highest diversity index of 0.1436.

  9. The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forister, Matthew L; Novotny, Vojtech; Panorska, Anna K; Baje, Leontine; Basset, Yves; Butterill, Philip T; Cizek, Lukas; Coley, Phyllis D; Dem, Francesca; Diniz, Ivone R; Drozd, Pavel; Fox, Mark; Glassmire, Andrea E; Hazen, Rebecca; Hrcek, Jan; Jahner, Joshua P; Kaman, Ondrej; Kozubowski, Tomasz J; Kursar, Thomas A; Lewis, Owen T; Lill, John; Marquis, Robert J; Miller, Scott E; Morais, Helena C; Murakami, Masashi; Nickel, Herbert; Pardikes, Nicholas A; Ricklefs, Robert E; Singer, Michael S; Smilanich, Angela M; Stireman, John O; Villamarín-Cortez, Santiago; Vodka, Stepan; Volf, Martin; Wagner, David L; Walla, Thomas; Weiblen, George D; Dyer, Lee A

    2015-01-13

    Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here, we use a global dataset to investigate host range for over 7,500 insect herbivore species covering a wide taxonomic breadth and interacting with more than 2,000 species of plants in 165 families. We ask whether relatively specialized and generalized herbivores represent a dichotomy rather than a continuum from few to many host families and species attacked and whether diet breadth changes with increasing plant species richness toward the tropics. Across geographic regions and taxonomic subsets of the data, we find that the distribution of diet breadth is fit well by a discrete, truncated Pareto power law characterized by the predominance of specialized herbivores and a long, thin tail of more generalized species. Both the taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions of diet breadth shift globally with latitude, consistent with a higher frequency of specialized insects in tropical regions. We also find that more diverse lineages of plants support assemblages of relatively more specialized herbivores and that the global distribution of plant diversity contributes to but does not fully explain the latitudinal gradient in insect herbivore specialization. PMID:25548168

  10. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  11. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  12. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H). Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only) G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin. PMID:26984116

  13. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H. Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin.

  14. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  15. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  16. Migration strategies of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, H

    1972-03-24

    Physiological and ecological results from a variety of species are consistent with what seem to be valid general statements concerning insect migration. These are as follows: (i)During migration locomotory functions are enhanced and vegetative functions such as feeding and reproduction are suppressed. (ii) Migration usually occurs prereproductively in the life of the adult insect (the oogenesis-flight syndrome). (iii)Since migrant individuals are usually prereproductive, their reproductive values, and hence colonizing abilities, are at or near maximum. (iv) Migrants usually reside in temporary habitats. (v)Migrants have a high potential for population increase, r, which is also advantageous for colonizers. (vi)Both the physiological and ecological parameters of migration are modifiable by environmental factors (that is, phenotypically modifiable)to suit the prevailing conditions. Taken together, these criteria establish a comprehensive theory and adumbrate the basic strategy for migrant insects. This basic strategy is modified to suit the ecological requirements of individual species. Comparative studies of these modifications are of considerable theoretical and practical interest, the more so since most economically important insects are migrants. No satisfactory general statements can as yet be made with respect to the genotype and migration. Certainly we expect colonizing populiations to possess genotypes favoring a high r, but genotypic variation in r depends on the heritabilities of life table statistics, and such measurements are yet to be made (10, 53). The fact that flight duration can be increased by appropriate selection in Oncopeltus fasciatus, and the demonstration of additive genetic variance for this trait in Lygaeus kalmii, suggest that heritability studies of migratory behavior would also be worth pursuing. Most interesting of course, will be possible genetic correlations between migration and life history parameters. Also, migration often

  17. Territorial assemblages simulation for territorial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Soulier, Eddie; Neffati, Houda; Legrand, Jacky; Rousseau, Francis; Bugeaud, Florie; Calvez, Philippe; Saurel, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The following article is based on the theory of assemblage ontology seen as a framework to formalize new projects territories in a perspective of territorial intelligence. The area of research is PARIS-SACLAY Campus, which views the development of a world science cluster. The assemblages are simulating by means of simplicial complexes. Its objective is to offer new decision-making tools to territorial community.

  18. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  19. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  20. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  1. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  2. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  3. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  4. Fluorescence in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.

  5. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural and...

  6. Olfactory signaling in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The detection of volatile chemical information in insects is performed by three types of olfactory receptors, odorant receptors (ORs), specific gustatory receptor (GR) proteins for carbon dioxide perception, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) which are related to ionotropic glutamate receptors. All receptors form heteromeric assemblies; an OR complex is composed of an odor-specific OrX protein and a coreceptor (Orco). ORs and GRs have a 7-transmembrane topology as for G protein-coupled receptors, but they are inversely inserted into the membrane. Ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors) and ORs operate as IRs activated by volatile chemical cues. ORs are evolutionarily young receptors, and they first appear in winged insects and seem to be evolved to allow an insect to follow sparse odor tracks during flight. In contrast to IRs, the ORs can be sensitized by repeated subthreshold odor stimulation. This process involves metabotropic signaling. Pheromone receptors are especially sensitive and require an accessory protein to detect the lipid-derived pheromone molecules. Signaling cascades involved in pheromone detection depend on intensity and duration of stimuli and underlie a circadian control. Taken together, detection and processing of volatile information in insects involve ionotropic as well as metabotropic mechanisms. Here, I review the cellular signaling events associated with detection of cognate ligands by the different types of odorant receptors.

  7. Recycled Insect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  8. Colour constancy in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects. PMID:24647930

  9. Insect Resistant Maize 5307

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Syngenta Seeds Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from Insect Resistant Maize 5307. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this corn event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits.

  10. Oenocytes in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GF Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oenocytes are insect cells responsible for lipid processing and detoxification. Of ectodermic origin, they are found in close association with the insect epidermis, or fat body cells, or both depending on the insect species and developmental stage. They are easily distinguishable either by staining or by their ability to form cell clusters lined by a basal lamina, which makes it possible to isolate them from other cells. The most noticeable characteristic of the oenocytes ultrastructure is the presence of a well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum that can fill almost entire cell cytoplasm that for a long time was suggestive of lipid processing capacity. This capacity was confirmed lately through the usage of genetic, molecular and biochemistry approaches and other functions are also addressed to these cells, such as cuticular hydrocarbons and pheromones synthesis and detoxification. Additionally, oenocytes are considered analogous to mammalian hepatocytes based on their gene expression profiles and cell functions. In spite of the current knowledge about oenocytes, much about their protein expression profile remains unknown. In this review we provide a general overview of the state of the art related to oenocytes studies and certain morphological and biochemical aspects of such cells crucial for insect survival.

  11. Sterol metabolism of insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.; Wientjens, W.H.J.M.

    1967-01-01

    This article surveys the present knowledge of the sterol metabolism of insects. It is emphasized that a high degree of purity of the dietary sterols and the climination of the influence of symbionts are essential to present ambiguity in interpreting results. It is pointed out that a sharp distinctio

  12. Patterns of aquatic macrophyte species composition and distribution in Bulgarian rivers

    OpenAIRE

    GECHEVA, Gana; Yurukova, Lilyana; Cheshmedjiev, Svetoslav

    2013-01-01

    The composition of aquatic bryophyte and vascular plant assemblages, and 4 environmental variables (water velocity, shading, mean depth, and substrate type), together with altitude, ecological status, and river type were monitored at 223 sites along 204 rivers during 2009 in the Pontic Province and Eastern Balkan Ecoregions, Bulgaria. The relationships between macrophytes themselves and the parameters studied were tested. Forty-nine bryophytes and 86 vascular plants were identified. Canonical...

  13. Resistance to Insecticides in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Şükran; Şengül YAMANEL

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent usage of insecticides in struggle aganist insects, has caused development of resistance to those chemicals in insects. The increase in dosage of insecticide used due to development of resistance in insects, causes important problems in terms of environment and human health. This study includes topics such as insecticides which are used frequently in insect struggle, insecticide resistant types, genetic changes posing resistance, enzymes of resistance and resistan...

  14. Insects related to Olive culture in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Perrone Ricalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased cultivation of olive trees in Rio Grande do Sul State and its potential production arouse the need to characterize the assemblage of insects in olive groves, especially those with potential as pests. Therefore, the insect fauna was sampled monthly for two years, in the canopy of olive trees, using beat cloth, and collection of buds in five municipalities in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State. The faunal indices analyzed were abundance, constancy, dominance and frequency. The olive caterpillar Palpita forficifera Munroe 1959 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and mealybugs Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791 and Saissetia coffeae (Walker, 1952 (Hemiptera: Coccidae are the main phytophagous insects in olive farms in the Rio Grande do Sul State, with potential to reach pest status. Eleven insect species were recorded for the first time in olive groves in Brazil. The occurrence of P. forficifera is a new record for the Rio Grande do Sul State.

  15. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  16. Dam removal, connectivity, and aquatic resources in the St. Regis River Watershed, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Jr, James E.; Hanak, Kaitlin; DeVilbiss, Katharine; David, Anthony; Johnson, James H.

    2015-10-09

    The decommissioning and planned removal of the Hogansburg Dam on the St. Regis River in New York has stimulated interest in the potential effects of that barrier removal on the St. Regis watershed. There will be immediate and systemic effects of the Hogansburg Dam removal, which may include inundation of habitats below the dam or dewatering of habitats above the dam, possibly affecting local fish assemblages and (or) local native mussel assemblages; and expansion of stream network connectivity, which has the potential to open a large area of the watershed to migratory aquatic species. Information was collected about biota, water quality, sediment distribution, riverbed dimensions in the vicinity of the dam, and habitat characteristics of headwater sample sites. Complete fish assemblages were collected, but species of special concern associated with the connectivity changes included, American Eel, Atlantic Salmon, Brook Trout, Eastern Sand Darter, and Lake Sturgeon. Freshwater mussels in the vicinity of the dam also were examined and may be at risk of exposure (without a rescue plan) after dam removal. Reservoir sediment will be transported downstream and will alter aquatic habitat as it moves through the system. The dam removal will open more than 440 kilometers of stream habitat to migratory species, allowing them to more easily complete their life cycles. Fish assemblages above the dam may be altered by migrating fishes, but resident Brook Trout are not expected to be adversely affected.

  17. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  18. Diatom assemblages promote ice formation in large lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, N A; Kawarasaki, Y; Gantz, J D; Lee, R E; Beall, B F N; Shtarkman, Y M; Koçer, Z A; Rogers, S O; Wildschutte, H; Bullerjahn, G S; McKay, R M L

    2013-08-01

    We present evidence for the directed formation of ice by planktonic communities dominated by filamentous diatoms sampled from the ice-covered Laurentian Great Lakes. We hypothesize that ice formation promotes attachment of these non-motile phytoplankton to overlying ice, thereby maintaining a favorable position for the diatoms in the photic zone. However, it is unclear whether the diatoms themselves are responsible for ice nucleation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed associations of bacterial epiphytes with the dominant diatoms of the phytoplankton assemblage, and bacteria isolated from the phytoplankton showed elevated temperatures of crystallization (T(c)) as high as -3 °C. Ice nucleation-active bacteria were identified as belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, but we could not demonstrate that they were sufficiently abundant to incite the observed freezing. Regardless of the source of ice nucleation activity, the resulting production of frazil ice may provide a means for the diatoms to be recruited to the overlying lake ice, thereby increasing their fitness. Bacterial epiphytes are likewise expected to benefit from their association with the diatoms as recipients of organic carbon excreted by their hosts. This novel mechanism illuminates a previously undescribed stage of the life cycle of the meroplanktonic diatoms that bloom in Lake Erie and other Great Lakes during winter and offers a model relevant to aquatic ecosystems having seasonal ice cover around the world. PMID:23552624

  19. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  20. Stick insects in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Vodeb, Špela

    2014-01-01

    In the graduate thesis, the way of cultivating animals in the kindergarten is presented, the importance of preparation and maintenance of living corner, also the fundamental characteristics of stick insects are listed. In the empirical part, there are results of the questionnaire, which had been answered by 100 kindergarten teachers, mainly about the prevalence of use of living corner in kindergartens; do the teachers choose to use them and why, which animals are most commonly cultivated, and...

  1. [Protection against insects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, W

    2005-11-01

    Successful protection against haematophagous insects and ticks, especially in areas where transmission of diseases occurs, requires a consistent application of a combination of appropriate measures. However, this can never substitute a chemoprophylaxis. Which measures have to be used depends on the circumstances under which they have to work. Indoor, physical means such as mosquito-screens on doors and windows, air-conditioners, and bed nets can be used to keep the insects away. These measures can be supplemented or supported by insecticides used as knock-down sprays, by electrical evaporation or for the treatment of screens and bed nets. In the field, if it is not possible to avoid mosquito-areas during phases of activity, appropriate clothing and repellents must provide the protection. Bright, wide pants and shirts of dense weaving covering as much skin as bearable should be preferred. Repellents are sprays, lotions, milks or creams which are evenly applied to the skin to prevent insects from biting. They contain synthetic or natural active substances of substantially varying effectiveness. The gold standard since about 60 years is diethylbenzamine (DEET). There are a few other active substances with a lower risk of side effects, however, combined with a lower effectiveness mainly on people with a high attractiveness for mosquitoes. Products containing an extract of Eucalyptus citriodora provide the best protection amongst those with natural active substances. Wearing bracelets or necklaces treated with repellents, acoustic devices (buzzers), electrocuters, topical or systemic Vitamin B1 or eating garlic are useless measures to prevent insects from biting. PMID:16350532

  2. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Bronwyn; White, John; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Cooke, Raylene

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density) but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:24608165

  3. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Isaac

    Full Text Available Arboreal marsupials play an essential role in ecosystem function including regulating insect and plant populations, facilitating pollen and seed dispersal and acting as a prey source for higher-order carnivores in Australian environments. Primarily, research has focused on their biology, ecology and response to disturbance in forested and urban environments. We used presence-only species distribution modelling to understand the relationship between occurrences of arboreal marsupials and eco-geographical variables, and to infer habitat suitability across an urban gradient. We used post-proportional analysis to determine whether increasing urbanization affected potential habitat for arboreal marsupials. The key eco-geographical variables that influenced disturbance intolerant species and those with moderate tolerance to disturbance were natural features such as tree cover and proximity to rivers and to riparian vegetation, whereas variables for disturbance tolerant species were anthropogenic-based (e.g., road density but also included some natural characteristics such as proximity to riparian vegetation, elevation and tree cover. Arboreal marsupial diversity was subject to substantial change along the gradient, with potential habitat for disturbance-tolerant marsupials distributed across the complete gradient and potential habitat for less tolerant species being restricted to the natural portion of the gradient. This resulted in highly-urbanized environments being inhabited by a few generalist arboreal marsupial species. Increasing urbanization therefore leads to functional simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages, thus impacting on the ecosystem services they provide.

  4. Undergraduates' mental models about insect anatomy and insect life cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Arlene Edith

    Educational studies focused on students' alternative conceptions have shown the importance of developing strategies to correct understanding. Identifying and comprehending student mental models are important since they may reflect alternate conceptions about scientific concepts. Mental models have been identified in various science education studies, but little is known about mental models undergraduates hold about insects. This research is significant because it identified mental models undergraduates have about insect anatomy and insect life cycles, exposed students to cognitive conflict by having them complete an online insect tutorial, and analyzed the effectiveness of this insect tutorial in correcting student understanding. An insect assessment was developed and administered pre- and post-instruction to probe students' mental models about insects. Different numbers of undergraduate students participated in different parts of the assessment; 276, 249, 166, and 58 students participated in the listing, drawing. definition, and life cycle parts of the assessment, respectively. The tutorial contained a variety of manipulated insect and non-insect images that challenged the students' understanding and generated cognitive conflict. This intervention guided students in replacing alternate conceptions with correct understanding. It was hypothesized that the tutorial would have a positive impact on student learning about insects. The results suggest that the tutorial had a positive impact on learning.

  5. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  6. The aquatic turtle assemblage inhabiting a highly altered landscape in southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Vaughn, Allison J.; Waddle, J. Hardin

    2010-01-01

    Turtles are linked to energetic food webs as both consumers of plants and animals and prey for many species. Turtle biomass in freshwater systems can be an order of magnitude greater than that of endotherms. Therefore, declines in freshwater turtle populations can change energy transfer in freshwater systems. Here we report on a mark–recapture study at a lake and adjacent borrow pit in a relict tract of bottomland hardwood forest in the Mississippi River floodplain in southeast Missouri, which was designed to gather baseline data, including sex ratio, size structure, and population size, density, and biomass, for the freshwater turtle population. Using a variety of capture methods, we captured seven species of freshwater turtles (snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina; red-eared slider Trachemys scripta; southern painted turtle Chrysemys dorsalis; river cooter Pseudemys concinna; false map turtle Graptemys pseudogeographica; eastern musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus; spiny softshell Apalone spinifera) comprising four families (Chelydridae, Emydidae, Kinosternidae, Trinoychidae). With the exception of red-eared sliders, nearly all individuals captured were adults. Most turtles were captured by baited hoop-nets, and this was the only capture method that caught all seven species. The unbaited fyke net was very successful in the borrow pit, but only captured four of the seven species. Basking traps and deep-water crawfish nets had minimal success. Red-eared sliders had the greatest population estimate (2,675), density (205/ha), and biomass (178 kg/ha). Two species exhibited a sex-ratio bias: snapping turtles C. serpentina in favor of males, and spiny softshells A. spinifera in favor of females.

  7. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  8. The Effect of Host-Plant Phylogenetic Isolation on Species Richness, Composition and Specialization of Insect Herbivores: A Comparison between Native and Exotic Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Miguel Grandez-Rios

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of plant-insect interactions is still a key issue in terrestrial ecology. Here, we used 30 well-defined plant-herbivore assemblages to assess the effects of host plant phylogenetic isolation and origin (native vs. exotic on the species richness, composition and specialization of the insect herbivore fauna on co-occurring plant species. We also tested for differences in such effects between assemblages composed exclusively of exophagous and endophagous herbivores. We found a consistent negative effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host plants on the richness, similarity and specialization of their insect herbivore faunas. Notably, except for Jaccard dissimilarity, the effect of phylogenetic isolation on the insect herbivore faunas did not vary between native and exotic plants. Our findings show that the phylogenetic isolation of host plants is a key factor that influences the richness, composition and specialization of their local herbivore faunas, regardless of the host plant origin.

  9. Habitat characteristics and environmental parameters influencing fish assemblages of karstic pools in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Vega-Cendejas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage structure was evaluated and compared among 36 karstic pools located within protected areas of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (southern Mexico and unprotected adjacent areas beyond the Reserve. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS, indicator species analysis (ISA, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA were used to identify which environmental factors reflected local influences and to evaluate the correlation of these variables with fish assemblages structure. Thirty-one species were encountered in these karstic pools, some for the first time within the Reserve. These aquatic environments were separated into three groups based on physico-chemical characteristics. Although CCA identified significant associations between several fish species (based on their relative abundance and environmental variables (K, NH4, NO3, and conductivity, the most abundant species (Astyanax aeneus, Poecilia mexicana, and Gambusia sexradiata occur in most pools and under several environmental conditions. Baseline data on fish diversity along with a continued monitoring program are essential in order to evaluate the conservation status of fish assemblages and their habitats, as well as to measure the influence of anthropogenic impacts on pristine habitats such as the karstic pools of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.

  10. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  11. Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Greenwalt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably pre-served insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera and Corixidae (Hemiptera dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  12. Consumer–brand assemblages in advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrisgaard, Sofie Møller; Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    of brand–consumer assemblages because they are situated on the human skin, which is a mediator between the individual and the socio-material world. Furthermore, tattoos reproduce discourses of both mainstream fashion and deviant subcultural identification, which imbue tattoo symbolism with communicative...

  13. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  14. A survey of odonate assemblages associated with selected wetland localities in southern Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana, E.P.S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dragonflies and damselflies are a major insect group (Class Insecta; Order Odonata associated with water courses. Odonate assemblages with reference to their habitat characters have not been widely studied in Sri Lanka. We have investigated odonate assemblages for a period of three months in selected localities in southern Sri Lanka with reference to the habitat characters. Bundala and Embillakala lagoons in Bundala National Park (A Ramsar wetland in Sri Lanka, “Kirala Kele” Eco-tourism Zone-Matara, Bandaththara marshland system-Matara, “Kirala Kele” Biological Garden-Ambalanthota and Kosgahadola stream which belongs to Mulatiyana Rain forest reserve were selected as study sites since these sites are important in conservation of biodiversity. A total of 28 species were identified during the study period. Our data reveals odonate assemblages specific to the studied habitats such as bushlands, marshlands, lagoons, flowing water bodies, stagnant water bodies and vegetation type (wet zone and dry zone. These data will be useful in future studies and conservation of biodiversity in the studied habitats.

