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Sample records for aquatic immunotoxicological studies

  1. Harmonization of immunotoxicology study guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NakaK

    2002-01-01

    Guidance for immunotoxicology studies has been intensively discussed.The European Medicnes Evaluation Agency published the draft guidance on immunotoxicity on December 16,1999 and finalized it on July 27,2000.In the meantime,the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published the draft guidance on May 11,2001.The Japanese Ministry of Health,Labor and Welfare and the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufactures Association submitted their interim draft guidance to the International Conference of Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use(ICH) for discussion of Decemeber 20,2001.The approaches are taken in these(draft) guidance documents.A major difference among the guidance of the three regions is that only the EU guidance requires some immune function tests for all new medicinal products.The informal expert working proup meeting held in the ICH on February 7,2002 resched the conchusion that the guidelines should be eventually hamonized after collecting more data.A scientific session on immunotoxicity testing will be included in the ICH6,Osake,November 2003.

  2. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Corn Genetically Modified with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah Gene by a 30-Day Feeding Study in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Liang, Chunlai; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Sun, Nana; Jia, Xudong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the immunotoxicological potential of corn genetically modified (GM) with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ah gene in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: the negative control group, the parental corn group, the GM corn group and the positive control group with 10 mice per group. Mice in the GM corn group and the parental corn group were fed with diets containing 70% corresponding corn for 30 days. Mice in the negative control group and the positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, administered with saline or 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY) via intraperitoneal injection 24 h before the termination of the study, respectively. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the GM corn were evaluated through immunopathology parameters including body and organ weights, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, histological examination, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotype; humoral immunity including antibody plaque-forming cell, serum immunoglobulin, cytokine and half hemolysis value; cellular immunity such as mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reaction, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; non-specific immunity including phagocytic activities of phagocytes, natural killer cell activity. A single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg bw) was found to have significant adverse effects on immunopathology, cellular immunity, and humoral immunity in mice. The corn genetically modified with Bt Cry1Ah gene is considered consistent with the parental corn in terms of immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and non-specific immunity. No adverse immunotoxicological effects of GM corn with Bt Cry1Ah gene were found when feeding mice for 30 days. PMID:24520311

  3. Immunotoxicological evaluation of corn genetically modified with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah gene by a 30-day feeding study in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the immunotoxicological potential of corn genetically modified (GM with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry1Ah gene in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: the negative control group, the parental corn group, the GM corn group and the positive control group with 10 mice per group. Mice in the GM corn group and the parental corn group were fed with diets containing 70% corresponding corn for 30 days. Mice in the negative control group and the positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, administered with saline or 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY via intraperitoneal injection 24 h before the termination of the study, respectively. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the GM corn were evaluated through immunopathology parameters including body and organ weights, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, histological examination, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotype; humoral immunity including antibody plaque-forming cell, serum immunoglobulin, cytokine and half hemolysis value; cellular immunity such as mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reaction, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; non-specific immunity including phagocytic activities of phagocytes, natural killer cell activity. A single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg bw was found to have significant adverse effects on immunopathology, cellular immunity, and humoral immunity in mice. The corn genetically modified with Bt Cry1Ah gene is considered consistent with the parental corn in terms of immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and non-specific immunity. No adverse immunotoxicological effects of GM corn with Bt Cry1Ah gene were found when feeding mice for 30 days.

  4. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  5. Modulation of Immune Response by Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fishes as a Potential Model in Immunotoxicology

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    K. J. G. Díaz-Resendiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune response is modulated by different substances that are present in the environment. Nevertheless, some of these may cause an immunotoxic effect. In this paper, the effect of organophosphorus pesticides (frequent substances spilled in aquatic ecosystems on the immune system of fishes and in immunotoxicology is reviewed. Furthermore, some cellular and molecular mechanisms that might be involved in immunoregulation mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticides are discussed.

  6. Modulation of Immune Response by Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fishes as a Potential Model in Immunotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Resendiz, K. J. G.; Toledo-Ibarra, G. A.; Girón-Pérez, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    Immune response is modulated by different substances that are present in the environment. Nevertheless, some of these may cause an immunotoxic effect. In this paper, the effect of organophosphorus pesticides (frequent substances spilled in aquatic ecosystems) on the immune system of fishes and in immunotoxicology is reviewed. Furthermore, some cellular and molecular mechanisms that might be involved in immunoregulation mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticides are discussed. PMID:25973431

  7. The skin: target organ in immunotoxicology of small-molecular-weight compounds.

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    Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Baron, J

    2001-01-01

    Immunotoxicology studies two different effects of xenobiotics: immunosuppression and dysregulation of immune responses leading to hypersensitivity or autoimmunity. The skin is a major target organ of immunotoxicity which is provoked by small-molecular-weight compounds. Methods may be helpful for immunotoxicological investigations and screenings for adverse effects of xenobiotics which are used for diagnosis or studies on the pathophysiology of skin disorders such as allergic contact dermatitis, cutaneous drug-allergic reactions or autoimmune diseases of the skin. Examples include well-designed patch tests, assays involving antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, but also T lymphocytes, basophiles or keratinocytes.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

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    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Brenda A; Leeman, Rebecca J; Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Sherr, David H

    2003-12-16

    Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA) and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6) protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-kappaB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-kappaB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in the LPS-mediated induction of DNA-binding Rel

  10. Experimental Studies on Some Immunotoxicological Aspects of Aflatoxins Containing Diet and Protective Effect of Bee Pollen Dietary Supplement.

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    El-Bialy, Badr E; Abdeen, Eman E; El-Borai, Nermeen B; El-Diasty, Eman M

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs), widely distributed food-borne mycotoxins, affect quality and safety of food and cause economic losses in livestock. In this study, the protective effect of Bee Pollen (BP) against some immunotoxic hazards elucidated from eating of AFs-containing diet was investigated in Wistar rats. Rats were randomly classified intofour groups and treated for 30 days, Group 1; control negative, Group 2; Total AFs (3 mg kg(-1) basal diet), Group 3; BP (20 g kg(-1) basal diet) and Group 4; AFs+BP in basal diet. The immunoprotective effect of BP was revealed in terms of increasing (relative to levels seen in Group 2 rats that consumed the AFs diet) serum total protein and globulin levels, restored normal neutrophil (PMN)/lymphocyte ratio, increased PMN phagocytic activity and increased lymphocyte proliferative capacity. Also, the use of the BP reduced spleen H2O2 levels and increased GSH content while maintaining normal levels of NO formation. Histopathologic analysis showed thatthe AFs caused lymphocytic depletion in the spleen; however, BP induced lymphocytic hyperplasia and reduced the levels of AFs-inducible cellular exhaustion or depletion. These results provide evidence of a protective effect of BP against some immunotoxic actions induced in situ by consumption of AFs.

  11. Contact dermatitis: from pathomechanisms to immunotoxicology.

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    Martin, Stefan F

    2012-05-01

    Contact allergens are small reactive chemicals. They cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) by activating the innate and adaptive immune system. Contact allergens are very peculiar because of their built-in autoadjuvanticity that allows them to trigger sterile inflammation following skin penetration. The innate inflammatory response involves the triggering of pattern recognition receptors either by direct chemical interaction with such receptors or by induction of endogenous activators. I discuss here the recent findings regarding prevalence and predisposition, the identification of innate immune and stress response mechanisms relevant for sensitization and the orchestration of the innate and adaptive immune response to contact allergens. Despite still significant gaps of knowledge, recent advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of ACD can now be used for the development of causative treatment strategies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens in immunotoxicology.

  12. Immunotoxicology in wood mice along a heavy metal pollution gradient

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    Tersago, Katrien [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: katrien.tersago@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Scheirs, Jan [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vermeulen, Katrien [Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bockstaele, Dirk van[Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    We carried out an immunotoxicological field study of wood mice in three populations along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Heavy metal concentrations in liver tissue indicated that exposure to silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and lead decreased with increasing distance from a non-ferrous smelter. Host resistance to the endoparasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus decreased with increasing exposure, while the abundance of tick larvae and the nematode Syphacia stroma was unrelated to heavy metal exposure. Spleen mass was increased at the intermediate and the most polluted sites and was positively correlated with the number of H. polygyrus and tick larvae. Proportion of early apoptotic leukocytes increased towards the smelter and was positively related to cadmium exposure. Red and white blood cell counts and lysozyme activity showed no relationship with metal exposure. All together, our observations suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune function of wood mice under field conditions. - Capsule: Complex interactions among metal burden, immune response and parasite burden suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune system of wood0011 mi.

  13. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Wheat Genetically Modified with TaDREB4 Gene on BALB/c Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chun Lai; ZHANG Xiao Peng; SONG Yan; JIA Xu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immunotoxicological effects of genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene in female BALB/c mice. Methods Female mice weighing 18-22 g were divided into five groups (10 mice/group), which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control group and positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (the proportion is 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus, white blood cell count, histological examination of immune organ, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell, serum half hemolysis value, mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected. Results No immunotoxicological effects related to the consumption of the genetically modified wheat were observed in BALB/c mice when compared with parental wheat group, common wheat group and negative control group. Conclusion From the immunotoxicological point of view, results from this study demonstrate that genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene is as safe as the parental wheat.

  14. Gaps in aquatic toxicological studies of microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The contamination of aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs) has spurred an unprecedented interest among scientific communities to investigate their impacts on biota. Despite the rapid growth in the number of studies on the aquatic toxicology of MPs, controversy over the fate and biological impacts of MPs is increasingly growing mainly due to the absence of standardized laboratory bioassays. Given the complex features of MPs, such as the diversity of constituent polymers, additives, shapes and sizes, as well as continuous changes in the particle buoyancy as a result of fouling and defouling processes, it is necessary to modify conventional bioassay protocols before employing them for MP toxicity testings. Moreover, several considerations including quantification of chemicals on/in the MP particles, choice of test organisms, approaches for renewing the test solution, aggregation prevention, stock solution preparation, and units used to report MP concentration in the test solution should be taken into account. This critical review suggests some important strategies to help conduct environmentally-relevant MP bioassays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-clinical immuno-toxicological evaluation of HER1 cancer vaccine in non-human primates: a 12-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Ana M Bada; Rivero, Arianna Iglesias; Goñi, Avelina León; Navarro, Bárbara O González; Angarica, Meilis Mesa; Ramírez, Belinda Sánchez; Bedoya, Darel Martínez; Triana, Consuelo González; Rodríguez, Axel Mancebo; Parada, Ángel Casacó

    2012-12-17

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1) constitutes a tumor associated antigen. Its overexpression in many epithelial tumors has been associated with bad prognosis and poor survival. Cancer vaccine based on the extracellular domain (ECD) of HER1 and adjuvated in very small sized proteoliposomes (VSSP) and Montanide ISA 51-VG is a new and complementary approach for the treatment of epithelial tumors. The present study deals with the immunogenicity of this vaccine in Macaca fascicularis monkeys and evaluation of its toxicity during 12 months. Twelve monkeys were randomized into two groups of 3 animals per sex: control and vaccinated. Treated monkeys received 9 doses of vaccination and were daily inspected for clinical signs. Body weight, rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory rates were measured during the study. Humoral immune response, clinical pathology parameters and delayed type hypensensitivity were analyzed. Skin biopsy was performed at the end of the study in all animals. Animal's survival in the study was 100% (n=12). Local reactions were observed at the administration site of four treated animals (n=6), with two showing slight inflammatory cutaneous damage. Clinical pathology parameters were not affected. HER1 vaccine induced high IgG antibodies titers in the treated animals even when DTH was not observed. The induced antibodies recognized HER1+ tumor cell lines, decreased HER1 phosphorylation and showed anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in H125 cells. In general the present study showed that HER1 vaccine induced specific immune response in M. fascicularis monkeys and was well tolerated, suggesting it could be safely used in clinical studies in epithelial cancer patients.

  16. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

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    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  17. A Study on the Fluid Mechanics Performance of Aquatics Equipment

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    Jiao Jian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical foundation of fluid mechanics performance, this paper carries out an analysis on mechanical characteristics of aquatic sports. First, basic features of windsurfing are studied in this paper. Performance of windsurfing changes with its parameters, requiring a lot for windsurfers. It can be known from variance analysis that the best performance of NP plate and a relatively small resistance should be the direction of sail-board design. Meanwhile, by building up a mathematical model with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and correlation analysis, it can be also found that the fluid resistance characteristic is a key factor that influences the performance of windsurfers. Besides, this paper also takes into account external factors, including the influences of regional difference on aquatic events. Different regions with various geographical conditions have different influences on aquatic events.

  18. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF TITANIUM

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    Maya Lyapina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti is a non-essential metal element. TiO2 is used predominantly in the form of micro and nanoparticles in consumer products, including cosmetics and food. Because of its excellent biocompatibility, the trade-pure titan and its alloys are widely used as an alternative to certain metals in invasive medicine, surgery, dental medicine. Contemporary data concerning the sources of exposure to titanium, immune reactions to Ti alloys, current knowledge and perspectives of diagnosis of sensitization or allergic reactions to titanium are discussed. Conclusion: TiO2 is much more stable than pure Ti and alloys used in the implants, that should be taken into account when conducting research and analysing the results. The evidence of possible toxic effects is insufficient. It is difficult to assess the frequency of Ti allergy due to the uncertainty of diagnostic methods, but it is believed that it is very low. This is supported by the evidence that Ti and TiO2 (often as NP doesn’t penetrate through the healthy skin. Skin patch testing with currently available formulations of Ti and TiO2 has no significant value in clinical practice, and currently, it is assumed that there is no reliable method for diagnosis Ti allergy. The functional analysis of cytokine release and investigation of genetic characteristics could be useful for individual risk assessment in dental implantology. Such studies may also help to investigate separately early and late implant loss, as well as to develop new diagnostic tools.

  19. Incorporating exposure into aquatic toxicological studies: an imperative.

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    Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-10-01

    The field of aquatic toxicology has been expanding rapidly in recent years. The ecotoxicological study of environmental toxicants encompasses three basic frameworks: environmental behavior/transport, bioavailability/bioaccumulation (exposure), and toxicity at different biological levels. Environmental risk assessments are then based on this knowledge to provide sound advice for environmental management and policies. In this article I will highlight the need to further understand the exposure to toxicants and its direct relationship with toxicological responses at different levels. Exposure considerations generally include the route, species, concentration and duration of exposure, among which the importance of the exposure route has been little considered. A typical aquatic toxicological study simply exposes the organisms to toxicants in the water for a certain period of time under different concentrations. This approach may not be environmentally relevant. Future studies should attempt to understand the toxicology under different exposure regimes. Incorporating exposure will allow aquatic toxicology to be placed in a context of environmental relevance and enhance our understanding of the impacts of toxicants on our living environments. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

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    Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol. Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanthera sessilis (296.8µg/ml, total sugar in Ipomoea aquatic (880.00mg/ml, starch in Alternanthera sessilis (57.13mg/ml, cellulose in Pistia stratiotes and Typha latifolia (280.00mg/ml, hemicellulose in Typha latifolia (26.85mg/ml; high cellulosic aquatic weeds were subjected to pre-treatment methods like physical, chemical and enzymatic method. Meanwhile different yeast strains from the fruits of Manilkara zapota, Cucumis melo, Musa paradisiaca, Citrullus lanatus, Punica granatum and Ananas comosus were isolated yeast of Citrullus lanatus shows highest amount of alcohol production (307µg/ml, which is inoculated to pre-treated hydrolysate, where Alternanthera sessilis and Typha latifolia shows high amount of alcohol in physical method (160.5 and 115.4µg/ml. In chemical method in acid hydrolysis it shows 387.1 and 69.63µg/ml and in alkali hydrolysis 62 and 170µg/ml, so these two weeds were taken for enzymatic method for alcohol production, on seventh day Alternanthera sessilis shows highest alcohol production (113.33µg/ml, hence among six weeds Alternanthera sessilis and the yeast of Citrullus lanatus produces more amount of alcohol than others and it also shows that enzymatic method of pre-treatment is best in hydrolysis of biomass than physical and chemical method. The study revealed the possibility of producing alcohol from locally available fruits using simple, cheap and adaptable technology with biochemically characterized yeast strains.

  1. Ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments.

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    Shinoda, Sumio; Furumai, Yuki; Katayama, Sei-Ichi; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    An ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments of Okayama was carried out. The number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in the sea area was comparatively smaler than that found in the survey of about two decades ago. Various reasons for the decrease in the case of food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus have been suggested but the lower number of the vibrio in aquatic environments may be one explanation. Although the number of V. vulnificus was also not as large, most of the isolates possessed the pathogenic genes, vvp and vvh, suggesting the potential for fatal pathogenicity to patients having underlying diseases. As for V. cholerae, some non-O1/non-O139 serovar isolates were detected in a fresh water area, and many of them had hlyA, the gene for hemolysin which acts as a pathogenic factor in sporadic cases of diarrhea. Thus, the total number of pathogenic vibrios detected was not of concern. However, the marine products of these areas are shipped in wide area and are for general consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to survey pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments in order to ensure food hygiene.

  2. EDITORIAL A Quarter-Century of Immunotoxicology: Looking Back, Looking Forward

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    The Immunotoxicology Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology celebrated its 25th anniversary at the 2010 Annual Meeting, prompting us to provide here both an historical perspective and an assessment of the challenges that lie ahead for this sub-discipline of toxicology. In...

  3. EDITORIAL A Quarter-Century of Immunotoxicology: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Immunotoxicology Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology celebrated its 25th anniversary at the 2010 Annual Meeting, prompting us to provide here both an historical perspective and an assessment of the challenges that lie ahead for this sub-discipline of toxicology. In...

  4. Forestry and the aquatic environment: studies in an Irish context

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    P. S. Giller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the interaction between plantation forestry and aquatic environments is essential to develop environmentally compatible and sustainable management further. Given, in Ireland, the generally low levels of atmospheric pollution, its geology and maritime climate, and the unique fauna and flora due to its island history, such studies are important not only in the regional context, but also internationally, as they provide an opportunity to examine the effect of forestry and forest management practices on aquatic systems per se, without the complications of acidification. Here, some of the major findings of forestry and water research in Ireland have been reviewed and compared with those from the UK and elsewhere. Plantation forests do not exacerbate acidification in the south of Ireland (Munster as a whole so that the influence of forestry on water chemistry is far less important than in other parts of the country (such as Wicklow and Mayo. The main forestry influence on streams in Munster is more likely through physical factors, but their nature is unclear. In a few catchments some negative effects are evident, but in many others apparently positive forest effects occur. In this context, smaller scale catchment-level effects appear to be more important in explaining the various relationships between plantation forests and stream ecology than larger scale regional factors. The management of riparian zones, particularly in forested catchments, is of major importance for the structure and functioning of aquatic communities and further work is needed on best management practices. It is suggested that it is unreasonable to base forest management on national Forest-Fisheries guidelines since regions vary too much and the signal from local conditions is too strong. The approach for environmentally benign, scientifically sound forestry management has to be at the catchment scale. Trees in the right places may be beneficial ecologically but

  5. Forestry and the aquatic environment: studies in an Irish context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, P. S.; O'Halloran, J.

    Research on the interaction between plantation forestry and aquatic environments is essential to develop environmentally compatible and sustainable management further. Given, in Ireland, the generally low levels of atmospheric pollution, its geology and maritime climate, and the unique fauna and flora due to its island history, such studies are important not only in the regional context, but also internationally, as they provide an opportunity to examine the effect of forestry and forest management practices on aquatic systems per se, without the complications of acidification. Here, some of the major findings of forestry and water research in Ireland have been reviewed and compared with those from the UK and elsewhere. Plantation forests do not exacerbate acidification in the south of Ireland (Munster) as a whole so that the influence of forestry on water chemistry is far less important than in other parts of the country (such as Wicklow and Mayo). The main forestry influence on streams in Munster is more likely through physical factors, but their nature is unclear. In a few catchments some negative effects are evident, but in many others apparently positive forest effects occur. In this context, smaller scale catchment-level effects appear to be more important in explaining the various relationships between plantation forests and stream ecology than larger scale regional factors. The management of riparian zones, particularly in forested catchments, is of major importance for the structure and functioning of aquatic communities and further work is needed on best management practices. It is suggested that it is unreasonable to base forest management on national Forest-Fisheries guidelines since regions vary too much and the signal from local conditions is too strong. The approach for environmentally benign, scientifically sound forestry management has to be at the catchment scale. Trees in the right places may be beneficial ecologically but further work is needed

  6. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

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    Soltis, R. (ed.); Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy's cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  7. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. [ed.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy`s cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  8. Immunotoxicological effects of inorganic arsenic on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, F A; Gónzalez-Párraga, M P; Cuesta, A; Meseguer, J; Martínez, S; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Esteban, M A

    2013-06-15

    Arsenic (As) has been associated with multitude of animal and human health problems; however, its impact on host immune system has not been extensively investigated. In fish, there are very few works on the potential risks or problems associated to the presence of arsenic. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of exposure (30 days) to sub-lethal concentrations of arsenic (5 μM As₂O₃) in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), with special emphasis in the innate immune response. The arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in liver and muscle of exposed fish showing As accumulation in the liver after 30 days of exposure. The hepatosomatic index was increased at significant extent after 10 days but returned to control values after 30 days of exposure. Histological alterations in the liver were observed including hypertrophy, vacuolization and cell-death processes. Focusing on the immunological response, the humoral immune parameters (seric IgM, complement and peroxidase activities) were no affected to a statistically significant extent. Regarding the cellular innate parameters, head-kidney leucocyte peroxidase, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities were significantly increased after 10 days of exposition compared to the control fish. Overall, As-exposure in the seabream affects the immune system. How this might interfere with fish biology, aquaculture management or human consumers warrants further investigations. This paper describes, for the first time, the immunotoxicological effects of arsenic exposure in the gilthead seabream, which is a species with the largest production in Mediterranean aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunotoxicological effects of inorganic arsenic on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, F.A.; Gónzalez-Párraga, M.P.; Cuesta, A. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Meseguer, J. [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Martínez, S.; Martínez-Sánchez, M.J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Chemistry, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Esteban, M.A., E-mail: aesteban@um.es [Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Campus Regional de Excelencia Internacional “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •Short exposure to arsenic increases the hepato-somatic index and produces histopathological alterations in the liver. •Arsenic is bioaccumulated in the liver of gilthead seabream but no in the muscle. •Arsenic-exposure affects the innate immune system in the gilthead seabream. •Ten days of exposure to As enhances the immune parameters. -- Abstract: Arsenic (As) has been associated with multitude of animal and human health problems; however, its impact on host immune system has not been extensively investigated. In fish, there are very few works on the potential risks or problems associated to the presence of arsenic. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of exposure (30 days) to sub-lethal concentrations of arsenic (5 μM As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), with special emphasis in the innate immune response. The arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in liver and muscle of exposed fish showing As accumulation in the liver after 30 days of exposure. The hepatosomatic index was increased at significant extent after 10 days but returned to control values after 30 days of exposure. Histological alterations in the liver were observed including hypertrophy, vacuolization and cell-death processes. Focusing on the immunological response, the humoral immune parameters (seric IgM, complement and peroxidase activities) were no affected to a statistically significant extent. Regarding the cellular innate parameters, head-kidney leucocyte peroxidase, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities were significantly increased after 10 days of exposition compared to the control fish. Overall, As-exposure in the seabream affects the immune system. How this might interfere with fish biology, aquaculture management or human consumers warrants further investigations. This paper describes, for the first time, the immunotoxicological effects of arsenic exposure in the

  10. Relationships Between Fish and Aquatic Plants: A Plan of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    has been used to de- fine differences in plant distribution, abundance, and species composition (Forsberg 1959; Edwards and Moore 1975; Cassani and...McCreary. 1985. Effects of fish nests on pattern and zonation of submersed macrophytes in a softwater lake. Aquat. Bot. 22:21-32. Cassani , J. R., and W

  11. Curative and health enhancement effects of aquatic exercise: evidence based on interventional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Honda1, Hiroharu Kamioka21Research Fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, 2Laboratory of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise.Methods: We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials, for which there were many studies on aquatic exercise. Aquatic exercise, in this study, means walking in all directions, stretching, and various exercises and conditioning performed with the feet grounded on the floor of a swimming pool. We excluded swimming. We decided to treat aquatic exercise, underwater exercise, hydrotherapy, and pool exercise as all having the same meaning.Results: Aquatic exercise had significant effects on pain relief and related outcome measurements for locomotor diseases.Conclusion: Patients may become more active, and improve their quality of life, as a result of aquatic exercise.Keywords: aquatic exercise, health enhancement, evidence

  12. Faunestic Study of the Aquatic Arthropods in a Tourism Area in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Shaeghi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic insects are very abundant and divers groups of insects that are associated with an aquatic or semiaquatic environment in one or more of their life stages. These insects have been, in some cases, well studied because they are vectors of several diseases. This is the first comprehensive faunistic study of aquatic insects from Babol County. The results may provide basic data for further taxonomic and ecological studies of aquatic insects as biological control agent or classification of water quality for the country.Methods: The specimens were collected using different methods including: D-frame net collector, standard mos­quito dipper (350ml, Sweep-Netting and plastic pipette. Sampling carried out in different part of breading places in several times.Results: During this study a total of 196 aquatic specimens were collected from different habitats and were mor­phologically identified including 18 families classified in 6 orders: Diptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. Babol and Amol district in Mazandaran Province are located in humid climate regions with suitable ecological factors of humidity, moderate temperature and the variety of plant species. There are different species of aquatic insects in different habitats.Conclusion: The results will provide information for biodeveristy, species richness, their role for biological control as well as calcification of rivers based on abundance of aquatic insects. Therefore the understanding of ecological specifications of aquatic insects could provide a clue for further Arthropod-borne disease control. Additionally aquatic insect could be used for classification of water bodies

  13. Stream Segments Captures and Crossings Associated With 2012 Aquatic Organism Passage Study Siuslaw National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Stream segments, aquatic organism captures, stream surveys, and road-stream crossings described by these metadata accompany a 2012 electrofishing study of the...