  15. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  16. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy. PMID:26908196

  17. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Bak; Joel Fürstenberg-Hägg; Mika Zagrobelny

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged...

  18. Insect bite prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J; Mordue Luntz, Anne Jennifer; Logan, James G

    2012-09-01

    Protection from the bites of arthropod (insect and acarine) vectors of disease is the first line of defense against disease transmission and should be advised in all cases when traveling abroad. Details are described of the main approaches for the prevention of bites, including topical or skin repellents, impregnated clothing, bed nets, and spatial or aerial repellents and aerosols. The bionomics of the main arthropod vectors of disease are described along with photographic plates and tabulated advice to give the traveler. An in-depth treatment of the different protection methodologies provides an up-to-date overview of the technologies involved. PMID:22963776

  19. Fidelity of life and death molluscan assemblages from carbonate tidal flats in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Live-dead (LD) studies aim to help understand how faithfully fossil assemblages can be used to quantitatively infer the structure of the original living communities that generated them. To this purpose, LD comparisons have been conducted in different terrestrial and aquatic environments to assess how environment-specific differences in quality and intensity of taphonomic factors affect LD fidelity. In sub-tropical and tropical settings, most LD studies have focused on hard substrates or seagrass bottoms. Here we present results on molluscan assemblages from soft carbonate sediments in tidal flats of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf (Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province). We analyzed a total of 7193 mollusks collected from six sites comprising time-averaged death assemblages (DAs) and snapshot living assemblages (LAs). All analyses were performed at site and at habitat scales after correcting for sample-size differences. We found a good match in proportional abundance and a notable mismatch in species composition. In fact, species richness in DAs is 6 times larger than in LAs at site scale, and 4 times at habitat scale. Additionally, we found a good fidelity of evenness, and rank abundance of feeding guilds. Other studies have shown that molluscan DAs from subtidal carbonate environments can display lower time-averaging than those from siliciclastic environments due to high rates of shell loss to bioerosion and dissolution. For our case study of tidal flat carbonate settings, we interpret that despite temporal autocorrelation (good fidelity of proportional abundance), substantial differences in species richness and composition can be explained by early cementation, lateral mixing, intense bioturbation and moderate sedimentation rates. Our results suggest that tidal flat carbonate environments can potentially lead to a wider window of time-averaging in comparison with subtidal carbonate settings.

  20. Potential impact of insect herbivores on orchid conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn H. S. Light

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When an orchid is deliberately or inadvertently relocated, it is likely to encounter a range of biological challenges to long term survival including a complex and dynamic insect community which could alter conservation expectations yet there have been few studies of the phytophagous insects associated with wild orchids. We have investigated the assemblage of such insects associated with terrestrial orchids being monitored in our long term studies in Gatineau Park, Québec, Canada. Aphids, leafminers, moths, thrips, weevils, and whiteflies were found to be injurious to orchids although in different combinations and with varying impact according to the orchid host, habitat and year. Loss of seeds and even complete desiccation of plants was observed. Where the leafminer, Parallelomma vittatum Meigen (Diptera: Scathophagidae infested Cypripedium reginae Walter randomly, this was not the case with Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (Willd. Knight where specific plants were repeatedly infested. Some infestations such as with the leafminers seemed to be in equilibrium with parasitoids thus minimizing potential impact. A likely climate-related asynchrony of parasitoid and leafminer led to an outbreak in 2009 which heavily impacted the introduced Epipactis helleborine (L. Crantz while a phenological shift in a thrips primary host, Trillium grandiflorum (Michaux Salisb. (Melanthiaceae, in 2010, contributed to severe herbivory in habitats where both E. helleborine and trillium occurred. If climate change can lead to changes in insect abundance and impact on orchids, it would be useful to investigate the potential impact of phytophagous insects before assisted migration is considered as a conservation measure.

  1. Decadal trends in the pollinator assemblage of Eucryphia cordifolia in Chilean rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Martínez, Paula; Castillo, Jessica A; Armesto, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    Long-term studies of plant-pollinator interactions are almost nonexistent in the scientific literature. The objective of the present study was to determine changes and trends in the pollinator assemblage of ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia; Cunoniaceae), a canopy-emergent tree found in Chilean temperate rainforests. We assessed the temporal variability of the pollinator assemblage and identified possible modulators of the observed temporal shifts. We sampled insect visitors to the flowers of 16 individual trees of E. cordifolia during 10 consecutive flowering seasons (2000-2009), recording a total of 137 pollinator species with a mean number of species per year of 44. Only three pollinator species (2.2%) were recorded every year. Two bee species accounted for 50% of all insect visits to flowers. One bee species, Bombus dahlbomii (native), was dominant in one season, whereas Apis mellifera (exotic) dominated during the next season. These interannual shifts in population abundances presented first-order dynamics that were characterized by oscillations with a period of 2 years. Changes in the abundances of the dominant pollinators, as well as differences in temperature and precipitation during insect emergence and flowering, led to a nested temporal structure of pollinator composition. Furthermore, the abundances of less common pollinators were sensitive to the abundance of the dominant bee species and to monthly maximum temperatures and the average precipitation during spring and summer. Based on our results and those from other studies, we predict a decline in the numbers of Bombus dahlbomii and nondominant native pollinators in response to new exotic arrivals. PMID:25001339

  2. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  3. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  4. Screening of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in various aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanjuan, Maria; Meyer, Johan; Damasio, Joana; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos; Lacorte, Silvia [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of five perfluorinated chemicals (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid) in aquatic organisms dwelling in either freshwater or marine ecosystems. Organisms selected were insect larvae, oysters, zebra mussels, sardines, and crabs, which are widespread in the environment and may represent potential bioindicators of exposure to PFCs. The study comprises the optimization of a solid-liquid extraction method and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Using spiked zebra mussels at 10 and 100 ng/g level, the method developed provided recoveries of 96% and 122%, and 82% to 116%, respectively, and a limit of detection between 0.07 and 0.22 ng/g ww. The method was highly sensitivity and robust to determine PFC compounds in a wide array of biological matrices, and no matrix interferents nor blank contamination was observed. Among organisms studied, none of the bivalves accumulated PFCs, and contrarily, insect larvae, followed by fish and crabs contained levels ranging from 0.23 to 144 ng/g ww of PFOS, from 0.14 to 4.3 ng/g ww of PFOA, and traces of PFNA and PFHxS. Assessment of the potential use of aquatic organisms for biomonitoring studies is further discussed. (orig.)

  5. 1977 Kansas Field Crop Insect Control Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Leroy; Gates, Dell E.

    This publication is prepared to aid producers in selecting methods of insect population management that have proved effective under Kansas conditions. Topics covered include insect control on alfalfa, soil insects attacking corn, insects attacking above-ground parts of corn, and sorghum, wheat, and soybean insect control. The insecticides…

  6. Insect symbionts as hidden players in insect-plant interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frago, E.; Dicke, M.; Godfray, H.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the importance of microbial mutualistic symbioses in insect-plant interactions. Mutualists may affect host plant range and enable insects to manipulate plant physiology for their own benefit. The plant can also be a route for the horizontal transfer of mutualistic microo

  7. Can oxygen set thermal limits in an insect and drive gigantism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco C E P Verberk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa and hyperoxia (36 kPa. We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods.

  8. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the Irrawaddy River in China: changes, threats and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompletely known fish assemblages and species diversity are substantial obstacles in fish conservation, particularly when their aquatic habitats are under threat due to rapid human-induced changes. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the upper Irrawaddy River in China (the Dulong, Daying and Ruili rivers were examined based on field collections and literature resources. The newly compiled fish assemblage recorded 85 species (in 8 orders, 20 families and 51 genera distributed in the upper Irrawaddy. The fish compositions in the Daying (67 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 7 orders and Ruili rivers (65 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 8 orders were more similar to each other and more speciose than that in the Dulong River (14 species, 10 genera, 4 families, 3 orders. Two indices of taxonomic diversity (the average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+, and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were used to discriminate four collections spanning a ten-year period. A decrease in taxonomic diversity and an increase in unevenness of the fish assemblages were found in both the Daying River and Ruili rivers, which indicated that the impacts were accumulated gradually during this decade, when dams and the spread of non-native species were major threats. Comparatively speaking, the Dulong River is still in a near-natural state, and thus the fish community has experienced less disturbance. In situ conservation (nature reserves and tributary protection and ex situ conservation (artificial propagation and release should be combined and managed to promote fish conservation in the future.

  9. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism.

  10. Teosinte inflorescence phytolith assemblages mirror Zea taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Hart

    Full Text Available Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays. However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples.

  11. Improving cluster-based methods for investigating potential for insect pest species establishment: region-specific risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Watts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing cluster-based methods for investigating insect species assemblages or profiles of a region to indicate the risk of new insect pest invasion have a major limitation in that they assign the same species risk factors to each region in a cluster. Clearly regions assigned to the same cluster have different degrees of similarity with respect to their species profile or assemblage. This study addresses this concern by applying weighting factors to the cluster elements used to calculate regional risk factors, thereby producing region-specific risk factors. Using a database of the global distribution of crop insect pest species, we found that we were able to produce highly differentiated region-specific risk factors for insect pests. We did this by weighting cluster elements by their Euclidean distance from the target region. Using this approach meant that risk weightings were derived that were more realistic, as they were specific to the pest profile or species assemblage of each region. This weighting method provides an improved tool for estimating the potential invasion risk posed by exotic species given that they have an opportunity to establish in a target region.

  12. User Assemblages in Design: An Ethnographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkie, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic study of the role of users in user-centered design. It is written from the perspective of science and technology studies, in particular developments in actor-network theory, and draws on the notion of the assemblage from the work of Deleuze and Guattari. The data for this thesis derives from a six-month field study of the routine discourse and practices of user-centered designers working for a multinational microprocessor manufacturer. The central argument...

  13. Respiration rate of stream insects measured in situ along a large altitude range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, S.; Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    10-value of 1.50. Trichopteran larvae had a slightly stronger temperature response (Q10 of 1.68) than ephemeropterans (Q10 of 1.30). These community Q10-values are considerably lower than the mean value of 2.36 found in single species in the laboratory. The weak community-wide response of respiration...... at 100 and 50% oxygen saturation indicated that highland animals reduced their oxygen uptake more than their counterparts in the lowland when oxygen availability decreased. The temperature response of respiration calculated between the insect assemblages at different altitudes showed a mean assemblage Q...

  14. Insect cells for human food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M.C.; Tramper, J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Martens, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for novel protein sources. Insects are a possible interesting source of protein. They are nutritious in terms of protein (40-75 g/100g dry weight) and minerals. Insect protein is of high quality and has a high digestibility (77-98%) and concentration of essential amino acids (46-96%

  15. Mosquitoes feeding on insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P; Riordan, D F; Cooke, D

    1969-04-11

    Caged Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis are attracted to insect larvae, engorge on their body fluids, and produce viable eggs. Attractiveness of the larvae is related to their size, shape, and color but not to their movement. The possibility that wild mosquitoes substitute insect hemolymph for vertebrate blood is discussed. PMID:5774191

  16. Eicosanoids mediate insect hemocyte migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemocyte chemotaxis toward infection and wound sites is an essential component of insect defense reactions, although the biochemical signal mechanisms responsible for mediating chemotaxis in insect cells are not well understood. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test the hyp...

  17. Diversity and distribution of leaf litter beetle assemblages in secondary and old-growth forests of the Mata Atlântica

    OpenAIRE

    Hopp, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Although insects make up the major component of tropical forest biodiversity, they are still poorly studied. Therefore, I explored the value of secondary forests and agroforests for the conservation of leaf litter beetle assemblages. The study was conducted in the coastal submontane Atlantic forest of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Secondary forests ranging in age from 5 to 50 years, old-growth forest as well as small-scale banana monocultures and shade banana-palm plantations were studied at diffe...

  18. Impacts of harvesting forest residues for bioenergy on nutrient cycling and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, D.M.; Zalesny, R.S. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Northern Research Station, Inst. for Applied Ecosystem Studies; St Pierre, M.; Eklund, D. [Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Coyle, D.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Ribic, C.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). United States Geological Survey, WI Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the impacts of whole-tree harvesting on the nutrient cycles and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests. The woody biomass left on the forest floor after logging is important for nutrient cycling in addition to providing seed beds and creating habitats for wildlife. The impact of fine woody debris (FWD) removal on nutrient availability and above and below ground community assemblages on rich soils in regenerating northern hardwood stands in Wisconsin was investigated at 9 sites within a national forest. Soil carbon and nitrogen availability was assessed. Insect pitfalls, amphibian time-constraint searches, herbaceous plant quadrants, and soil cores along transects were sampled during the summer months of 2009. Results of the study will be used to evaluate the trade-offs of harvesting woody biomass on public lands for energy use as well as to develop management guidelines for maintaining biodiversity and forest health.

  19. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. PMID:27131327

  20. Sorghum Insect Problems and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunshan Guo; Wei Cui; Xue Feng; Jianzhou Zhao; Guihua Lu

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has high levels of starch, sugar, and fiber and is one of the most important energy crops in the world. Insect damage is one of the challenges that impacts sorghum biomass production. There are at least 150 insect species that can infest sorghum varieties worldwide. These insects can complete several generations within a growing season, they target various parts of sorghum plants at devel- opmental stages, and they cause significant biomass losses. Genetic research has revealed the existence of resistant genetics in sorghum and insect tolerant sorghum varieties have been identified. Various control methods have been developed, yet more effective management is needed for increasing sorghum biomass production. Although there are no transgenic sorghum products on the market yet, biotechnology has been recognized as an important tool for controlling insect pests and increasing sorghum production.

  1. Contaminants as habitat disturbers: PAH-driven drift by Andean paramo stream insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Contaminants can behave as toxicants, when toxic effects are observed in organisms, as well as habitat disturbers and fragmentors, by triggering avoidance responses and generating less- or uninhabited zones. Drift by stream insects has long been considered a mechanism to avoid contamination by moving to most favorable habitats. Given that exploration and transportation of crude oil represent a threat for surrounding ecosystems, the key goal of the present study was to assess the ability of autochthonous groups of aquatic insects from the Ecuadorian paramo streams to avoid by drift different concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in the soluble fraction of locally transported crude oil. In the laboratory, different groups of insects were exposed to PAH for 12h. Three different assays, which varied in taxa and origin of the organisms, concentrations of PAH (0.6-38.8µgL(-1)), and environment settings (different levels of refuge and flow) were performed. For Anomalocosmoecus palugillensis (Limnephilidae), drift was a major cause of population decline in low concentration treatments but at higher concentrations mortality dominated. PAH was highly lethal, even at lower concentrations, for Chironomidae, Grypopterygidae (Claudioperla sp.) and Hydrobiosidae (Atopsyche sp.), and, therefore, no conclusion about drift can be drawn for these insects. Contamination by PAH showed to be a threat for benthic aquatic insects from Ecuadorian paramo streams as it can cause a population decline due to avoidance by drift and mortality.

  2. Remobilization and export of cadmium from lake sediments by emerging insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Muir, D.C.G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

    1997-11-01

    Emerging insects including, Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera were collected from Lake 382 (L382) in 1991 and 1992 to estimate quantitatively the export of Cd by aquatic insects from a natural system having elevated Cd concentrations in the water and sediment. L382 is a Canadian Shield lake, located within the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, that received experimental additions of Cd from 1987 to 1992. Emerging Diptera (mostly Chironomidae), Odonata, and Ephemeroptera had mean Cd concentrations of 1.41, 0.11, and 0.30 {micro}g/g wet weight, respectively. An estimated 1.32 to 3.90 g of Cd per year were exported from the sediments of L382 depending on the estimate of production rates used for these groups of insects. Approximately 0.05 to 0.17% of the whole-lake Cd load in L382 sediments was exported annually or 0.12 to 0.39% of the epilimnion Cd sediment load. Insect emergence may have resulted in greater Cd export from L382 relative to losses via the outflow. Cadmium exported from the sediments by insects may be remobilized and become more available to aquatic organisms or enter the terrestrial ecosystem and become available to insectivores.

  3. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  4. Effects of Land Use Intensification on Fish Assemblages in Mediterranean Climate Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, P.; Sousa, D.; Ilhéu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Southern Portugal is experiencing a rapid change in land use due to the spread of intensive farming systems, namely olive production systems, which can cause strong negative environmental impacts and affect the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to identify the main environmental disturbances related with olive grove intensification on Mediterranean-climate streams in southern Portugal, and to evaluate their effects on fish assemblage structure and integrity. Twenty-six stream sites within the direct influence of traditional, intensive, and hyper-intensive olive groves were sampled. Human-induced disturbances were analyzed along the olive grove intensity gradient. The integrity of fish assemblages was evaluated by comparison with an independent set of least disturbed reference sites, considering metrics and guilds, based on multivariate analyses. Along the gradient of olive grove intensification, the study observed overall increases in human disturbance variables and physicochemical parameters, especially organic/nutrient enrichment, sediment load, and riparian degradation. Animal load measured the impact of livestock production. This variable showed an opposite pattern, since traditional olive groves are often combined with high livestock production and are used as grazing pasture by the cattle, unlike more intensive olive groves. Stream sites influenced by olive groves were dominated by non-native and tolerant fish species, while reference sites presented higher fish richness, density and were mainly occupied by native and intolerant species. Fish assemblage structure in olive grove sites was significantly different from the reference set, although significant differences between olive grove types were not observed. Bray-Curtis similarities between olive grove sites and references showed a decreasing trend in fish assemblage integrity along the olive grove intensification gradient. Olive production, even in traditional groves, led to

  5. Hypoxia and hypercarbia in endophagous insects: Larval position in the plant gas exchange network is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Casas, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Gas composition is an important component of any micro-environment. Insects, as the vast majority of living organisms, depend on O2 and CO2 concentrations in the air they breathe. Low O2 (hypoxia), and high CO2 (hypercarbia) levels can have a dramatic effect. For phytophagous insects that live within plant tissues (endophagous lifestyle), gas is exchanged between ambient air and the atmosphere within the insect habitat. The insect larva contributes to the modification of this environment by expiring CO2. Yet, knowledge on the gas exchange network in endophagous insects remains sparse. Our study identified mechanisms that modulate gas composition in the habitat of endophagous insects. Our aim was to show that the mere position of the insect larva within plant tissues could be used as a proxy for estimating risk of occurrence of hypoxia and hypercarbia, despite the widely diverse life history traits of these organisms. We developed a conceptual framework for a gas diffusion network determining gas composition in endophagous insect habitats. We applied this framework to mines, galls and insect tunnels (borers) by integrating the numerous obstacles along O2 and CO2 pathways. The nature and the direction of gas transfers depended on the physical structure of the insect habitat, the photosynthesis activity as well as stomatal behavior in plant tissues. We identified the insect larva position within the gas diffusion network as a predictor of risk exposure to hypoxia and hypercarbia. We ranked endophagous insect habitats in terms of risk of exposure to hypoxia and/or hypercarbia, from the more to the less risky as cambium mines>borer tunnels≫galls>bark mines>mines in aquatic plants>upper and lower surface mines. Furthermore, we showed that the photosynthetically active tissues likely assimilate larval CO2 produced. In addition, temperature of the microhabitat and atmospheric CO2 alter gas composition in the insect habitat. We predict that (i) hypoxia indirectly favors

  6. Hypoxia and hypercarbia in endophagous insects: Larval position in the plant gas exchange network is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Casas, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Gas composition is an important component of any micro-environment. Insects, as the vast majority of living organisms, depend on O2 and CO2 concentrations in the air they breathe. Low O2 (hypoxia), and high CO2 (hypercarbia) levels can have a dramatic effect. For phytophagous insects that live within plant tissues (endophagous lifestyle), gas is exchanged between ambient air and the atmosphere within the insect habitat. The insect larva contributes to the modification of this environment by expiring CO2. Yet, knowledge on the gas exchange network in endophagous insects remains sparse. Our study identified mechanisms that modulate gas composition in the habitat of endophagous insects. Our aim was to show that the mere position of the insect larva within plant tissues could be used as a proxy for estimating risk of occurrence of hypoxia and hypercarbia, despite the widely diverse life history traits of these organisms. We developed a conceptual framework for a gas diffusion network determining gas composition in endophagous insect habitats. We applied this framework to mines, galls and insect tunnels (borers) by integrating the numerous obstacles along O2 and CO2 pathways. The nature and the direction of gas transfers depended on the physical structure of the insect habitat, the photosynthesis activity as well as stomatal behavior in plant tissues. We identified the insect larva position within the gas diffusion network as a predictor of risk exposure to hypoxia and hypercarbia. We ranked endophagous insect habitats in terms of risk of exposure to hypoxia and/or hypercarbia, from the more to the less risky as cambium mines>borer tunnels≫galls>bark mines>mines in aquatic plants>upper and lower surface mines. Furthermore, we showed that the photosynthetically active tissues likely assimilate larval CO2 produced. In addition, temperature of the microhabitat and atmospheric CO2 alter gas composition in the insect habitat. We predict that (i) hypoxia indirectly favors

  7. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  8. The influence of geomorphology on the composition of aquatic flora and fauna withim a temporary pond network

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, Margarita; Serrano Martín, Laura; Siljestrom, Patricia; Fernández Zamundio, María del Rocio; García Murillo, Pablo; Díaz Paniagua, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Geomorphological and hydrological features can provide a sound basis for global wetland classification. Temporary ponds located on the sandy area of Doñana can be classified into five different geomorphological areas. We hypothesised that these ponds would differ in soil characteristics, which may also explain differences in the composition of their macroinvertebrate, amphibian, and aquatic plant species assemblages. The study ponds were significantly segregated into southern and nor...

  9. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  10. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  11. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  12. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  13. An aquatic ecosystem in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeste, D; Andriske, M; Paris, F; Levine, H G; Blum, V

    1999-07-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Mini-Module experiment was designed to study aquatic ecosystem performance within a middeck locker on the Space Shuttle. CEBAS was flown aboard STS-89 in January 1998 with a population of four pregnant Xiphophorus helleri female fish and eleven adult Biomphalaria glabrata snails in the first compartment and 200 juvenile X. helleri and 48 adult and juvenile B. glabrata in the second compartment. A plant compartment contained eleven snails and 53 g of the aquatic angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum. During the flight, Ceratophyllum fresh weight increased from 53 g to 117 g. All adult fish and 65 juveniles survived the flight experiment and 37 adult snails and 40 newly laid snail spawn packs were recovered after the flight. Oxygen production and pH were as expected.

  14. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  15. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bussotti

    Full Text Available Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger. Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves, and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves. Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km. Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures, the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning.

  16. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  17. Sothi-Siswal Ceramic Assemblage: A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Garge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Harappan evidences in Chautan valley has a unique ceramic tradition. In the light of recent plethora of knowledge as well as against the background of the studies conducted by A. Ghosh, J.S. Nigam, Katy Frenchman, Suraj Bhan & Madhu Bala, we will have to not only reclassify the Sothi-Siswal ceramic assemblage but also alter basic nomenclatures and concepts involve in it. It will give us deep insight in to the process of evolution of Early Harappan cultures vis-à-vis the dynamic of regional cultural complexes.

  18. Nonlinear sequential laminates reproducing hollow sphere assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiart, Martín I.

    2007-07-01

    A special class of nonlinear porous materials with isotropic 'sequentially laminated' microstructures is found to reproduce exactly the hydrostatic behavior of 'hollow sphere assemblages'. It is then argued that this result supports the conjecture that Gurson's approximate criterion for plastic porous materials, and its viscoplastic extension of Leblond et al. (1994), may actually yield rigorous upper bounds for the hydrostatic flow stress of porous materials containing an isotropic, but otherwise arbitrary, distribution of porosity. To cite this article: M.I. Idiart, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  19. Storm-event-transport of urban-use pesticides to streams likely impairs invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Haluska, Tana L.; Michael B. Cole,

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide use in urban areas results in the detection of these compounds in streams following stormwater runoff at concentrations likely to cause toxicity for stream invertebrates. In this 2013 study, stormwater runoff and streambed sediments were analyzed for 91 pesticides dissolved in water and 118 pesticides on sediment. Detections included 33 pesticides, including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, degradates, and a synergist. Patterns in pesticide occurrence reveal transport of dissolved and sediment-bound pesticides, including pyrethroids, from upland areas through stormwater outfalls to receiving streams. Nearly all streams contained at least one insecticide at levels exceeding an aquatic-life benchmark, most often for bifenthrin and (or) fipronil. Multiple U.S. EPA benchmark or criterion exceedances occurred in 40 % of urban streams sampled. Bed sediment concentrations of bifenthrin were highly correlated (p pesticides from urban landscapes and linking impaired benthic invertebrate assemblages in urban streams with exposure to pyrethroid insecticides.

  20. Distribution and assemblages of large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Padhye

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a report on the distribution and assemblages of large branchiopods from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. Different types of water bodies were sampled including pools on lateritic outcrops. Eight species of large branchiopods were found in 72 samples collected over a period of 4 years. We found 7 large branchiopod species in rock pools, while the cyclestheriid Cyclestheria hislopi was observed only in rivers and water reservoirs. In twenty-five percent of the samples multiple species co-occurred with a maximum of 4 species in a single sample. Streptocephalus dichotomus was the most commonly observed species while Streptocephalus sahyadriensis was noted only in rock pools. Altitude and aquatic vegetation were identified as important factors for the distribution of large branchiopods in the studied area. Triops granarius was the species most commonly found to be co-occurring with other species, followed by S. sahyadriensis. Cyclestheria hislopi and Eulimnadia indocylindrova always occurred alone. 

  1. Relationships between aquatic invertebrates, water quality and vegetation in an Andean peatland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oyague Passuni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands (known as bofedales in the Peruvian Andes provide important social and environmental services in the Peruvian Puna ecoregion, especially as sources of water and forage for domestic livestock. In biological terms, these peatlands are key habitats with their own community structure, dynamics and interactions; and they serve as biodiversity hotspots within the High Andes. In this article we assess the relationships between: (i physical structure, (ii water quality, (iii plant communities and (iv the assemblages of aquatic invertebrates (benthic macroinvertebrates in three peatlands located in Cuzco Region, southern Peru. The results suggest that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage is a good indicator of the trophic status of the small pools that are typically present in bofedales. Trophic status is, in turn, primarily related to spatial and seasonal water availability and the types of plant communities present in each peatland.

  2. Ultrasonic predator–prey interactions in water–convergent evolution with insects and bats in air?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Maria; Wahlberg, Magnus; Surlykke, Annemarie; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales and bats have independently evolved biosonar systems to navigate and locate and catch prey. Such active sensing allows them to operate in darkness, but with the potential cost of warning prey by the emission of intense ultrasonic signals. At least six orders of nocturnal insects have independently evolved ears sensitive to ultrasound and exhibit evasive maneuvers when exposed to bat calls. Among aquatic prey on the other hand, the ability to detect and avoid ultrasound emitting...

  3. Ultrasonic predator-prey interactions in water– convergent evolution with insects and bats in air?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eWilson; Magnus eWahlberg; Annemarie eSurlykke; Peter Teglberg Madsen

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales and bats have independently evolved biosonar systems to navigate and locate and catch prey. Such active sensing allows them to operate in darkness, but with the potential cost of warning prey by the emission of intense ultrasonic signals. At least six orders of nocturnal insects have independently evolved ears sensitive to ultrasound and exhibit evasive maneuvers when exposed to bat calls. Among aquatic prey on the other hand, the ability to detect and avoid ultrasound emitting...

  4. Insect symbionts in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ailsa H C; Parker, Benjamin J; Hrček, Jan; Henry, Lee M; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481779

  5. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  6. Learning and cognition in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Insects possess small brains but exhibit sophisticated behavioral performances. Recent works have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species, which go beyond the traditional studied framework of simple associative learning. In this study, I focus on capabilities such as attention, social learning, individual recognition, concept learning, and metacognition, and discuss their presence and mechanistic bases in insects. I analyze whether these behaviors can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning or, on the contrary, require higher-order explanations. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering l architectures underlying cognitive processing.

  7. Insect symbionts in food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481779

  8. Clinical Application of Insect Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟洪; 赵洁

    2003-01-01

    @@ Chinese insect drugs are drastic in nature, capable ofclearing channels and collaterals to promote a freeflow of qi and blood, and effective in someintractable and obstinate diseases due to long-termstagnation of phlegm and blood, which are hard to betreated by ordinary Chinese drugs. In clinic, properuse of insect drugs can often help raise thetherapeutic effects. Some commonly used pairs ofinsect drugs are introduced in the following.

  9. Encapsulation and nodulation in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovskiy IM; Kryukova NA; Glupov VV; Ratcliffe NA

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of the insect immune system led to the creation of a comprehensive cellular defense system, not only involving phagocytosis, but also encapsulation and nodulation (both often referred to as capsule formation) allowing the isolation and neutralization of invading pathogens and parasites. Such reactions are closely related to the anatomical and physiological characteristics in insects with their external skeleton and open circulatory blood system. Encapsulation and nodulat...

  10. Fish assemblages on estuarine artificial reefs: natural rocky-reef mimics or discrete assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folpp, Heath; Lowry, Michael; Gregson, Marcus; Suthers, Iain M

    2014-01-01

    If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from naturally occurring

  11. Fish assemblages on estuarine artificial reefs: natural rocky-reef mimics or discrete assemblages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Folpp

    Full Text Available If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from

  12. How Do Insects Help the Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Gary

    2005-01-01

    There are some 5 to 30 million insect species estimated in the world--and the majority of these have yet to be collected or named by science! Of course, the most well known insects are those that cause disease or compete for human agricultural products, but these insects represent only a small fraction of the world's insect population. In reality,…

  13. Techniques de formage et d'assemblage

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, G; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Les sections Techniques d'Assemblage du groupe EST/MF et Brasage du groupe EST/SM ont été groupées en un seul service dans un but de rationalisation accrue des ressources et méthodes. Ce service dispose de nombreux moyens : soudure et découpe LASER (YAG, 350 W), soudure par faisceau d'électrons (deux installations, 35 et 7.5 kW), équipements TIG orbital, jet line, MIG, soudure plasma, boîte à gants, portique de soudage trois axes multiprocédés, presses plieuses, rouleuses, moyens de repoussage, alimentation à induction 12 kW et divers fours sous vide et à air. Le service est composé de 17 personnes dont la polyvalence est encouragée. Les activités de la section seront décrites à travers quelques exemples significatifs récents, notamment : l'assemblage des amenées de courant HTS, la réalisation des chambres LSS, des tubes HET, d'enveloppes céramiques pour détecteurs PET-HPD, le brasage de RFQ, la soudure du Barrel d'ATLAS ou encore le soudage des lignes de thermalisation du toroïde d'AT...

  14. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Itterbeeck Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  15. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itterbeeck, Joost; van Huis, Arnold

    2012-01-21

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  16. Insect prey characteristics affecting regional variation in chimpanzee tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette M; Deblauwe, Isra; Tagg, Nikki; Morgan, David B

    2014-06-01

    It is an ongoing interdisciplinary pursuit to identify the factors shaping the emergence and maintenance of tool technology. Field studies of several primate taxa have shown that tool using behaviors vary within and between populations. While similarity in tools over spatial and temporal scales may be the product of socially learned skills, it may also reflect adoption of convergent strategies that are tailored to specific prey features. Much has been claimed about regional variation in chimpanzee tool use, with little attention to the ecological circumstances that may have shaped such differences. This study examines chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering to evaluate the extent to which the behavior of insect prey may dictate chimpanzee technology. More specifically, we conducted a systematic comparison of chimpanzee tool use and termite prey between the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo and the La Belgique research site in southeast Cameroon. Apes at both of these sites are known to use tool sets to gather several species of termites. We collected insect specimens and measured the characteristics of their nests. Associated chimpanzee tool assemblages were documented at both sites and video recordings were conducted in the Goualougo Triangle. Although Macrotermitinae assemblages were identical, we found differences in the tools used to gather these termites. Based on measurements of the chimpanzee tools and termite nests at each site, we concluded that some characteristics of chimpanzee tools were directly related to termite nest structure. While there is a certain degree of uniformity within approaches to particular tool tasks across the species range, some aspects of regional variation in hominoid technology are likely adaptations to subtle environmental differences between populations or groups. Such microecological differences between sites do not negate the possibility of cultural transmission, as social learning may be required to transmit

  17. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  18. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  19. Detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B in human feces by simple, assemblage-specific PCR assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vanni

    Full Text Available The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of mammals, including humans. Molecular characterizations have shown the existence of eight genetic groups (or assemblages in the G. duodenalis species complex. Human infections are caused by assemblages A and B, which infect other mammals as well. Whether transmission routes, animal reservoirs and associations with specific symptoms differ for assemblage A and assemblage B is not clear. Furthermore, the occurrence and clinical significance of mixed (A+B infections is also poorly understood. To date, the majority of PCR assays has been developed to identify all G. duodenalis assemblages based on the use of primers that bind to conserved regions, yet a reliable identification of specific assemblages is better achieved by ad hoc methods. The aim of this work was to design simple PCR assays that, based on the use of assemblage-specific primers, produce diagnostic bands of different lengths for assemblage A and B. We first generated novel sequence information from assemblage B, identified homologous sequences in the assemblage A genome, and designed primers at six independent loci. Experiments performed on DNA extracted from axenic cultures showed that two of the six assays can detect the equivalent of a single cyst and are not negatively influenced by disproportions between DNA of each assemblage, at least up to a 9:1 ratio. Further experiments on DNAs extracted from feces showed that the two assays can detect both assemblages in single tube reactions with excellent reliability. Finally, the robustness of these assays was demonstrated by testing a large collection of human isolates previously typed by multi-locus genotyping.

  20. Habitat, food, and climate affecting leaf litter anuran assemblages in an Atlantic Forest remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rievers, Camila Rabelo; Pires, Maria Rita Silvério; Eterovick, Paula Cabral

    2014-07-01

    Leaf litter anuran assemblages include both species that have terrestrial development and species that, during the breeding season, aggregate around bodies of water where their tadpoles develop. The resources used by these two groups in the leaf litter are likely to differ, as well as their sampled species richness, abundance and biomass as resource availability changes. We conducted a 12-month survey of leaf litter anuran assemblages at three forest areas in the largest Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Each month we estimated, based on capture rates, anuran species richness, abundance, and biomass as assemblage descriptors. We also measured variables that could potentially affect these descriptors in space and time: invertebrate litter fauna (abundance and richness of taxa), leaf litter biomass, and microclimatic conditions (air humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, and rainfall). We tested for differences in these variables among areas. We used general linear models to search for the variables that best explained variation in anuran abundance (based on capture rates) throughout the year. We analyzed species with terrestrial development (TD) and with aquatic larvae (AL) separately. We recorded 326 anurans of 15 species. Sampled anuran abundance (correlated to species richness and biomass) was explained by air humidity and/or invertebrate abundance for species with TD, and by soil water content or air humidity and leaf litter biomass for species with AL. The variability in the results of studies on leaf litter frogs that try to find variables to explain changes in community descriptors may be due to spatial variation of resources among areas and also to the fact that TD and AL species are frequently analyzed together, when in fact they are likely to show different responses to resources present in the leaf litter habitat, reflected on capture rates.

  1. Functional identity and functional structure change through succession in a rocky intertidal marine herbivore assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the great interest in characterizing the functional structure and resilience of functional groups in natural communities, few studies have examined in which way the roles and relationships of coexisting species change during community succession, a fundamental and natural process that follows the release of new resources in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Variation in algal traits that characterize different phases and stages of community succession on rocky shores are likely to influence the magnitude, direction of effects, and the level of redundancy and complementarity in the diverse assemblage of herbivores. Two separate field experiments were conducted to quantify per capita and population effects and the functional relationship (i.e., redundancy or complementarity) of four herbivore species found in central Chile during early and late algal succession. The first experiment examined grazer effects on the colonization and establishment of early-succession algal species. The second experiment examined effects on the late-successional, dominant corticated alga Mazzaella laminarioides. Complementary laboratory experiments with all species and under natural environmental conditions allowed us to further characterize the collective effects of these species. We found that, during early community succession, all herbivore species had similar effects on the ephemeral algae, ulvoids, but only during the phase of colonization. Once these algae were established, only a subset of the species was able to control their abundance. During late succession, only the keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa could control corticated Mazzaella. The functional relationships among these species changed dramatically from redundant effects on ephemeral algae during early colonization, to a more complementary role on established early-successional algae, to a dominant (i.e., keystone) effect on late succession. This study highlights that functional relationship within consumer

  2. Quantitative historical change in bumblebee (Bombus spp. assemblages of red clover fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko L Dupont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flower visiting insects provide a vitally important pollination service for many crops and wild plants. Recent decline of pollinating insects due to anthropogenic modification of habitats and climate, in particular from 1950's onwards, is a major and widespread concern. However, few studies document the extent of declines in species diversity, and no studies have previously quantified local abundance declines. We here make a quantitative assessment of recent historical changes in bumblebee assemblages by comparing contemporary and historical survey data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We take advantage of detailed, quantitative historical survey data from the 1930's on bumblebee (Bombus spp. abundances and species composition in red clover (Trifolium pratense fields, an important floral resource and an attractant of all bumblebee species. We used the historical survey data as a pre-industrialization baseline, and repeated the same sampling protocol at nearly the same localities at present, hence setting up a historical experiment. We detected historical changes in abundances (bees/m(2 of both workers (the "pollinatory units" and queens (effective population size, in addition to species composition. In particular, long-tongued bumblebee species showed consistent and dramatic declines in species richness and abundances throughout the flowering season of red clover, while short-tongued species were largely unaffected. Of 12 Bombus species observed in the 1930's, five species were not observed at present. The latter were all long-tongued, late-emerging species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because bumblebees are important pollinators, historical changes in local bumblebee assemblages are expected to severely affect plant reproduction, in particular long-tubed species, which are pollinated by long-tongued bumblebees.

  3. Modeling resistance to genetic control of insects

    OpenAIRE

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B.; Alphey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The sterile insect technique is an area-wide pest control method that reduces pest populations by releasing mass-reared sterile insects which compete for mates with wild insects. Modern molecular tools have created possibilities for improving and extending the sterile insect technique. As with any new insect control method, questions arise about potential resistance. Genetic RIDL?RIDL? is a registered trademark of Oxitec Limited, UKRIDL? is a registered trademark of Oxitec...

  4. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades

    OpenAIRE

    John J Wiens; Lapoint, Richard T.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2015-01-01

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect o...

  5. Variability of macrobenthic assemblages under abnormal climatic conditions in a small scale tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero R., Carlos H.; Cantera K., Jaime R.; Romero, Isabel C.

    2006-06-01

    Macrobenthic assemblages associated with mangrove mud flats were studied at three stations in the Dagua River Estuary (Colombian coast, Tropical Eastern Pacific) to assess broad distribution patterns with relation to hydrographical and sediment conditions during the cold (La Niña) phase of the 1997-2000 El Niño/Niña Phenomenon (ENSO Niño/Niña). During the study period, abnormal water and interstitial temperature, high dissolved oxygen and low salinity conditions were present in the water column of the small scale (5.5 km long) estuary, reducing its extension and moving estuarine conditions downstream. Sediment samples were collected for sediment analysis (grain size, water content) and biological studies (specific composition, relative abundance, diversity, evenness and trophic structure) from quadrates (25 × 25 cm) located in the lower, middle and upper regions of the estuary. Macrobenthic assemblages at the upper estuary were composed of 78 species and dominated by Tanaidaceans, suggesting the direct effect of freshwater inflow, and by some polychaetes in the lower region, showing marine influence. Diversity and evenness increased along the salinity gradient from the upper region of the estuary towards the lower region. Surface deposit feeders (SDF, 72.2%) and sub-surface deposit feeders (SSDF, 21%) were dominant as trophic groups. SDF were the most abundant group in the upper estuary, SSDF dominated the lower estuary. These patterns were controlled by the abnormal conditions generated by the cold phase of ENSO (Niño/Niña) in water temperature, higher deposition of organic matter and low salinity that changed the estuarine's typical macrobenthic assemblage structure, with dominance of marine species to one characterized by few abundant freshwater species (Tanaidaceans, insects).