  14. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  15. The study of aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics: a scientometrical view of the main trends and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, A A; Bini, L M; Thomaz, S M

    2008-11-01

    Aquatic macrophytes comprises a diverse group of organisms including angiosperms, ferns, mosses, liverworts and some macroalgae that occur in seasonally or permanently wet environments. Among other implications, aquatic macrophytes are highly productive and with an important structuring role on aquatic environments. Ecological studies involving aquatic plants substantially increased in the last years. However, a precise view of researches devoted to aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics is necessary to reach a reliable evaluation of the scientific production. In the current study, we performed a scientometrics analysis of the scientific production devoted to Neotropical macrophytes in an attempt to find the main trends and gaps of researches concerning this group. The publication devoted to macrophytes in Neotropics increased conspicuously in the last two decades. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Chile were the most productive among Neotropical countries. Our analyses showed that the studies dealt mostly with the influences of aquatic macrophytes on organisms and abiotic features. Studies with a predictive approach or aiming to test ecological hypothesis are scarce. In addition, researches aiming to describe unknown species are still necessary. This is essential to support conservation efforts and to subsidize further investigations testing ecological hypotheses.

  16. Studies of Aquatic Fungi. XXIV. Aquatic Fungi in the Water of Melting Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The work was undertaken to investigate the mycoflora in the water of melting snow. Samples of water were collected in March 1987-1988 for hydrochemical analysis (3 sites and studies of the fungus content (9 sites. Forty-nine species of fungi were found in this waters. The following fungi unknown from Poland were found: Skirgiella septigena, Monoblepharis macraodra, M. polymorpha, M. fascicutlta, M. insignis, Achlya apiculata, Apodachlya punctata, Pythium dissotocum, Hansenula holstii, H. saturnus, Actiaospora megalospora and Heliscus lugdunensis.

  17. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch

  18. Regular aquatic exercise for chronic kidney disease patients: a 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechter, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not yet in dialysis can benefit from increased physical activity; however, the safety and outcomes of aquatic exercise have not been investigated in observational studies. The aim of this study was to analyze association of 10 years of regularly performed aquatic exercise with the study endpoint--that is, all-cause death or start of dialysis. Consecutive CKD patients were included in the study in January 2002. The exercise group (n=7) exercised regularly under the supervision of physiotherapist for 10 years; the control group (n=9), matched in terms of age and clinical parameters, remained sedentary. Low-intensity aerobic aquatic exercise was performed regularly twice a week; 32 weeks or more of exercise therapy sessions were conducted annually. None of the members of the aquatic exercise group reached dialysis or died in 10 years. In the sedentary control group, 55% reached the study endpoint--renal replacement therapy (n=2) or all-cause death (n=3). Occurrence of the study endpoint, compared using the exact multinomial test with unconditional margins, was statistically significantly different (P-value: 0.037) between the study groups. Regular supervised aquatic exercise arrested CKD progression. There was a statistically significant difference between the sedentary group and the exercise group in reaching renal replacement therapy or all-cause death in a follow-up time of 10 years.

  19. Effectiveness of aquatic therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled open study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcik, Deniz; Yigit, Ilknur; Pusak, Hasan; Kavuncu, Vural

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aquatic exercises in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 63 patients were included and allocated to two groups. Group I (n = 33) received an aquatic exercise program and Group II (n = 30) received a home-based exercise program for 60 min, 3x a week, over 5 weeks. Patients were evaluated for pain (visual analogue scale, VAS), number of tender points (NTP), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and functional capacity (fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, FIQ). All assessment parameters were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, and 24. There were statistically significant differences in FIQ and NTP in both groups at the end and during follow-up (P aquatic therapy group. A comparison of the two groups showed no statistically significant difference for FIQ, NTP, and BDI scores except VAS (P aquatic therapy and home-based exercise programs have beneficial effects on FIQ, BDI, and NTP. In pain management, only aquatic therapy seems to have long-term effects.

  20. Illustrated field guide for aquatic insects study: A collection that lets you view life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castiblanco-Zerda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed from the aquatic insects collection (CIA of National Pedagogical University of Colombia, Bogotá. A field guide and ID portable key was outlined, which contributed to the study of aquatic insects with alternative collection methods, through the development of methodologies for observation of living organisms (in situ and in vivo for identification until taxonomic level of family during the field practice and its subsequent return to the habitat, taking into account students’ practical work needs in the field and the active use of Biology Department biological resources. It was concluded that the recognition of aquatic insects families allows articulation between collection and field practices, as well as students’ reflection on methods and goals of the collection, and evaluation of other procedural possibilities as those presented in this work.

  1. A Study On Aquatic Fauna Of A Lake Formed By A Beaver Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this study an attempt was made to make a qualitative investigation on the aquatic fauna of a local beaver dam. The purpose of this study was to obtain a general...

  2. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters.

  3. Faunistic study of the aquatic beetles (Coleoptera: Polyphaga of Markazi Province (Central Iran with new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the presence of 24 aquatic beetle (Coleoptera: Polyphaga species belonging to 13 genera and five families in Markazi Province of Central Iran. Specimens were collected between 2001 and 2005. Eleven species and four genera are recorded from Iran for the first time. The ecological significance of the new records is briefly discussed. .

  4. The Impact of Aquatic Exercise on Sleep Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Kathryn N.; Kanupka, Jennifer Wood; DeLong, Kylee S.; Noel, Kelsie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participation in an aquatic exercise program improves sleep in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 8 children. An A-B-A withdrawal design was utilized. Each phase lasted for 4 weeks. The treatment included 60 min of aquatic exercise 2X/week. Phone calls to parents…

  5. Improvement of human dendritic cell culture for immunotoxicological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymery, N; Sibiril, Y; Parent-Massin, D

    2006-07-01

    A toxic injury such as a decrease in the number of immature dendritic cells caused by a cytotoxic effect or a disturbance in their maturation process can be responsible for immunodepression. There is a need to improve in vitro assays on human dendritic cells used to detect and evaluate adverse effects of xenobiotics. Two aspects were explored in this work: cytotoxic effects of xenobiotics on immature dendritic cells, and the interference of xenobiotics with dendritic cell maturation. Dendritic cells of two different origins were tested. Dendritic cells obtained either from umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells or, for the first time, from umbilical cord blood monocytes. The cytotoxicity assay on immature dendritic cells has been improved. For the study of the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on the maturation process of dendritic cells, several parameters were selected such as expression of markers (CD86, CD83, HLA-DR), secretion of interleukins 10 and 12, and proliferation of autologous lymphocytes. The relevance and the efficiency of the protocol applied were tested using two mycotoxins, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalence, DON, which are known to be immunosuppressive, and one phycotoxin, domoic acid, which is known not to have any immunotoxic effect. Assays using umbilical cord monocyte dendritic cell cultures with the protocol defined in this work, which involves a cytotoxicity study followed by evaluation of several markers of adverse effects on the dendritic cell maturation process, revealed their usefulness for investigating xenobiotic immunotoxicity toward immune primary reactions.

  6. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  7. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Salinero

    Full Text Available The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international. The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%. Over half of the research study sites (52.91% were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for

  8. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  9. Environmental study of some metals on several aquatic macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Location of Kragujevac city. pollution. Some of the ... The study areas are located near city Kragujevac in the Central part ..... Phytoremediation: green technology for the clean up of toxic metals.

  10. Study on the historical distribution of metals in aquatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Wagner Jose; Ishikawa, Dilson Norio; Nicolau, Andressa Clara; Magalhaes, Evandro Domingues; Inoue, Fabiana; Santos Nora, Paulo dos; Funfas, Rodolfo; Barreto, Sonia Regina Giancoli [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Parana (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the historical distribution of metals, phosphorous, and sulfur at four different depths in the sediments of different lakes formed in the course of an urban river (in Londrina, Parana State, Brazil) were determined. The transport of metals along the course of the river was observed mainly for Mn, Cr, and Zn. High concentrations of Pb in the Capivara Bay and Cr in the river were attributed to contamination from a battery plant and a tannery, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the deepest layers of the sediments remain high several years after deposition. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  12. Immunotoxicological effects of benzene inhalation in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S N; Shah, R; Wong, B A; Wong, V A; Farris, G M

    1997-05-16

    The inhalation of benzene is toxic to various components of the immunologic system in rodents. Spleen and thymus weights, total spleen and femur marrow cell counts, enumeration of spleen B- and T-lymphocytes, and an assessment of humoral immunocompetence, were used to evaluate the immunotoxicity of benzene in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to 0, 30, 200 or 400 ppm benzene for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 or 4 weeks. An early indicator of immunotoxicity was a reduction in the number of B-lymphocytes after 2 weeks of 400 ppm. After 4 weeks of 400 ppm, there was a reduction in thymus weight and spleen B-, CD4+/CD5+ and CD5+ T-lymphocytes. Rats exposed to 30, 200 or 400 ppm benzene for 2 or 4 weeks and challenged with sheep red blood cells developed a humoral response comparable to that of the control (0 ppm) animals. Enumeration of spleen T- and B-lymphocytes in rats exposed to benzene and challenged with SRBC showed only a transient reduction in spleen B-lymphocytes after 2 weeks of exposure to 400 ppm. These data suggest that there are no immunotoxicological effects of exposure to 200 ppm benzene or less, in rats exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 or 4 weeks.

  13. Aquatic aerobic exercise for children with cerebral palsy: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Smith, Hilary J; Lombard, Kelly A; Barlow, Carrie; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2014-02-01

    The primary purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a14-week aquatic exercise program on gross motor function and walking endurance in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to evaluate changes in functional strength, aerobic capacity and balance. A prospective time series group design consisting of four measurement sessions (two baseline, one post intervention, and 1-month follow-up) was used. Eight ambulatory children ages 6-15 years with CP and classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I or Level III participated in an aquatic aerobic exercise program. Significant improvements were observed for the primary outcomes of gross motor function and walking endurance. No significant differences between any of the secondary measures were observed, although all of the measures demonstrated trends of improvement after intervention. Ambulatory children with CP may improve their gross motor skills and walking endurance after an aquatic exercise program held twice per week for 14 weeks, utilizing moderate-to-vigorous exercise intensity and consisting of functional activities.

  14. Forty years of experiments on aquatic invasive species: are study biases limiting our understanding of impacts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Thomsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by non-native species are a threat to biodiversity because invaders can impact native populations, communities and entire ecosystems. To manage this threat, it is necessary to have a strong mechanistic understanding of how non-native species affect local species and communities. We reviewed 259 published papers (1972–2012 that described field experiments quantifying the impact of aquatic non-native species, to examine whether various types of study biases are limiting this understanding. Our review revealed that invasion impacts had been experimentally quantified for 101 aquatic non-native species, in all major freshwater and marine habitats, on all continents except Antarctica and for most higher taxonomic groupings. Over one-quarter (26% of studies included tests for impacts on local biodiversity. However, despite this extensive research effort, certain taxa, habitats and regions remain poorly studied. For example, of the over one hundred species examined in previous studies, only one was a marine fish and only six were herbivores. Furthermore, over half (53% the studies were from the USA and two-thirds (66% were from experiments conducted in temperate latitudes. By contrast, only 3% of studies were from Africa and <2% from high latitudes. We also found that one-fifth (20% of studies were conducted in estuaries, but only 1% from coral reefs. Finally, we note that the standard procedure of pooling or not reporting non-significant treatments and responses is likely to limit future synthetic advancement by biasing meta-analysis and severely limiting our ability to identify non-native species with none or negligible ecological impacts. In conclusion, a future focus on poorly-studied taxa, habitats and regions, and enhanced reporting of results, should improve our understanding and management of impacts associated with aquatic non-native species.

  15. A comparative study of the modeled effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities in midwestern streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shyam K; Bartell, Steven M; Brain, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    Potential effects of atrazine on the nontarget aquatic plants characteristic of lower-order streams in the Midwestern United States were previously assessed using the Comprehensive Aquatic System Model (CASMATZ ). Another similar bioenergetics-based, mechanistic model, AQUATOX, was examined in the present study, with 3 objectives: 1) to develop an AQUATOX model simulation similar to the CASMATZ model reference simulation in describing temporal patterns of biomass production by modeled plant populations, 2) to examine the implications of the different approaches used by the models in deriving plant community-based levels of concern (LOCs) for atrazine, and 3) to determine the feasibility of implementing alternative ecological models to assess ecological impacts of atrazine on lower-order Midwestern streams. The results of the present comparative modeling study demonstrated that a similar reference simulation to that from the CASMATZ model could be developed using the AQUATOX model. It was also determined that development of LOCs and identification of streams with exposures in excess of the LOCs were feasible with the AQUATOX model. Compared with the CASMATZ model results, however, the AQUATOX model consistently produced higher estimates of LOCs and generated non-monotonic variations of atrazine effects with increasing exposures. The results of the present study suggest an opportunity for harmonizing the treatments of toxicity and toxicity parameter estimation in the CASMATZ and the AQUATOX models. Both models appear useful in characterizing the potential impacts of atrazine on nontarget aquatic plant populations in lower-order Midwestern streams. The present model comparison also suggests that, with appropriate parameterization, these process-based models can be used to assess the potential effects of other xenobiotics on stream ecosystems.

  16. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  17. Quantifying tidally driven benthic oxygen exchange across permeable sediments: An aquatic eddy correlation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinnis, Daniel F.; Sommer, Stefan; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    of permeable sediments and has been identified as increasingly at risk for developing hypoxia. Therefore, we investigate the benthic O-2 exchange across the permeable North Sea sediments using a combination of in situ microprofiles, a benthic chamber, and aquatic eddy correlation. Tidal bottom currents drive....... The high O-2 flux variability results from deeper sediment O-2 penetration depths and increased O-2 storage during high velocities, which is then utilized during low-flow periods. The study reveals that the benthic hydrodynamics, sediment permeability, and pore water redox oscillations are all intimately...

  18. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the study of the aquatic sciences, covering all African waters. The Journal publishes ...

  19. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  20. Dispersal of aquatic organisms by waterbirds: a review of past research and priorities for future studies

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi; Green, Andy J.

    2002-01-01

    1. Inland wetlands constitute ecological islands of aquatic habitat often isolated by huge areas of non-suitable terrestrial habitats. Although most aquatic organisms lack the capacity to disperse by themselves to neighbouring catchments, many species present widespread distributions consistent with frequent dispersal by migratory waterbirds. 2. A literature review indicates that bird-mediated passive transport of propagules of aquatic invertebrates and plants is a frequent pr...

  1. Bioassay technique using seed shrimps for comparative studies regarding the aquatic acute lethality of biodegradable lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, S; Ezoe, S; Sasaki, C

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the environmental load resulting from the spillage of biodegradable lubricants in aquatic systems, a comparative acute lethality test wherein an oil-water interfacial area could be examined was considered. In this study, oleic acid was employed as a model biodegradable lubricant. Measurements of the pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) level of water during the exposure tests indicate that water degradation depends on the oil-water interfacial area, exposure duration, and water temperature. Furthermore, 72 h acute lethality tests were performed using two types of freshwater ostracods (seed shrimps) as test organisms: the large species Stenocypris hislopi and the small species Cypretta seurati. The longevity of the small species, which was physically more active, was strongly affected by water pollution. During the exposure test, the DO in water was significantly consumed by the degradation of the lubricant floating on it. Water exposed to a lubricant containing copper (Cu) demonstrated strong toxicity even after the recovery of the pH value and DO level by aging. The decrease in the DO level of water and increase in the concentration of metal compounds are dominant factors responsible for the mortality of aquatic organisms.

  2. Assessing nanomaterial exposures in aquatic ecotoxicological testing: Framework and case studies based on dispersion and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan J; Coleman, Jessica G; Diamond, Stephen A; Melby, Nicolas L; Bednar, Anthony J; Harmon, Ashley; Collier, Zachary A; Moser, Robert

    2017-05-01

    The unique behavior of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in aqueous media and dynamic changes in particle settling, agglomeration and dissolution rates is a challenge to the consistency, reliability and interpretation of standard aquatic hazard bioassay results. While the toxicological endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, reproduction, etc.) in ecotoxicity bioassays are largely applicable to ENMs, the standard methods as written for dissolved substances are confounded by the dynamic settling, agglomeration and dissolution of particulate ENMs during the bioassay. A testing framework was designed to serve as a starting point to identify approaches for the consistent conduct of aquatic hazard tests that account for the behavior of ENMs in test media and suitable data collection to support representative exposure metrology. The framework was demonstrated by conducting three case studies testing ENMs with functionally distinct characteristics and behaviors. Pretests with a temporal sampling of particle concentration, agglomeration and dissolution were conducted on each ENM in test media. Results indicated that a silver nanoparticle (AgNP) powder was not dispersible, a nano-TiO2 powder was dispersible but unstable, and a polyvinylpyrrolidinone-coated AgNP was relatively stable in test media. Based on these functional results, Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays were conducted to compare different exposure summary methods (nominal, arithmetic average, geometric average, time-weighted average) for calculating and expressing toxicity endpoints. Results indicated that while arithmetic means were effective for expressing the toxicity of more stable materials, time-weighted averaged concentrations were appropriate for the unstable nano-TiO2.

  3. [Study on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel character of aquatic plants and water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-lin; Zhao, Yun-sheng; Liang, Ren-feng; Zhang, Xia

    2012-02-01

    A study on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel of aquatic plants and water was given by using a orthogonal experimental design with three factors and two levels. The results of F test suggest that for the single factors, the band and the area ratio of mixed-pixel on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel of the reflection effects are particularly significant, however, the detector angle had no significant effect under these experimental conditions; For the interaction, the band and the area ratio of mixed-pixel, the detector and the area ratio of mixed-pixel, the effects of these two interactions on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel are also particularly significant, This study did quantitative analysis of the factors affecting the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel character and their interaction, and provided a new method for the indepth study of mixed-pixel.

  4. Inner architecture of vertebral centra in terrestrial and aquatic mammals: a two-dimensional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Maitena; Laurin, Michel; Jacques, Florian; Pellé, Eric; Dabin, Willy; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2013-05-01

    Inner vertebral architecture is poorly known, except in human and laboratory animals. In order to document this topic at a broad comparative level, a 2D-histomorphometric study of vertebral centra was conducted in a sample of 98 therian mammal species, spanning most of the size range and representing the main locomotor adaptations known in therian taxa. Eleven variables relative to the development and geometry of trabecular networks were extracted from CT scan mid-sagittal sections. Phylogeny-informed statistical tests were used to reveal the respective influences of phylogeny, size, and locomotion adaptations on mammalian vertebral structure. The use of random taxon reshuffling and squared change parsimony reveals that 9 of the 11 characteristics (the two exceptions are total sectional area and structural polarization) contain a phylogenetic signal. Linear discriminant analyses suggest that the sampled taxa can be arranged into three categories with respect to locomotion mode: a) terrestrial + flying + digging + amphibious forms, b) coastal oscillatory aquatic taxa, and c) pelagic oscillatory aquatic forms represented by oceanic cetaceans. Pairwise comparison tests and linear regressions show that, when specific size increases, the length of trabecular network (Tt.Tb.Le), as well as trabecular proliferation in total sections (Pr.Tb.Tt), increase with positive allometry. This process occurs in all locomotion categories but is particularly pronounced in pelagic oscillators. Conversely, mean trabecular width has a lesser increase with size in pelagic oscillators. Trabecular orientation is not influenced by size. All tests were corrected for multiple testing. By using six structural variables or indices, locomotion mode can be predicted with a 97.4% success rate for terrestrial forms, 66.7% for coastal oscillatory, and 81.3% for pelagic oscillatory. The possible functional meaning of these results and their potential use for paleobiological inference of locomotion in

  5. Support for NATO Advanced Study Institute on molecular ecology of aquatic microbes, August 28--September 9, 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint, I.

    1995-06-16

    This is a summary paper for a NATO Advanced Study Institute sponsored meeting entitled `The Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes` held in Luccia, Italy from August 28 to September 9, 1994. A full reference book for the proceedings is to be published later.

  6. Progress in study on endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs) in aquatic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Nandong; WANG Hongbo; XU Xiaobai

    2005-01-01

    Background on the generation of the problems of endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs) in aquatic environment, characteristics of EDPs, adverse effects and their effect mechanism of EDPs on human and wildlife, the transportation and degradation pathways of EDPs in water and analysis methods of EDPs in water were reviewed. The importance of EDPs in water should be attached to adverse effects on wildlife and human health. It was advised to establish research programs on EDPs in aquatic environment especially in water supply source.