  6. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  7. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  8. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  9. Invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River, with reference to Manayunkia speciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa Leidy (Canalipalpata Sabellidae), is the intermediate host for two myxozoan pathogens (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities of juvenile salmon in the Pacific Northwest, particularly in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam in California. Information on the distribution of M. speciosa in the Klamath River may facilitate targeted control of polychaete populations to disrupt the parasites that affect fish populations. We sampled invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River in the summer and fall of 2005 and 2006 to estimate distribution patterns of M. speciosa and to characterize assemblage structure of invertebrates in reaches where the polychaete was both collected and not collected. The polychaete was most often found in a reach of river extending 100 km downstream from the Shasta River (river km 185-287). The reach in which it was found supported high taxonomic richness of invertebrates and a high abundance of filtering collectors including marine relicts such as sponges, unioinid mussels, and bryozoans. We suggest that the large, stable substrate on which these were found represents primary, optimal habitat for the polychaete, also a marine relict. Reaches above and below the zone where we collected polychaetes showed a general trend of reduced taxonomic richness as distance away from the polychaete zone increased, and also showed differing relative abundances of non-insect taxa and functional feeding groups. Differences in invertebrate assemblages between years were coincident with large differences in water flows. We suggest flows and food resources may play important roles in invertebrate distribution patterns.

  10. Factors influencing aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport to terrestrial arthropod consumers in a multiuse river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Jeremy M; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-06-01

    Emerging aquatic insects are important vectors of contaminant transfer from aquatic to terrestrial food webs. However, the environmental factors that regulate contaminant body burdens in nearshore terrestrial consumers remain largely unexplored. We investigated the relative influences of riparian landscape composition (i.e., land use and nearshore vegetation structure) and contaminant flux via the emergent aquatic insect subsidy on selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) body burdens of riparian ants (Formica subsericea) and spiders of the family Tetragnathidae along 11 river reaches spanning an urban-rural land-use gradient in Ohio, USA. Model-selection results indicated that fine-scale land cover (e.g., riparian zone width, shrub cover) in the riparian zone was positively associated with reach-wide body burdens of Se and Hg in both riparian F. subsericea and tetragnathid spiders (i.e., total magnitude of Hg and Se concentrations in ant and spider populations, respectively, for each reach). River distance downstream of Columbus, Ohio - where study reaches were impounded and flow through a large urban center - was also implicated as an important factor. Although stable-isotope analysis suggested that emergent aquatic insects were likely vectors of Se and Hg to tetragnathid spiders (but not to F. subsericea), emergent insect contaminant flux did not emerge as a significant predictor for either reach-wide body burdens of spider Hg or Se. Improved understanding of the pathways and influences that control aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport will be critical for effective risk management and remediation. PMID:26874875

  11. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  12. Plant-microbe interaction in aquatic system and their role in the management of water quality: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jatin K.; Chandra, Harish; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Mishra, Pratibha; Khan, Hena; Yadav, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    Microbial assemblage as biofilm around the aquatic plant forms a firm association that largely depends upon the mutual supplies of nutrients, e.g., microbes interact with plants in an aquatic system most likely for organic carbon and oxygen, whereas plants receive defensive immunity and mineral exchange. Apart from the mutual benefits, plant-microbe interactions also influence the water quality especially at rhizosphere providing inherent ability to the aquatic system for the mitigation of pollution from the water column. The review presents and in-depth information along with certain research advancements made in the field of ecological and bio/chemical aspects of plant-microbe interactions and the underlying potential to improve water quality.

  13. Can insects develop resistance to insect pathogenic fungi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan M Dubovskiy

    Full Text Available Microevolutionary adaptations and mechanisms of fungal pathogen resistance were explored in a melanic population of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Under constant selective pressure from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, 25(th generation larvae exhibited significantly enhanced resistance, which was specific to this pathogen and not to another insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Defense and stress management strategies of selected (resistant and non-selected (susceptible insect lines were compared to uncover mechanisms underpinning resistance, and the possible cost of those survival strategies. We hypothesize that the insects developed a transgenerationally primed resistance to the fungus B. bassiana, a costly trait that was achieved not by compromising life-history traits but rather by prioritizing and re-allocating pathogen-species-specific augmentations to integumental front-line defenses that are most likely to be encountered by invading fungi. Specifically during B. bassiana infection, systemic immune defenses are suppressed in favour of a more limited but targeted repertoire of enhanced responses in the cuticle and epidermis of the integument (e.g. expression of the fungal enzyme inhibitor IMPI, and cuticular phenoloxidase activity. A range of putative stress-management factors (e.g. antioxidants is also activated during the specific response of selected insects to B. bassiana but not M. anisopliae. This too occurs primarily in the integument, and probably contributes to antifungal defense and/or helps ameliorate the damage inflicted by the fungus or the host's own immune responses.

  14. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  15. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  16. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  17. Seasonal variability of morphospaces in a subtropical fish assemblage

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Correia Siliprandi; Antoni Lombarte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological characters of fishes are essential to evaluate the functional structure of assemblages, being morphological differences indicative of distinct ecological and adaptive strategies. The ecomorphology using morphospaces analyzes the structure of a fish assemblage through the values of intervals between homologous points positioned in anatomical structures of organisms phylogenetically related. These intervals can be quantified by morphogeometric and multivariate analyses. Seasonally...

  18. The biomechanics of fast prey capture in aquatic bladderworts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K.; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2011-01-01

    Carnivorous plants match their animal prey for speed of movements and hence offer fascinating insights into the evolution of fast movements in plants. Here, we describe the mechanics of prey capture in aquatic bladderworts Utricularia stellaris, which prey on swimming insect larvae or nematodes to supplement their nitrogen intake. The closed Utricularia bladder develops lower-than-ambient internal pressures by pumping out water from the bladder and thus setting up an elastic instability in bladder walls. When the external sensory trigger hairs on their trapdoor are mechanically stimulated by moving prey, the trapdoor opens within 300–700 μs, causing strong inward flows that trap their prey. The opening time of the bladder trapdoor is faster than any recorded motion in carnivorous plants. Thus, Utricularia have evolved a unique biomechanical system to gain an advantage over their animal prey. PMID:21389013

  19. Phylogenetic clustering among aggressive competitors: evidence from odonate assemblages along a riverine gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Victor S; Valente-Neto, Francisco; Rodrigues, Marciel Elio; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio; Siqueira, Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    Studies on phylogenetic community ecology usually infer habitat filtering when communities are phylogenetically clustered or competitive exclusion when communities are overdispersed. This logic is based on strong competition and niche similarity among closely related species-a less common phenomenon than previously expected. Dragonflies and damselflies are good models for testing predictions based on this logic because they behave aggressively towards related species due to mistaken identification of conspecifics. This behavior may drive communities toward phylogenetic overdispersion if closely related species frequently exclude each other. However, phylogenetically clustered communities could also be observed if habitat filtering and/or competitive asymmetry among distantly related species are major drivers of community assembling. We investigated the phylogenetic structure of odonate assemblages in central Brazil in a watershed characterized by variations in stream width, vegetation cover, aquatic vegetation, and luminosity. We observed general clustering in communities according to two indices of phylogenetic structure. Phylogenetic beta diversity coupled with Mantel tests and RLQ analysis evidenced a correlation between the riverine gradient and phylogenetic structure. Larger rivers with aquatic vegetation were characterized by anisopterans, while most zygopterans stayed in small and shaded streams. These results indicate niche conservatism in Odonata habitat occupancy, and that the environment is a major influence on the phylogenetic structure of these communities. We suggest that this is due to clade-specific ecophysiological requirements, and because closely related species may also have competitive advantages and dominate certain preferred habitats.

  20. Phylogenetic clustering among aggressive competitors: evidence from odonate assemblages along a riverine gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Victor S; Valente-Neto, Francisco; Rodrigues, Marciel Elio; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio; Siqueira, Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    Studies on phylogenetic community ecology usually infer habitat filtering when communities are phylogenetically clustered or competitive exclusion when communities are overdispersed. This logic is based on strong competition and niche similarity among closely related species-a less common phenomenon than previously expected. Dragonflies and damselflies are good models for testing predictions based on this logic because they behave aggressively towards related species due to mistaken identification of conspecifics. This behavior may drive communities toward phylogenetic overdispersion if closely related species frequently exclude each other. However, phylogenetically clustered communities could also be observed if habitat filtering and/or competitive asymmetry among distantly related species are major drivers of community assembling. We investigated the phylogenetic structure of odonate assemblages in central Brazil in a watershed characterized by variations in stream width, vegetation cover, aquatic vegetation, and luminosity. We observed general clustering in communities according to two indices of phylogenetic structure. Phylogenetic beta diversity coupled with Mantel tests and RLQ analysis evidenced a correlation between the riverine gradient and phylogenetic structure. Larger rivers with aquatic vegetation were characterized by anisopterans, while most zygopterans stayed in small and shaded streams. These results indicate niche conservatism in Odonata habitat occupancy, and that the environment is a major influence on the phylogenetic structure of these communities. We suggest that this is due to clade-specific ecophysiological requirements, and because closely related species may also have competitive advantages and dominate certain preferred habitats. PMID:27160426

  1. Monitoring the Effects of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water (OSPW) on Thecamoebian Assemblages: An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, D. G.; McCarthy, F. F.; Penner, T.; MacKinnon, M. M.

    2009-05-01

    Thecamoebian (testate amoeba) assemblages have been shown to respond over short time periods to environmental conditions in aquatic reclamation options under development at oil sands operations in northeastern Alberta. This makes them a useful bio-monitoring tool for assessing reclamation success. Thecamoebian responses to Oil Sands Process Water (OSPW) have been monitored in the field at lacustrine and wetland test sites established by Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Ltd. These field studies have confirmed that the generation times of testate amoebas is sufficiently rapid to permit the construction of a controlled laboratory experiment to be completed within one year, where controlled exposures of a natural assemblage of thecamoebians to OSPW can be undertaken to better understand the community responses to stressors We intend to culture these protists in the lab and monitor their response to different concentrations of OSPW in a controlled environment. Survival and changes in relative community composition (difflugiids vs. centropyxids) will be used to establish the dilution of OSPW in which thecameobians can survive and examine how a natural assemblage changes over time in response to increased concentrations of OSPW. This will assist in reclamation management in the Oil Sands region of Alberta.

  2. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  3. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with native and non-indigenous macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Rubal, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    Meiofauna is a useful tool to detect effects of different disturbances; however, its relevance in the frame of biological invasions has been almost fully neglected. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum were studied and compared with those associated with two native macroalgae (Bifurcaria bifurcata and Chondrus crispus). We used a linear mixed model to determine the influence of habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) in shaping meiofaunal assemblages. Results showed that habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) shaped meiofaunal assemblages influencing its abundance, richness and structure. However, the identity of macroalga (i.e. species) appears also to play a significant role, particularly the differences of complexity among the studied species may shape their meiofaunal assemblages. Finally, the invasive macroalga appears to influence positively species richness. Our results highlight the need of including different faunal components to achieve a comprehensive knowledge on effects of invasive macroalgae and that meiofaunal assemblages may be a valuable tool to examine them.

  4. Insect Cell Culture and Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert R.Granados; Guoxun Li; G.W.Blissard

    2007-01-01

    The continued development of new cell culture technology is essential for the future growth and application of insect cell and baculovirus biotechnology. The use of cell lines for academic research and for commercial applications is currently dominated by two cell lines; the Spodoptera frugiperda line, SF21 (and its clonal isolate, SF9), and the Trichoplusia ni line, BTI 5B1-4, commercially known as High Five cells. The long perceived prediction that the immense potential application of the baculovirus-insect cell system, as a tool in cell and molecular biology, agriculture, and animal health, has been achieved. The versatility and recent applications of this popular expression system has been demonstrated by both academia and industry and it is clear that this cell-based system has been widely accepted for biotechnological applications. Numerous small to midsize startup biotechnology companies in North America and the Europe are currently using the baculovirus-insect cell technology to produce custom recombinant proteins for research and commercial applications. The recent breakthroughs using the baculovirus-insect cell-based system for the development of several commercial products that will impact animal and human health will further enhance interest in this technology by pharma. Clearly, future progress in novel cell and engineering advances will lead to fundamental scientific discoveries and serve to enhance the utility and applications of this baculovirus-insect cell system.

  5. Benthic aquatic ecosystems across the Permian-Triassic transition: record from biogenic structures in fluvial sandstones, central Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. F.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the Permian extinction in communities inhabiting sandy stream bottoms can be evaluated using trace fossils as proxies for body fossils. Permian and Triassic sandstones exposed in the Beardmore and Shackleton Glacier areas (central Transantarctic Mountains) were deposited in sandy braided streams and contain four types of trace fossils (vertical shafts and horizontal, bilobed and chevron traces). These traces were produced by a single type of animal that moved in the top 30 cm of sediment and dominated the benthic community. Evidence for a single producer includes similar size (diameter) of all traces and change within single specimens from one trace type to another. The animal was not affected by the Permian extinction event, as evidenced by its equal abundance within the Permian (Buckley Formation) and Triassic (Fremouw Formation) fluvial sandstones in the Beardmore Glacier area. Based on trace morphology and on domination of modern sandy river ecosystems by insects, the producer most likely was an insect, although its more precise identity is problematic. Although families of insects with modern aquatic burrowers are not known before the Jurassic, these trace fossils may show that these burrowers were present earlier than the insect body-fossil record suggests. Alternatively, archaic insect groups, many of which became extinct at the end-Permian and are known to have been aquatic but not infaunal, may have included some active burrowers that were unscathed by the Permian extinction.

  6. Fish Assemblages on Estuarine Artificial Reefs: Natural Rocky-Reef Mimics or Discrete Assemblages?

    OpenAIRE

    Heath Folpp; Michael Lowry; Marcus Gregson; Iain M Suthers

    2013-01-01

    If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, sp...

  7. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  8. The predictability of phytophagous insect communities: host specialists as habitat specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Müller

    Full Text Available The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local environmental conditions, i.e. habitat conditions, whereas assemblages of host-plant generalists should depend also on regional processes. Our study aimed at ranking the importance of local environmental factors and species composition of the vegetation for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moth assemblages with either a narrow or a broad host range. Our database consists of 351,506 specimens representing 820 species of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera sampled between 1980 and 2006 using light traps in 96 strict forest reserves in southern Germany. Species were grouped as specialists or generalists according to the food plants of the larvae; specialists use host plants belonging to one genus. We used predictive canonical correspondence and co-correspondence analyses to rank the importance of local environmental factors, the species composition of the vegetation and the role of host plants for predicting the species composition of host-plant specialists and generalists. The cross-validatory fit for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moths was higher for host-plant specialists than for host-plant generalists using environmental factors as well as the composition of the vegetation. As expected for host-plant specialists, the species composition of the vegetation was a better predictor of the composition of these assemblages than the environmental variables. But surprisingly, this difference for specialized insects was not due to the occurrence of their host plants. Overall, our study supports the idea that owing to evolutionary constraints in finding a host, host-plant specialists and host-plant generalists follow two different models of

  9. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  10. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  11. Neurosecretion: peptidergic systems in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, R.; Eckert, Manfred

    Insect neuropeptides are produced in less than 1% of the cells of the central nervous system. Despite this, they are important messenger molecules which influence nearly all physiological processes, including behaviour. They can act as transmitters, modulators and classical hormones, and often exhibit pleiotropic functions when released into the haemolymph. The large number of neuropeptides that has been identified from some of the model organisms among insects underlines the complexity of the neurosecretory system; studies about the coordinated actions of these substances are in their preliminary stages. Recent advances in insect neuropeptide research will be reviewed here, concentrating on the distribution of multiple peptide forms in the central nervous system and adjacent neurohaemal organs, and the role of neuropeptides in eclosion behaviour.

  12. Identification of Habitat-Specific Biomes of Aquatic Fungal Communities Using a Comprehensive Nearly Full-Length 18S rRNA Dataset Enriched with Contextual Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Katrin; Yilmaz, Pelin; Weiß, Michael; Reich, Lothar; Richter, Michael; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Reich, Marlis

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diversity surveys have demonstrated that aquatic fungi are highly diverse, and that they play fundamental ecological roles in aquatic systems. Unfortunately, comparative studies of aquatic fungal communities are few and far between, due to the scarcity of adequate datasets. We combined all publicly available fungal 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences with new sequence data from a marine fungi culture collection. We further enriched this dataset by adding validated contextual data. Specifically, we included data on the habitat type of the samples assigning fungal taxa to ten different habitat categories. This dataset has been created with the intention to serve as a valuable reference dataset for aquatic fungi including a phylogenetic reference tree. The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of sequences suggesting that environmental factors were the main drivers of fungal community structure, rather than species competition. Thus, the diversification process of aquatic fungi must be highly clade specific in some cases.The combined data enabled us to infer fungal community patterns in aquatic systems. Pairwise habitat comparisons showed significant phylogenetic differences, indicating that habitat strongly affects fungal community structure. Fungal taxonomic composition differed considerably even on phylum and class level. Freshwater fungal assemblage was most different from all other habitat types and was dominated by basal fungal lineages. For most communities, phylogenetic signals indicated clustering of

  13. Controls on metal exposure to aquatic organisms in urban streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin-Nagel, Katelyn; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-08-10

    Streams in urban ecosystems receive metal inputs primarily from stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The relative contribution of these metal sources to stream impairment is difficult to discern based on simple water characteristics and biological surveys. Stream impairment in these systems is often indicated by reduced abundance and diversity of aquatic insects, which tend to be more sensitive to chronic metal exposures. Metal species and controls on metal species in both the waterborne and dietborne exposure pathways to aquatic organisms are reviewed here. In addition, ecological changes that can control dietborne species are discussed. A main focus is on how organic matter from different anthropogenic sources may control both aqueous metal speciation as well as interaction with various inorganic or microbiological surfaces in streams. Most of the reviewed research focuses on Cu, Zn or Pb as those are the primary metals of concern in developed systems and Cu and Pb have unique and strong interactions with organic matter. Recommendations for further research are described in the context of exposure species, dynamics of exposure, stoichiometry, or advanced analytical tools, and regulatory implications are discussed. PMID:27170052

  14. NIR detects, destroys insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What’s good for Georgia peanuts may also be good for Kansas wheat. An electric eye that scans all food-grade peanuts for visual defects could one day do the same for wheat kernels. For peanuts, it’s a proven method for monitoring quality. In wheat, scanning with near-infrared (NIR) energy can reveal hidden insect infestations that lower wheat quality. ARS entomologists James E. Throne and James E. Baker and ARS agricultural engineer Floyd E. Dowell are the first to combine NIR with an automated grain-handling system to rapidly detect insects hidden in single wheat kernels

  15. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates. PMID:26462427

  16. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  17. Contrasting fish assemblages in free-flowing and impounded tributaries to the Upper Delaware River: Implications for conserving biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Delucia, Mari-Beth; Keller, Walter D.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Moberg, Tara

    2015-01-01

    The Neversink River and the Beaver Kill in southeastern New York are major tributaries to the Delaware River, the longest undammed river east of the Mississippi. While the Beaver Kill is free flowing for its entire length, the Neversink River is subdivided by the Neversink Reservoir, which likely affects the diversity of local fish assemblages and health of aquatic ecosystems. The reservoir is an important part of the New York City waster-supply system that provides drinking water to more than 9 million people. Fish population and community data from recent quantitative surveys at comparable sites in both basins were assessed to characterize the differences between free-flowing and impounded rivers and the extent of reservoir effects to improve our capacity to define ecosystems responses that two modified flow-release programs (implemented in 2007 and 2011) should produce in the Neversink River. In general, the continuum of changes in fish assemblages which normally occur between headwaters and mouth was relatively uninterrupted in the Beaver Kill, but disrupted by the mid-basin impoundment in the Neversink River. Fish assemblages were also adversely affected at several acidified sites in the upper Neversink River, but not at most sites assessed herein. The reservoir clearly excluded diadromous species from the upper sub-basin, but it also substantially reduced community richness, diversity, and biomass at several mid-basin sites immediately downstream from the impoundment. There results will aid future attempts to determine if fish assemblages respond to more natural, yet highly regulated, flow regimes in the Neversink River. More important, knowledge gained from this study can help optimize use of valuable water resources while promoting species of special concern, such as American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and conserving biodiversity in Catskill Mountain streams.

  18. Diversity and structure of microcrustacean assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda and limnological variability in perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson R. Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments.

  19. Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Laub, Curtis A., 1955-; Youngman, R. R. (Roger Ray); Love, Kenner; Mize, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the use of pitfall traps to monitor insect populations. Describes how to install the traps, and how to process and store insect specimens. Notes some concerns about killing and preserving agents used in the pitfall traps.

  20. FAQ: Insect Repellent Use and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Insect Repellent Use & Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... insect repellent products? What is permethrin? Which mosquito repellents work best? CDC recommends the use of products ...

  1. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  2. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  3. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding....

  4. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  5. Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

    The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

  6. Making Connections with Insect Royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Describes a one-month sixth grade class activity with monarch butterflies called Monarch in the Classroom. Students learn about insects, especially the class material butterflies, including their life cycle, eating habits, migration, and how they overwinter. The lesson plan covers sorting animals, focusing on features, analyzing the community for…

  7. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  8. Modern Stored-Product Insect Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hagstrum David William; Flinn Paul Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Stored-product entomologists have a variety of new monitoring, decision-making, biological, chemical, and physical pest management tools available to them. Two types of stored-product insect populations are of interest: insects of immediate economic importance infesting commodities, and insects that live in food residues in equipment and facilities. The sampling and control methods change as grain and grain products move from field to consumer. There are also some changes in the major insect ...

  9. Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can’t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, s...

  10. Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David

    2016-02-01

    Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the

  11. Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David

    2016-02-01

    Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the

  12. Faceless sex: glory holes and sexual assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dave; O'Byrne, Patrick; Murray, Stuart J

    2010-10-01

    According to our previous research, the use of glory holes in public venues such as saunas and bathhouses is very popular. The popularity of glory holes is due in part to the anonymous sex that these architectural elements allow. This post-structuralist theoretical reflection seeks to understand the specific nature of anonymous public sex among bathhouse patrons, focusing on the links between desire-architecture-place-sexual practices. Drawing on interviews with glory hole users gathered during an ethnographic research project in bathhouses, this essay goes beyond traditional public health discourse to offer an original perspective on anonymous public sex. Utilizing the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari's concepts of assemblages and machines, we re-theorize glory hole sex--what we call 'faceless sex'--and rethink the ways that desire is imbricated with our understanding of architecture, place, and public. Finally, we reflect upon the particular ethical challenges that are posed by these particular sexual practices, and ask whether a post-structuralist ethic might be possible. PMID:20840136

  13. Climatic influence on a marine fish assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Martin J; Power, Michael

    2002-05-16

    Understanding the fluctuations in marine fish stocks is important for the management of fisheries, and attempts have been made to demonstrate links with oceanographic and climatic variability, including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO has been correlated with a range of long-term ecological measures, including certain fish stocks. Such environmental influences are most likely to affect susceptible juveniles during estuarine residency, as estuaries are critical juvenile nursery or over-wintering habitats. Here we show that, during a 16-year period, climatic forcing (by means of the NAO) is consistently the most important parameter explaining variation in assemblage composition, abundance and growth of juvenile marine fish during estuarine residency. A possible mechanism for the effect of the NAO is a temperature differential between estuarine and marine waters that allows fish to facultatively exploit optimal thermal habitats. The connection has potentially important implications for the size and numbers of individuals recruited to the fishery, for understanding and predicting the composition of juvenile fish stocks using estuaries, and for the appropriate conservation of estuarine systems in relation to fish stocks.

  14. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  15. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  16. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control....

  17. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  18. Marine envenomations and aquatic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppe, G G

    1989-08-01

    Jellyfish stings are usually mild except those caused by species in the South Pacific. The box jellyfish can produce a severe cardiorespiratory insult. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more potent than that of the common jellyfish. The Indo-Pacific area is the source of the most venomous bony fish. Many injuries can be avoided by wearing shoes when walking in shallow water or tide pools. Aquatic-related skin infections may involve unusual organisms. Swimmer's itch, a disease of freshwater bathing, is caused by cercariae. Seabather's eruption produces a rash in swimsuit-covered areas; the etiology is not clear. PMID:2569260

  19. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  20. Distribution and diversity of diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of shallow lakes in Wapusk National Park (Manitoba, Canada) region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Olivier; Bouchard, Frédéric; MacDonald, Lauren A; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Pienitz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    The hydrology of shallow lakes (and ponds) located in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is sensitive to climate warming and associated permafrost thaw. However, their biological characteristics are poorly known, which hampers effective aquatic ecosystem monitoring. Located in northern Manitoba along the southwestern coast of Hudson Bay, Wapusk National Park (WNP) encompasses numerous shallow lakes representative of the subarctic zone. We analyzed the distribution and diversity of diatom (microscopic algae; class Bacillariophyceae) assemblages in surficial sediments of 33 lakes located in three different ecozones spanning a vegetation gradient, from NE to SW: the Coastal Fen (CF), the Interior Peat Plateau (IPP), and the Boreal Spruce Forest (BSF). We found significant differences (P inventory of the diatom assemblages in the WNP region needed for monitoring programs to detect changes in shallow lake ecosystems and ecozonal shifts in response to climate variations. PMID:27386094

  1. taxonomic diversity and pest vulnerability in street tree assemblages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to...

  2. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  3. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  4. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  5. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed. The insect BFC is based on trehalase and glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction systems which oxidize β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, we confirmed by LC-MS that a sufficient amount of trehalose was present in the cockroach hemolymph (CHL). The maximum power density obtained using the insect BFC was 6.07 μW/cm(2). The power output was kept more than 10 % for 2.5 h by protecting the electrodes with a dialysis membrane. Furthermore, the maximum power density was increased to 10.5 μW/cm(2) by using an air diffusion cathode. Finally, we succeeded in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect BFCs in series. The results indicate that the insect BFC is a promising insect-mountable battery to power environmental monitoring micro-tools.

  6. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Nityananda; Ghaith Tarawneh; Ronny Rosner; Judith Nicolas; Stuart Crichton; Jenny Read

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis - 3D vision – has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each ey...

  7. Assemblage of the vertical: commercial drones and algorithmic life

    OpenAIRE

    Crampton, Jeremy W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes up the increasingly popular topic of drones – including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS), remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), and a vast panoply of commercial drones and copters – to argue that our analysis should lie not so much on drones as objects, but as assemblages of the vertical. Drones, I argue, constitute a socio-technical assemblage of the sky and vertical space, which means that our focus should be not (only) on thei...

  8. Ant assemblages in successional stages of Scotch Broom stands

    OpenAIRE

    Dauber, Jens; Simmering, D.

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius [L.] LINK) stands are important seminatural habitats in cultural landscapes of Ger-many. High structural diversity of broom stands is reflected by a high species diversity of the flora and fauna, giving them a high value for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and structure of ant assemblages among successional stages of Scotch Broom stands, and compare these with assemblages in arable land and the climax ...

  9. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Brissey, Courtney L. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  10. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  11. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psyc...

  12. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Flight on the 2D air-water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary-gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air-water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air.

  13. Copepod assemblages in a highly complex hydrographic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, A. D.; Menu Marque, S.; Gómez-Erache, M.; Ramírez, F. C.; Mianzan, H. W.; Acha, E. M.

    2006-02-01

    Community structure and diversity patterns of planktonic copepods were investigated for the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean between 34 and 41°S. Our objectives were (1) to define copepod assemblages, (2) to accurately identify their association to different water masses/hydrodynamic regimes, (3) to characterize the assemblages in terms of their community structure, and (4) to test if frontal boundaries between water masses separate copepod assemblages. Biogeographic patterns were investigated using multivariate analysis (cluster and ANOSIM analyses). Biodiversity patterns were examined using different univariate indexes (point species richness and taxonomic distinctness). Five regions of similar copepod assemblages were defined for our study area each one corresponding to different environments (freshwater, estuarine, continental shelf, Malvinas and Brazil current assemblages). These assemblages have major community structure differences. In spite of the complex oceanographic scenario of our study area, that can lead us to expect a pattern of copepod communities with diffuse boundaries, we found a strong spatial correspondence between these limits and the presence of permanent frontal structures.

  14. The assemblage characteristics of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Yalutsangpo River, the highest major river in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Pan, Baozhu; Yu, Guoan

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of highland rivers are different from those of low altitude rivers because of the specific topography and environmental parameters associated with high altitudes. Yalutsangpo, the upper course of the Brahmaputra River, is the highest major river in the world, flowing from west to east across Tibet, China and pouring into India. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from Yalutsangpo and its tributaries, the Lhasa, Niyang, and Parlong Tsangpo Rivers, from October 2009 to June 2010, to study characters of the highland aquatic ecosystem. Altogether, 110 macroinvertebrate taxa belonging to 57 families and 102 genera were identified from the basin. The biodiversity and composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages were strongly affected by altitude gradients. Local diversity represented by taxa richness and the improved Shannon-Wiener index were high at altitudes of 3,300-3,700 m, among which suitability of habitat was higher due to the better integrated environmental conditions of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and aquatic vegetation, etc. Macroinvertebrates were grouped into shredders, scrapers, predators, collector-filterers, and collector-gatherers according to their feeding behaviors. It was found that the distributions of the functional feeding groups varied with habitat altitudes. Shredders were present at altitudes of 2,900-4,400 m, while scrapers mainly inhabited altitudes of 3,500-4,500 m, and collector-filterers preferred 3,500-4,000 m. Even though the local taxa richness was not high at each site, the taxonomic composition and density of the assemblages varied greatly among the different sites, resulting in much higher regional diversity compared to the lowland river with similar flow and substrate conditions. The regional cumulative taxa richness of Yalutsangpo decreased and more families were lost as the altitude increased. However, some families that were newly present as the altitude increased were essential for sustaining the high

  15. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  16. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  17. Insects as alternative hosts for phytopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarasah, Geetanchaly; Stavrinides, John

    2011-05-01

    Phytopathogens have evolved specialized pathogenicity determinants that enable them to colonize their specific plant hosts and cause disease, but their intimate associations with plants also predispose them to frequent encounters with herbivorous insects, providing these phytopathogens with ample opportunity to colonize and eventually evolve alternative associations with insects. Decades of research have revealed that these associations have resulted in the formation of bacterial-vector relationships, in which the insect mediates dissemination of the plant pathogen. Emerging research, however, has highlighted the ability of plant pathogenic bacteria to use insects as alternative hosts, exploiting them as they would their primary plant host. The identification of specific bacterial genetic determinants that mediate the interaction between bacterium and insect suggests that these interactions are not incidental, but have likely arisen following the repeated association of microorganisms with particular insects over evolutionary time. This review will address the biology and ecology of phytopathogenic bacteria that interact with insects, including the traditional role of insects as vectors, as well as the newly emerging paradigm of insects serving as alternative primary hosts. Also discussed is one case where an insect serves as both host and vector, which may represent a transitionary stage in the evolution of insect-phytopathogen associations. PMID:21251027

  18. Evolution of insect diversity in the Jehol Biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Insects of the Jehol Biota,also known as the Jehol Entomofauna,can be divided into three phases,approximately corresponding to the early,middle,and late Jehol Biota.The early phase of the entomofauna is found in the Dabeigou Formation and its coeval horizons(ca.135-130 Ma).The middle phase is recorded from the lower-middle Yixian Formation(underlying the Jingangshan Bed) and its coeval strata(ca.130-122.5 Ma).The late phase is found in the lower Jiufotang Formation,the upper Yixian Formation(the Jingangshan and Huanghuashan beds) and their coeval horizons(ca.122.5-120 Ma).In major distribution areas of the Jehol Biota,the entomofauna changed greatly in species diversity with about 150 species in about 40 families and 11 orders in the early phase,a great increase up to about 500 species in about 100 families and 16 orders in the middle phase,and a decline to about 300 species in about 80 families and 14 orders in the late phase.The entomofauna can also be divided into four insect communities based on habitats or five insect groups based on feeding habits.Each community or group varied in species diversity in a similar trend to the whole entomofauna.However,it kept a comparatively stable position in the ecosystem.Of the four communities,the highest species diversity occurred in the forest community,followed by the aquatic,the soil,and the alpine communities.Of the five groups,the highest species diversity appeared in the phytophagous group,followed by the carnivorous,the parasitic,the saprophagous,and the heterophagous groups.

  19. Aquatic macrophytes as feeding site for small fishes in the Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casatti, L; Mendes, H F; Ferreira, K M

    2003-05-01

    In the present investigation we studied the feeding habits of the fishes associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Rosana Reservoir, southeastern Brazil. Twenty fish species were collected during four field trips, regularly distributed across the dry and wet seasons. Focal snorkeling observations of the fishes were made over a total of six hours. Nine species were present in abundances of more than 1% and, therefore, had their feeding habits analyzed. Hemigrammus marginatus, Roeboides paranensis, Hyphessobrycon eques, Astyanax altiparanae, Serrasalmus spilopleura, and Bryconamericus stramineus were predominantly invertivores, with predominance of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera immatures) among their food items. The predominantly algivores were Apareiodon affinis, Serrapinnus notomelas, and Satanoperca pappaterra, with high frequency of filamentous blue-green algae, diatoms, clorophyts, and periderm. The different microhabitat exploitation plus diet composition suggests partitioning of resources and absence of food competition among the most representative fish species in the studied community, indicating the importance of the naturalistic approach to fish ecology studies.

  20. Insect immune resistance to parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yves Carton; Marylène Poirié; Anthony J. Nappi

    2008-01-01

    Insect host-parasitoid interactions involve complex physiological, biochemical and genetic interactions. Against endoparasitoids, immune-competent hosts initiate a blood cell-mediated response that quickly destroys the intruders and envelops them in a multilayered melanotic capsule. During the past decade, considerable progress has been made in identifying some of the critical components of the host response, mainly because of the use of efficient molecular tools. This review examines some of the components of the innate immune response of Drosophila, an insect that has served as an exceptionally good experimental model for studying non-self recognition processes and immune cell signaling mechanisms. Topics considered in this review include hematopoiesis, proliferation and adhesion of hemocytes, melanogenesis and associated cytotoxic molecules, and the genetic aspects of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  1. Diversity of aquatic insects and other associated macroinvertebrates in an arid wetland (Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. SCHEIBLER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue expandir la evaluación de la diversidad de insectos acuáticos y macroinvertebrados asociados a lo largo del Bañado Carilauquen, usando red de mano para la columna de agua y draga de Petersen para el bentos. Adicionalmente, se exploraron diferencias y similitudes espacio-temporales en la composición cualitativa de los ensambles de invertebrados. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales en cinco tramos del Bañado Carilauquen, desde la cabecera hasta la desembocadura. Se identificaron 47 taxa; 37 fueron insectos, principalmente Coleoptera, Diptera y Hemiptera, en ese orden. La composición de macroinvertebrados estuvo mejor condicionada por la variable espacial que por la temporal, en los extremos del gradiente espacial estudiado. Fueron detectados tres grupos faunísticos: cabecera, tramo medio y desembocadura. La mayor riqueza detectada en la cabecera se correspondió con los valores más bajos de conductividad del Bañado Carilauquen. La menor diversidad y la mayor diferencia en la composición faunística fueron observadas en la desembocadura (mayores niveles de conductividad. En el tramo medio, la riqueza fue mayor a la esperada según niveles de conductividad, debido posiblemente, a la presencia de especies transitorias.

  2. Prevalence of Aquatic Insects and Arsenic Concentration Determine the Geographical Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Y. Aidoo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified SIR model is used to explain the transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU and its dependence on arsenic (As environments. Some studies have suggested that As plays a major role in the spread and prevalence of buruli ulcer (BU. In addition, it has been hypothesized that a vector in the form of a water-bug plays a key role in the epidemiology of BU. We develop an epidemiological model based on these assumptions for the dynamics and prevalence of BU and show that As positively induces the growth and spread of MU.

  3. Aquatic Insects in Eastern Australia: A Window on Ecology and Evolution of Dispersal in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. McLean

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of connectivity of natural populations are often conducted at different timescales. Studies that focus on contemporary timescales ask questions about dispersal abilities and dispersal behavior of their study species. In contrast, studies conducted at historical timescales are usually more focused on evolutionary or biogeographic questions. In this paper we present a synthesis of connectivity studies that have addressed both these timescales in Australian Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. We conclude that: (1 For both groups, the major mechanism of dispersal is by adult flight, with larval drift playing a very minor role and with unusual patterns of genetic structure at fine scales explained by the “patchy recruitment hypothesis”; (2 There is some evidence presented to suggest that at slightly larger spatial scales (~100 km caddisflies may be slightly more connected than mayflies; (3 Examinations of three species at historical timescales showed that, in southeast Queensland Australia, despite there being no significant glaciation during the Pleistocene, there are clear impacts of Pleistocene climate changes on their genetic structure; and (4 The use of mitochondrial DNA sequence data has uncovered a number of cryptic species complexes in both trichopterans and ephemeropterans. We conclude with a number of suggestions for further work.

  4. Insect Protected Soybean MON 87701

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the food use of Insect Protected Soybean MON 87701. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this variety according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits. The following provides a summary of the notification from Monsanto Canada Inc. a...

  5. Foraminifera Assemblages in Laguna Torrecilla- Puerto Rico: an Environmental Micropaleontology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Colon, M.; Hallock, P.

    2006-12-01

    Foraminiferal assemblages (Ammonia becarii cf. typica - A. becarii cf. tepida - Triloculina spp.) from 30 cm cores taken at Laguna Torrecilla, a polluted estuary, contain a relative high occurrence of deformed tests (up to 13%). Such deformities (i.e., double tests, aberrant tests) are mostly found within the miliolids (Triloculina spp.) while the rotaliids (Ammonia spp.) show fewer deformities (i.e., extended proloculi, stunted tests). Preliminary results for heavy metal analysis (ACTLABS Laboratories-Canada) from bulk sediment samples show concentrations below toxicity levels except for copper. Copper concentrations (50- 138 ppm) fall between the ERL (Effect Range Low) and ERM (Effect Range Median) values representing possible to occasional detrimental effects to the aquatic environment. Organic matter content (loss-on-ignition) ranging from 10-23%, coupled with pyritized tests and framboidal pyrite, indicates low oxygen conditions. Ammonia becarii cf. typica and A. becarii cf. tepida showed no significant variation in size with sample depth. However, forma tepida was not found in the intervals with highest organic concentrations. The abundance of A. becarii, which is a species highly resistant to environmental stresses, appears to be related to hypoxia events. Ammonia-Elphidium index values, a previously established indicator of hypoxia, are 80-100, reflecting the lack of Elphidium spp. Apparently reduced oxygen conditions at Laguna Torrecilla exceeded the tolerance levels of Elphidium spp. In addition, diversity indices show that there has been temporal variability in terms of abundance and distribution of foraminifera. Foraminiferal assemblages coupled with diversity indices and organic matter content indicates that Torrecilla Lagoon has undergone several episodes of hypoxia. Such conditions could explain the relatively high percentage of test deformities, although elevated copper concentrations may be a compounding factor.

  6. When is the best time to sample aquatic macroinvertebrates in ponds for biodiversity assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J; Sayer, C D; Wood, P J

    2016-03-01

    Ponds are sites of high biodiversity and conservation value, yet there is little or no statutory monitoring of them across most of Europe. There are clear and standardised protocols for sampling aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in ponds, but the most suitable time(s) to undertake the survey(s) remains poorly specified. This paper examined the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities from 95 ponds within different land use types over three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) to determine the most appropriate time to undertake sampling to characterise biodiversity. The combined samples from all three seasons provided the most comprehensive record of the aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa recorded within ponds (alpha and gamma diversity). Samples collected during the autumn survey yielded significantly greater macroinvertebrate richness (76% of the total diversity) than either spring or summer surveys. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest during autumn in meadow and agricultural ponds, but taxon richness among forest and urban ponds did not differ significantly temporally. The autumn survey provided the highest measures of richness for Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. However, richness of the aquatic insect order Trichoptera was highest in spring and lowest in autumn. The results illustrate that multiple surveys, covering more than one season, provide the most comprehensive representation of macroinvertebrate biodiversity. When sampling can only be undertaken on one occasion, the most appropriate time to undertake surveys to characterise the macroinvertebrate community biodiversity is during autumn, although this may need to be modified if other floral and faunal groups need to be incorporated into the sampling programme. PMID:26920128

  7. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L-1 and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L-1. In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L-1 and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L-1 respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  8. Plant-derived compounds: acute toxicity, synergism, and effects on insect enzyme activity and flight motor responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Waliwitiya, Ranil

    2011-01-01

    Botanical extracts may contain compounds that have insecticidal properties that may be developed as inexpensive insecticides. In this thesis, I used a series of techniques to identify the acute toxicities and modes of action of plant-derived compounds against the Yellow Fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and the blowfly Phaenicia sericata. Initially I evaluated the acute toxicity of 16 phytochemicals on aquatic and terrestrial insects alone or with the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to quantify...