  7. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study's participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject's comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients' pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters.

  8. Early Incorporation of an Evidence-Based Aquatic-Assisted Approach to Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Rehabilitation: Prospective Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaster, Chris; Eckenrode, Brian J; Stiebel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Both traditional and progressive rotator cuff repair rehabilitation protocols often delay active motion of the shoulder for 6 weeks or more. The early inclusion of a comprehensive aquatic-assisted exercise program presents a unique approach to postoperative management. The purpose of this case study is to describe a comprehensive evidence-based, aquatic-assisted rehabilitation program following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A 73-year-old woman with a nonretracted, medium-size, full-thickness tear (2.5 cm) of the supraspinatus tendon underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and was referred for postoperative physical therapy. The rehabilitation program was initiated at 2 weeks postoperatively and consisted of concurrent land- and aquatic-based interventions over 6 weeks for a total of 18 physical therapy visits. Improvements were made in all 5 patient-reported outcome measures that were recorded weekly over the course of care. Improvements reached or exceeded minimal detectable change levels for the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index and the Penn Shoulder Score. Her numeric pain rating scale score at rest decreased from 4/10 at the initial evaluation to 2/10 at 8 weeks postoperatively and with activity decreased from 9/10 to 6/10. Shoulder strength and range of motion values also exhibited improvement over the course of care. No adverse events occurred during the case study. This case study illustrates the safe inclusion of low-stress aquatic exercises as an early adjunct to traditional land-based rotator cuff repair rehabilitation programs in small- to medium-size repairs. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term effectiveness of adding aquatic therapy to traditional postoperative programs. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. Potential for parasite-induced biases in aquatic invertebrate population studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Justin D.L.; Mushet, David M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlight the need to include estimates of detection/capture probability in population studies. This need is particularly important in studies where detection and/or capture probability is influenced by parasite-induced behavioral alterations. We assessed potential biases associated with sampling a population of the amphipod Gammarus lacustris in the presence of Polymorphus spp. acanthocephalan parasites shown to increase positive phototaxis in their amphipod hosts. We trapped G. lacustris at two water depths (benthic and surface) and compared number of captures and number of parasitized individuals at each depth. While we captured the greatest number of G. lacustris individuals in benthic traps, parasitized individuals were captured most often in surface traps. These results reflect the phototaxic movement of infected individuals from benthic locations to sunlit surface waters. We then explored the influence of varying infection rates on a simulated population held at a constant level of abundance. Simulations resulted in increasingly biased abundance estimates as infection rates increased. Our results highlight the need to consider parasite-induced biases when quantifying detection and/or capture probability in studies of aquatic invertebrate populations.

  10. A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Deng, Z. D.; Li, H.; Myjak, M. J.; Martinez, J. J.; Xiao, J.; Brown, R. S.; Cartmell, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the behavior of aquatic animals and assessing the environmental impact of structures such as hydropower facilities. However, the physical size, signal intensity, and service life of off-the-shelf transmitters are presently insufficient for monitoring certain species. In this study, we developed a small, long-life acoustic transmitter with an approximate length of 24.2 mm, diameter of 5.0 mm, and dry weight of 0.72 g. The transmitter generates a coded acoustic signal at 416.7 kHz with a selectable source level between 159 and 163 dB relative to 1 μPa at 1 m, allowing a theoretical detection range of up to 500 m. The expected operational lifetime is 1 yr at a pulse rate interval of 15 s. The new technology makes long-term acoustic telemetry studies of small fish possible, and is being deployed for a long-term tracking of juvenile sturgeon.

  11. sAC from aquatic organisms as a model to study the evolution of acid/base sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is poised to play multiple physiological roles as an acid/base (A/B) sensor in aquatic organisms. Many of these roles are probably similar to those in mammals; a striking example is the evolutionary conservation of a mechanism involving sAC, carbonic anhydrase and vacuolar H⁺-ATPase that acts as a sensor system and regulator of extracellular A/B in shark gills and mammalian epididymis and kidney. Additionally, the aquatic environment presents unique A/B and physiological challenges; therefore, sACs from aquatic organisms have likely evolved distinct kinetic properties as well as distinct physiological roles. sACs from aquatic organisms offer an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of A/B sensing at both the molecular and whole organism levels. Moreover, this information could help understand and predict organismal responses to environmental stress based on mechanistic models.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease," guest edited by J. Buck and L. R. Levin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria - case study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-11-02

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years' period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems' conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results.

  13. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  14. A study of 110mAg in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhaorong; Leung, John K C

    2003-04-01

    Experiments on a simulated terrestrial agricultural ecosystem were carried out using the pot culture approach. The most representative plants in local vegetable gardens were selected to investigate the root uptake of (110m)Ag. The results show that carrot, kale and flowering cabbage have the largest transfer factor values among the vegetables. Flowering cabbage, as the most popular leafy vegetable in Hong Kong and the South China area, can be used as a biomonitor for radioisotope contamination in vegetables. Soil column and adsorption tests were also carried out to study the leaching ability of the silver isotope in soil and (110m)Ag was mainly adsorbed in the top 1 cm of soil regardless of the pH value. Experiments on a simulated aquatic ecosystem for freshwater fish and marine organisms were carried out in glass aquaria. The freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio, the marine fish Cuvier and some local abundant seashore molluscs were selected to investigate the kinetic metabolism of (110m)Ag in the compartmental system. The results show that molluscs absorb (110m)Ag much more than fish. Clibanarius infraspinatus has the largest concentration factor among the marine organisms selected. Fish liver, although representing a minor portion of the total body mass, shows the highest (110m)Ag concentration factor, whereas muscle, although representing a major portion of the total body mass, is characterized by an absence of (110m)Ag.

  15. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  16. Aggregation of ecological indicators for mapping aquatic nature quality : overview of existing methods and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Lahr, J.; Oosten-Siedlecka, van A.M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators for aquatic nature quality are calculated using ecological monitoring data from individual sampling stations. For reporting purposes, these results need to be aggregated and scaled up to higher levels (catchment area, country). This report provides an overview of different existing spatia

  17. Identification of Endocrine Disruptive Effects in the Aquatic Environment - a Partial Life Cycle Study in Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester PW; Brandhof EJ van den; Vos JH; Ven LTM van der; TOX; LER

    2003-01-01

    In this project, an assay was developed and applied to identify hormone active substances in the aquatic environment. Laboratory fish were exposed during the reproductive and development phase to a range of established endocrine active compounds; these were estrogen (17 beta-estradiol), anti-estroge

  18. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  19. Advances in in Vitro Alternative Methods of Immunotoxicology%免疫毒理学体外替代方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虹; 王春仁; 周小婷; 张梅玲; 韩倩倩; 赵丹妹

    2016-01-01

    Traditionaly, we use animal test to speculate possible immunotoxicity harm when we apply materials or products to the human body. However, due to limitations caused by animal and human species difference and increasingly animal welfare protection requirements traditional animal toxicology experiments can not meet the requirements of safety evaluation. Looking for alternative experiment methods which are more closer to mechanisms of human body and more efifcient, sensitive or rapid for in vitro toxicology safety evaluation studies in recent years become an international popular issue. With the deepening of basic research studies, some immunotoxicity mechanisms, celular pathways, toxicological endpoints increasingly being discovered .Researchers have developed a number of in vitro alternatives to replace animal experiments gradualy. This article describes some advances in immunotoxicology alternative methods in vitro, giving some suggestions by comparing the advantages and limitations of these methods.%传统上,我们使用动物试验来推测施用于人体的材料或产品等可能给人体带来的免疫毒性危害。但由于动物与人类种属差异的局限性和动物保护福利要求的日益加强,传统的动物实验已经不能满足对毒理学安全性评价的要求。寻找与人类的在体实验原理更接近并且高效、灵敏又快速的体外毒理学安全性评价方法成为近几年国际上的研究热点。随着基础科研研究的不断深入,免疫毒理的一些机理、细胞通路、毒理学终点日渐被发现并被认知,科研工作者们开发了一些体外替代方法逐步取代动物实验。本文介绍若干免疫毒理学体外替代方法的研究进展,通过比较各方法优点及局限性给拟使用这些方法进行毒理评价的工作者一些参考意见。

  20. Comparative Studies on Effects of Acid Solutions on Aquatic Plants by Beam Deflection and Absorbance Spectroscopy Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Nie, Liangjiao; Inoue, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    The beam deflection method and absorbance spectroscopy were applied to study effects of acid solutions on aquatic plants, and their results were compared. Aquatic plants Egeria densa and Ceratophyllum demersum L were used as model plants. In absorbance experiments, a piece of the plants was put in a beaker with 20 mL HCl solution, and absorbance of the HCl solution was measured every 30 min. In beam deflection experiments, a probe beam from a He-Ne laser was focused to a vicinity of the plants in a culture dish with HCl solution by an objective lens, and deflection signals of the probe beam were monitored by a position sensor. Absorbance spectra of the HCl solutions with immersing of the plants showed absorbance below 410 nm, suggesting that some compounds leaked from the plants into the HCl solutions. Changes of absorbance and deflection signals with immersion time were examined for different pH levels. The changing trends of the absorbance and deflection signals with time were similar, but the absorbance changes were delayed for about 2 - 3 h. The absorbance method could not detect the effect of the pH 5.0 HCl solutions on the aquatic plants, while the deflection method could.

  1. U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service Aquatic Invertebrate Community Study at Prime Hook NWR, Bombay Hook NWR, Long Island NWR Complex, Supawna Meadows NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The immediate goal of this study in the summer of 2000 was to collect baseline data on the aquatic invertebrate communities present in wetlands where mosquito...

  2. A comparative study of the effects of trunk exercise program in aquatic and land-based therapy on gait in hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients (20 males, 8 females). The subjects performed a trunk exercise program for a total of four weeks. [Results] Walking speed and cycle, stance phase and stride length of the affected side, and the symmetry index of the stance phase significantly improved after the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program may help improve gait performance ability after stroke.

  3. Field and laboratory studies reveal interacting effects of stream oxygenation and warming on aquatic ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Durance, Isabelle; Vaughan, Ian P; Ormerod, Steve J

    2016-05-01

    Aquatic ecological responses to climatic warming are complicated by interactions between thermal effects and other environmental stressors such as organic pollution and hypoxia. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated how oxygen limitation can set heat tolerance for some aquatic ectotherms, but only at unrealistic lethal temperatures and without field data to assess whether oxygen shortages might also underlie sublethal warming effects. Here, we test whether oxygen availability affects both lethal and nonlethal impacts of warming on two widespread Eurasian mayflies, Ephemera danica, Müller 1764 and Serratella ignita (Poda 1761). Mayfly nymphs are often a dominant component of the invertebrate assemblage in streams, and play a vital role in aquatic and riparian food webs. In the laboratory, lethal impacts of warming were assessed under three oxygen conditions. In the field, effects of oxygen availability on nonlethal impacts of warming were assessed from mayfly occurrence in 42 293 UK stream samples where water temperature and biochemical oxygen demand were measured. Oxygen limitation affected both lethal and sublethal impacts of warming in each species. Hypoxia lowered lethal limits by 5.5 °C (±2.13) and 8.2 °C (±0.62) for E. danica and S. ignita respectively. Field data confirmed the importance of oxygen limitation in warmer waters; poor oxygenation drastically reduced site occupancy, and reductions were especially pronounced under warm water conditions. Consequently, poor oxygenation lowered optimal stream temperatures for both species. The broad concordance shown here between laboratory results and extensive field data suggests that oxygen limitation not only impairs survival at thermal extremes but also restricts species abundance in the field at temperatures well below upper lethal limits. Stream oxygenation could thus control the vulnerability of aquatic ectotherms to global warming. Improving water oxygenation and reducing pollution can provide

  4. Constructed wetland and aquatic treatment systems for fish farms in Egypt : Desk study report

    OpenAIRE

    Truijen, G.; Heijden, van der, MGM Mike

    2013-01-01

    This report summarises the information found in scientific literature regarding the mechanisms and processes that enable constructed wetlands to remove heavy metals and pesticides from waste water. It examines what factors have an influence on the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat waste water containing such pollutants and shows the impact on the design and operation of constructed wetlands. It focuses on free surface flow wetlands and aquatic treatment systems because these type...

  5. Toxicity of Military Unique Compounds in Aquatic Organisms: An Annotated Bibliography (Studies Published Through 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Biochemistry/Air Pollution/Soil Pollutants/Water. Haley, M. V., Checkai, R. T., Kurnas , C. W., and Wentsel, R. S. Toxicity Determination of Explosive...Membranes/Metals/Operations/Residues/Sites/Soil Surveys/ Toxicity/Water/Hazardous Materials/Contamination/Explosives/ Response. Haley, M. V., and Kurnas ... Kurnas , C. W., Chester, N. A., and Muse, W. T. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution. Giveth

  6. Study on metal accumulation in aquatic plants of Cuciurgan cooling reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubcov Elena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The biomass of plants from the Cuciurgan cooling reservoir of the Moldovan Thermal Power Plant is dependent on the reservoir thermofication and bore considerable modifications. The contents of many metals in aquatic plants were highly correlated with their contents in water: r=0,87-0,91. The dynamics of trace element accumulation depends on seasonal factors. From the beginning of spring to the end of summer and beginning of autumn, the concentrations of trace elements increased by large increments, while with the decrease in temperature below 10°C, an opposite effect was observed. After plant death, a significant part of accumulated trace elements are released into the water, in the most cases this being associated with organic compounds. More than one half of the amount of trace elements is deposited with the decaying plants in the bottom sediments. Therefore, difficulties may arise, while identifying the role of aquatic plants in biogenic migration of metals in aquatic ecosystems and water purification processes.

  7. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar (Burma constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae, and Potamogeton distinctus × P. nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae; the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  8. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharisflava with 2n = 20, Sagittariatrifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae), and Potamogetondistinctus × Potamogetonnodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae); the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar.

  9. Antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas spp. in the aquatic environment: A prevalence study under tropical and temperate climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Köhler, Thilo; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; van Delden, Christian; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mpiana, Pius T; Ibelings, Bastiaan W; Poté, John

    2017-05-15

    Microbial populations which are resistant to antibiotics are an emerging environmental concern with potentially serious implications for public health. Thus, there is a growing concern in exploring the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the environment with no limitations to the factors that contribute to their emergence. The aquatic environment is considered to be a hot-spot for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance due to pollution with emerging contaminants derived from anthropogenic activities. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of 141 Pseudomonas spp. from aquatic sediments receiving partially (un)treated hospital and communal effluents from three distinct geographical locations: Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), India (IN), and Switzerland (CH). P. putida (42%) and P. aeruginosa (39%) were the dominant Pseudomonas species. The highest frequency of antibiotic resistance against eight anti-pseudomonas agents was found among IN isolates (35-60%), followed by DRC (18-50%) and CH (12-54%). CTX-M was the most frequent β-lactamase found in CH (47% of isolates), while VIM-1 was dominant in isolates from DRC (61%) and IN (29%). NDM-1 was found in 29% of the total IN isolates and surprisingly also in 6% of CH isolates. Chromosomally-encoded efflux mechanisms were overexpressed in P. aeruginosa isolates from all three geographic locations. In vitro conjugative transfers of antibiotic resistance plasmids occurred more frequently under tropical temperatures (30 and 37 °C) than under temperate conditions (10 °C). The presence of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and Metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in the isolates from environmental samples has important implications for humans who depend on public water supply and sanitation facilities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a comparison between treated/untreated effluents from urban and hospital settings as a source of microbial resistance

  10. Systematic review of published studies on aquatic exercise for balance in patients with multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichanan Methajarunon, MSc, PT

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Aquatic exercises may be effective at improving balance impairment in patients with hemiplegia and multiple sclerosis. There is a need for further research investigating its effect on Parkinson's disease before encouraging the use of aquatic exercises.

  11. Ecotoxicological studies of micro- and nanosized barium titanate on aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mouton, Ludovic; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Brayner, Roberta

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between live organisms and micro- or nanosized materials has become a current focus in toxicology. As nanosized barium titanate has gained momentum lately in the medical field, the aims of the present work are: (i) to assess BT toxicity and its mechanisms on the aquatic environment, using two photosynthetic organisms (Anabaena flos-aquae, a colonial cyanobacteria, and Euglena gracilis, a flagellated euglenoid); (ii) to study and correlate the physicochemical properties of BT with its toxic profile; (iii) to compare the BT behavior (and Ba(2+) released ions) and the toxic profile in synthetic (Bold's Basal, BB, or Mineral Medium, MM) and natural culture media (Seine River Water, SRW); and (iv) to address whether size (micro, BT MP, or nano, BT NP) is an issue in BT particles toxicity. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic efficiency were evaluated. The main conclusions are: (i) BT have statistically significant toxic effects on E. gracilis growth and viability even in small concentrations (1μgmL(-1)), for both media and since the first 24 h; on the contrary of on A. flos-aquae, to whom the effects were noticeable only for the higher concentrations (after 96 h: ≥75 μg mL(-1) for BT NP and =100 μg mL(-1) for BT MP, in BB; and ≥75 μg mL(-1) for both materials in SRW), in spite of the viability being affected in all concentrations; (ii) the BT behaviors in synthetic and natural culture media were slightly different, being the toxic effects more pronounced when grown in SRW - in this case, a worse physiological state of the organisms in SRW can occur and account for the lower resistance, probably linked to a paucity of nutrients or even a synergistic effect with a contaminant from the river; and (iii) the effects seem to be mediated by induced stress without a direct contact in A. flos-aquae and by direct endocytosis in E. gracilis, but in

  12. Zebrafish a new sustainable vertebrate model established at DTU Food to study immunotoxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Schmidt, Jacob Günther

    2014-01-01

    enable new research possibilities: Small in size, Short life cycle and generation time, Good reproduction in captivity, External fertilization, Transparent embryos, Rapid embryonic development, Several transgenic strains e.g. with fluorescent cell types. We use zebrafish and carp as vertebrate models...... transplants from one individual to another of the same species) in skin, where e measure angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels) and expression of involved genes. The process of angiogenesis has proven to be a promising screening model, as angiogenesis can be followed by non...

  13. Effectiveness of Aquatic Therapy vs Land-based Therapy for Balance and Pain in Women with Fibromyalgia: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Neira, Sabela Rivas; Marques, Amelia Pasqual; Pérez, Irene Pegito; Cervantes, Ramón Fernández; Costa, Jamile Vivas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is a disease with an increasing incidence. It impairs the quality of life of patients and decreases their functional capacity. Aquatic therapy has already been used for managing the symptoms of this syndrome. However, aquatic therapy has only recently been introduced as a treatment modality for improving proprioception in fibromyalgia. The main objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of ...

  14. The SCID-hu mouse as a tool in immunotoxicological risk assessment: Effects of 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl-imidazole (THI) and di-n-butyltin dichloride (DBTC) on the human thymus in SCID-hu mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, C. de; Schuurman, H.J.; Houben, G.F.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Penninks, A.H.; Loveren, H. van

    1995-01-01

    SCID mice engrafted with human fetal thymus and liver tissue fragments (SCID-hu mice) are currently considered as a new tool in human immunotoxicological risk assessment. Testing of various immunotoxicants exerting thymotoxicity via different intrathymic target cell types is necessary for validation

  15. Tree rings, Populus nigra L., as mercury data logger in aquatic environments: case study of an historically contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, S N; Soares, A M V M; Nogueira, A J A; Morgado, F

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a tree (Populus nigra L.) has been presented as data logger of mercury release in aquatic environments using tree rings chemistry to provide chronological historical monitoring of mercury discharge from a chlor-alkali industrial effluent to a coastal lagoon. Tree rings (Populus nigra L.) as mercury data logger is suggested by mercury accumulation trends in the tree rings reflecting the industrial plant capacity increments in the early stages of mercury discharges and enhancing industrial plant controls to minimize mercury discharges in the last two decades after imposed global regulations on mercury emissions.

  16. Comparison of Ai Chi and Impairment-Based Aquatic Therapy for Older Adults With Balance Problems: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covill, Laura G; Utley, Cynthia; Hochstein, Cheryl

    2016-08-03

    Older adults with balance deficits often fear falling and limit their mobility. Poor balance is multifactorial, influenced by medication interactions, musculoskeletal and sensory system changes, and poor neuromuscular response to changes in body positions. Aquatic physical therapy (APT) is an intervention used to improve balance and decrease falls. Ai Chi is a water-based exercise program. It incorporates slow movements of progressive difficulty utilizing the upper and lower extremities and trunk coordinated with deep breathing. It is used for relaxation, strengthening, and balance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Ai Chi provides better results than conventional impairment-based aquatic therapy (IBAT) for older adults with balance deficits. Thirty-two community-dwelling adults, 65 to 85 years old, were referred to 2 different community pools for APT. Fifteen participants received Ai Chi-based aquatic interventions and 17 participants received an IBAT program. Physical therapists trained in both programs completed interventions and determined discharge. Physical balance measures, which included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG), were collected pre- and posttherapy. Self-reported outcome measures, the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), were collected pre- and posttherapy and 3- and 6-month postdischarge. A 2-way (group by time) mixed-model analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The covariate was the initial outcome scores. Comparison of the 2 groups revealed no difference between groups in any of the outcome measures (BBS, P = .53; TUG, P = .39; ABC, P = .63; NPRS, P = .27). Repeated-measures analysis and dependent t test were done on the entire aquatic cohort to assess improvement over time. The BBS and TUG showed significant improvement (BBS, P = .00; TUG P = .03) after APT. The ABC and NPRS did not improve significantly (ABC, P = .27; NPRS, P = .77). There

  17. A numerical taxonomic study of species of Vibrio isolated from the aquatic environment and birds in Kent, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P A; Lee, J V; Bryant, T N

    1983-10-01

    A numerical taxonomic study has been carried out to confirm the identity of strains of the family Vibrionaceae isolated during an ecological study. A total of 237 strains were studied including 148 from the aquatic environment, 6 from estuarine birds, 1 from sheep faeces, and 61 control cultures. Duplicates of 21 of the strains were randomly selected and included to estimate test and operator error. Taxonomic resemblance was estimated on the basis of 148 characters using Euclidean distance. The taxonomic position of some strains was reevaluated using the pattern different coefficient. Strains were clustered by three methods, all of which gave similar results. The estimated average probability of test error was 1.5%. Strains previously identified as Vibrio anguillarum fell into four distinct phenons corresponding to V. anguillarum biovar I, 'V. anguillarum biovar II', V. diazotrophicus, and strains pathogenic to oyster larvae. The latter group characteristically degraded xanthine and probably represents a new species. The phenon corresponding to V. cholerae included the type strain, strains of human origin, and strains isolated in the United Kingdom from birds and the aquatic environment. Some strains of V. cholerae were luminous. Other phenons were identified as V. metschnikovii, V. fluvialis, and Aeromonas spp.