  9. Apolipophorins and insects immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zdybicka-Barabas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Insect lipoproteins, called lipophorins, are non-covalent assemblies of lipids and proteins serving as lipid transport vehicles. The protein moiety of lipophorin comprises two glycosylated apolipoproteins, apolipophorin I (apoLp-I and apolipophorin II (apoLp-II, constantly present in a lipophorin particle, and an exchangeable protein, apolipophorin III (apoLp-III. ApoLp-III is an abundant protein occurring in hemolymph in lipid-free and lipid-bound state and playing an important role in lipid transport and insect innate immunity. In immune response apoLp-III serves as a pattern recognition molecule. It binds and detoxifies microbial cell wall components, i.e., lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and β-1,3-glucan. ApoLp-III activates expression of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, stimulates their antimicrobial activity, participates in regulation of the phenoloxidase system and in hemolymph clotting. In addition, the protein is involved in cellular immune response, influencing hemocyte adhesion, phagocytosis and nodule formation, and in gut immunity. Although apoLp-III is the best studied apolipophorin in insect immunity so far, a literature review suggests that all the three apolipoproteins, apoLp-I, apoLp-II and apoLp-III, function together in a coordinated defense against pathogens

  10. The insect cellular immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Strand

    2008-01-01

    The innate immune system of insects is divided into humoral defenses that include the production of soluble effector molecules and cellular defenses like phagocytosis and encapsulation that are mediated by hemocytes. This review summarizes current understanding of the cellular immune response. Insects produce several terminally differentiated types of hemocytes that are distinguished by morphology, molecular and antigenic markers, and function. The differentiated hemocytes that circulate in larval or nymphal stage insects arise from two sources: progenitor cells produced during embryogenesis and mesodermally derived hematopoietic organs. Regulation of hematopoiesis and hemocyte differentiation also involves several different signaling pathways. Phagocytosis and encapsulation require that hemocytes first recognize a given target as foreign followed by activation of downstream signaling and effector responses. A number of humoral and cellular receptors have been identified that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites. In turn, activation of these receptors stimulates a number of signaling pathways that regulate different hemocyte functions. Recent studies also identify hemocytes as important sources of a number of humoral effector molecules required for killing different foreign invaders.

  11. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. PMID:26872544

  12. Differential insect and mammalian response to Late Quaternary climate change in the Rocky Mountain region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2015-07-01

    Of the 200 beetle species identified from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene insect faunal assemblages, 23% are no longer resident in this region. None of the 200 species is extinct. In contrast to this, only 8% of 73 identified mammal species from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene assemblages are no longer resident in the Rockies, and 12 species are now extinct. Since both groups of organisms are highly mobile, it would appear that their responses to the large-scale fluctuations of climate associated with the last 125,000 years have been considerably different. Most strikingly contrasting with the insects, there are no mammals in the Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene fossil record that are found exclusively today in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region. The PNW does have a distinctive modern mammalian fauna, but only one of these, Keen's Myotis, has a fossil record outside the PNW region, in the eastern and central United States. No modern PNW vertebrate species have been found in any Rocky Mountain fossil assemblages. Based on these data, it appears that there has been little or no mammalian faunal exchange between the PNW region and the Rocky Mountains during the Late Pleistocene or Holocene. This is in stark contrast to the fossil beetle record, where PNW species are a substantial component in many faunas, right through to the Late Holocene.

  13. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  14. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  15. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  16. Spatial Pattern Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystem Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales. It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs retrieved from Remote Sensing i

  17. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  18. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  19. [Diversity and stability of arthropod assemblage in tea orchard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Xiong, Jinjun; Huang, Mingdu; Gu, Dejiu

    2004-05-01

    Two tea orchards, simplex tea orchard with weeds removed manually or by herbicides (STO) and complex tea orchard with the weed Hedyotis uncinella (CTO), each with an area of 0. 4 hm2, were established in 1995 in Yingde Hongxing Tea Plantation, Guangdong Province. The primary eigenvalues, species richness index (R), assemblage diversity index (H'), evenness index (J) and species concentration index (C) of arthropod assemblage were employed and compared to assess the efficacy of STO and CTO on the diversity and stabilityof arthropod assemblage. Stability indexes Ss/Si and Sn/Sp and variation coefficient of diversity index ds/dm were utilized as well. The results demonstrated that the R of arthropod assemblage in CTO ranged from 4 to 8, with the highest of 7.7403, while that in STO varied mainly between 4 to 6. The average R of arthropod assemblage in CTO was 5.4672 +/- 0.3483, higher than that in STO (4.8809 +/- 0.3175). The H' of arthropod in CTO (3.8535 +/- 0.1232) was higher, in contrast to the value in STO (3.4654 +/- 0.1856). The J in CTO was higher, while the species concentration index (C) was lower, in comparison to STO. The stability indexes Ss/Si and Sn/Sp of CTO were greater than those of STO, while the ds/dm in CTO (0.1107) was lower than that in STO (0.1855). All these indicated that the diversity of arthropod assemblage was better preserved in CTO, and the assemblage in CTO was more stable.

  20. Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuisong Ye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural–city center gradient (RCG, many native insects even extinct with urbanization process. Most specialist insect communities have declined in abundance due to urbanization, while some generalist species, such as aphids, cockroaches and termites, have increased slightly in abundance. It is also the case that herbivorous, parasitic, saprophagous and flower-visiting insects are much more negatively influenced by urbanization than predator insects. This has a significant effect on the ecosystem services of insects. The decline of many insects due to urbanization can be attributed to environmental pollution (including air pollution, water pollution, light pollution, and heat pollution, habitat fragmentation, road hardening, clustering of buildings, and occurrence of introduced invasive species. As urbanization continues, measures should be taken to protect insects in urban areas. This will entail improving basic scientific research on the problem, construction of suitable habitats, and informing the general public of the benefits of environmental protection.

  1. Multiorganismal Insects: Diversity and Function of Resident Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contr...

  2. What is important for ant assemblages in temperate forest soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ant assemblages in the soil have been studied at eight forest sites (4 oak forest sites, and 4 pine forest sites in four study areas (1 seminatural area, and 3 industrialized areas in South Korea for 6 years from 2002 to 2010. Soil cores and Tullgren funnel were used for the ant survey. Ant surveys were carried out once per year in autumn (from late September to mid-October. The soil pH was lower in the industrialized than in the seminatural area, showing the acidified soils in the industrialized areas. However, the soil acidification did not influence the ant assemblages. The results from the nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination and from the community temperature index values indicate that temperature is a key determinant for structures of the soil ant assemblages. The ant assemblages were not different according to the forest types (oak forests vs. pine forests. Occurrence of ant species varied greatly among years, indicating that more replicates and advanced sampling method are needed for the monitoring of the soil ant assemblages.

  3. Insects overshoot the expected upslope shift caused by climate warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Bässler

    Full Text Available Along elevational gradients, climate warming may lead to an upslope shift of the lower and upper range margin of organisms. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these shifts are species specific and considerably differ among taxonomic lineages. We used the opportunity to compare upper range margins of five lineages (plants, beetles, flies, hymenoptera, and birds between 1902-1904 and 2006-2007 within one region (Bavarian Forest, Central Europe. Based on the increase in the regional mean annual temperature during this period and the regional lapse rate, the upslope shift is expected to be between 51 and 201 m. Averaged across species within lineages, the range margin of all animal lineages shifted upslope, but that of plants did not. For animals, the observed shifts were probably due to shifts in temperature and not to changes in habitat conditions. The range margin of plants is therefore apparently not constrained by temperature, a result contrasting recent findings. The mean shift of birds (165 m was within the predicted range and consistent with a recent global meta-analysis. However, the upslope shift of the three insect lineages (>260 m exceeded the expected shift even after considering several sources of uncertainty, which indicated a non-linear response to temperature. Our analysis demonstrated broad differences among lineages in their response to climate change even within one region. Furthermore, on the considered scale, the response of ectothermic animals was not consistent with expectations based on shifts in the mean annual temperature. Irrespective of the reasons for the overshooting of the response of the insects, these shifts lead to reorganizations in the composition of assemblages with consequences for ecosystem processes.

  4. Selenium assimilation and loss by an insect predator and its relationship to Se subcellular partitioning in two prey types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcellular selenium (Se) distributions in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and in the insect Chironomus riparius did not vary with Se exposure duration, which was consistent with the observations that the duration of prey Se exposure had little influence on either Se assimilation or loss by a predatory insect (the alderfly Sialis velata). However, these two prey types differed in how Se was distributed in their cells. Overall, the predator assimilated a mean of 66% of the Se present in its prey, which was similar to the mean percentage of Se in prey cells (62%) that was theoretically available for uptake (that is, Se in the protein and organelle fractions). Likewise, data for cadmium, nickel and thallium suggest that predictions of trace element transfer between prey and predator are facilitated by considering the subcellular partitioning of these contaminants in prey cells. - Selenium assimilation by a predatory aquatic insect depends on Se availability in the cells of its prey

  5. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  6. Insect stereopsis demonstrated using a 3D insect cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek; Tarawneh, Ghaith; Rosner, Ronny; Nicolas, Judith; Crichton, Stuart; Read, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Stereopsis - 3D vision - has become widely used as a model of perception. However, all our knowledge of possible underlying mechanisms comes almost exclusively from vertebrates. While stereopsis has been demonstrated for one invertebrate, the praying mantis, a lack of techniques to probe invertebrate stereopsis has prevented any further progress for three decades. We therefore developed a stereoscopic display system for insects, using miniature 3D glasses to present separate images to each eye, and tested our ability to deliver stereoscopic illusions to praying mantises. We find that while filtering by circular polarization failed due to excessive crosstalk, "anaglyph" filtering by spectral content clearly succeeded in giving the mantis the illusion of 3D depth. We thus definitively demonstrate stereopsis in mantises and also demonstrate that the anaglyph technique can be effectively used to deliver virtual 3D stimuli to insects. This method opens up broad avenues of research into the parallel evolution of stereoscopic computations and possible new algorithms for depth perception. PMID:26740144

  7. Methods for Maintaining Insect Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Dwight E.

    2002-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains.

  8. Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Shuisong Ye; Yan Fang; Kai Li

    2013-01-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural–city center gradient (RCG), ...

  9. Forests and climate change - lessons from insects

    OpenAIRE

    Battisti A

    2008-01-01

    The climate change may indirectly affects the forest ecosystems through the activity of phytophagous insects. The climate change has been claimed to be responsible of the range expansion northward and upward of several insect species of northern temperate forests, as well as of changes in the seasonal phenology. Several papers have dealt with the prediction of the most likely consequences of the climate change on the phytophagous insects, including some of the most important forest pests. Inc...

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect phytophagous insect specialism

    OpenAIRE

    Gange, Alan; Stagg, P.G.; Ward, L. K.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of phytophagous insects eat very few plant species, yet the ecological and evolutionary forces that have driven such specialism are not entirely understood. The hypothesis that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can determine phytophagous insect specialism, through differential effects on insect growth, was tested using examples from the British flora. In the UK, plant families and species in the family Lamiaceae that are strongly mycorrhizal have higher proportions of specialist ...

  11. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    basidiomycete genus Termitomyces - whereas the ants are associated with a larger diversity of fungal lineages (all basidiomycetes). The ants and termites forage for plant material to provision their fungus gardens. Their crops convert this carbon-rich plant material into nitrogen-rich fungal biomass to provide...... the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....

  12. Insect community structure and function in Upper Three Runs, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, J.C.; English, W.R. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Looney, B.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-08

    A project to document the insect species in the upper reaches of Upper Three Runs at the Savannah River site was recently completed. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Research Park Program. The work was performed by the Department of Entomology at Clemson University in clemson, SC, by John C. Morse (principal investigator), William R. English and their colleagues. The major output from this study was the dissertation of Dr. William R. English entitled ``Ecosystem Dynamics of a South Carolina Sandhills Stream.`` He investigated selected environmental resources and determined their dynamics and the dynamics of the aquatic invertebrate community structure in response to them.

  13. Response of benthic invertebrate assemblages to metal exposure and bioaccumulation associated with hard-rock mining in northwestern streams, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, T.R.; Cain, D.J.; MacCoy, D.E.; Short, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, environmental variables, and associated mine density were evaluated during the summer of 2000 at 18 reference and test sites in the Coeur d'Alene and St. Regis River basins, northwestern USA as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in water and (or) streambed sediment at test sites in basins where production mine density was ???0.2 mines/km2 (in a 500-m stream buffer) were significantly higher than concentrations at reference sites. Zn and Pb were identified as the primary contaminants in water and streambed sediment, respectively. These metal concentrations often exceeded acute Ambient Water Quality Criteria for aquatic life and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Probable Effect Level for streambed sediment. Regression analysis identified significant correlations between production mine density in each basin and Zn concentrations in water and Pb in streambed sediment (r2 = 0.69 and 0.65, p effective in discriminating changes in assemblage structure between reference and mining sites were total number of taxa, number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, and densities of total individuals, EPT individuals, and metal-sensitive Ephemeroptera individuals.

  14. Shaping up: a geometric morphometric approach to assemblage ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, L M; Piller, K R

    2015-09-01

    This study adopts an ecomorphological approach to test the utility of body shape as a predictor of niche relationships among a stream fish assemblage of the Tickfaw River (Lake Pontchartrain Basin) in southeastern Louisiana, U.S.A. To examine the potential influence of evolutionary constraints, analyses were performed with and without the influence of phylogeny. Fish assemblages were sampled throughout the year, and ecological data (habitat and tropic guild) and body shape (geometric morphometric) data were collected for each fish specimen. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine relationships and differences between body shape and ecological data. Results indicate that a relationship exists between body shape and trophic guild as well as flow regime, but no significant correlation between body shape and substratum was found. Body shape was a reliable indicator of position within assemblage niche space. PMID:26268468

  15. A comparative analysis of benthic nematode assemblages from Zostera noltii beds before and after a major vegetation collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materatski, Patrick; Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Ribeiro, Rui; Moens, Tom; Adão, Helena

    2015-12-01

    Benthic nematodes are widely regarded as very suitable organisms to monitor potential ecological effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in aquatic ecosystems. During 2008, the seagrass beds of Zostera noltii located in the Mira estuary (SW Portugal) disappeared completely. However, during 2009, slight symptoms of natural recovery were observed, a process which has since evolved intermittently. This study aims to investigate changes in patterns of nematode density, diversity, and trophic composition between two distinct habitat conditions: "before" the collapse of seagrass beds, and during the early recovery "after" the seagrass habitat loss, through the analysis of: i) temporal and spatial distribution patterns of nematode communities, and ii) the most important environmental variables influencing the nematode assemblages. The following hypotheses were tested: i) there would be differences in nematode assemblage density, biodiversity and trophic composition during both ecological conditions, "before" and "after"; and ii) there would be differences in nematode assemblage density, biodiversity and trophic composition at different sampling occasions during both ecological conditions. Nematode density and diversity were significantly different between the two ecological situations. A higher density was recorded before, but a higher diversity was evident after the collapse of Z. noltii. In spite of the disturbance caused by the seagrass habitat loss in the Mira estuary, the nematode trophic composition did not significantly differ between the before and after seagrass collapse situations. Despite the significant differences found among sampling occasions, a consistent temporal pattern was not evident. The response of nematode communities following this extreme event exhibited considerable resistance and resilience to the new environmental conditions.

  16. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  17. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  18. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.

  19. Insect control by using sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile male technique used in insect control is presented as an alternative for chemical control of pest insect. Description and effects of sterile male technique on morphology and physiology of different classes of pest insects are given. Prerequisite conditions necessary to work out SMT are presented. As an example of the application of this technique: control of Ephestia Cartella is studied. Gamma radiation effects on deformation, sterilization and longevity of the male insect as well as fecondity and fertility with respects of gamma irradiation are presented. 11 refs. 3 tabs

  20. Noise in an insect outbreak model

    CERN Document Server

    Bao Quan; Wang Xian Ju; Liu Guo Tao; We De Hua; Xie Hui Zhang; Liu Liang Gang

    2003-01-01

    We study the steady state properties of an insect (spruce budworm) outbreak model in the presence of Gaussian white noise. Based on the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation the steady state solution of the probability distribution function and its extrema have been investigated. It was found that fluctuations of the insect birth rate reduces the population of the insects while fluctuations of predation rate and the noise correlation can prevent the population of the insects from going into extinction. Noise in the model can induce a phase transition.

  1. Review on Nutritive Value of Edible Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As an importam bio-resource, insect resources have not been put into full play as healthy food. Based on study and analysis, the nutritive value of edible insects was reviewed. The results showed that insects have rich protein (20%-70%), amino acid (30%-60%),fat (10%-50%),fatty acid, carbonhydrate (2%-10%), mineral elements, vitamins and other activated elements which are good for human 's health. As protein resources, the nutritive value of edible insects is as good as animal and plant resources. Insec...

  2. Insect Flight: Aerodynamics, Efficiency, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2007-11-01

    Insects, like birds and fish, locomote via interactions between fluids and flapping wings. Their motion is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation coupled to moving boundaries. In this talk, I will first describe how dragonflies fly: their wing motions and the flows and forces they generate. I will then consider insects in several species and discuss three questions: 1) Is insect flight optimal? 2) How does the efficiency of flapping flight compare to classical fixed-wing flight? 3) How might aerodynamic effects have influenced the evolution of insect flight?

  3. Effect of land use on the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in neotropical streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, B C G; Lansac-Tôha, F A; Higuti, J

    2015-11-01

    Streams may exhibit differences in community structure of invertebrate drift, which may be a reflex of variation in environmental factors, able to change in conditions of anthropogenic interventions. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in two neotropical streams under different land use and to identify the environmental factors involved in determining such patterns. 54 taxa of aquatic insects were identified in urban and rural streams. The results indicated significant differences in species composition due to the replacement of specialist species by generalist species in the urban stream. Higher diversity of taxa was recorded in the rural stream, with high levels of dissolved oxygen and high water flow, which favored the occurrence of sensitive groups to environmental disturbances, such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera taxa, that living mainly in clean and well oxygenated waters. On the other hand, a higher density of insects drifting, especially Chironomidae, was observed in the urban stream, where high values of pH, electrical conductivity and nitrogen were observed. These larvae are able to explore a wide range of environmental conditions, owing to their great capacity for physiological adaptation. Despite observing the expected patterns, there were no significant differences between streams for the diversity and abundance of species. Thus, the species composition can be considered as the best predictor of impacts on the drifting insect community. PMID:26602342

  4. Effect of land use on the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in neotropical streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, B C G; Lansac-Tôha, F A; Higuti, J

    2015-11-01

    Streams may exhibit differences in community structure of invertebrate drift, which may be a reflex of variation in environmental factors, able to change in conditions of anthropogenic interventions. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in two neotropical streams under different land use and to identify the environmental factors involved in determining such patterns. 54 taxa of aquatic insects were identified in urban and rural streams. The results indicated significant differences in species composition due to the replacement of specialist species by generalist species in the urban stream. Higher diversity of taxa was recorded in the rural stream, with high levels of dissolved oxygen and high water flow, which favored the occurrence of sensitive groups to environmental disturbances, such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera taxa, that living mainly in clean and well oxygenated waters. On the other hand, a higher density of insects drifting, especially Chironomidae, was observed in the urban stream, where high values of pH, electrical conductivity and nitrogen were observed. These larvae are able to explore a wide range of environmental conditions, owing to their great capacity for physiological adaptation. Despite observing the expected patterns, there were no significant differences between streams for the diversity and abundance of species. Thus, the species composition can be considered as the best predictor of impacts on the drifting insect community.

  5. Sampling Daphnia's expressed genes: preservation, expansion and invention of crustacean genes with reference to insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Darren J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and comparative studies of insect genomes have shed light on the complement of genes, which in part, account for shared morphologies, developmental programs and life-histories. Contrasting the gene inventories of insects to those of the nematodes provides insight into the genomic changes responsible for their diversification. However, nematodes have weak relationships to insects, as each belongs to separate animal phyla. A better outgroup to distinguish lineage specific novelties would include other members of Arthropoda. For example, crustaceans are close allies to the insects (together forming Pancrustacea and their fascinating aquatic lifestyle provides an important comparison for understanding the genetic basis of adaptations to life on land versus life in water. Results This study reports on the first characterization of cDNA libraries and sequences for the model crustacean Daphnia pulex. We analyzed 1,546 ESTs of which 1,414 represent approximately 787 nuclear genes, by measuring their sequence similarities with insect and nematode proteomes. The provisional annotation of genes is supported by expression data from microarray studies described in companion papers. Loci expected to be shared between crustaceans and insects because of their mutual biological features are identified, including genes for reproduction, regulation and cellular processes. We identify genes that are likely derived within Pancrustacea or lost within the nematodes. Moreover, lineage specific gene family expansions are identified, which suggest certain biological demands associated with their ecological setting. In particular, up to seven distinct ferritin loci are found in Daphnia compared to three in most insects. Finally, a substantial fraction of the sampled gene transcripts shares no sequence similarity with those from other arthropods. Genes functioning during development and reproduction are comparatively well conserved between

  6. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  7. Phytoplankton Assemblage Patterns in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Carla; Moisan, Tiffany A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Wallops Coastal Oceans Observing Laboratory (Wa-COOL) Project, we sampled a time-series transect in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) biweekly. Our 2-year time-series data included physical parameters, nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll a concentrations. A detailed phytoplankton assemblage structure was examined in the second year. During the 2-year study, chlorophyll a concentration (and ocean color satellite imagery) indicated that phytoplankton blooms occurred in January/February during mixing conditions and in early autumn under stratified conditions. The chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.25 microgram 1(exp -1) to 15.49 microgram 1(exp -1) during the 2-year period. We were able to discriminate approximately 116 different species under phase contrast microscopy. Dominant phytoplankton included Skeletonema costatum, Rhizosolenia spp., and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. In an attempt to determine phytoplankton species competition/succession within the assemblage, we calculated a Shannon Weaver diversity index for our diatom microscopy data. Diatom diversity was greatest during the winter and minimal during the spring. Diatom diversity was also greater at nearshore stations than at offshore stations. Individual genera appeared patchy, with surface and subsurface patches appearing abruptly and persisting for only 1-2 months at a time. The distribution of individual species differed significantly from bulk variables of the assemblage (chlorophyll a ) and total phytoplankton assemblage (cells), which indicates that phytoplankton species may be limited in growth in ways that differ from those of the total assemblage. Our study demonstrated a highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage throughout the year, with opportunistic species dominating during spring and fall in response to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients in the southern MAB.

  8. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ben M; Harvey, Euan S; Heyward, Andrew J; Twiggs, Emily J; Colquhoun, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected habitats

  9. Land-use history alters contemporary insect herbivore community composition and decouples plant-herbivore relationships.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Philip G. [University of Wisconsin; Orrock, John L. [University of Wisconsin

    2015-04-01

    1. Past land use can create altered soil conditions and plant communities that persist for decades, although the effects of these altered conditions on consumers are rarely investigated. 2. Using a large-scale field study at 36 sites in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands, we examined whether historic agricultural land use leads to differences in the abundance and community composition of insect herbivores (grasshoppers, families Acrididae and Tettigoniidae). 3. We measured the cover of six plant functional groups and several environmental variables to determine whether historic agricultural land use affects the relationships between plant cover or environmental conditions and grasshopper assemblages. 4. Land-use history had taxa-specific effects and interacted with herbaceous plant cover to alter grasshopper abundances, leading to significant changes in community composition. Abundance of most grasshopper taxa increased with herbaceous cover in woodlands with no history of agriculture, but there was no relationship in post-agricultural woodlands. We also found that grasshopper abundance was negatively correlated with leaf litter cover. Soil hardness was greater in post-agricultural sites (i.e. more compacted) and was associated with grasshopper community composition. Both herbaceous cover and leaf litter cover are influenced by fire frequency, suggesting a potential indirect role of fire on grasshopper assemblages. 5. Our results demonstrate that historic land use may create persistent differences in the composition of grasshopper assemblages, while contemporary disturbances (e.g. prescribed fire) may be important for determining the abundance of grasshoppers, largely through the effect of fire on plants and leaf litter. Therefore, our results suggest that changes in the contemporary management regimes (e.g. increasing prescribed fire) may not be sufficient to shift the structure of grasshopper communities in post-agricultural sites towards communities in

  10. Light-dependant biostabilisation of sediments by stromatolite assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Paterson

    Full Text Available For the first time we have investigated the natural ecosystem engineering capacity of stromatolitic microbial assemblages. Stromatolites are laminated sedimentary structures formed by microbial activity and are considered to have dominated the shallows of the Precambrian oceans. Their fossilised remains are the most ancient unambiguous record of early life on earth. Stromatolites can therefore be considered as the first recognisable ecosystems on the planet. However, while many discussions have taken place over their structure and form, we have very little information on their functional ecology and how such assemblages persisted despite strong eternal forcing from wind and waves. The capture and binding of sediment is clearly a critical feature for the formation and persistence of stromatolite assemblages. Here, we investigated the ecosystem engineering capacity of stromatolitic microbial assemblages with respect to their ability to stabilise sediment using material from one of the few remaining living stromatolite systems (Highborne Cay, Bahamas. It was shown that the most effective assemblages could produce a rapid (12-24 h and significant increase in sediment stability that continued in a linear fashion over the period of the experimentation (228 h. Importantly, it was also found that light was required for the assemblages to produce this stabilisation effect and that removal of assemblage into darkness could lead to a partial reversal of the stabilisation. This was attributed to the breakdown of extracellular polymeric substances under anaerobic conditions. These data were supported by microelectrode profiling of oxygen and calcium. The structure of the assemblages as they formed was visualised by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser microscopy. These results have implications for the understanding of early stromatolite development and highlight the potential importance of the evolution of photosynthesis in the

  11. Storm-event-transport of urban-use pesticides to streams likely impairs invertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Hladik, Michelle L; Haluska, Tana; Cole, Michael B

    2016-06-01

    Insecticide use in urban areas results in the detection of these compounds in streams following stormwater runoff at concentrations likely to cause toxicity for stream invertebrates. In this 2013 study, stormwater runoff and streambed sediments were analyzed for 91 pesticides dissolved in water and 118 pesticides on sediment. Detections included 33 pesticides, including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, degradates, and a synergist. Patterns in pesticide occurrence reveal transport of dissolved and sediment-bound pesticides, including pyrethroids, from upland areas through stormwater outfalls to receiving streams. Nearly all streams contained at least one insecticide at levels exceeding an aquatic-life benchmark, most often for bifenthrin and (or) fipronil. Multiple U.S. EPA benchmark or criterion exceedances occurred in 40 % of urban streams sampled. Bed sediment concentrations of bifenthrin were highly correlated (p organic-carbon normalized bifenthrin concentrations in streambed sediments. Our findings from western Clackamas County, Oregon (USA), expand upon previous research demonstrating the transport of pesticides from urban landscapes and linking impaired benthic invertebrate assemblages in urban streams with exposure to pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:27170357

  12. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  13. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  14. Field and laboratory studies reveal interacting effects of stream oxygenation and warming on aquatic ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Durance, Isabelle; Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J

    2016-05-01

    Aquatic ecological responses to climatic warming are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other environmental stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal warming effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of warming on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761). Mayfly nymphs are often a dominant component of the invertebrate assemblage in streams, and play a vital role in aquatic and riparian food webs. In the laboratory, lethal impacts of warming were assessed under three oxygen conditions. In the field, effects of oxygen availability on nonlethal impacts of warming were assessed from mayfly occurrence in 42 293 UK stream samples where water temperature and biochemical oxygen demand were measured. Oxygen limitation affected both lethal and sublethal impacts of warming in each species. Hypoxia lowered lethal limits by 5.5 °C (±2.13) and 8.2 °C (±0.62) for E. danica and S. ignita respectively. Field data confirmed the importance of oxygen limitation in warmer waters; poor oxygenation drastically reduced site occupancy, and reductions were especially pronounced under warm water conditions. Consequently, poor oxygenation lowered optimal stream temperatures for both species. The broad concordance shown here between laboratory results and extensive field data suggests that oxygen limitation not only impairs survival at thermal extremes but also restricts species abundance in the field at temperatures well below upper lethal limits. Stream oxygenation could thus control the vulnerability of aquatic ectotherms to global warming. Improving water oxygenation and reducing pollution can provide

  15. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter;

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  16. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  17. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  18. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  19. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  20. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  1. The influence of habitat integrity and physical-chemical water variables on the structure of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dias-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of certain physical-chemical variables and the Habitat Integrity Index (HII have on an aquatic and semi-aquatic heteropteran community. We collected in five streams (from 1st to 4th order that differed in habitat integrity, in order to test 1 whether heteropteran richness decreases with the Habitat Integrity Index; and 2 whether richness responds to alterations in water physical-chemical variables, since these influence community structure. In each stream, linear transects of 100 m were demarcated. A total of 1425 specimens from 10 families, 30 genera and 67 morphospecies were collected. Species richness was correlated with the Habitat Integrity Index (HII, showing a positive relationship only for Gerromorpha. This may be due to the fact that streams with greater integrity offer nearby marginal vegetation where prey and shelter can be easily found, representing optimal places for oviposition and hunting. Species adapted to such conditions are more sensitive to alterations in the physical structure of rivers. Significant differences in the composition of Heteroptera and studied infra-orders were also observed, which suggests that the anthropic disturbances over these sites have changed these insect communities. Our results indicate that the alteration in riparian areas can lead to significant changes in Heteroptera composition, even though species richness was not affected. The physical-chemical variables showed no influence on the distribution of species. This result suggests that the environment presented insufficient variation that could cause changes in the investigated community, which implies that factors other than those analyzed here may explain such variation. Three species Rhagovelia trailli (White, 1879, Rhagovelia sp. 4 and Tenagobia incerta (Lundblad, 1928 were considered to be indicators of pristine sites. The results indicate that aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera and more specifically the

  2. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  3. Predators indirectly reduce the prevalence of an insect-vectored plant pathogen independent of predator diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth Y; Finke, Deborah L

    2015-04-01

    A widely cited benefit of predator diversity is greater suppression of insect herbivores, with corresponding increases in plant biomass. In the context of a vector-borne pathogen system, predator species richness may also influence plant disease risk via the direct effects of predators on the abundance and behavior of herbivores that also act as pathogen vectors. Using an assemblage of generalist insect predators, we examined the relationship between predator species richness and the prevalence of the aphid-vectored cereal yellow dwarf virus in wheat. We found that increasing predator richness enhanced suppression of the vector population and that pathogen prevalence was reduced when predators were present, but the reduction in prevalence was independent of predator species richness. To determine the mechanism(s) by which predator species richness contributes to vector suppression, but not pathogen prevalence, we evaluated vector movement and host plant occupancy in response to predator treatments. We found that pathogen prevalence was unrelated to vector suppression because host plant occupancy by vectors did not vary as a function of vector abundance. However, the presence of predators reduced pathogen prevalence because predators stimulated greater plant-to-plant movement by vectors, which likely diminished vector feeding time and reduced the transmission efficiency of this persistent pathogen. We conclude that community structure (i.e., the presence of predators), but not predator diversity, is a potential factor influencing local plant infection by this insect-vectored pathogen. PMID:25561170

  4. The effects of entombment on water chemistry and bacterial assemblages in closed cryoconite holes on Antarctic glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Brown, Jenny G; Hawes, Ian; Jungblut, Anne D; Wood, Susanna A; Christenson, Hannah K

    2015-12-01

    Closed cryoconite holes (CCHs) are small aquatic ecosystems enclosed in glacier surface ice, and they collectively contribute substantial aquatic habitat to inland Antarctica. We examined the morphology, geochemistry and bacterial diversity of 57 CCHs, spread over seven sites, located on five glaciers, covering a range of latitudes, elevations and distance from open seawater. Isotopes confirmed glacial ice as the initial water source, with water chemistry evolving through freeze concentration and photosynthetic processes to have conductivities ranging from 4 mS cm(-1) and pH from 11. Nitrate concentrations were more elevated in inland, higher altitude sites. Bacterial communities were characterized by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and high-throughput sequencing. The dominant phyla were Cyanobacteria, Bacteroides, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. CCH bacterial communities predominantly grouped by geographic location, suggesting initial wind-borne inocula from local and regional sources play a role in structuring assemblages. However, multivariate multiple regression analysis indicated that internal CCH conditions also influenced community structure, particularly the ion content and pH of the liquid water. This highlights the importance of founder bacterial populations, isolation and water chemistry in the evolution of CCH bacterial communities. PMID:26572547

  5. Variation in Assemblages of Small Fishes and Microcrustaceans After Inundation of Rarely Flooded Wetlands of the Lower Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziba, Nqobizitha; Chimbari, Moses J.; Masundire, Hillary; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Ramberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    Water extraction from floodplain river systems may alter patterns of inundation of adjacent wetlands and lead to loss of aquatic biodiversity. Water reaching the Okavango Delta (Delta), Botswana, may decrease due to excessive water extraction and climate change. However, due to poor understanding of the link between inundation of wetlands and biological responses, it is difficult to assess the impacts of these future water developments on aquatic biota. Large floods from 2009 to 2011 inundated both rarely and frequently flooded wetlands in the Delta, creating an opportunity to examine the ecological significance of flooding of wetlands with widely differing hydrological characteristics. We studied the assemblages of small fishes and microcrustaceans, together with their trophic relationships, in temporary wetlands of the lower Delta. Densities of microcrustaceans in temporary wetlands were generally lower than previously recorded in these habitats. Microcrustacean density varied with wetland types and hydrological phase of inundation. High densities of microcrustaceans were recorded in the 2009 to 2010 flooding season after inundation of rarely flooded sites. Large numbers of small fishes were observed during this study. Community structure of small fishes differed significantly across the studied wetlands, with poeciliids predominant in frequently flooded wetlands and juvenile cichlids most abundant in rarely flooded wetlands (analysis of similarity, P human food source, and their decline in fish catches will negatively affect livelihoods. Hence, priority in the management of the Delta's ecological functioning should be centred on minimising natural water-flow modifications because any changes may be detrimental to fish-recruitment processes of the system.

  6. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  7. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  8. Impacts of the Replacement of Native Woodland with Exotic Pine Plantations on Leaf-Litter Invertebrate Assemblages: A Test of a Novel Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical comparison of invertebrate community structure between areas of undisturbed native eucalypt woodland and areas that have been cleared and replaced with plantations of exotic radiata pine (Pinus radiata. Implementation of a novel conceptual framework revealed that both insect (in autumn and arachnid (in winter assemblages demonstrated inhibition in response to the pine plantations. Species richness declines occurred in several taxonomic Orders (e.g., Hymenoptera, Blattodea, Acari without compensated increases in other Orders in plantations. This was, however, a seasonal response, with shifts between inhibition and equivalency observed in both insects and arachnids across autumn and winter sampling periods. Equivalency responses were characterized by relatively similar levels of species richness in plantation and native habitats for several Orders (e.g., Coleoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Araneae. We propose testable hypotheses for the observed seasonal shifts between inhibition and equivalency that focus on diminished resource availability and the damp, moist conditions found in the plantations. Given the compelling evidence for seasonal shifts between categories, we recommend that seasonal patterns should be considered a critical component of further assemblage-level investigations of this novel framework for invasion ecology.

  9. Social insect symbionts: evolution in homeostatic fortresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Pierce, Naomi E; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    The massive environmentally buffered nests of some social insects can contain millions of individuals and a wide variety of parasites, commensals and mutualists. We suggest that the ways in which these homeostatic fortress environments affect the evolution of social insect symbionts are relevant...

  10. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  11. Applications of genome editing in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William; O'Brochta, David A

    2016-02-01

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in insects to date have been technical in nature but this is rapidly changing. Functional genomics and genetics-based insect control efforts will be major beneficiaries of the application of contemporary gene editing technologies. Engineered endonucleases like Cas9 make it possible to create powerful and effective gene drive systems that could be used to reduce or even eradicate specific insect populations. 'Best practices' for using Cas9-based editing are beginning to emerge making it easier and more effective to design and use but gene editing technologies still require traditional means of delivery in order to introduce them into somatic and germ cells of insects-microinjection of developing embryos. This constrains the use of these technologies by insect scientists. Insects created using editing technologies challenge existing governmental regulatory structures designed to manage genetically modified organisms. PMID:27436552

  12. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel....

  15. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  17. Insects and Spiders. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit is designed to provide information on insects and spiders that special education students are capable of understanding. The activities are aimed at level 2 and level 3 educable mentally retarded classes. There are four topics: (1) Characteristics and Life Cycles of Insects; (2) Characteristics of Spiders; (3) Habitats and Food Sources of…

  18. Applications of genome editing in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect genome editing was first reported 1991 in Drosophila melanogaster but the technology used was not portable to other species. Not until the recent development of facile, engineered DNA endonuclease systems has gene editing become widely available to insect scientists. Most applications in inse...

  19. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, James L; Kearney, Michael R

    2015-11-22

    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg(-1)) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes.

  20. What Do Elementary Students Know about Insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview-based study of (n=56) elementary school students. Determines students' understanding about insect characteristics, life cycles, environmental conditions, and impact on humans. Suggests building units of instruction based on students' personal questions about insects. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  2. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  3. Diversity in protein glycosylation among insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vandenborre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, the silkworm (Bombyx mori, the honeybee (Apis mellifera, the fruit fly (D. melanogaster and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum. To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed.

  4. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it offer

  5. Feeding Studies of Irradiated Foods with Insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  6. Turfgrass Cultural Practices and Insect Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane; Kopp, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of insects that can cause aesthetic and economic loss to turfgrass in Utah – in home lawns as well as in athletic fields and on recreational lands. Good turfgrass cultural practices are the primary way to prevent insect infestation and turfgrass damage.

  7. Perspectives on the state of insect transgenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic transformation is a critical component to the fundamental genetic analysis of insect species, and holds great promise for establishing strains that improve population control and behavior for practical application. This is especially so for insects that are disease vectors, many of which a...

  8. Elk herbivory alters small mammal assemblages in high elevation drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Elliott W.R.; Maron, John L.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy herbivory by ungulates can substantially alter habitat, but the indirect consequences of habitat modification for animal assemblages that rely on that habitat are not well studied. This is a particularly important topic given that climate change can alter plant–herbivore interactions.

  9. Global assemblages and Structural Models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    This chapter argues that 'assemblages', although rooted in a deep skepticism of grand theory, could also be useful for re-thinking structure and models of structure in international relations. IR models of structure usually restrict themselves to how subjects are ordered. The idea of an ordering ...

  10. Nestedness of snake assemblages on islands of an inundated lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping WANG, Xi WANG, Ping DING

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nestedness is a pattern frequently reported for faunal assemblages in fragmented systems. Although nestedness has been documented for a wide range of taxa, it is rarely tested in snake assemblages. To arrive at robust generalizations about proce­sses and mechanisms structuring island biotas, it is important to examine under-represented taxa such as snakes for the insights they may offer. We tested for the existence of nestedness and underlying causal mechanisms using snake data collected on islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We used the line-transect method to survey snake occupancy and abundance on 20 islands during two breeding seasons in 2009 and 2010. We used the recently developed metric WNODF to estimate nestedness. We used Spearman rank correlations to examine the associations of nestedness and habitat variables (area, isolation, and habitat diversity as well as life-history traits (body size, clutch size, geographical range size and area requirement related to species extinction and immigration tendencies. Snake assemblages were significantly nested and were shaped by extinction processes mediated through area effects and habitat nestedness. The nestedness of snake assemblages was not due to passive sampling or selective colonization. From a conservation viewpoint, our results indicate that we should protect both the largest island with the most species-rich community and habitat-rich islands to maximize the number of species preserved [Current Zoology 58 (6: 828–836, 2012].

  11. Nestedness of snake assemblages on islands of an inundated lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping WANG; Xi WANG; Ping DING

    2012-01-01

    Nestedness is a pattern frequently reported for faunal assemblages in fragmented systems.Although nestedness has been documented for a wide range of taxa,it is rarely tested in snake assemblages.To arrive at robust generalizations about processes and mechanisms structuring island biotas,it is important to examine under-represented taxa such as snakes for the insights they may offer.We tested for the existence of nestedness and underlying causal mechanisms using snake data collected on islands in the Thousand Island Lake,China.We used the line-transect method to survey snake occupancy and abundance on 20 islands during two breeding seasons in 2009 and 2010.We used the recently developed metric WNODF to estimate nestedness.We used Spearman rank correlations to examine the associations of nestedness and habitat variables (area,isolation,and habitat diversity) as well as life-history traits (body size,clutch size,geographical range size and area requirement) related to species extinction and immigration tendencies.Snake assemblages were significantly nested and were shaped by extinction processes mediated through area effects and habitat nestedness.The nestedness of snake assemblages was not due to passive sampling or selective colonization.From a conservation viewpoint,our results indicate that we should protect both the largest island with the most species-rich community and habitat-rich islands to maximize the number of species preserved.

  12. Temporal variability in epifaunal assemblages associated with temperate gorgonian gardens

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, I.M.