  18. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO2 nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4-25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO2, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO2 was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO2 (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO2 nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations` suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  20. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of [sup 60]Co, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  1. A Preliminary Study of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in the Endangered Aquatic Quillwort Isoetes sinensis Palmer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PangXin-an; WangQing-feng; GituruW.Robert; LiuHong; YangXiao-lin; LiuXing

    2003-01-01

    Isoetes sinensis Palmer (Isoetaceae) is an aquatic or amphibious plant that is critically endangered in China. Previous studies have revealed the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like photosynthetic pathway occurs commonly in submerged leaves in genus Isoetes. Water chemistry parameters and the titratable acidity content of the plant extract were measured from samples obtained in the early morning (7:00) and late afternoon (15=00) from two I.sinensis populations in China. One population occurs in the eulittoral zone of a freshwater tidal river at low elevation (134 m) and another occurs in a densely vegetated, high elevation (1 100 m) alpine shallow pool. Significant difference sin pH and titratable acidity of the plant extract were detected between the morning and afternoon samples. These changes are associated with diurnal changes in water chemistry. Our results provide the first evidence for the existence of the CAM pathway in the East Asian endemic Isoetes sinensis Palmer.The magnitude of fluctuations in the titratable acidity of the plant extract may be correlated with the severe carbon limitation imposed on the plants by its aquatic habitat.

  2. A Preliminary Study of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in the Endangered Aquatic Quillwort Isoetes sinensis Palmer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Xin-an; Wang Qing-feng; Gituru W.Robert; Liu Hong; Yang Xiao-lin; Liu Xing

    2003-01-01

    Isoetes sinensis Palmer (Isoetaceae) is an aquatic or amphibious plant that is critically endangered in China. Previous studies have revealed the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like photosynthetic pathway occurs com-monly in submerged leaves in genus Isoetes. Water chemistry parameters and the titratable acidity content of the plant extract were measured from samples obtained in the early morning (7:00) and late afternoon (15:00) from two I.sinensis populations in China. One population occurs in the eulittoral zone of a freshwater tidal river at low elevation (134 m) and another occurs in a densely vegetated, high elevation (1 100 m) alpine shallow pool. Significant differences in pH and titratable acidity of the plant extract were detected between the morning and afternoon samples. These changes are associated with diurnalchanges in water chemistry. Our results provide the first evidence for the exist-ence of the CAM pathwa in the East Asian endemic Isoetes sinensis Palmer.The magnitude of fluctuations in the titratable acidity of the plant extract mayb e correlated with the severe carbon limitation imposed on the plants by its aquatic habitat.

  3. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  4. Laboratory and field studies on the effect of molinate, clomazone, and thiobencarb on nontarget aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, A S; Stevens, M M; Macmillan, D L

    2001-10-01

    The midge Chironomus tepperi was used in laboratory experiments to assess the relative toxicity of formulated molinate, clomazone, and thiobencarb, three herbicides used in Australian rice crops. Static bioassays were initiated with first-instar larvae at herbicide concentrations between 0.0625 and 2 times the anticipated field concentrations (AFCs) expected from the registered application rates. Adult emergence success, development time, and wing length were used as indices of the effect of each herbicide. Clomazone had no effect on any parameters at concentrations up to 0.288 mg/L (p > 0.05). Molinate significantly increased development time at concentrations equivalent to the AFC (3.6 mg/L) and above (p < 0.05). Thiobencarb reduced emergence success of adult C. tepperi at 0.0625 times the AFC (0.1875 mg/L) as well as decreasing male adult size and increasing development time for males and females at 0.125 times the AFC (p < 0.05). Nontarget effects of the herbicides on aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed in shallow experimental ponds using commercial application rates. One week after treatment, only thiobencarb had a significant effect, suppressing populations of chironomids, calanoids, and cyclopoids (p < 0.05). Four weeks later, all populations had recovered, equaling or exceeding control densities.

  5. A case study of data integration for aquatic resources using semantic web technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janice M.; Chkhenkeli, Nina; Govoni, David L.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Ostroff, Andrea; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Thongsavanh, Phethala; Varanka, Dalia E.; Zednik, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Use cases, information modeling, and linked data techniques are Semantic Web technologies used to develop a prototype system that integrates scientific observations from four independent USGS and cooperator data systems. The techniques were tested with a use case goal of creating a data set for use in exploring potential relationships among freshwater fish populations and environmental factors. The resulting prototype extracts data from the BioData Retrieval System, the Multistate Aquatic Resource Information System, the National Geochemical Survey, and the National Hydrography Dataset. A prototype user interface allows a scientist to select observations from these data systems and combine them into a single data set in RDF format that includes explicitly defined relationships and data definitions. The project was funded by the USGS Community for Data Integration and undertaken by the Community for Data Integration Semantic Web Working Group in order to demonstrate use of Semantic Web technologies by scientists. This allows scientists to simultaneously explore data that are available in multiple, disparate systems beyond those they traditionally have used.

  6. Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamics study of humic acid removal process from aquatic environment by chitosan nano particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghafoori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Humic substances include natural organic polyelectrolyte materials that formed most of the dissolved organic carbon in aquatic environments. Reaction between humic substances and chlorine leading to formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs those are toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic. The aim of this study was investigation of isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of humic acid removal process by nano chitosan from aquatic environment. Materials and Methods: This practical research was an experimental study that performed in a batch system. The effect of various parameters such as pH, humic acid concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage, isotherms, thermodynamics and Kinetics of humic acid adsorption process were investigated. Humic acid concentration measured using spectrophotometer at wave length of 254 nm. Results: The results of this research showed that maximum adsorption capacity of nanochitosan that fall out in concentration of 50 mg/l and contact time of 90 minutes was 52.34 mg/g. Also, the maximum adsorption was observed in pH = 4 and adsorbent dosage 0.02 g. Laboratory data show that adsorption of humic acid by nanochitosan follow the Langmuir isotherm model. According to result of thermodynamic study, entropy changes (ΔS was equal to 2.24 J/mol°k, enthalpy changes (ΔH was equal to 870 kJ/mol and Gibbs free energy (ΔG was negative that represent the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The kinetics of adsorption has a good compliant with pseudo second order model. Conclusion: Regarding to results of this study, nano chitosan can be suggested as a good adsorbent for the removal of humic acids from aqueous solutions.

  7. Cytochromes of Aquatic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H.; Unestam, Torgny

    1968-01-01

    The cytochrome systems of two classes of aquatic fungi, the Oomycetes and Chytridiomycetes, were studied by means of reduced-minus-oxidized difference spectra at room and at low temperature. At room temperature, all of these fungi have a c-type cytochrome with an absorption maximum at 551 mμ and a b-type cytochrome at 564 mμ. The Oomycetes have a-type cytochromes at 605 mμ, and the Chytridiomycetes have a-type cytochromes at 606 mμ (Blastocladiales) or at 609 mμ (Monoblepharidales). Additional b-type cytochromes are found at 557 mμ in the Oomycetes and at approximately 560 mμ in the Chytridiomycetes. The data obtained from spectra at low temperature are consistent with these conclusions. Thus, the difference spectra reveal variation between the cytochrome systems of these two classes of aquatic fungi. PMID:5650068

  8. Interaction of strontium and europium with an aquatic fulvic acid studied by ultrafiltration and ion exchange techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Maria; Ephraim, James; Allard, Bert

    The complexation of an aquatic fulvic acid, FA, with Sr2+ and Eu3+ was studied using an ultrafiltration technique and an ion exchange distribution method. The total amount of bound metal (Sr2+ and Eu3+) was measured as a function of pH at low metal concentrations (trace levels) and constant FA concentration. In the Sr-FA system the bound metal fraction increased slightly with pH, and the values obtained from the two experimental techniques were comparable. For Eu-FA, according to the ultrafiltration data, the fraction of bound metal ion was relatively insensitive to pH changes, whereas values from the ion exchange measurements showed a strong and positive dependence on pH. The results are discussed in the light of possible intrinsic problems of the two methods.

  9. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendoza-carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-lozada, Alejandra; Dias-ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the b

  10. Membrane filtration studies of aquatic humic substances and their metal species: a concise overview. Part 2. Evaluation of conditional stability constants by using ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifant'eva, T I; Shkinev, V M; Spivakov, B Y; Burba, P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of conditional stability constants of aquatic humic substance (HS) metal complexes is overviewed with special emphasis on the application of ultrafiltration methods. Fundamentals and limitations of stability functions in the case of macromolecular and polydisperse metal-HS species in aquatic environments are critically discussed. The review summarizes the advantages and application of ultrafiltration for metal-HS complexation studies, discusses the comparibility and reliability of stability constants. The potential of ultrafiltration procedures for characterizing the lability of metal-HS species is also stressed.

  11. Aquatic therapy versus conventional land-based therapy for Parkinson's disease: an open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Jamile; Arias, Pablo; Cudeiro, Javier

    2011-08-01

    To assess and compare 2 different protocols of physiotherapy (land or water therapy) for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) focused on postural stability and self-movement, and to provide methodological information regarding progression within the program for a future larger trial. Randomized, controlled, open-label pilot trial. Outpatients, Parkinson's disease Center of Ferrol-Galicia (Spain). Individuals (N=11) with idiopathic PD in stages 2 or 3 according to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale completed the investigation (intervention period plus follow-up). After baseline evaluations, participants were randomly assigned to a land-based therapy (active control group) or a water-based therapy (experimental group). Participants underwent individual sessions for 4 weeks, twice a week, for 45 minutes per session. Both interventions were matched in terms of exercise features, which were structured in stages with clear objectives and progression criteria to pass to the next phase. Participants underwent a first baseline assessment, a posttest immediately after 4 weeks of intervention, and a follow-up assessment after 17 days. Evaluations were performed OFF-dose after withholding medication for 12 hours. Functional assessments included the Functional Reach Test (FRT), the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the UPDRS, the 5-m walk test, and the Timed Up and Go test. A main effect of both therapies was seen for the FRT. Only the aquatic therapy group improved in the BBS and the UPDRS. In this pilot study, physiotherapy protocols produced improvement in postural stability in PD that was significantly larger after aquatic therapy. The intervention protocols are shown to be feasible and seem to be of value in amelioration of postural stability-related impairments in PD. Some of the methodological aspects detailed here can be used to design larger controlled trials. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages.

  13. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen K; Crane, Mark St J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Olesen, Niels J; Gallardo Lagno, Alicia

    2016-02-25

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  14. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A.; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen; St. J. Crane, Mark; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Olesen, Niels J; Lagno, Alicia Gallardo

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies—paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  15. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  16. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  17. Accumulation of microcystin congeners in different aquatic plants and crops--a case study from lake Amatitlán, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Oliva, Claudia Suseth; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Block, Tobias; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) fate in natural environments can lead to its transfer into aquatic organisms, e.g. aquatic plants. Moreover, lakes in several countries sustain agriculture activities posing a serious health threat for the public. The case of Lake Amatitlán in Guatemala, was addressed to better understand MCs accumulation of four aquatic plants (Polygonum portoricensis, Eichhornia crassipes, Typha sp. and Hydrilla verticillata) coexisting with Microcystis aeruginosa blooms. These findings were further corroborated with an uptake/accumulation laboratory study. Finally crop products (Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum) irrigated with lake water were also evaluated for MCs. The obtained results suggest that Lake Amatitlán is highly contaminated with MCs (intra- and extracellular 1931 and 90 µg/L, respectively). In fruits of S. lycopersicum and C. annuum a concentration of 1.16 and 1.03 µg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively could be detected. All four aquatic plants showed a high MCs uptake capacity based on obtained bioconcentration factors (BCF) 165, 18, 16 and 11, respectively. These results were further corroborated in a laboratory study with 30 percent of total MCs taken up by H. verticillata within just 7 days. Additionally it was evidenced that all plants accumulated more MC-LR than other MCs congeners. Monitoring of crop products irrigated with lake water needs further consideration.

  18. Studies on the aquatic environment at Olkiluoto and reference area. 1: Olkiluoto, reference lakes and Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers in 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, V. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd., Pori (Finland); Helin, J.

    2014-03-15

    This working report presents the first results of a sampling campaign at Olkiluoto and reference lakes and rivers selected to resemble the aquatic systems expected to form at the site in the future with the post-glacial crustal rebound (land uplift). In 2009-2010, the aim of the studies was to improve the knowledge of the aquatic systems and to produce input data to the safety case for the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. The first main objective was to estimate the areal biomass distribution and measure the dimensions of characteristic aquatic plants and animals. Another objective was to estimate the transfer of different elements from water to the aquatic organisms paying special attention on key elements (Ag, Cl, I, Mo, Nb and Se) in the dose assessment within the safety case. Surface water, sediment, macrophyte, fish and macrobenthos samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area and from the reference lakes for biomass and dimension measurements and analysis of element concentration. Water-to-biota concentration ratios were estimated for the coastal area and for the reference lakes. From rivers, only water samples were collected at this stage. In 2009-2010, sampling procedures and pre-treatment methods were developed and analytical methods were optimised. Thus, the results reported here are indicative by their nature. After 2010, the studies have been continued with better established methods, and the more recent results will be reported later. (orig.)

  19. Effect of aquatic physical therapy on pain perception, functional capacity and quality of life in older people with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Guilherme Eleutério; Fonseca, Ana Carolina; Bôscoa, Thais Fernanda; Gonçalves, Mirella Regina; Bernardo, Gabriele Candido; Pianna, Bruna; Carnavale, Bianca Ferdin; Gimenes, Camila; Barrile, Silvia Regina; Arca, Eduardo Aguilar

    2017-07-11

    Aquatic therapy promotes short-term benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and it may be the first therapeutic option for this pathological condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an aquatic therapy program on pain intensity, functional ability, and quality of life in older people with knee OA. This is a parallel, two-arm, open, randomized controlled clinical trial with older people with knee OA. Volunteers will be allocated to an aquatic intervention group (WG), subjected to the intervention, or to a control group, not be subjected to any kind of intervention. Data collection pre- and postintervention will be composed of the evaluation of the perception of pain by visual analogue scale with application of nociceptive stimuli in four anatomical points of the knee, functional fitness tests, and application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale abbreviated version and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. The program will last 12 weeks, consisting of aerobic and functional exercises in the form of circuit training. The objective of this clinical trial is to evaluate the effect of aquatic therapy in elderly patients with knee OA. The study is guided by practice-based scientific evidence for the use of aquatic rehabilitation exercises. It is expected that the WG volunteers will show reduced pain intensity, increased flexibility, and improved functional capacity and quality of life. It is believed that the desired results can be attributed to physical and physiological effects of immersion in warm water associated with the exercise protocol proposed. The data will be published after completion of the study. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC) registration number: RBR-78h48d . Registered on 19 August 2015.

  20. Aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform with simplified medium exchange process for facilitating cell-surface interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeonjun; Park, Sung Jea; Han, Seon Jin; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamentals for regulating cell behavior with engineered physical environments, such as topography and stiffness, requires a large number of cell culture experiments. However, cell culture experiments in cell-surface interaction studies are generally labor-intensive and time-consuming due to many experimental tasks, such as multiple fabrication processes in sample preparation and repetitive medium exchange in cell culture. In this work, a novel aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform (AFIP) is presented. AFIP aims to facilitate the experiments on the cell-surface interaction studies, especially the medium exchange process. AFIP was devised to capture and dispense cell culture medium based on interactions between an elastic polymer substrate and a liquid medium. Thus, the medium exchange can be performed easily and without the need of other instruments, such as a vacuum suction and pipette. An appropriate design window of AFIP, based on scaling analysis, was identified to provide a criterion for achieving stability in medium exchange as well as various surface characteristics of the petal substrates. The developed AFIP, with physically engineered petal substrates, was also verified to exchange medium reliably and repeatedly. A closed structure capturing the medium was sustained stably during cell culture experiments. NIH3T3 proliferation results also demonstrated that AFIP can be applied to the cell-surface interaction studies as an alternative to the conventional method.

  1. Pain in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  2. Physical heterogeneity and aquatic community function in river networks: A case study from the Kanawha River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Delong, M. D.; Flotemersch, J. E.; Collins, S. E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological character of a river network provides the template upon which evolution acts to create unique biological communities. Deciphering commonly observed patterns and processes within riverine landscapes resulting from the interplay between physical and biological components is a central tenet for the interdisciplinary field of river science. Relationships between the physical heterogeneity and food web character of functional process zones (FPZs) - large tracts of river with a similar geomorphic character -in the Kanawha River (West Virginia, USA) are examined in this study. Food web character was measured as food chain length (FCL), which reflects ecological community structure and ecosystem function. Our results show that the same basal resources were present throughout the Kanawha River but that their assimilation into the aquatic food web by primary consumers differed between FPZs. Differences in the trophic position of higher consumers (fish) were also recorded between FPZs. Overall, the morphological heterogeneity and heterogeneity of the river bed sediment of FPZs were significantly correlated with FCL. Specifically, FCL increases with greater FPZ physical heterogeneity. The result of this study does not support the current paradigm that ecosystem size is the primary determinant of food web character in river ecosystems.

  3. Development of Short Term Immunotoxicological Assays for Prediction of Chronic Toxicological Responses Induced by Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-25

    cultures were harvested after 6 days. L. A; 1*. U Table 8 Dose Response Using Gallic Acid in the Mishell-Outton AssayI Gallic Acid AFC/Culture 106 cells...Recovery and Viability ....... ..................... ... 32 7Ś V 8. Dose Response Using Gall ic Acid in the Mishell-Dutton Assay ........ 34 9. Bone...poration of a DNA precursor into acid precipitable cellular material. For the earlier studies, IUdR was used as the precursor because it was a gamma

  4. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological...

  5. Toxicopathology and immunotoxicology of multiple exposures to diesel and crude oils in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziwenka, M.M.; Coppock, R.W.; Khan, A.A.; Hiltz, M.N. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada); Nation, P.N.; Field, C.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The subchronic toxicology of crude and refined petroleum in cattle was examined during the course of a large study in which 40 cattle were gavaged with potable water, winter diesel fuel and crude oil for a period of up to 48 days. Blood samples for clinicopathologic parameters were collected weekly. The cattle were necropsied 22 days following the last dose. Representative tissues were taken from all organ systems for histopathology. It was shown that repeated oral exposure to petroleum products resulted in significant changes in the clinicopathologic and immunopathologic parameters of the cattle without producing significant macro- or microscopic tissue lesions. The liver was a target organ for subchronic crude and diesel toxicity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  6. An analysis of engineered nanomaterial characteristics reported in aquatic nanotoxicity studies: 2004-2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, Melusi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available databases. Findings reported herein are based on 192 peer reviewed studies from January 2004 to March 2013. From the studies we examined: (1) the extent of reported characterisation properties of ENMs and testing media characteristics in the study data...

  7. The binding of strontium and europium by an aquatic fulvic acid--ion exchange distribution and ultrafiltration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, M; Ephhraim, J H; Allard, B

    1993-09-01

    The complexation of an aquatic fulvic acid, FA, with Sr(2+) and Eu(3+) was studied at 0.10 and O1.O1M NaClO(4) using trace levels of metal ([Sr(2+)] = 10(-9)M and [Eu(3+)] = 10(-11)M) and a constant FA concentration (0.12 g/l) by an ultrafiltration technique (UF) and an ion exchange distribution method (IEDS). The overall complex formation function, beta(OV) for the two metals was calculated and its dependence on pH, ionic strength and method was investigated. The absolute value of log beta(OV), the pH dependence and the influence of the ionic strength on the complexation differed depending on the metal ion and experimental technique employed. By considering the functional group heterogeneity of the FA molecule, it was possible to predict the most predominantly bound site (keto-enol) and resolve the complex formation function for this site and EU(3+) (IEDS: 9.43 +/- 0.29 l/eq at 0.10M and 10.58 +/- 0.72 l/eq at 0.01M; UF: 7.19 +/- 1.51 l/eq at 0.01M and 6.88 +/- 0.91 l/eq at 0.01M). The results are discussed in the light of possible intrinsic problems of the two experimental methods.

  8. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  9. Immunotoxicology: environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls and immune dysfunction among residents of the State of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekesi, J.G.; Roboz, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Mason, P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1973, inadvertent contamination occurred in a special farm feed supplement for lactating cows. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were used in place of magnesium oxide resulting in serious harm to farm animals, including cattle, chickens, geese, ducks. Farm families, accustomed to eating their own products, were most heavily exposed. To study the impact of PBBs, 336 adult Michigan farm residents, 117 general consumers for comparison, 75 dairy farm residents in Wisconsin, who had not eaten PBB-contaminated food, were examined, as were 79 healthy subjects in New York City. Abnormalities in the Michigan groups included hypergammaglobulinemia, exaggerated hypersensitive response to streptococci, significant decrease in absolute numbers and percentage of T and B-lymphocytes, and increased number of lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers (''null cells''). Significant reduction of in vitro immune function was noted in 20-25% of the Michigan farm residents who had eaten food containing PBB. The decreased immune function detected among the PBB-exposed farm residents tended to affect families as a unit and was independent of exposed individuals' age or sex, pointing against the possibility of genetic predisposition.

  10. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  11. Immunotoxicology of titanium dioxide and hydroxylated fullerenes engineered nanoparticles in fish models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Boris

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles have the potential to cause adverse effects on the fish health, but the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. Major task of this dissertation was to connect gaps in current knowledge with a comprehensive sequence of molecular, cellular and organismal responses toward environmentally relevant concentrations of engineered nanoparticles (titanium dioxide -- TiO2 and hydroxylated fullerenes), outlining the interaction with the innate immune system of fish. The research was divided into following steps: 1) create cDNA libraries for the species of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas); 2) evaluate whether, and how can nanoparticles modulate neutrophil function in P. promelas; 3) determine the changes in expression of standard biomarker genes as a result of nanoparticle treatment; 4) expose the P. promelas to nanoparticles and appraise their survival rate in a bacterial challenge study; 5) assess the impact of nanoparticles on neuro-immunological interface during the early embryogenesis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). It was hypothesized that engineered nanoparticles can cause measurable changes in fish transcriptome, immune response, and disease resistance. The results of this dissertation are: 1) application of environmentally relevant concentration of nanoparticles changed function of fish neutrophils; 2) fish exposed to nano-TiO2 had significantly increased expression of interleukin 11, macrophage stimulating factor 1, and neutrophil cytosolic factor 2, while expression of interleukin 11 and myeloperoxidase was significantly increased and expression of elastase 2 was significantly decreased in fish exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes; 3) exposure to environmental estimated concentration of nano-TiO2 significantly increased fish mortality during Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Analysis of nano-TiO 2 distribution in fish organism outlined that the nano-TiO2 is concentrating in the fish kidney and spleen; 4) during the early embryogenesis of D

  12. [Effects of aquatic physical exercise on the kinematic gait pattern in patients with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paula; Cancela, José M; Ayan, Carlos; do Nascimento, Carla; Seijo-Martínez, Manuel

    2013-03-16

    AIM. To determine the effects of an aquatic-based physical exercise program on gait parameters of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). PATIENTS AND METHODS. A total of nine patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD (stages I-III according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale) carried out an aquatic physical exercise program which lasted for five months, with one session per week. A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis was used to determine the effects of the program on several kinematic variables (walking speed, cadence, stride length, step time, single and double support time, angles of the hip, knee and ankle joints) which were assessed by a treadmill-walking test. RESULTS. At the end of the program, significant improvement in walking speed, stride length and on the relationship between single and double support time (p Aquatic-based physical exercise seems to have positive effects in some aspects of the gait kinematics parameters present in the typical gait pattern of patients with PD.