    2015-10-19

    The present study is one of the few that investigate the temporal variability of epifaunal assemblages associated with coral species, particularly the octocorals Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in south Portugal. The results suggest time rather than colony size as a primary driver of the ecological patterns of these assemblages, which were dominated by amphipods, molluscs and polychaetes. Temporal variability was linked to changes in environmental parameters, namely temperature, chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon. Hence, temporal variability must be taken into account for the design of future biodiversity assessment studies, as different patterns may be observed depending on the sampling time. Associated epifaunal assemblages were consistently dominated by resident species (i.e. species present in all sampling periods) and a peak of rare species was observed in the transition from spring to summer following the increase of seawater temperature. Turnover was particularly high in the transition between the spring and summer periods. In both hosts, turnover was higher in the small sized colonies, which generally harboured less diverse and less abundant assemblages which also differed from those inhabiting larger size colonies. The high levels of diversity associated with gorgonian colonies highlights the need for the conservation of this priority habitat.

  13. Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Watson, Simon; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Inge; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Castracani, Cristina; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Enríquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener, Donald H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Gómez, Crisanto; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Lach, Lori; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Majer, Jonathan; Menke, Sean B.; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Munyai, Thinandavha C.; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; de Souza, Jorge L. P.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Parr, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction among temperature, precipitation and disturbance shaped species richness and evenness. The effect was manifested through a failure of species richness to increase substantially with temperature in transformed habitats at low precipitation. At low precipitation levels, evenness increased with temperature in undisturbed sites, peaked at medium temperatures in disturbed sites and remained low in transformed sites. In warmer climates with lower rainfall, the effects of increasing disturbance on species richness and evenness were akin to decreases in temperature of up to 9°C. Anthropogenic disturbance and ongoing climate change may interact in complicated ways to shape the structure of assemblages, with hot, arid environments likely to be at greatest risk. PMID:25994675

  14. Shikarpur lithic assemblage: New questions regarding Rohri chert blade production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusmita Gadekar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent excavations at Shikarpur, a fortified Harappan site situated near the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat, Western India, brought to light a large collection of Rohri chert blades.  Chert found in the Rohri hill near Sukkur in Sindh, central Pakistan is distinctive and easily identifiable. The wide distribution of standardized Rohri chert blades is often regarded as a testimony to the Harappan efficiency in long distance trade and craft production.  The possibility of localized production of Rohri chert blades in Gujarat is often negated due to the constraints of raw-material availability.  The absence of Rohri chert working debitage from most of the sites in Gujarat, has lent support to this position. The Shikarpur Rohri blade assemblage however incorporates more than 650 blades, a large fluted blade-core and a few Rohri chert debitage.  These have led the excavators to suggest that some of the blades found at Shikarpur were locally produced from raw materials brought to the site from the Rohri hills.  Typo-technological features of the Rohri chert assemblage from Shikarpur have been analysed in this background. These along with metrical features of the assemblage are compared with Rohri chert assemblages from other major Harappan sites in the region to check the validity of the proposed ‘limited local production’.

  15. Sewage pollution impact on Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzurro, Ernesto; Matiddi, Marco; Fanelli, Emanuela; Guidetti, Paolo; La Mesa, Gabriele; Scarpato, Alfonso; Axiak, Victor

    2010-06-01

    The effects of sewage outfalls on subtidal fish assemblages were studied along the NW coasts of Malta (Sicily channel, Mediterranean Sea) by means of underwater visual census. The presence of two spatially distinct outfalls discharging untreated wastewaters allowed to use a balanced symmetrical after control/impact (ACI) design that consisted of two putatively impacted locations and two controls, with four sites nested in each location. Surveys were performed in 2006 at two random dates. The study highlighted significant changes at both assemblage and individual species levels. Fish assemblages structures were different between controls and sewages, where total abundance of fish were higher. The responses of individual species to sewage pollution were mostly related to an anomalous increase of two small opportunistic species i.e. Gobius bucchichii and Parablennius rouxi and to a decrease of species of the genus Symphodus, particularly S. roissali and S. ocellatus. Moreover in correspondence of the outfalls, significant changes of the fish size distribution were detected for several species. These results support the use of fish assemblages as biological indicators for marine coastal waters and demonstrated the possibility to obtain sharp signals of environmental impact from some individual fish species. PMID:20193961

  16. Doorstroomvriendelijke en mensgerichte assemblage : het succes van een interactieve aanpak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinzaad, G.H.; Rhijn, J.W. van; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Deursen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Assemblage-georiënteerde bedrijven ervaren vanuit de markt een steeds grotere vraag naar variëteit in eindproducten, die met een steeds kortere doorlooptijd geleverd moeten worden. Ook staat er steeds meer druk op de kostprijs bij gelijke of zelfs betere kwaliteit. Daarnaast worden de bedrijven door

  17. Bacterial assemblages in rivers and billabongs of Southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, P I

    1991-12-01

    Billabongs, lentic waterbodies common to the floodplain of Australian rivers, differ considerably from the lotic riverine environment in terms of hydrology, physiochemical characteristics, and biological assemblages present. As little is known regarding the bacterial ecology of billabong habitats, a comparison was made of the bacterial assemblages in the water column of seven paired river/billabong sites in the Murray-Darling Basin of southeastern Australia. Billabongs supported larger populations of bacteria (1-157×10(9) cells liter(-1); 11-10,270 μg C liter(-1)) than did rivers (1-10×10(9) cells liter(-1); 6-143 μg C liter(-1)). Phospholipid analyses confirmed that billabongs (14-111 μg phospholipid fatty acid liter(-1)) had larger bacterial populations than rivers (billabongs (0.28-3.05 μg C liter(-1) hour(-1)) than rivers (0.05-0.62 μg C liter(-1) hour(-1)). Production calculated from the frequency of dividing cells confirmed this conclusion, and suggested bacterial production in some billabongs could exceed 100 μg C liter(-1) hour(-1). An INT-formazan method indicated that usually billabongs, and the cell-specific activity greater for billabong than river assemblages. The factors most likely to be responsible for the differences between the bacterial assemblages in rivers and billabongs relate to hydrological regime and the availability of organic carbon substrates. PMID:24194324

  18. The assemblage of compliance in psychiatric case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodwin, Paul

    2010-08-01

    In the post-asylum era, case managers perform much of the face-to-face work of pharmaceutical compliance for people with severe and persistent mental illness. Their work demands careful orchestration of the assemblage of compliance, including the actual medications, the ideology of biopsychiatry, the division of professional labor, and certain mundane tools. Ethnographic vignettes from an Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) team show how case managers use this assemblage in their everyday routines, but also how it undercuts key elements of the original ACT mission. Reflecting its roots in the deinstitutionalization movement, the ACT model gives case managers limitless responsibilities for clients' lives, but then narrowly defines their role as the prosthetic extension of psychiatric authority. To produce compliance, case managers depend on the medication cassette, analyzed here as a human/non-human hybrid woven into their ordinary work. The medication cassette has pre-scripted uses that enlist clinicians in biopsychiatric thinking and also silently impose compliant behavior on clients. The elements in the assemblage of compliance depend on each other, but they do not form a seamless whole, as evidenced by the dilemmas and micropolitics of the clinical front-line. Theoretical notions of assemblages and technologies of compliance, drawn from science and technology studies, illuminate a core conundrum of practice in psychiatric case management.

  19. Littoral fish assemblages of the alien-dominated Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 1980-1983 and 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Michniuk, D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed monthly boat electrofishing data to characterize the littoral fish assemblages of five regions of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (northern, southern, eastern, western, and central), California, during two sampling periods, 1980-1983 (1980s) and 2001-2003 (2000s), to provide information pertinent to the restoration of fish populations in this highly altered estuary. During the 1980s, almost 11,000 fish were captured, including 13 native species and 24 alien species. During the 2000s, just over 39,000 fish were captured, including 15 native species and 24 alien species. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of total fish, alien fish, and centrarchid fish were greater in the 2000s compared with the 1980s, largely because of increased centrarchid fish CPUE. These differences in CPUE were associated with the spread of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), particularly an alien aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa. Native fish CPUE declined from the 1980s to the 2000s, but there was no single factor that could explain the decline. Native fish were most abundant in the northern region during both sampling periods. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated similar patterns of fish assemblage composition during the two sampling periods, with the northern and western regions characterized by the presence of native species. The separation of the northern and western regions from the other regions was most distinct in the 2000s. Our results suggest that native fish restoration efforts will be most successful in the northern portion of the Delta. Management decisions on the Delta should include consideration of possible effects on SAV in littoral habitats and the associated fish assemblages and ecological processes. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

  20. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  1. A call to insect scientists: Challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J.; Grundel, Ralph; Hoving, Chris; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas. Insect biology has a strong history of engagement in applied problems, and as the impacts of climate change increase, a reimagined ethic of entomology in service of broader society may emerge. We hope to motivate insect biologists to contribute time and effort toward solving the challenges of climate change.

  2. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms......Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...

  3. The role of depth in regulating water quality and fish assemblages in oxbow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Daniel B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Kroger, Robert; Andrews, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated water quality and fish assemblages in deep (> 3.0 m; N = 7) and shallow (facilitate development of effective management plans for improving conditions necessary to sustain diverse fish assemblages in agriculturally dominated basins.

  4. Demersal Assemblages on the Soft Bottoms off the Catalan-Levante Coast of the Spanish Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano García-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of 255 bottom trawl samples obtained in annual experimental surveys (2007–2010 along the western Mediterranean shows the existence of five well-defined demersal assemblages that follow a depth distribution: (a upper shelf assemblages, including two assemblages differentiated by the type of substrate (sand-muddy and terrigenous muddy bottoms; (b a middle shelf assemblage; (c an upper slope assemblage; (d a middle slope assemblage. Faunally, they are dominated by fish (37% of 452 total species, followed by crustaceans (22%, molluscs (17%, echinoderms (9%, and other invertebrates (15%. The assemblages identified showed major alterations on the shelf and shelf edge and less pronounced ones on the upper and middle slope. The average diversity values were more or less high, evidencing the high species richness in the western Mediterranean. The identified assemblages may facilitate future multispecies fisheries management based on an ecosystem approach.

  5. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-01-01

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination. PMID:26907369

  6. Comparing vegetation types and anthropic disturbance levels in the Atlantic forest: how do Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) assemblages respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F M; Mendonça, M S; Campos, L A

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest (AF) is considered the most fragmented and endangered Brazilian biome. The diversity of phytophagous insects increases after disturbances in forests, and it was hypothesized the Pentatomidae can furnish ecologically reliable information in terms of diversity in response to the changes occurring in AF. Our aim was to quantify the response of assemblages of Pentatomoidea to gradient of human disturbance in two vegetation types of the AF-dense ombrophilous forest (DOF) and mixed ombrophilous forest (MOF). Twelve transects were grouped into environmental classes, namely open, intermediate, and closed. Overall, 1,017 pentatomoids were sampled, representing 64 species. The open environment was more abundant than closed environment, though it is expected that Pentatomoidea respond with increasing abundance when under light or moderate disturbance. The MOF was more abundant than DOF, and the composition differed between both of them. Given the differences in composition between MOF and DOF, abiotic variables are important factors acting as environmental filters for Pentatomoidea, not just directly on the insects, but probably also on the nutritional support of their host plants. PMID:25369568

  7. Energy scavenging from insect flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan Aktakka, Ethem; Kim, Hanseup; Najafi, Khalil

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and testing of an energy scavenger that generates power from the wing motion of a Green June Beetle (Cotinis nitida) during its tethered flight. The generator utilizes non-resonant piezoelectric bimorphs operated in the d31 bending mode to convert mechanical vibrations of a beetle into electrical output. The available deflection, force, and power output from oscillatory movements at different locations on a beetle are measured with a meso-scale piezoelectric beam. This way, the optimum location to scavenge energy is determined, and up to ~115 µW total power is generated from body movements. Two initial generator prototypes were fabricated, mounted on a beetle, and harvested 11.5 and 7.5 µW in device volumes of 11.0 and 5.6 mm3, respectively, from 85 to 100 Hz wing strokes during the beetle's tethered flight. A spiral generator was designed to maximize the power output by employing a compliant structure in a limited area. The necessary technology needed to fabricate this prototype was developed, including a process to machine high-aspect ratio devices from bulk piezoelectric substrates with minimum damage to the material using a femto-second laser. The fabricated lightweight spiral generators produced 18.5-22.5 µW on a bench-top test setup mimicking beetles' wing strokes. Placing two generators (one on each wing) can result in more than 45 µW of power per insect. A direct connection between the generator and the flight muscles of the insect is expected to increase the final power output by one order of magnitude.

  8. [Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Peng; Lai, Ren

    2010-02-01

    Insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important group of insect innate immunity effectors. Insect AMPs are cationic and contain less than 100 amino acid residues. According to structure, insect AMPs can be divided into a limited number of families. The diverse antimicrobial spectrum of insect AMPs may indicate different modes of action. Research on the model organism Drosophila indicate that insect AMPs gene regulation involves multiple signaling pathways and a large number of signaling molecules.

  9. Effects of coalbed natural gas development on fish assemblages in tributary streams of the Powder and Tongue rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W.N.; Bramblett, R.G.; Zale, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    1. Extraction of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) often results in disposal of large quantities of CBNG product water, which may affect aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the effects of CBNG development on fish assemblages in tributary streams of the Powder and Tongue rivers. We used treatment and control, impact versus reference sites comparisons, surveys of CBNG product-water streams and in situ fish survival approaches to determine if CBNG development affected fish assemblages.2. Several of our results suggested that CBNG development did not affect fish assemblages. Species richness and index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were similar in streams with and streams without CBNG development, and overall biotic integrity was not related to the number or density of CBNG wells. Fish occurred in one stream that was composed largely or entirely of CBNG product water. Sentinel fish survived in cages at treatment sites where no or few fish were captured, suggesting that factors such as lack of stream connectivity rather than water quality limited fish abundance at these sites. Fish species richness did not differ significantly from 1994 to 2006 in comparisons of CBNG-developed and undeveloped streams. Biotic integrity declined from 1994 to 2006; however, declines occurred at both impact and reference sites, possibly because of long-term drought.3. Some evidence suggested that CBNG development negatively affected fish assemblages, or may do so over time. Specific conductivity was on average higher in treatment streams and was negatively related to biotic integrity. Four IBI species richness metrics were negatively correlated with the number or density of CBNG wells in the catchment above sampling sites. Bicarbonate, one of the primary ions in product water, was significantly higher in developed streams and may have limited abundance of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Total dissolved solids, alkalinity, magnesium and sulphate were significantly higher in developed streams

  10. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus Neide on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and associated insect fauna in fish ponds in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed.

  11. New insights into an ancient insect nose: the olfactory pathway of Lepismachilis y-signata (Archaeognatha: Machilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Christine; Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-07-01

    Hexapods most likely derived from an aquatic ancestor, which they shared with crustaceans. During the transition from water to land, their sensory systems had to face the new physiological demands that terrestrial conditions impose. This process also concerns the sense of smell and, more specifically, detection of volatile, air-borne chemicals. In insects, olfaction plays an important role in orientation, mating choice, and food and host finding behavior. The first integration center of odor information in the insect brain is the antennal lobe, which is targeted by the afferents from olfactory sensory neurons on the antennae. Within the antennal lobe of most pterygote insects, spherical substructures called olfactory glomeruli are present. In order to gain insights into the evolution of the structure of the central olfactory pathway in insects, we analyzed a representative of the wingless Archaeognatha or jumping bristletails, using immunocytochemistry, antennal backfills and histological section series combined with 3D reconstruction. In the deutocerebrum of Lepismachilis y-signata, we found three different neuropil regions. Two of them show a glomerular organization, but these glomeruli differ in their shape from those in all other insect groups. The connection of the glomerular neuropils to higher brain centers remains unclear and mushroom bodies are absent as reported from other archaeognathan species. We discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings.

  12. Differences in dissolved cadmium and zinc uptake among stream insects: Mechanistic explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Luoma, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rates vary in several aquatic insect taxa commonly used as indicators of ecological health. We further attempted to explain the mechanisms underlying observed differences. By comparing dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rates in several aquatic insect species, we demonstrated that species vary widely in these processes. Dissolved uptake rates were not related to gross morphological features such as body size or gill size-features that influence water permeability and therefore have ionoregulatory importance. However, finer morphological features, specifically, the relative numbers of ionoregulatory cells (chloride cells), appeared to be related to dissolved metal uptake rates. This observation was supported by Michaelis-Menten type kinetics experiments, which showed that dissolved Cd uptake rates were driven by the numbers of Cd transporters and not by the affinities of those transporters to Cd. Calcium concentrations in exposure media similarly affected Cd and Zn uptake rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche californica. Dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rates strongly co-varied among species, suggesting that these metals are transported by similar mechanisms.

  13. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  14. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  15. Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anrui eLu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, βGRP and C-type lectins, serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins. Due to their complexity, PPO activation mechanisms vary among insect species. Activated phenoloxidase (PO oxidizes phenolic molecules to produce melanin around invading pathogens and wounds. The crystal structure of Manduca sexta PPO shows that a conserved amino acid, phenylalanine (F, can block the active site pocket. During activation, this blocker must be dislodged or even cleaved at the N-terminal sequence to expose the active site pockets and allow substrates to enter. Thanks to the crystal structure of M. sexta PPO, some domains and specific amino acids that affect PPO activities have been identified. Further studies of the relationship between PPO structure and enzyme activities will provide an opportunity to examine other type-3 copper proteins, and trace when and why their various physiological functions evolved. Recent researches show that insect PPO has a relationship with neuron activity, longevity, feces melanization (phytophagous insects and development, which suggests that it is time for us to look back on insect PPO beyond the view of immunity in this review.

  16. Forests and climate change - lessons from insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battisti A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The climate change may indirectly affects the forest ecosystems through the activity of phytophagous insects. The climate change has been claimed to be responsible of the range expansion northward and upward of several insect species of northern temperate forests, as well as of changes in the seasonal phenology. Several papers have dealt with the prediction of the most likely consequences of the climate change on the phytophagous insects, including some of the most important forest pests. Increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere involve an increase of the C/N balance of the plant tissues, which in turn results in a lower food quality for many defoliating insects. Some insects respond by increasing the level of leaf consumption and consequently the damage to the tree, whereas others show higher mortality and lower performance. The level of plant chemical defenses may also be affected by a change of CO2. The temperature is affecting either the survival of the insects which are active during the cold period, such as the pine processionary moth, or the synchronization mechanism between the host and the herbivores, as in the case of the larch bud moth. An increase of temperature may alter the mechanism by which the insects adjust their cycles to the local climate (diapause, resulting in faster development and higher feeding rate, as in the case of the spruce webspinning sawfly outbreaks in the Southern Alps.

  17. Forests and climate change - lessons from insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battisti A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The climate change may indirectly affects the forest ecosystems through the activity of phytophagous insects. The climate change has been claimed to be responsible of the range expansion northward and upward of several insect species of northern temperate forests, as well as of changes in the seasonal phenology. Several papers have dealt with the prediction of the most likely consequences of the climate change on the phytophagous insects, including some of the most important forest pests. Increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere involve an increase of the C/N balance of the plant tissues, which in turn results in a lower food quality for many defoliating insects. Some insects respond by increasing the level of leaf consumption and consequently the damage to the tree, whereas others show higher mortality and lower performance. The level of plant chemical defences may also be affected by a change of CO2. The temperature is affecting either the survival of the insects which are active during the cold period, such as the pine processionary moth, or the synchronization mechanism between the host and the herbivores, as in the case of the larch bud moth. An increase of temperature may alter the mechanism by which the insects adjust their cycles to the local climate (diapause, resulting in faster development and higher feeding rate, as in the case of the spruce web-spinning sawfly outbreaks in the Southern Alps.

  18. Modern Stored-Product Insect Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrum David William

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored-product entomologists have a variety of new monitoring, decision-making, biological, chemical, and physical pest management tools available to them. Two types of stored-product insect populations are of interest: insects of immediate economic importance infesting commodities, and insects that live in food residues in equipment and facilities. The sampling and control methods change as grain and grain products move from field to consumer. There are also some changes in the major insect pest species to take into consideration. In this review, we list the primary insect pests at each point of the marketing system, and indicate which sampling methods and control strategies are most appropriate. Economic thresholds for insect infestation levels developed for raw commodity storage, processing plants, and retail business allow sampling-based pest management to be done before insect infestations cause economic injury. Taking enough samples to have a representative sample (20-30 samples will generally provide enough information to classify a population as above or below an economic threshold.

  19. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  20. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.