  13. Aquatic cycling—What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansi, Jens; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob A.; Waller, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. This study specifically focused on study designs, populations and outcomes. A comprehensive search of seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro,Web of Science, WorldCat) was conducted up to 30th September 2016. GoogleScholar, World Cat, ResearchGate, specific aquatic therapy websites and aquatic therapy journals were searched to identify additional literature. Full-text publications in English, German or Dutch were included. Studies were included when the intervention involved head-out cycling carried out in 10° to 35° Celsius water. Exclusion criteria were the use of wet suits or confounding interventions that would affect participants’ homeostasis. 63 articles were included and the study parameters of these studies were summarized. Using three grouping themes, included studies were categorised as 1) single session tests comparing aquatic versus land cycling, or 2) aquatic cycling only sessions investigating different exercise conditions and 3) aquatic cycling intervention programmes. Although the experimental conditions differed noticeably across the studies, shared characteristics were identified. Cardiovascular parameters were investigated by many of the studies with the results suggesting that the cardiac demand of aquatic cycling seems similar to land-based cycling. Only six studies evaluated the effect of aquatic cycling interventions. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of aquatic cycling interventions, preferably in individuals that are expected to gain health benefits from aquatic cycling. Moreover, this comprehensive outline of available literature could serve as a starting point for systematic reviews or clinical studies on the

  14. Aquatic cycling-What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewald, Stefanie; Mesters, Ilse; Lenssen, Antoine F; Bansi, Jens; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob A; Waller, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. This study specifically focused on study designs, populations and outcomes. A comprehensive search of seven databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro,Web of Science, WorldCat) was conducted up to 30th September 2016. GoogleScholar, World Cat, ResearchGate, specific aquatic therapy websites and aquatic therapy journals were searched to identify additional literature. Full-text publications in English, German or Dutch were included. Studies were included when the intervention involved head-out cycling carried out in 10° to 35° Celsius water. Exclusion criteria were the use of wet suits or confounding interventions that would affect participants' homeostasis. 63 articles were included and the study parameters of these studies were summarized. Using three grouping themes, included studies were categorised as 1) single session tests comparing aquatic versus land cycling, or 2) aquatic cycling only sessions investigating different exercise conditions and 3) aquatic cycling intervention programmes. Although the experimental conditions differed noticeably across the studies, shared characteristics were identified. Cardiovascular parameters were investigated by many of the studies with the results suggesting that the cardiac demand of aquatic cycling seems similar to land-based cycling. Only six studies evaluated the effect of aquatic cycling interventions. Therefore, future research should investigate the effects of aquatic cycling interventions, preferably in individuals that are expected to gain health benefits from aquatic cycling. Moreover, this comprehensive outline of available literature could serve as a starting point for systematic reviews or clinical studies on the

  15. Aquatic ecosystems of the redwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell H. Welsh; T.D. Roelofs; C.A. Frissell

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this chapter is to describe aquatic ecosystems within the redwood region and discuss related management and conservation issues. Although scientists from many disciplines have conducted research in the redwood region, few comprehensive interdisciplinary studies exist (but see Ziemer 1998b) and no regionwide overview or synthesis of the aquatic...

  16. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in the aquatic environment. Study of the analysis, sorption processes and sediment toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Rico, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present PhD thesis focuses on the study of the sorption and bioavailability of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in relation to the characteristics of the compound and the system. The solid-phase microextraction technique (SPME) is initially tested and developed to analyze these anionic surfa

  17. An Ecosystem Approach to Invasive Species Management: An Aquatic Ecosystem Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, A. M.; Karpanty, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    College students in natural resources continue to encounter instructor-centered teaching, despite strong evidence that suggests active-learning experiences benefit students more than passive learning activities. Case studies provide an active-learning alternative to lectures by teaching students new content and challenging them to engage in…

  18. Study on biting bugs encountered in the aquatic environments in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rouhullah Dehghani; Mahmood Atharizadeh; Vahid Kazemi Moghadam; Mostafa Hadei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine biting bugs of Hemiptera families presenting in the county of Kashan. Methods: For this descriptive study, samples were collected from 17 locations of lentic and lotic waters,3 times for each. These specimens were identified by using a stereo microscope and morphological keys. Results:Out of 5 535 specimens collected in three times of samplings, 3 024 specimens (54.6%) belonged to order Diptera, 701 specimens (12.7%) belonged to Crustaceans, 691 specimens (12.5%) belonged to Trichoptera, 468 specimens (8.4%) belonged to Hemipetera, 303 specimens (5.5%) belonged to Ephemeroptera, 133 specimens (2.4%) belonged to Odonata, 104 specimens (1.9%) belonged to Coleoptera, 98 specimens (1.8%) belonged to Hydroacarina and 13 specimens (0.2%) belonged to Plecoptera. In this study, Families Corixidae, Notonectidae, Gerridae and Nepidae from Hemiptera order were identified 45.9%, 26.9%, 25.0% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions: These results lead to the conclusion that Hemiptera fauna is relatively rich in Kashan. More studies by entomologists and biologists are recommended to determine the benefits and damages of these insects on the environment.

  19. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  20. Contending with the Sampling Compromise of Time VS. Space: a Case Study in Aquatic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    In every field study, there is always a trade-off between the number of samples that can be analyzed and the temporal or spatial coverage. Project Quinte, is a 40 year collaborative study investigating the biological and physico-chemical changes to the Bay of Quinte (BOQ), Lake Ontario, which was prompted primarily by eutrophication concerns in the late 1960s. Sampling of water chemistry, plankton composition and primary productivity occurs biweekly, but at a small number of stations and only for the period of May-Oct. Spatially limited sites are chosen with the intent of being representative of a larger region, but the validity of this is often left untested. In order to discern the resulting ecological effects on the plankton community, the field data have been used with some success to show changes in nutrients, plankton composition and growth, but are complicated by other factors such as changes in phosphorous controls and the arrival of a series of invasive species (Dreissenid mussels, predatory cladocerans, round goby). The dataset is extensive but has large consistent gaps (late fall - early spring) and spatially limited sampling stations can mask trends. In this study we explore a combination of spatial and temporal analysis techniques that can overcome these limitations. Recently we have begun to use a towed sensor body containing a CTD and Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC) to give both increased spatial resolution and sampling extent in an effort to determine the probability distribution and intermittency of both physical-chemical (e.g. temperature, turbidity) and biological (e.g. zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass) measures. These transects are used to compare the variability in phys-chem and plankton distributions with those collected at long-term stations to determine scales appropriate to the field monitoring program.

  1. Perfluorinated alkylated substances in the aquatic environment: an Austrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Gans, O; Weiss, S; Sanz-Escribano, D; Scharf, S; Scheffknecht, C

    2009-10-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) are of global interest due to their occurrence and persistency in the environment. This study includes surface waters and sediments for the analysis of eleven PFAS. The PFAS studied can be grouped in perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFS) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFSA). The two most important compounds are perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). These two substances showed the most significant values for surface water samples with maximum concentrations of 21 ng l(-1) for PFOA and 37 ng l(-1) for PFOS. Sediment samples from seven Austrian lakes and the river Danube were studied. Whereas PFSA and PFS were not detected in any sediment sample PFCAs were detected in most of the lake samples in concentrations up to 1.7 microg kg(-1) dry wt. PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in all Danube river sediment samples in concentrations varying from 0.1 up to 5.1 microg kg(-1) dry wt. For the various sampling points the proportional mass flows deriving from wastewater discharges were calculated. Whereas only up to 10% of the average flow is discharged wastewater up to more than 50% of the PFAS mass flows in the rivers can be attributed to wastewater discharges. Besides wastewater different other pathways as emissions from point sources, further degradation of precursor products, runoff from contaminated sites or surface runoff as well as dry and wet deposition have to be considered as relevant sources for PFAS contamination in surface waters.

  2. Application of clustering techniques to study environmental characteristics of microbialite-bearing aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalinina, R.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Lim, D. S.; Braverman, A. J.; Tripati, A. K.

    2015-07-01

    Microbialites are a product of trapping and binding of sediment by microbial communities, and are considered to be some of the most ancient records of life on Earth. It is a commonly held belief that microbialites are limited to extreme, hypersaline settings. However, more recent studies report their occurrence in a wider range of environments. The goal of this study is to explore whether microbialite-bearing sites share common geochemical properties. We apply statistical techniques to distinguish any common traits in these environments. These techniques ultimately could be used to address questions of microbialite distribution: are microbialites restricted to environments with specific characteristics; or are they more broadly distributed? A dataset containing hydrographic characteristics of several microbialite sites with data on pH, conductivity, alkalinity, and concentrations of several major anions and cations was constructed from previously published studies. In order to group the water samples by their natural similarities and differences, a clustering approach was chosen for analysis. k means clustering with partial distances was applied to the dataset with missing values, and separated the data into two clusters. One of the clusters is formed by samples from atoll Kiritimati (central Pacific Ocean), and the second cluster contains all other observations. Using these two clusters, the missing values were imputed by k nearest neighbor method, producing a complete dataset that can be used for further multivariate analysis. Salinity is not found to be an important variable defining clustering, and although pH defines clustering in this dataset, it is not an important variable for microbialite formation. Clustering and imputation procedures outlined here can be applied to an expanded dataset on microbialite characteristics in order to determine properties associated with microbialite-containing environments.

  3. Application of clustering techniques to study environmental characteristics of microbialite-bearing aquatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dalinina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbialites are a product of trapping and binding of sediment by microbial communities, and are considered to be some of the most ancient records of life on Earth. It is a commonly held belief that microbialites are limited to extreme, hypersaline settings. However, more recent studies report their occurrence in a wider range of environments. The goal of this study is to explore whether microbialite-bearing sites share common geochemical properties. We apply statistical techniques to distinguish any common traits in these environments. These techniques ultimately could be used to address questions of microbialite distribution: are microbialites restricted to environments with specific characteristics; or are they more broadly distributed? A dataset containing hydrographic characteristics of several microbialite sites with data on pH, conductivity, alkalinity, and concentrations of several major anions and cations was constructed from previously published studies. In order to group the water samples by their natural similarities and differences, a clustering approach was chosen for analysis. k means clustering with partial distances was applied to the dataset with missing values, and separated the data into two clusters. One of the clusters is formed by samples from atoll Kiritimati (central Pacific Ocean, and the second cluster contains all other observations. Using these two clusters, the missing values were imputed by k nearest neighbor method, producing a complete dataset that can be used for further multivariate analysis. Salinity is not found to be an important variable defining clustering, and although pH defines clustering in this dataset, it is not an important variable for microbialite formation. Clustering and imputation procedures outlined here can be applied to an expanded dataset on microbialite characteristics in order to determine properties associated with microbialite-containing environments.

  4. A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Li, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Myjak, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Martinez, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Xiao, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Brown, R. S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Cartmell, S. S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA

    2016-11-01

    The lack of stronger acoustic signal, longer service life and smaller size from off-the-shelf transmitters has precluded intensive research for environmental monitoring of certain species using acoustic telemetry techniques. In this study we developed a small long-life acoustic transmitter with the length of approximately 24.2 mm, the diameter of approximately 5.0 mm, and the dry weight of approximately 0.72 g. The new transmitter can generate an acoustic signal at selectable source level between 159 and 163 dB re 1 µPa at 1 m. The new acoustic transmitter has an operation lifetime up to a year or longer at a pulse rate interval of 15 seconds, and also has a signal detection range up to at least 500 meters that enhances detection probability in a quiet environment. The new technology makes long-term acoustic telemetry studies of small fish possible and is being deployed for long-term tracking of juvenile sturgeon.

  5. Effectiveness of Aquatic Therapy vs Land-based Therapy for Balance and Pain in Women with Fibromyalgia: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Neira, Sabela; Pasqual Marques, Amélia; Pegito Pérez, Irene; Fernández Cervantes, Ramón; Vivas Costa, Jamile

    2017-01-19

    Fibromyalgia is a disease with an increasing incidence. It impairs the quality of life of patients and decreases their functional capacity. Aquatic therapy has already been used for managing the symptoms of this syndrome. However, aquatic therapy has only recently been introduced as a treatment modality for improving proprioception in fibromyalgia. The main objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of two physiotherapy protocols, one in and one out of water, for improving balance and decreasing pain in women with fibromyalgia. The study protocol will be a single-blind randomised controlled trial. Forty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia will be randomly assigned into 2 groups: Aquatic Therapy (n = 20) or Land-based Therapy (n = 20). Both interventions include 60-min therapy sessions, structured into 4 sections: Warm-up, Proprioceptive Exercises, Stretching and Relaxation. These sessions will be carried out 3 times a week for 3 months. Primary outcomes are balance (static and dynamic) and pain (intensity and threshold). Secondary outcomes include functional balance, quality of life, quality of sleep, fatigue, self-confidence in balance and physical ability. Outcome measures will be evaluated at baseline, at the end of the 3-month intervention period, and 6-weeks post-treatment. Statistical analysis will be carried out using the SPSS 21.0 program for Windows and a significance level of p ≤ 0.05 will be used for all tests. This study protocol details two physiotherapy interventions in women with fibromyalgia to improve balance and decrease pain: aquatic therapy and land-based therapy. In current literature there is a lack of methodological rigour and a limited number of studies that describe physiotherapy protocols to manage fibromyalgia symptoms. High-quality scientific works are required to highlight physiotherapy as one of the most recommended treatment options for this syndrome. Date of publication in ClinicalTrials.gov: 18

  6. An integrated modelling methodology to study the impacts of nutrients on coastal aquatic ecosystems in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Marco; Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Santini, Monia; Giubilato, Elisa; Pizzol, Lisa; Mercogliano, Paola; Zirino, Alberto; Wei, Ouyang; Marcomini, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    It has been recognized that the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) due to anthropogenic activities is causing changes in Earth's climate. Global mean temperatures are expected to rise by 0.3 to 4.8 °C by the end of the 21st century, and the water cycle to alter because of changes in global atmospheric moisture. Coastal waterbodies such as estuaries, bays and lagoons together with the ecological and socio-economic services they provide, could be among those most affected by the ongoing changes on climate. Because of their position at the land-sea interface, they are subjected to the combined changes in the physico-chemical processes of atmosphere, upstream land and coastal waters. Particularly, climate change is expected to alter phytoplankton communities by changing their climate and environmental drivers, such as temperature, precipitation, wind, solar radiation and nutrient loadings, and to exacerbate the symptoms of eutrophication events, such as hypoxia, harmful algal blooms (HAB) and loss of habitat. A better understanding of the links between climate-related drivers and phytoplankton is therefore necessary for predicting climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the integration of climate scenarios and environmental models can become a valuable tool for the investigation and prediction of phytoplankton ecosystem dynamics under climate change conditions. In the last decade, the effects of climate change on the environmental distribution of nutrients and the resulting effects on aquatic ecosystems encouraged the conduction of modeling studies at a catchment scale, even though mainly are related to lake ecosystem. The further development of integrated modeling approaches and their application to other types of waterbodies such as coastal waters can be a useful contribution to increase the availability of management tools for ecological conservation and adaptation policies. Here we present the case study of the Zero river basin

  7. Study of aquatic macrophytes in the wetlands on the territory of Vrachanski Balkan nature park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valčev Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An overall study of the species composition and abundance of macrophytes in all open water bodies of a large protected territory was made for the first time in Bulgaria. Four high-mountain eutrophic lakes and the upper stretches of three rivers within the boundaries of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park were investigated. Thirty-nine macrophyte species (higher plants and mosses were identified scattered around, or forming more or less distinct vegetation groups. Three of the lakes are new for the country locations of the species Elatine alsinastrum and Peplis portula. The processes of eutrophication are more advanced in the lakes. The habitats formed around the investigated water bodies have been determined. They are three habitats of European Community interest for Bulgaria. The major threats for the investigated wetlands on the territory of the Park are pointed out.

  8. Application of PIV-based pressure measurements to the study of aquatic propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kelsey; Dabiri, John; Lauder, George

    2015-11-01

    Although it is relatively straightforward to image how fluid moves around a swimmer, translation of these motions to mechanisms that generate forces for propulsion is more difficult. This process is greatly facilitated by a recently developed technique for non-invasive pressure measurements that generate 2D pressure fields. Here, we explore how accurate a purely pressure-based calculation of propulsive forces can be. By comparing these calculations to forces and torques measured directly using a sensor on a robotic flapping foil system, we characterize the effects of motion frequency and out-of-plane flows on the calculation's accuracy. We then apply this calculation to study the dynamics of fish-like swimming of a foil model with non-uniform flexural stiffness, and to those of a freely swimming fish.

  9. Kinetic Study of Photocatalytic Degradation of Tolonium Chloride Under High Pressure Irradiation in Aquatic Buffer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazerozohori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase titanium dioxide catalyzed photodegradation of tolonium chloride at various bufferic pH of 2, 7, 9 and 12 in aqueous solution is presented. The effect of some physicochemical parameters such as initial concentration of dye, catalyst amount and reaction time on photocatalytic degradation has been investigated in a photo-reactor cell containing high pressure mercury lamp to obtain the optimum conditions in each bufferic pH at constant temperature. A complete spectrophotometric kinetic study of tolonium chloride under high pressure irradiation at buffer media was performed. The photocatalytic degradation observed rate constants (kobs were found to be 2.90×10-3, 3.30×10-3, 3.20×10-3 and 5.20×10-3 min-1 for buffer pH of 2-12 respectively. It was found that a pseudo-first-order kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood one is usable to photodegradation of this compound at all considered buffer pH. In addition to these, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constants, kr for the titled compound at various pH are reported.

  10. African Journals Online: Aquatic Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... Acceptable topics include aquatic biology, aquatic resources management, aquatic ... Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific ... freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

  11. Improving the reliability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals via equilibrium passive dosing - A multiple trophic level case study on bromochlorophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibany, Felix; Ewald, Franziska; Miller, Ina; Hollert, Henner; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-28

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the reliability and practicability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals based upon the model substance bromochlorophene (BCP). Therefore, we adapted a passive dosing format to test the toxicity of BCP at different concentrations and in multiple test systems with aquatic organisms of various trophic levels. At the same time, the method allowed for the accurate determination of exposure concentrations (i.e., in the presence of exposed organisms; Ctest) and freely dissolved concentrations (i.e., without organisms present; Cfree) of BCP in all tested media. We report on the joint adaptation of three ecotoxicity tests - algal growth inhibition, Daphnia magna immobilization, and fish-embryo toxicity - to a silicone O-ring based equilibrium passive dosing format. Effect concentrations derived by passive dosing methods were compared with corresponding effect concentrations derived by standard co-solvent setups. The passive dosing format led to EC50-values in the lower μgL(-1) range for algae, daphnids, and fish embryos, whereas increased effect concentrations were measured in the co-solvent setups for algae and daphnids. This effect once more shows that passive dosing might offer advantages over standard methods like co-solvent setups when it comes to a reliable risk assessment of hydrophobic substances. The presented passive dosing setup offers a facilitated, practical, and repeatable way to test hydrophobic chemicals on their toxicity to aquatic organisms, and is an ideal basis for the detailed investigation of this important group of chemicals.

  12. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  13. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  14. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  15. Simulation modeling of high-throughput cryopreservation of aquatic germplasm: a case study of blue catfish sperm processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, E; Liao, T W; Tiersch, T R

    2015-02-01

    Emerging commercial-level technology for aquatic sperm cryopreservation has not been modeled by computer simulation. Commercially available software (ARENA, Rockwell Automation, Inc. Milwaukee, WI) was applied to simulate high-throughput sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) based on existing processing capabilities. The goal was to develop a simulation model suitable for production planning and decision making. The objectives were to: 1) predict the maximum output for 8-hr workday; 2) analyze the bottlenecks within the process, and 3) estimate operational costs when run for daily maximum output. High-throughput cryopreservation was divided into six major steps modeled with time, resources and logic structures. The modeled production processed 18 fish and produced 1164 ± 33 (mean ± SD) 0.5-ml straws containing one billion cryopreserved sperm. Two such production lines could support all hybrid catfish production in the US and 15 such lines could support the entire channel catfish industry if it were to adopt artificial spawning techniques. Evaluations were made to improve efficiency, such as increasing scale, optimizing resources, and eliminating underutilized equipment. This model can serve as a template for other aquatic species and assist decision making in industrial application of aquatic germplasm in aquaculture, stock enhancement, conservation, and biomedical model fishes.

  16. Effectiveness of Aquatic Therapy vs Land-based Therapy for Balance and Pain in Women with Fibromyalgia: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivas Neira, Sabela; Pasqual Marques, Amélia; Pegito Pérez, Irene; Fernández Cervantes, Ramón; Vivas Costa, Jamile

    2017-01-01

    .... Aquatic therapy has already been used for managing the symptoms of this syndrome. However, aquatic therapy has only recently been introduced as a treatment modality for improving proprioception in fibromyalgia...

  17. Can an aquatic macrophyte bioaccumulate glyphosate? A watershed scale study using a non-target hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Debora; Okada, Elena; Menone, Mirta; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides is widely distributed in South America streams, and therefore, it can be used as a biomonitor for pesticides used in agricultural production. Glyphosate is one of the main pesticides used in Argentina. This has resulted in its occurrence in non-target wetland ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish and validate an extraction and quantification methodology for glyphosate in L.peploides plants, and 2) evaluated the role of this species as a glyphosate biomonitor in the agricultural watershed of the El Crespo stream. For the first objective, we collected plant material in the field. The leaves were dissected and oven dried at 60° C, grinded and sieved through a 0.5 mm mesh. Different solutions were tested for the extraction step. Labeled glyphosate was used as an internal standard to evaluate the recovery rate and the matrix effect of the different extraction methods. Glyphosate was derivatized with FMOC-Cl and then quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a mass tandem spectrometer (MS/MS). The method based on an aqueous phase extraction step 0.01 mg/mL of activated carbon as a clean-up to decrease the matrix interference had a recovery of 117 ± 20% and the matrix effect was less than 20%. This method was used to analyze the glyphosate levels in L.peploides in the El Crespo stream. For the second objective, plants of L.peploides were collected on March 2016 in eight monitoring sites of the stream from the headwaters to the stream mouth. Surface water and sediments samples were collected at the same time to calculate the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment bioaccumulation factors (BSAFs). The BCFs ranged between 28.57 - 280 L/Kg and the BSAFs ranged between 2.52- 30.66 at different sites. These results indicate that L.peploides can bioaccumulated glyphosate in its leaves and the major bioavailability is given mainly by the herbicide molecules present in surface

  18. Study on the monitoring methods of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic products%水产品中霍乱弧菌的监测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝梅; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 湛志飞; 华伟湘; 熊伯华; 谢燕湘; 邓海斌; 卜昕琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the monitoring methods of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic products, find the aquatic products contaminated by Vibrio cholerae timely, and take effective measures to prevent and control cholera outbreak. Methods:The real - time fluorescence PCR, the colloidal gold method, the isolation and culture method were used for Vibrio cholerae detection in 180 aquatic product samples respectively. Results; With the three methods, 44 nucleic acid positive specimens were detected, in which 18 specimens were cholera enterotoxin positive, and 8 Vibrio cholerae strains were isolated. Conclusion; During cholera surveillance of aquatic products, nucleic acid positive samples were screened first by real - time PCR, and then cholera enterotoxin detection was done to find the polluted aquatic products timely. Colloidal gold method was employed to isolate, culture and type the nucleic acid positive samples for further confirmation and analysis of cholera spread.%目的:研究水产品中霍乱弧菌的监测方法,及时发现被霍乱弧菌污染的水产品,采取有效防控措施,防范霍乱疫情的发生.方法:用实时荧光PCR法、胶体金法、分离培养法三种方法分别对180份水产品进行霍乱弧菌检测,阳性样品再进行霍乱肠毒素检测.结果:三种方法检出了44份核酸阳性标本,18份霍乱肠毒素阳性标本,分离出8株霍乱弧菌.结论:在进行水产品霍乱监测时,可以先用实时荧光PCR进行初筛,筛出核酸阳性标本,进行霍乱肠毒素检测,及时发现被霍乱产毒株污染的水产品,再对筛出的核酸阳性标本结合胶体金法进行分离培养和分型鉴定,进一步完成霍乱疫情的确证和分析.

  19. An exploratory study of the effect of regular aquatic exercise on the function of neutrophils from women with fibromyalgia: role of IL-8 and noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bote, M E; García, J J; Hinchado, M D; Ortega, E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is associated with elevated systemic inflammatory and stress biomarkers, and an elevated innate cellular response mediated by monocytes and neutrophils. Exercise is accepted as a good non-pharmacological therapy for FM. We have previously found that regular aquatic exercise decreases the release of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes from FM patients. However, its effects on the functional capacity of neutrophils have not been studied. The aim of the present exploratory study was to evaluate, in 10 women diagnosed with FM, the effect of an aquatic exercise program (8months, 2sessions/week, 60min/session) on their neutrophils' function (phagocytic process), and on IL-8 and NA as potential inflammatory and stress mediators, respectively. A control group of 10 inactive FM patients was included in the study. After 4months of the exercise program, no significant changes were observed in neutrophil function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, or fungicidal capacity) or in IL-8 and NA. However, at the end of the exercise program (8months), a neuro-immuno-endocrine adaptation was observed, manifested by a significant decrease to values below those in the basal state in neutrophil chemotaxis, IL-8, and NA. No significant seasonal changes in these parameters were observed during the same period in the group of non-exercised FM patients. After the 8months of the exercise program, the FM patients had lower concentrations of IL-8 and NA together with reduced chemotaxis of neutrophils compared with the values determined in the same month in the control group of non-exercised FM women. These results suggest that "anti-inflammatory" and "anti-stress" adaptations may be contributing to the symptomatic benefits that have been attributed to regular aquatic exercise in FM syndrome, as was corroborated in the present study by the scores on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire.

  20. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  1. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  2. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  3. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  4. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  5. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  6. Environmental risk assessment of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the aquatic environment: a case study including a cocktail scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We present an environmental risk assessment of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; citalopram, sertraline, and fluoxetine) in the aquatic environment based on two case scenarios. Abiotic and biotic degradation experiments and sorption estimates were used to predict environmental concentrations of three SSRIs from the wastewater of two psychiatric hospitals, the primary sector, and wastewater entering and leaving wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Assuming a sewage treatment retention time of 8 h, abiotic degradation was low, for all three SSRIs inhibitors, ranging between 0 and 2% for hydrolysis and 0 and 6% for photolysis. The biodegradation was also slow, ranging from 0 to 3% within an 8-h period. In untreated sewage, citalopram (CIT) and sertraline (SER) concentrations may be high enough to exert effects on the aquatic biota (CIT: 0.19-10.3 µg/L; SER: 0.14-17.1 µg/L). Removal of the pharmaceuticals is due primarily to sorption in the WWTP. Sertraline was estimated to have the highest concentrations in the sewage effluents, 4.4 and 19.9 ng/L for the two cases, respectively. In treated wastewater, individual SSRI concentrations are probably too low to exert effects on biota. By using concentration addition, a cocktail exposure scenario was estimated. The predicted concentration in the biota calculated from the cocktail effect was 0.05 and 0.16 nmol/g for the two cases, respectively, and SER was found to give the highest contribution to this cocktail effect. The results indicate that the concentrations in the wastewater effluents are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations likely to cause an effect in the aquatic biota.

  7. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and tra...

  8. An Ai Chi-based aquatic group improves balance and reduces falls in community-dwelling adults: A pilot observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Dinh, Tammy; Hewitt, Melissa; Piper, Ross; Thwaites, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Falls are associated with morbidity, loss of independence, and mortality. While land-based group exercise and Tai Chi programs reduce the risk of falls, aquatic therapy may allow patients to complete balance exercises with less pain and fear of falling; however, limited data exist. The objective of the study was to pilot the implementation of an aquatic group based on Ai Chi principles (Aquabalance) and to evaluate the safety, intervention acceptability, and intervention effect sizes. Pilot observational cohort study. Forty-two outpatients underwent a single 45-minute weekly group aquatic Ai Chi-based session for eight weeks (Aquabalance). Safety was monitored using organizational reporting systems. Patient attendance, satisfaction, and self-reported falls were also recorded. Balance measures included the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Four Square Step Test (FSST), and the unilateral Step Tests. Forty-two patients completed the program. It was feasible to deliver Aquabalance, as evidenced by the median (IQR) attendance rate of 8.0 (7.8, 8.0) out of 8. No adverse events occurred and participants reported high satisfaction levels. Improvements were noted on the TUG, 10-meter walk test, the Functional Reach Test, the FSST, and the unilateral step tests (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients defined as high falls risk reduced from 38% to 21%. The study was limited by its small sample size, single-center nature, and the absence of a control group. Aquabalance was safe, well-attended, and acceptable to participants. A randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial is required.

  9. Spectral study of the complexation of Nd(III) with glutathione reduced (GSH) in the presence and absence of Zn(II) in aquated organic solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Th David Singh; Ch Sumitra; N Rajmuhon Singh; M Indira Devi

    2004-11-01

    Studies on the difference in energy parameters and comparative absorption spectrophotometry involving 4-4 transitions on Nd(III) and glutathione reduced (GSH) in the absence and presence of Zn(II) have been carried out in aquated organic solvents (50 : 50) like methanol, dioxane, acetonitrile and dimethylformamide. Variations in the spectral energy parameters - Slater-Condon () factor, Lande spin-orbit coupling constant (4), nephelauxetic ratio (), bonding parameter (1/2) and percent covalency () - are calculated and correlated with binding of Nd(III) with GSH in presence and absence of Zn(II).

  10. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Poulsen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    . No adverse effects of Cry1Ab protein were found. An anti-PHA-E and anti-Cry I Ab antibody response was induced both after inhalation (control groups) and after inhalation/ingestion (groups fed recombinant protein alone or together with transgenic rice). In conclusion, only PHA-E lectin was found to have...... of proteins from the other groups by inhalation as well as to examine the sensitization and elicitation potential of 'foreign' proteins before introduction to the world market. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by ...

  12. Determination of the heavy metal binding capacity of aquatic samples using MetPLATE: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F; Bitton, G; Kong, I C

    1999-08-30

    MetPLATE, a microbial toxicity test which is specific for heavy metal toxicity, was used to rapidly determine the heavy metal binding capacity (HMBC) of a wide range of surface waters from Florida and Georgia. HMBC determines the impact of physicochemical factors on metal bioavailability and toxicity. The new developed protocol, using MetPLATE as the toxicity assay, showed that HMBC varied from 1.7 to 39.2 for Cd whereas the ranges for Cu and Ag were Hogtown Creek, Gainesville, FL, and from the St John's river in Jacksonville, FL. Both surface waters displayed the highest HMBC during the Fall season. Preliminary examination of the limited data set confirms that HMBC may be influenced by the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These preliminary data show that the impact of physical and chemical parameters on the toxicity of metals in aquatic environments can be rapidly assessed using rapid and low-cost microbiotests.

  13. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Teresa, E-mail: murmur@itn.pt [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa and Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana [LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P. Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4–25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO{sub 2} was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2} (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches; Marina Gulo Alcorinte; Lucas Henrique Sahm; Guilherme Rossi Gorni; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Pau...

  15. Physiotherapist-designed aquatic exercise programme for community-dwelling elders with osteoarthritis of the knee: a Hong Kong pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mary C K; Lam, Joseph K S; Siu, Eva; Fung, Carmen S W; Li, Kevin T Y; Lam, Margaret W F

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the effectiveness and feasibility of a community-based aquatic exercise programme for elders with osteoarthritis of the knee. DESIGN. Prospective intervention study, with a before-and-after design. SETTING. Community elders. PARTICIPANTS. Twenty elders aged 65 years or above (mean, 72 years) attending four Elderly Health Centres of the Department of Health who had suffered from osteoarthritis of the knee for at least 3 years and with mild-to-severe knee pain. INTERVENTION. A 10-week aquatic exercise programme designed and led by physiotherapists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Range of motion and power of extension of the knees, functional reach test, repeated sit-to-stand test, and the Chinese Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2. RESULTS. There was an improvement in the median range of knee flexion from 115° to 125° (Paquatic exercise has definite benefits in terms of physical and psychosocial functioning, and should be promoted as one of the strategies to enhance long-term self-management of community elders with knee osteoarthritis.

  16. An experimental study into the influence of aquatic plant motion characteristics on the generation of a fluvial turbulent flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, R. J.; Marjoribanks, T.; Parsons, D. R.; Thomas, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has a determining effect on flow and consequently sediment transport as it generates both skin friction and form drag. The measurement of flow above the vegetation canopy has received much attention and there is now a good process understanding of mean and turbulent flow, although, much of this research has focused on rigid vegetation with relatively simple morphology. However, vegetation immersed in a flow experiences several forces (buoyancy; drag; virtual mass; Basset; and Saffman) which are counteracted by the properties of the vegetation (flexural rigidity; modulus of elasticity; the plant area exposed to the flow and; the packing density of the stems). The ratio of these forces determines the plant motion characteristics which are generally classified as either i) erect with no movement; ii) gently swaying; iii) strong, coherent swaying or; iv) prone. Here we report on an investigation into the influence of plant motion on the turbulence structure in the mixing zone as vortices in this region have been shown to account for the majority of the momentum transport between the canopy and the open flow. We report on a series of flume experiments where flow over a canopy of surrogate aquatic vegetation was measured using PIV at a spatial resolution of ~1mm2 and at a temporal resolution of 100 Hz. This provided whole flow field measurements for all three components of flow over the vegetation canopy. Plant motion characteristics were altered by modifying the flow Reynolds number through both velocity and depth. The influences of plant stem length were also assessed. The measured flows were analysed by standard Reynolds decomposition approaches and Eulerian and Lagrangian coherent flow structure identification methods. Kelvin-Helmholtz and Görtler-type vortices were identified within the canopy shear layer that are generated close to the canopy top and evolve downstream into span-wise roller vortices, which expand with both distance and time. When

  17. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  18. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  19. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Kurtović

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system. Parasitic diseases occur most frequently as a result of human role in parasites life cycles. The prevalence is further increased by consuming raw fish and shellfish. The main feature of bacterial infections is facultative pathogenicity of most ethiological agents. In most cases disease occures as a result of decreased immunoreactivity. Several bacteria are, however, hightly pathogenic and capable of causing high morbidity and mortality in human. To date it has not been reported the case of human infection with viruses specific for aquatic organisms. Human infections are caused with human viruses and aquatic organisms play role only as vechicles. The greatest risk in that respect present shellfish. Fish and particularly shellfish are likely to cause food poisoning in humans. In most cases the cause are toxins of phithoplancton origins accumulating in shellfish and fish.

  20. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  1. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  2. The Experiment Study of the Influence on Plant Seeds and Aquatic Bio-logical Survival in High Altitude Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霈润

    2015-01-01

    There is A certain foundation in this experiment. It was the second time we did this experiment. The purposes are three parts, first, explore the 30000~40000 meters high sky with two cameras recording the scene. The Second, find out whether the high sky condition (temperature, air pressure, cosmic ray) make influence on plants seeds. The third, text whether normal aquatic animal is able to survive in high sky. The conclusions are also three parts. It is important to set a deadline for my group member to finish the assignment, and also check their process, or they might delay their own part of work or they are not in charge of the work. As the leader, I should be thoughtful. Not only about members’assignment, but also the details of their work, previously. Discuss about each task with group to ensure the correctness. Last but not least, every part of the experiment needs to be tested carefully. Only if we try our best to prevent accidents that might happen, then the experiment is able to suc⁃cess.

  3. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  4. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  5. Comparison between three different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicity and a product Environmental Risk Assessment – Insights from a Detergent Case Study within OMNIITOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Rana; Van Hoof, Geert; Feijtel, Tom

    2004-01-01

    -RP, Compact Powder-CP and Compact Liquid-CL) regarding their potential impacts on aquatic ecotoxicity, ii) providing insights into the differences between various Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods with respect to data needs and results and iii) comparing the results from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA......Background and Objective. In the OMNIITOX project 11 partners have the common objective to improve environmental management tools for the assessment of (eco)toxicological impacts. The detergent case study aims at: i) comparing three Procter & Gamble laundry detergent forms (Regular Powder......, while the regular powder comes out worse by a factor of 2. USES-LCA for marine water shows a very different picture seeing the compact liquid as the clear winner over the powders, with the regular powder the least favourable option. Even the LCIA methods which result in the same product ranking, e...

  6. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  7. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley; Bowling, Andrea C; Langtimm, Catherine A; Swain, Eric D

    2015-07-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  8. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley M.; Bowling, Andrea C.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  9. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  10. HISTORICAL INFORMATION ON AQUATIC VEGETATION REVEALED BY SEDIMENTARY DIATOMS:A CASE STUDY ON LIANGZI LAKE%沉积硅藻揭示的历史时期水生植被信息--以梁子湖为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清慧; 董旭辉; 姚敏; 陈诗越; 羊向东

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation is one of the most important ecological characteristics of shallow lake ecosystems. Un-derstanding its evolution is crucial for lake ecological restoration. In this study, Liangzi Lake, a representative lake from the Yangtze floodplain, was chosen because of the high abundance of aquatic vegetation. To reconstruct the historical evolution of aquatic vegetation, a sediment core from its deepest area was analyzed with radiometric dating (210Pb/137Cs) and sedimentary diatoms. The reconstructed aquatic vegetation information by sedimentary diatom records reflected the succession of aquatic vegetation in historical period in comparison with the monitoring aquatic vegetation records since 1950s. We also reconstructed the coverage of aquatic vegetation over the past 200 years for Liangzi Lake. Based on the data from reconstructed historical aquatic vegetation information and the historical environmental data from its catch-ment, this study revealed that flood was one of the main factors affecting aquatic vegetation development in Liangzi Lake. This study demonstrated that diatoms can be used for the reconstruction of the amount of historical aquatic vege-tation in such shallow lakes, which can provide the scientific basis for the aquatic vegetation protection and important guidance of the lake for the ecological restoration.%水生植被是浅水湖泊生态系统最重要的生态特征之一,了解其群落历史演化特征,对生态退化湖泊的修复有着重要指导意义。研究选择长江中下游地区代表性草型湖泊梁子湖,基于梁子湖沉积岩芯210Pb/137Cs测年、沉积硅藻序列和梁子湖长期水生植被监测记录,探讨利用沉积硅藻记录来重建该湖历史时期水生植被演替特征的可行性。研究结果表明:梁子湖沉积硅藻记录对历史时期水生植被的演替有较好的反映;基于此,对梁子湖过去近200年的水生植被覆盖度进行了重建;与湖泊流域

  11. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  12. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  13. An integrated approach for assessing aquatic ecological carrying capacity: a case study of Wujin District in the Tai Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Yanfang; Hu, Jiameng; Bai, Xiaogang; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecological carrying capacity is an effective method for analyzing sustainable development in regional water management. In this paper, an integrated approach is employed for assessing the aquatic ecological carrying capacity of Wujin District in the Tai Lake Basin, China. An indicator system is established considering social and economic development as well as ecological resilience perspectives. While calculating the ecological index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series images, followed by spatial and temporal analysis of vegetation cover. Finally, multi-index assessment of aquatic ecological carrying capacity is carried out for the period 2000 to 2008, including both static and dynamic variables. The results reveal that aquatic ecological carrying capacity presents a slight upward trend in the past decade and the intensity of human activities still exceeded the aquatic ecological carrying capacity in 2008. In terms of human activities, population has decreased, GDP has quadrupled, and fertilizer application and industrial wastewater discharge have declined greatly in the past decade. The indicators representing aquatic ecosystem conditions have the lowest scores, which are primarily attributed to the water eutrophication problem. Yet the terrestrial ecosystem is assessed to be in better condition since topographic backgrounds and landscape diversity are at higher levels. Based on the work carried out, it is suggested that pollutant emission be controlled to improve water quality and agricultural development around Ge Lake (the largest lake in Wujin District) be reduced.

  14. [1H, 15N] heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR study of the mechanism of aquation of platinum(IV) ammine complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Murray S; Hall, Matthew D; Berners-Price, Susan J; Hambley, Trevor W

    2008-09-01

    The aquation and hydrolysis of a series of platinum(IV) complexes of the general form cis, trans, cis-[PtCl 2(X) 2( (15)NH 3) 2] (X = Cl (-), O 2CCH 3 (-), OH (-)) have been followed by [ (1)H, (15)N] Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence NMR spectroscopy. Negligible aquation (complexes where X = O 2CCH 3 (-) or OH (-) over 3-4 weeks. Aquation of cis-[PtCl 4( (15)NH 3) 2] ( 1) is observed, and the rate of aquation increases with increasing pH and upon the addition of 0.01 mol equiv of the platinum(II) complex cis-[PtCl 2( (15)NH 3) 2] (cisplatin). The first aquated species formed from cis-[PtCl 4(NH 3) 2] has one of the axial chloro groups (relative to the equatorial NH 3 ligands) replaced by an aqua/hydroxo ligand. The second observed substitution occurs in an equatorial position. Peaks that are consistent with five of the eight possible aquation species were observed in the NMR spectra.

  15. Environmental risk assessment on aquatic-terrestrial gradients in a freshwater tidal area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.F.; Keijzers, R.C.M.; Faber, J.H.; Belfroid, A.C.; Stroomberg, G.J.; Besten, den P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental risk assessments are generally performed for either terrestrial or aquatic systems, while these systems sometimes exist in close proximity. The objective of this study is to compare environmental risks along gradients from aquatic to terrestrial conditions. The assessment involved

  16. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to determine nesting success of aquatic birds, trace element concentrations in the aquatic food chain, and whether trace elements...

  17. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  19. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  20. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  1. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in suspended load, sediment, primary producers, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, in a deltaic lagoon habitat in the Tabasco coast, with the aim to assess the potential ecological risk in that important wetland. Zn showed the highest concentrations, e.g., in suspended load (mean of 159.58 mg kg(-1)) and aquatic consumers (15.43-171.71 mg kg(-1)), particularly Brachyura larvae and ichthyoplankton (112.22-171.71 mg kg(-1)), followed by omnivore Callinectes sp. crabs (113.81-128.07 mg kg(-1)). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Zn were observed for planktivore and omnivore crustaceans (3.06-3.08). Zn showed a pattern of distribution in the food web through two pathways: the pelagic (where the higher concentrations were found), and the benthic (marsh plants, sediment, mollusk, fish). The other heavy metals had lower occurrences in the food web. Nevertheless, high concentrations of Ni and Cr were found in phytoplankton and sediment (37.62-119.97 mg kg(-1)), and V in epiphytes (68.64 mg kg(-1)). Ni, Cr, and Cd concentrations in sediments surpassed international and national threshold values, and Cd entailed a "considerable" potential risk. These heavy metals are most likely transferred into the food web up to fishes through the benthic pathway. Most of the collected fishes are residents in this type of habitat and have commercial importance. Our results show that the total potential ecological risk in the area can be considered as "moderate". Nevertheless, heavy metal values were similar or surpassed the values from other highly industrialized tropical coastal regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  2. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  3. Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of methane (CH4) from anaerobic sediments through the leaves, stems, and flowers of aquatic plants and into the atmosphere was found to provide a significant pathway for the emission of CH4 from the aquatic substrates of flooded wetlands. Methane concentrations well above the surrounding ambient air levels were found in the mesophyll of 16 varies of aquatic plants and are attributed to transpiration, diffusion, and pressure-induced flow of gaseous CH4 from the roots when they are embedded in CH4-saturated anaerobic sediments. Methane emissions from the emergent parts of aquatic plants were measured using floating chamber techniques and by enclosing the plants in polyethylene bags of known volume. Concentration changes were monitored in the trapped air using syringes and gas chromatographic techniques. Vertical profiles of dissolved CH4 in sediment pore water surrounding the aquatic plants' rhizomes were obtained using an interstitial sampling technique. Methane emissions from the aquatic plants studied varied from 14.8 mg CH4/d to levels too low to be detectable. Rooted and unrooted freshwater aquatic plants were studied as well as saltwater and brackish water plants. Included in the experiment is detailed set of measurements on CH4 emissions from the common cattail (Typha latifolia). This paper illustrates that aquatic plants play an important gas exchange role in the C cycle between wetlands and the atmosphere.

  4. Assessing, mapping and validating site-specific ecotoxicological risk for pesticide mixtures: a case study for small scale hot spots in aquatic and terrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaj, Claudia; Barmaz, Stefania; Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Spurgeon, David; Vighi, Marco

    2011-11-01

    Mixture toxicity is a real world problem and as such requires risk assessment solutions that can be applied within different geographic regions, across different spatial scales and in situations where the quantity of data available for the assessment varies. Moreover, the need for site specific procedures for assessing ecotoxicological risk for non-target species in non-target ecosystems also has to be recognised. The work presented in the paper addresses the real world effects of pesticide mixtures on natural communities. Initially, the location of risk hotspots is theoretically estimated through exposure modelling and the use of available toxicity data to predict potential community effects. The concept of Concentration Addition (CA) is applied to describe responses resulting from exposure of multiple pesticides The developed and refined exposure models are georeferenced (GIS-based) and include environmental and physico-chemical parameters, and site specific information on pesticide usage and land use. As a test of the risk assessment framework, the procedures have been applied on a suitable study areas, notably the River Meolo basin (Northern Italy), a catchment characterised by intensive agriculture, as well as comparative area for some assessments. Within the studied areas, the risks for individual chemicals and complex mixtures have been assessed on aquatic and terrestrial aboveground and belowground communities. Results from ecological surveys have been used to validate these risk assessment model predictions. Value and limitation of the approaches are described and the possibilities for larger scale applications in risk assessment are also discussed.

  5. Contribution of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria to total organic carbon pool in aquatic system of subtropical karst catchments, Southwest China: evidence from hydrochemical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Song, Ang; Peng, Wenjie; Jin, Zhenjiang; Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria may play a particular role in carbon cycling of aquatic systems. However, little is known about the interaction between aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and hydrochemistry in groundwater-surface water exchange systems of subtropical karst catchments. We carried out a detailed study on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and bacterioplankton, hydrochemistry and taxonomy of bacterioplankton in the Maocun watershed, Southwest China, an area with karst geological background. Our results revealed that bacteria are the important contributors to total organic carbon source/sequestration in the groundwater-surface water of this area. The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, including β-Proteobacteria, also appear in the studied water system. In addition to that, the genus Polynucleobacter of the phototropic β-Proteobacteria shows a close link with those sampling sites by presenting bacterial origin organic carbon on CCA biplot and is found to be positively correlated with total nitrogen, dissolved oxygen and pH (r = 0.860, 0.747 and 0.813, respectively) in the Maocun watershed. The results suggest that Polynucleobacter might be involved in the production of organic carbon and might act as the negative feedback on global warming. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Aquatic ecotoxicity effect of engineered aminoclay nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Hwang, Yuhoon; Uk Lee, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the short term aquatic ecotoxicity of water-solubilized aminoclay nanoparticles (ANPs) of ~51±31 nm average hydrodynamic diameter was characterized. An ecotoxicological evaluation was carried out utilizing standard test organisms of different phyla and trophic levels namely t...

  7. Biological assays for aquatic toxicity testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Slabbert, JL

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of aquatic toxicity tests have been established for South African use, which include fish and Daphnia lethality tests, microbiotests, and short-term chronic tests. Studies on effluents and surface waters showed that all the tests have a...

  8. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  9. Study of a multitrophical integrated aquatic system for the teaching-learning of the subjects physics, chemistry and biology in the bachelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Eva; Espinosa, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    In Mexico exist due to the lack of water in the City, which is where the College of Sciences and Humanities Orient (at UNAM) is located. This is because a point of view from the Chemical, Physics and Biology subjects is important to find learning strategies that motivate students to seek solutions to problems such as these. As Science Mentors, students were asked to propose water treatment from the homes they live in. From these investigations the students concluded that it was necessary to study in depth the wetlands like Multi-trophic Aquatic System that allow the treatment of gray water, so that a prototype of Micro-scale Multitrophic Aquatic System was set up in the laboratory, where the pH was measured , The concentration of oxygen, phosphates, from a Chemical perspective. As for the subject of Biology, we worked on the search for mycorrhizal fungi associated with the growth of plants for the purification of water. In physics we worked the sedimentation system. Artificial wetlands are man-made zones in which, in a controlled manner, mechanisms for the removal of contaminants present in wastewater, occurring in natural wetlands through physical, biological and chemical processes, are constructed mechanically and Is waterproofed to prevent losses of water to the subsoil, the use of substrates different from the original land for rooting the plants and their selection that will colonize the wetland benefit the recovery of water. The present project aims to structure an Artificial Wetland to carry out didactic strategies, activities with students, as well as work on research projects in the sciences of Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Through the application of chemical, biological and physical concepts and processes, so that students of the different semesters of the College of Sciences and Humanities Plantel Oriente, appropriate the relevant knowledge in the area of experimental sciences, developing thinking skills and achieve Significant learning, which are

  10. Azole Fungicides as Synergists in the Aquatic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen

    , yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA) and soot). At the tested sorbentconcentrations of 25 mg L-1, yeast and soot significantly increased 48 h aquatic equilibrium concentrationsfor propiconazole while AHA showed significantly increased 48 h aquatic equilibrium concentrations......Despite contaminants occurring as mixtures in the aquatic environment, aquatic risk assessment is basedon single compounds. Mixture effects are estimated by means of additive models, most often able ofpredicting mixture effects within a factor two of observed effects. While this may...... in stormwater runoff ordrain water and in the aquatic environment, the pesticides mainly occur in sorbed form. Sorption istraditionally considered to limit bioaccessibility and toxicity of hydrophobic compounds, hence,synergistic interactions may be limited in natural environments compared to laboratory studies...

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO AQUATIC VEGETATION OF ISAC-UZLINA COMPLEX KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFAN NICOLAE

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vegetation represents an important natural filter for the impurities charge of the Danube river water, constituting a barrier which hinds the polluants entrance in the Black Sea. It is important to mention that the conventional industrial installations, to obtain the treatment objectives of waste waters, use the same physical , chemical and biological principles as that which acts in a natural wet zone. The Isac – Uzlina aquatic complex (Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve was studied and a number of 13 aquatic associations was identified. For every of these, the floristic structure, composition and specific features are also given out. 40 releves of aquatic vegetation from 40 points were used to characterize this aquatic complex.

  12. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms - mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  13. Development of aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-guang; Zhang, Zhi-sheng; Wang, Hong; Liang, Feng; Li, Ji; Liu, Hong-ling; Sun, Cheng; Liang, Li-jun; Liu, Zheng-tao

    2012-03-01

    Nitrobenzene is a toxic pollutant and was the main compound involved in the Songhuajiang accident in 2007, one of the largest water pollution accidents in China in the last decade. No aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene have previously been proposed. In this study, published toxicity data of nitrobenzene to Chinese aquatic species were gathered, and six resident Chinese aquatic organisms were used in toxicity tests to supplement the existing toxicity data for nitrobenzene. Seventeen genuses mean acute values, three genuses mean chronic values to freshwater aquatic animals, and six genus toxicity values to aquatic plants were collected in total. A criterion maximum concentration of 0.018 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.001 mg/L were developed based on these data, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. These criteria may be useful in the determination of water quality standard of nitrobenzene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccumulation and effects of metals and trace elements from aquatic disposal of coal combustion residues: recent advances and recommendations for further study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L

    2014-07-01

    Advances have been made recently in assessing accumulation and effects of coal combustion residues (CCR). I provide a brief review of recent advancements, provide a tabulated summary of results of recent work, and put forth recommendations for future studies. One advancement is that mercury accumulation has begun to receive (limited) attention, whereas it had rarely been considered in the past. Additionally, some constituents of CCR have been shown to be accumulated by adults and transferred to offspring, sometimes compromising offspring health. Studies have demonstrated that amphibians, possessing complex life cycles, may accumulate and transfer some contaminants to terrestrial systems. Some study has been given to molecular and cellular effects of CCR exposure, although these studies have been limited to invertebrates. Population models have also been applied to CCR affected systems and have shown that CCR may affect animal populations under some conditions. In light of these advancements, there are several topics that require further assessment. First, more attention to Hg and its dynamics in CCR affected systems is warranted. Hg can be highly accumulative and toxic under some conditions and may interact with other components of CCR (notably Se), perhaps altering accumulation and effects of the contaminant mixtures. Second, further investigation of maternal transfer and effects of CCR contaminants need to be conducted. These studies could benefit from incorporation of quantitative models to project impacts on populations. Finally, more attention to the organic constituents of CCR (PAHs) is required, as a focus on inorganic compounds only may restrict our knowledge of contaminant dynamics and effects as a whole. While further studies will shed light on some chemical and biological nuances of exposure and effect, information available to date from numerous study sites implicates CCR as a bulk effluent that presents risks of bioaccumulation and effects on organisms

  15. 76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... provide to fish and wildlife species that feed on them''.\\1\\ In the case of Limited Aquatic Life waters... for Limited Forage Fish waters based on toxicity studies listed in EPA's 1987 selenium aquatic life... warm water forage fish use, and selenium (chronic) aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as...

  16. Peculiar features of composition of carbonyl components of surface lipids in aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    І. О. Alexeevs’ka; V. M. Shepelenko; N. I. Shtemenko

    2006-01-01

    Carbonyl components content of aquatic plants’ surface lipids has been studied. High concentration of oxo-compounds in surface lipids of aquatic plants has been shown. It could reach 60 % of total value. Sufficient heterogeneity of surface lipids has been demonstrated. Unsaturated character of oxo-components in aquatic plants’ surface lipids has been assumed in the present work.

  17. The "Marinated" Classroom. A Sourcebook of Aquatic Activities for the Elementary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    This handbook is designed to meet the aquatic education needs of Minnesota elementary teachers and students (aquatic education referring to the study of freshwater systems). The handbook is divided into three parts. Part 1 (an introduction) provides an overview of aquatic education, a description of the use of the handbook, and two indexes to…

  18. The "Marinated" Classroom. A Sourcebook of Aquatic Activities for the Secondary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    This handbook is designed to meet the aquatic education needs of Minnesota secondary teachers and students (aquatic education referring to the study of freshwater systems). The handbook is divided into three parts. Part 1 (an introduction) provides an overview of aquatic education, a description of the use of the handbook, and two indices to…

  19. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The life cycle impact assessment applied to the Domingo Rubio tidal system by the study of seasonal variations of the aquatic eutrophication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Brioso, C; Quaranta, G; Galán, E; Fernández-Caliani, J C; Miras, A

    2010-11-01

    The innovative technique of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) applied to dynamic environmental systems has been recently developed. In this work we investigate a complex system, the Domingo Rubio tideland (Huelva, Spain), where a tidal marsh and a continental lagoon converge. This wetland, catalogued as Natural Park by the Andalusia government, is subjected to a high eutrophicant pressures related to the strawberry culture and the inputs coming from industrial wastes. NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) were analyzed in 41 water samples, obtaining values up to 100mg L(-1) Σ(NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-)) and 18.5mg L(-1) PO(4)(3-). All these values exceed the accepted levels by the European Environment Agency. N/P ratios and the Aquatic Eutrophication Potentials (AEP) for N and P showed a constant imbalance of the system. During one tidal cycle, the tidal channel can have both N and P as limiting nutrient (P is the limiting nutrient during low tide and N is during high tide) and there exists an alternation of AEP domination too between N and P in the continental area, what points to an excess of both nutrients all over the study area, and to the necessity of diminishing the nutrient inputs and a higher control on these pollution sources as well.

  1. Is there a risk for the aquatic environment due to the existence of emerging organic contaminants in treated domestic wastewater? Greece as a case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidi, Vasiliki S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Borova, Viola L; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    The ecological threat associated with emerging pollutants detected in wastewater was estimated in country level. Treated wastewater was analyzed for pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs; whereas the concentrations of all emerging contaminants determined in Greek Sewage Treatment Plants were recorded through literature review. Toxicity data was collected after literature review or using ECOSAR and risk quotients (RQs) were calculated for treated wastewater and 25 Greek rivers, for 3 different aquatic organisms (fish, daphnia magna, algae). According to the results, monitoring data was available for 207 micropollutants belonging to 8 different classes. RQ>1 was calculated for 30 compounds in secondary treated wastewater. Triclosan presented RQ>1 (in algae) for all studied rivers; decamethylcyclopentasilane (in daphnia magna), caffeine (in algae) and nonylphenol (in fish) presented RQ>1 in rivers with dilution factors (DF) equal or lower to 1910, 913 and 824, respectively. The class of emerging contaminants that present the greatest threat due to single or mixture toxicity was endocrine disrupters. The mixture of microcontaminants seems to pose significant ecological risk, even in rivers with DF equal to 2388. Future national monitoring programs should include specific microcontaminants that seem to possess environment risk to surface water.

  2. Sources, transport and reactivity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants in several aquatic ecosystems in SW Spain: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Martin, Pablo A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail: pablo.lara@uca.es; Gomez-Parra, Abelardo; Gonzalez-Mazo, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Presence, distribution and transport mechanisms of the four major synthetic surfactants -linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs)- have been simultaneously studied in different aquatic ecosystems. Urban wastewater discharges and industrial activities were identified as the main sources for these compounds and their metabolites. LAS, AES and carboxylic metabolites remained in the dissolved form (87-99%). However, NPEOs and AEOs were mostly associated with particulate matter (65-86%), so their degradation in the water column was limited due to their lower bioavailability. It was also observed that sorption to the particulate phase was more intense for longer homologs/ethoxymers for all surfactants. With respect to surface sediments, AES levels were considerably below (<0.25 mg/kg) the values detected for LAS and NPEOs. Concentrations of AEOs, however, were occasionally higher (several tens of ppm) than those found for the rest of the target compounds in several sampling stations. - Occurrence and reactivity of the main synthetic surfactants in freshwater and marine systems are discussed.

  3. Estrogenic xenobiotics affect the intracellular activation signal in mitogen-induced human peripheral blood lymphocytes: immunotoxicological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, K; Okuma, M; Kazuno, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, T; Furuya, H; Kayama, F; Suwa, Y; Fujii, W; Fresa, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to elucidate the effect of estrogenic xenobiotics on the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL). Our findings follow: (a) the proliferation of PBL in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was mediated by protein kinase C activity, but estrogenic xenobiotics had a strong inhibitory effect on protein kinase C activity of PHA-stimulated PBL; (b) cytoplasmic extracts from PHA-stimulated PBL greatly activated DNA replication, but estrogenic xenobiotics had a strong inhibitory effect on these activities. The results suggest that the cytoplasmic signal-generating system in mitogen-treated PBL is inhibited by estrogenic xenobiotics, and that the defect occurs at all stages in the sequence of events leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.

  4. Comparison between three different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicity and a product Environmental Risk Assessment – Insights from a Detergent Case Study within OMNIITOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Rana; Van Hoof, Geert; Feijtel, Tom

    2004-01-01

    set of physico-chemical and toxicological effect data to enable a better comparison of the methodological differences. For the same reason, the system boundaries were kept the same in all cases, focusing on emissions into water at the disposal stage. Results and Discussion. Significant differences...... ecotoxicity is not satisfactory, unless explicit reasons for the differences are identifiable. This can hamper practical decision support, as LCA practitioners usually will not be in a position to choose the 'right' LCIA method for their specific case. This puts a challenge to the entire OMNIITOX project......) with results from an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA). Material and Methods. The LCIA has been conducted with EDIP97 (chronic aquatic ecotoxicity) [1], USES-LCA (freshwater and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity, sometimes referred to as CML2001) [2, 3] and IMPACT 2002 (covering freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity...

  5. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  6. Water Quality, Aquatic Life and Fish in Song Bung River. A Part Study of the Environmental Impact Assesment for the Song Bung 4 Hydropower Development Project in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, D.; Hai Than, H.; Sin Kiem, N.

    2007-01-01

    The study comprise three main tasks: 1) Assess the present situation in the river with respect to water quality, aquatic life, fish and fishery; 2) Assess the impact of the hydropower regulation scheme on these items, and 3) Propose and outline mitigation measures to reduce the negative impacts. The study also deals with impact from mining and how this will conflict with the regulation plans. It also elucidates the potential for releases of greenhouse gases from the reservoir. Finally the stu...

  7. Development of aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.; Nishikawa, W.; Fujimoto, N.; Murakami, K.; Nakamura, T.

    We have been performing technical studies to develop aquatic animal experiment facility, Aquatic Habitat (AQH), for both of short-term experiments in the Space Shuttle middeck and long-term experiments in the Space Station including the Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM). The AQH will have the capabilities to accommodate three-generations of small freshwater fish (medaka and zebrafish) and egg through metamorphosis of amphibian (African clawed frog). For these purposes, the AQH will have the following brand-new capabilities that the previous facilities have never had; 90days experiment duration, automatic feeding according to specimen types and their developmental stages, separation of generations for fish, specimen sample collection in various developmental stages, air/water interface control for amphibian, continuous monitoring of specimen behavior even in dark condition, and so on. We have already performed preliminary breeding tests for medaka and zebrafish with a breeding system prototype. Their mating behavior was performed successfully in the small closed chamber and the hatched larvae grew and started spawning on the 45-47th day after hatching. These results demonstrated that three generational breeding of medaka and zebrafish within 90days would be possible based on this breeding system prototype. Also, we have developed almost of the above new mechanisms, that is, an automatic feeding system, an egg separation mechanism for fish, an air stabilizer to control air/water interface, and a continuous specimen monitoring system through light/dark cycle. Based on these results, we have manufactured a BBM of AQH water circulation system and performed biological compatibility tests as a next step. For African clawed frog breeding, some problems have been revealed through the preliminary tests with the breeding system prototype. Currently, we are performing the investigations to resolve the problems and preparing to proceed to the next step.

  8. Optical properties of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems: Applications in ecosystem studies from headwater streams to the deep ocean. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of natural dissolved organic material (DOM) contributes to the better understanding of ecosystem function as the carbon flux between environmental compartments represents an important linkage between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Within freshwater and marine ecosystems, DOM typically represents the largest pool of detrital organic carbon and greatly exceeds the organic carbon present in living biomass. Thus, the sources and fate of DOM are important terms in carbon budgets. DOM can also influence ecosystem function by controlling microbial food webs, act as a means of nutrient transport, buffer pH and influence toxicity and bioavailability of pollutants, among others. DOM composition influences its ‘quality’ and thus its photo- and bio-reactivity, both of which exert a strong control of the diagenetic reworking of this carbon pool. However, the molecular composition of DOM is highly complex and diverse, and its characterization is a serious challenge to analytical chemists. In recent years, several novel analytical approaches to the characterization of DOM have evolved, including those that are highly structure specific and others that provide information on broader molecular characteristics. Whilst the former are usually expensive and time consuming, the latter, often based on optical properties measurements, feature high sample throughput at a reduced cost but at the expense of structural specificity. While both approaches are complementary under ideal conditions, the latter are best suited for studies involving large spatial and temporal scales. The analysis of DOM optical properties, in particular excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), has emerged as a practical tool for the broad characterization of DOM quality. This presentation will provide examples for the application of EEM-PARAFAC in assessing environmental dynamics of DOM on both spatial and temporal scales, and in both

  9. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior.

  10. Performance evaluation on aquatic product cold-chain logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The requirements for high quality and diversification aquatic products are increasing with the improvement of Chinese living standard. However, the distribution between place of production and place of consumption are uneven, which results in large cold-chain logistics demand for aquatic products. At present, the low-level development of cold chain logistics has a bad impact on the circulation of aquatic products in China. So it is very urgent to develop cold-chain logistics in China. Design/methodology/approach: In order to do this, we apply performance evaluation, a well-known management tool, to study Chinese aquatic product cold-chain logistics. In this paper we first propose SISP(Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model(Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation. Then an ANP-Fuzzy method is proposed to evaluate the operational performance of Shandong Oriental Ocean Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. Furthermore, a system dynamic model is built to simulate the impact of temperature on the profits in aquatic products cold-chain sales section. Findings: We find out within a reasonable temperature range, lower temperature brings higher profit level. Also, performance improvement methods are proposed and the simulation of performance evaluation system is developed. Practical implications: Our findings can help to improve the level of aquatic product cold-chain logistics in China. Originality/value: The paper proposes the SISP (Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model (Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation.

  11. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  12. Cross-reactivities of mammalian MAPKs antibodies in rotifer and copepod: Application in mechanistic studies in aquatic ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-Min; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Young Hwan; Cui, Yan-Hong; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Hui-Su; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-12-21

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family is known to mediate various biological processes in response to diverse environmental pollutants. Although MAPKs are well characterized and studied in vertebrates, in invertebrates the cross-reactivities of MAPKs antibodies were not clearly known in response to environmental pollutants due to limited information of antibody epitopes with material resources for invertebrates. In this paper, we performed phylogenetic analysis of MAPKs genes in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepods Paracyclopina nana and Tigriopus japonicus. Also in rotifer and copepods, several studies of Western blot of MAPK signaling pathways were shown in response to environmental pollutants, including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil, and microplastics. This paper will provide a better understanding of the underlying mechanistic scenario in terms of cross-reactivities of mammalian antibodies in rotifer and copepod. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2016-01-01

    reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation...

  14. Field and laboratory studies on the impact of two Bt rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac on aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongmo; Huang, Jiacheng; Hu, Huawei; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2013-06-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice expressing Bt toxins is at the edge of commercial release in China. However, little information is available concerning the impact of Bt rice on aquatic organisms which are abundant in paddy field. A two-year study was conducted to assess the effects of two GM rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac (Bt rice) on three groups of zooplankton, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in field conditions. Multi-factor ANOVA revealed that the population densities of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in paddy field varied significantly between years and rice developmental stages, but did not differ significantly between Bt and non-Bt rice treatments. In all the field investigations, only one significant difference was found on copepods in the tillering stage of 2009, but the difference was not related to the presence of the Cry toxin. Under open-air conditions, we simulated the farming practice of straw mulch, using Bt rice straw as a food source for the water flea Daphnia hyalina. After one and two months of culture, the density of D. hyalina did not differ between Bt rice treatments and non-Bt rice treatments. A laboratory experiment found that purified Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac had no toxic effect on D. hyalina even in the treatment in which the Bt toxin concentration was as high as 2500ng/ml. Those above results indicate that the two Bt rice lines have no negative effect on the three groups of zooplankton. However, further studies are needed to compare the effects of Bt rice and non-Bt rice on the paddy zooplankton community in the context of integrated pest management which includes the use of pesticides.

  15. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the aquatic environment: A case study of the Elbe River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Sühring, Roxana; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPEs) in the Elbe and Rhine rivers. A special focus of this investigation concerns the potential impacts of a major flood event in 2013 on the OPE patterns and levels in the Elbe River. In this river, 6 of 13 OPEs were detected, with tris-ethyl-phosphate (TEP, 168 ± 44 ng/L), tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate (TDCPP, 155 ± 14 ng/L) and tris-1-chloro-2-propyl phosphate (TCPP, 126 ± 14 ng/L) identified as the dominant compounds. Relative to previous studies, an increase in the concentrations and relative contributions of TDCPP to the total level of OPEs was observed, which was likely caused by its increased use as a replacement for the technical pentaBDE formulation. During the flood event, the concentrations of OPEs were similar to the normal situation, but the mass fluxes increased by a factor of approximately ten (∼16 kg/d normal versus ∼160 kg/d flood peak). No input hotspots were identified along the transects of the Elbe and Rhine rivers, and the mass flux of OPEs appeared to be driven by water discharge.

  16. Applications of biological tools or biomarkers in aquatic biota: A case study of the Tamar estuary, South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Lorna J; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2015-06-30

    Biological systems are the ultimate recipients of pollutant-induced damage. Consequently, our traditional reliance on analytical tools is not enough to assess ecosystem health. Biological responses or biomarkers are therefore also considered to be important tools for environmental hazard and risk assessments. Due to historical mining, other anthropogenic activities, and its conservational importance (e.g. NATURA sites, SACs), the Tamar estuary in South West England is an ideal environment in which to examine applications of such biological tools. This review presents a thorough and critical evaluation of the different biological tools used in the Tamar estuary thus far, while also discussing future perspectives for biomarker studies from a global perspective. In particular, we focus on the challenges which hinder applications of biological tools from being more readily incorporated into regulatory frameworks, with the aim of enabling both policymakers and primary stakeholders to maximise the environmental relevance and regulatory usefulness of such tools.

  17. Coating of AFM probes with aquatic humic and non-humic NOM to study their adhesion properties

    KAUST Repository

    Aubry, Cyril

    2013-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study interaction forces between four Natural Organic Matter (NOM) samples of different physicochemical characteristics and origins and mica surface at a wide range of ionic strength. All NOM samples were strongly adsorbed on positively charged iron oxide-coated silica colloidal probe. Cross-sectioning by focused ion beam milling technique and elemental mapping by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy indicated coating completeness of the NOM-coated colloidal probes. AFM-generated force-distance curves were analyzed to elucidate the nature and mechanisms of these interacting forces. Electrostatics and steric interactions were important contributors to repulsive forces during approach, although the latter became more influential with increasing ionic strength. Retracting force profiles showed a NOM adhesion behavior on mica consistent with its physicochemical characteristics. Humic-like substances, referred as the least hydrophilic NOM fraction, i.e., so called hydrophobic NOM, poorly adsorbed on hydrophilic mica due to their high content of ionized carboxyl groups and aromatic/hydrophobic character. However, adhesion force increased with increasing ionic strength, suggesting double layer compression. Conversely, polysaccharide-like substances showed high adhesion to mica. Hydrogen-bonding between hydroxyl groups on polysaccharide-like substances and highly electronegative elements on mica was suggested as the main adsorption mechanism, where the adhesion force decreased with increasing ionic strength. Results from this investigation indicated that all NOM samples retained their characteristics after the coating procedure. The experimental approach followed in this study can potentially be extended to investigate interactions between NOM and clean or fouled membranes as a function of NOM physicochemical characteristics and solution chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 淮河流域水生态区划研究%Study on Aquatic Ecological Regionalization in Huaihe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静静; 左其亭; 窦明

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic ecological regionalization is an important part of water resources conservation, and as well as the basis of aquatic ecology protection. Based on comprehensive analysis of the features of physical geography, water resources condition, effect of human activity and categories of aquatic ecological service function in the Huaihe River Basin,the aquatic ecological regionalization methodology system is discussed in consideration of the relevant achievements about regionalization approach and scheme at present. Three sub-region of aquatic ecological regionalization scheme in the Huaihe River Basin is proposed. In the scheme, the Huaihe River Basin covers 2 regions, namely the Huaihe Plain Region and the Huaihe Shore-Delta Region. And then, 3 subregions and 21 sections are divided.%针对水生态区划是水资源和水生态保护研究的基础和前提问题,在综合分析淮河流域自然地理特征、水资源条件、人类活动影响及水生态服务功能类型的基础上,结合国内外相关分区方法与方案的成果,探讨了淮河流域水生态区划方法体系.并提出了淮河流域三级水生态区划方案,将淮河流域划分为淮河平原区与滨海区三角洲2个水生态一级区,并进一步划分出3个水生态二级区和21个水生态三级区.

  19. Occurrence of heavy metals in fish: a study for impact assessment in industry prone aquatic environment around Kolkata in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Md Wasim; Sengupta, Dwaipayan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted during November 2005-October 2006 for determining the heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments and giving prime thrust to determine the heavy metal concentrations fish samples collected from various points of the river Ganga at different time interval. Fish samples (viz., Channa marulius and Aorichthys seengala) were analyzed for heavy metals using standard laboratory procedures by AAS method. In impact points the annual average values for Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn were 0.15, 0.04, 0.03, 0.02 and 0.29 ppm, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the riverine water collected from middle point had the order Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd > Pb. The data indicated that copper was maximally accumulated in the riverine sediments whereas least annual average concentration was obtained for lead. The trend of accumulation suggested deposition was maximum for zinc and minimum for cadmium in the muscles of both fish species. Only zinc has shown some significant seasonal variation in relation to metal deposition in fish muscles (minimum in monsoon and maximum in summer). The heavy metal contamination to fish may be due to indiscriminate discharge of polluted and untreated sewage sludge to the river. The heavy metal contents in fish at some places are alarming.

  20. New insights into ROS dynamics: a multi-layered microfluidic chip for ecotoxicological studies on aquatic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Volodymyr B; von Moos, Nadia R; Santschi, Christian; Slaveykova, Vera I; Martin, Olivier J F

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the life of every cell, including cellular defense and signaling mechanisms. Continuous and quantitative ROS sensing can provide valuable information about the cell state, but it remains a challenge to measure. Here, we introduce a multi-layered microfluidic chip with an integrated optical sensor for the continuous sensitive detection of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the most stable ROS. This platform includes hydraulically controlled microvalves and microsieves, which enable the precise control of toxicants and complex exposure sequences. In particular, we use this platform to study the dynamics of toxicity-induced ROS generation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during short-term exposures, recovery periods, and subsequent re-exposures. Two cadmium-based toxicants with distinct internalization mechanisms are used as stress inducers: CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) and ionic cadmium (Cd(2+)). Our results show the quantitative dynamics of ROS generation by the model microalga, the recovery of cell homeostasis after stress events and the cumulative nature of two consecutive exposures. The dissolution of quantum dots and its possible influence on toxicity and H2O2 depletion is discussed. The obtained insights are relevant from ecotoxicological and physiological perspectives.

  1. Seasonal variation of antibiotics concentration in the aquatic environment: a case study at Jianghan Plain, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxin; Tong, Lei; Li, Yonggang; Deng, Yamin; Guo, Wei; Gan, Yiqun

    2015-09-15

    25 antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were detected in swine wastewater, river water, rivulet water and in groundwater samples from multi-level monitoring boreholes (with sampling ports, respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m below the land surface) at Jianghan Plain, central China. Except swine wastewater, the antibiotic concentrations in groundwater, river and rivulet water were higher in spring than those in winter. Nineteen antibiotics were detected at 100% frequencies in all kinds of water samples. In groundwater, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines were the predominant antibiotics and the total concentrations of 25 antibiotics commonly decreased with the aquifer depth. Most groundwater samples collected in spring had high concentrations of norfloxacin, with average values of 65.27 ng · L(-1), 37.28 ng · L(-1) and 46.83 ng · L(-1), respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m deep boreholes. By contrast, the concentrations of sulfamethazine and erythromycin were rather low in groundwater, but high in surface water. Groundwater samples collected from sites close to rivers or rivulets had much higher contents of antibiotics than those from other sites, indicating that the dominant source of antibiotics in groundwater should be the contaminated rivers or rivulets, rather than the scattered pig and poultry farms in the study area.

  2. Vertical and temporal distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus and relationship with their influencing factors in aquatic-terrestrial ecotone: a case study in Taihu Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-jun; SHEN Zhe-min; ZHU Song-he; WANG Wen-hua

    2007-01-01

    Vertical and temporal distributions of N and P in soil solution in aquatic-terrestrial ecotone (ATE) of Taihu Lake were investigated, and the relations among N, P, ORP, TOC, root system biomass and microorganism were studied. As a whole, significant declines in TN, NO3-N, DON and TP concentration in soil solution have occurred with increase of the depth, and reached their minima at 60 cm depth, except for NH4+-N, which increased with depth. the concentration of TP increased gradually from spring to winter in the topsoil, the maximum 0.08 mg/L presented in the winter while the minimum 0.03 mg/L in spring. In the deeper layer, the concentration value of TP fluctuated little. As for the NO3-N, its seasonal variation is significant at 20 cm depth, its concentration increased gradually from spring to autumn, and decreased markedly in winter. Vertical and temporal distribution of DON is contrary to that of NO3-N. The results also show that the variation of N and P in the percolate between adjacent layers is obviously different. The vertical variation of TN, TP, NO3-N, NH4+-N and DON is significant, of which the variation coefficient of NO3-N along the depth reaches 100.23%, the highest; while the variation coefficient of DON is 41.14%, the smallest. The results of correlation analysis show that the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus correlate significantly with TOC, ORP, root biomass and counts of nitrifying bacteria. Most nutrients altered much from 20 to 40 cm along the depth. However, DON changed the more between 60 and 80 cm. Results show that soil of 0-60 cm depth is active rhizoplane, with strong capability to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus in ATE. It may suggest that there exists the optimum ecological efficiency in the depth of above 60cm in reed wetland. This will be very significant for ecological restoration and reestablishment.

  3. Deficiency and toxicity of nanomolar copper in low irradiance—A physiological and metalloproteomic study in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Andresen, Elisa [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Department Plant Biophysics and Biochemistry, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Branišovská 31/1160, CZ-37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Mattusch, Jürgen [UFZ − Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hubáček, Tomáš [Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Hydrochemistry and Ecosystem Modelling, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); SoWa National Research Infrastructure, Biology Centre of the ASCR, Na Sádkách 7, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmentally relevant toxicity and limitation of Cu were investigated. • Copper > 50nM replaces Mg in the LHCII‐trimers. • Deficiency causes decreased electron flow through PSII via lack of plastocyanin. • Of all metabolic pathways, photosynthesis was most affected by Cu toxicity. • Detection of Cu in the Chl peaks of LHCII suggests the generation of [Cu]‐Chl. - Abstract: Essential trace elements (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, etc) lead to toxic effects above a certain threshold, which is a major environmental problem in many areas of the world. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} and simulations of natural light and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum a s a model for plant shoots. In this low irradiance study resembling non‐summer conditions, growth was optimal in the range 7.5–35 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 7.5 nM Cu. Damage to the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) was the first target of Cu toxicity (>50 nM Cu) where Cu replaced Mg in the LHCII-trimers. This was associated with a subsequent decrease of Chl a as well as heat dissipation (NPQ). The growth rate was decreased from the first week of Cu deficiency. Plastocyanin malfunction due to the lack of Cu that is needed for its active centre was the likely cause of diminished electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}). The pigment decrease added to the damage in the photosynthetic light reactions. These mechanisms ultimately resulted in decrease of starch and oxygen production.

  4. A Taxonomic and Ecological Survey of Aquatic Invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study consisted of the identification and ecological distribution of macroscopic aquatic invertebrates from a pond, empounded by a beaver dam, located at the...

  5. Selenium in aquatic habitats at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During 1991 and 1992, selenium levels were studied in aquatic communities at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge on the lower Colorado River. Composite samples of...

  6. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  7. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  8. Checklist of the Aquatic Macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergent macrophytes formed 93.3% of the total macrophyte .... accounted for 2.2% while emergent species with. 93.30% of ... proliferation of floating aquatic macrophytes like ..... Geoelectric Evalution of the Groundwater Potential of Parts.

  9. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  10. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  11. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  12. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  13. Aquatic exercise in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević Lidija; Bjelaković Bojko; Lazović Milica; Stanković Ivona; Čolović Hristina; Kocić Mirjana; Zlatanović Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Aquatic exercise is one of the most popular supplementary treatments for children with neuro-motor impairment, especially for cerebral palsy (CP). As water reduces gravity force which increases postural stability, a child with CP exercises more easily in water than on land. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine aquatic exercise effects on gross motor functioning, muscle tone and cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP. Methods. The study included 1...

  14. Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Keniam River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on biodiversity of aquatic insects was carried out covering the area of Kuala Keniam to Kuala Perkai River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia. The macro invertebrate community was found in the different types of micro-habitat and various flowing speed levels in good quality of water of Keniam Rivers consisted mainly of aquatic insects. There are large numbers and wide species of aquatic insects in aquatic habitats make them of great ecological importance. There are three divided strata with total of nine sampling location were carried out within several varieties of microhabitats such as sandy, cobble, gravel, leaf and the pool area. The aquatic insects were collected and sampled by using a D-framed aquatic kick net. There was a wide variety of aquatic insects belonging to at least 8 orders in the study area. The orders of insect were Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Thysanura, Orthopthera, Hemiptera and Ephemeroptera. Throughout the study period, there is range from total of 140 to 604 individuals of aquatic insect trapped monthly and collected in Keniam River from September 2009 to December 2010. Some group of aquatic insects were found significant (χ2<0.05 different abundance between strata and sampling dates as well as habitat on the diversity of aquatic insects in Keniam River. The abundance and distribution of aquatic insects‟ species were varied and not constant from one month to another during the study period due to biotic and abiotic factors. Species diversity of aquatic insects varied in different strata of the Keniam River. This indicates the richness and diverse groups of aquatic insects in the study area. It adds to the fact that the undisturbed habitat quality is most suitable for insects to breed and multiply under the natural ecosystem with abundant food supply. Moving upstream from Kuala Perkai to lower stream to Kuala Keniam, one can observe various types of habitats for aquatic insects to live.

  15. Discussion on Improvement of Toxicological Pathology Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenJin

    2003-01-01

    Toxicological pathology plays a key role in drug safety assessment. To enhance the research level of toxicological pathology, the following stud-ies should be carried out urgently: setting up a standard operation procedure (SOP) for toxico-logical pathology assessment; emphasizing on immunotoxicology evaluation; adopting a new ex-periment model of replacement, featuring high speed and reliability; introducing new techniques and new models in toxicological mechanism re-search; and establishing a new appraisal system to screen innovative drug and rapid and high pre-cision methods for early security assessment, de-tection and measurement.

  16. Protostelids and myxomycetes isolated from aquatic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lora A; Stephenson, Steven L; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2007-01-01

    Protostelids and myxomycetes have been isolated from dead plant parts in many different habitats, including tropical rain forests and deserts. However underwater habitats largely have been overlooked. The purpose of this study was to determine whether protostelids do occur in aquatic habitats and to survey the myxomycetes associated with these habitats. Protostelids and myxomycetes were isolated from substrates collected from just above and just below the surface of the water. Several species of both groups were present, and their distributions above and below the water were different. It is not surprising that the trophic cells of slime molds occur in ponds because they are known to grow in films of water. However these findings are significant because this is the first study to demonstrate clearly the occurrence of protostelids in underwater environments and one of the few surveys of myxomycetes from aquatic systems.

  17. Study on the entry of synthetic chelating agents and compounds exhibiting complexing properties into the aquatic environment; Studie zum Eintrag synthetischer Komplexbildner und Substanzen mit komplexbildenden Eigenschaften in die Gewaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knepper, T.P.; Weil, H. [ESWE-Inst. fuer Wasserforschung und Wassertechnologie GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Synthetic chelating agents are utilized in many industrial applications due to their capability to bind and mask metal ions. A review was conducted in Germany for twenty main compounds, including chelating agents as well as such compounds binding metal ions and thus exhibiting some complexing properties such as the phosphonates or polycarboxylates. Focus of the study was to gather data about production, use, entry into the aquatic environment, fate and environmental behavior. Metal mobilisation as well as toxicity of all components has been studied indicating a low order for the measured or predicted environmental concentrations. However, most of the investigated synthetic complexing agents such as e. g. ethylenediaminetetra acetate (EDTA), can be classified as environmentally relevant, since they are microbial poorly degradable and exhibit an excellent water solubility. (orig.)

  18. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Aquatic exercise and lower-extremity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, M C; Nicholson, C; Binder, H; White, P H

    1991-06-01

    This pilot study investigates the effects of aquatic therapeutic exercise on lower-extremity range of motion, gait, balance, and functional mobility in children with juvenile arthritis. Eleven patients, aged 4-13, with lower-extremity joint involvement, diagnosed as functional class I-III, completed a 6-week program of aquatic exercise aimed at increasing lower-extremity range of motion and strength. Despite the small sample size and short duration of the study program, significant improvement was noted in external and internal hip rotation, bilaterally (p Aquatic exercises performed in a group setting can serve as an enjoyable and beneficial part of therapy for children with arthritis. Further investigation is recommended to determine fully the effects of aquatic therapeutic exercise on mobility and fitness in children with juvenile arthritis.

  19. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  20. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

    1999-05-01

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  1. The role of aquatic ecosystems as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Elisabet; Variatza, Eleni; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Although antibiotic resistance has become a major threat to human health worldwide, this phenomenon has been largely overlooked in studies in environmental settings. Aquatic environments may provide an ideal setting for the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, because they are frequently impacted by anthropogenic activities. This review focuses primarily on the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the aquatic environment, with a special emphasis on the role of antibiotic resistance genes.

  2. The Toxicity of Guanidine Nitrate to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    0.002 - Epoxide Cobalt 0.0065 ɘ.002 Lindane ɘ.01 Copper 0.0035 0.008 Alpha-BHC ɘ.01 Iron 0.1 0.1 Beta-BHC ɘ.02 Lead ɘ.002 - De 1ta- BC (0.02...other fish species, aquatic invertebrates (e.g. benthic invertebrates) and at least one algal or aquatic plant species. Addi- tional studies on the

  3. Report on stakeholder evaluation of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report gives an overview of completed research activities on the value ascribed by users, local communities and stakeholders to functions, goods and services (including non‐use values) derived from the aquatic resources in the study areas. The perceived impact of factors such as environmenta...... to better characterise constraints and conflicts, and build consensus concerning opportunities for better conservation and management of highland aquatic resources, opportunities for livelihoods enhancement and sustaining ecosystem services....

  4. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based......" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes...

  5. Microcystin dynamics in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José C; Vasconcelos, Vítor M

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface water has increased significantly during the past decade, resulting in increased occurrences of toxic blooms. Cyanotoxins have become a global health threat to humans, wild animals, or domestic livestock. Hepatotoxic microcystins (MC) are the predominant cyanotoxins, which accumulate in aquatic organisms and are transferred to higher trophic levels. This is an issue of major concern in aquatic toxicology, as it involves the risk for human exposure through the consumption of contaminated fish and other aquatic organisms. The persistence and detoxification of MC in aquatic organisms are important issues for public health and fishery economics. Bioaccumulation of MC depends on the toxicity of the strains, mode of feeding, and detoxication mechanisms. Although mussels, as sessile filter feeders, seem to be organisms that ingest more MC, other molluscs like gastropods, as well as zooplankton and fish, may also retain average similar levels of toxins. Edible animals such as some species of molluscs, crustaceans, and fish present different risk because toxins accumulate in muscle at low levels. Carnivorous fish seem to accumulate high MC concentrations compared to phytophagous or omnivorous fish. This review summarizes the existing data on the distribution and dynamics of MC in contaminated aquatic organisms.

  6. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko eKagami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 101-109 spores L-1. When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the ‘mycoloop,’ may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans.

  7. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  8. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  9. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  10. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  11. Physico-chemical assessment of paper mill effluent and its heavy metal remediation using aquatic macrophytes--a case study at JK Paper mill, Rayagada, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Swayamprabha; Mohanty, Monalisa; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar; Das, Ritarani; Sahoo, Santilata

    2013-05-01

    The present investigation aims to assess the phytoremediation potential of six aquatic macrophytes, viz. Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata, Jussiaea repens, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Trapa natans grown in paper mill effluent of JK Paper mill of Rayagada, Orissa, for remediation of heavy metals. The experiment was designed in pot culture experiments. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of paper mill effluent showed significant decrease in pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chlorine, sulphur, biological and chemical oxygen demand after growth of macrophytes for 20 days. Phytoremediation ability of these aquatic macrophytic species for copper (Cu) and mercury (Hg) was indicated by assessing the decrease in the levels of heavy metals from effluent water. Maximum reduction (66.5 %) in Hg content of untreated paper mill effluent was observed using L. minor followed by T. natans (64.8 %). L. minor showed highest reduction (71.4 %) of Cu content from effluent water followed by E. crassipes (63.6 %). Phytoextraction potential of L. minor was remarkable for Hg and Cu, and bioaccumulation was evident from bioconcentration factor values, i.e. 0.59 and 0.70, respectively. The present phytoremediation approach was considered more effective than conventional chemical treatment method for removing toxic contaminants from paper mill effluent.

  12. CONFLICT OF AQUATIC RESOURCES AND ITS UNDERLYING CAUSES: A CASE STUDY FROM DONAN RIVER AREA, SEGARA ANAKAN REGION, CILACAP, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Budhi Pramono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to know internally conflict on the use of aquatic  resources at around Donan River, Segara Anakan region Cilacap.  Using on fisheries resources was not free against potential conflict among the user or with its interest’s one related to that resources.  The lack on capability of identified conflict would be a limiting factor for the implementation on the fisheries resources management program.  The research was hold in the region of Segara Anakan, Donan River from August until October 2005.  The data collection techniques applied in this survey included questionnaire; observation; in-depth interview with leaders of fisherman organizations; and focus group discussion. Quantitative data was analyzed by descriptive statistics.  The research showed that fisherman’s community along Donan River line were not out of inside potentially conflict among inter micro-micro, intra micro-micro and intra micro-macro.  This potential conflict were appeared because of presence on the different perception belong to its authority access against Donan River and their open system on the fisheries resources management.Keywords : Conflict, Donan River, Aquatic Resources, Fisherman Community

  13. Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic macroinvertebrates of Lake ... Saline lakes are known to be amongst the most productive ecosystems in the world. ... birds, knowledge of its water characteristics and aquatic biota is scarce.

  14. Field effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) in ornamental ceramic containers with common aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Seleena, B; Lau, K W; Daliza, A R; Ella Syafinas, S; Mohd Sofian, A

    2009-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact of larvaciding using a Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) formulation (VectoBac WG) against Aedes aegypti larvae in earthen jars containing aquatic plants. Aquatic plants commonly used for landscaping, Pistia stratiotes (L.) (Liliopsida: Araceae) and Sagittaria sp. (Liliopsida: Alismataceae) were placed inside earthen jars filled with 50 L tap water. All earthen jars were treated with Bti formulation at 8g/1000L. Untreated jars with and without aquatic plants were also set up as controls. Fifty laboratory-bred 2nd instar larvae were introduced into each earthen jar. All earthen jars were observed daily. Number of adults emerged was recorded and the larval mortality was calculated. The indicators of effectiveness of Bti for these studies were (i) residual activities of Bti, and (ii) larval mortality in earthen jars with or without aquatic plants. The treated earthen jars containing P. stratiotes and Sagittaria sp. showed significant residual larvicidal effect up to 7 weeks, in comparison to untreated control (p aquatic plants vs 80.66% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Earthen jars treated with Bti without aquatic plants also exhibited significantly longer residual larvicidal activity of up to 10 weeks (p aquatic plants vs 59.34% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Thus, earthen jars without aquatic plants exhibited longer residual larvicidal effect compared to those with aquatic plants. This study suggested that containers with aquatic plants for landscaping should be treated more frequently with Bti in view of the shortened residual activity.

  15. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2016-01-01

    on work within the Ecotoxicology Community of Research (2012–2015) the present Focus article provides an overview of the state of the art of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment by addressing different research questions, with a focus on ecotoxicological test systems and the challenges faced...

  16. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  17. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  18. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  19. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper

  20. Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic Angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system. PMID:25525810

  1. Correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system.

  2. Land Plus Aquatic Therapy Versus Land-Based Rehabilitation Alone for the Treatment of Balance Dysfunction in Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Controlled Study With 6-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamara, Grazia; Gotti, Francesco; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Gargantini, Roberto; Bossio, Fabiola; Zivi, Ilaria; Volpe, Daniele; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether a specific land-based physical intervention with the inclusion of aquatic therapy is more effective than land-based rehabilitation alone for the treatment of balance dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), immediately after therapy and at 6 months' follow-up. Randomized controlled study with 6-month follow-up. A PD and brain injury rehabilitation department in a general hospital. Patients (N=34) with moderate-stage PD. Seventeen patients underwent a land-based rehabilitation protocol called multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment (MIRT), and 17 underwent MIRT plus aquatic therapy (MIRT-AT). The primary outcome measure was the Berg Balance Scale (BBS); secondary outcome measures were the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale parts II and III (UPDRS II/III) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. These measures were assessed in both groups at admission, at discharge, and after 6 months. BBS improved after treatment in both groups. Even though no statistically significant difference between groups was observed at each observation time, BBS scores at follow-up were significantly higher than at baseline in MIRT-AT patients. Both groups also showed an improvement in UPDRS II/III and TUG at the end of treatment compared with baseline, but these findings were lost at the 6-month follow-up. Aquatic therapy added to land-based rehabilitation could provide a contribution to the treatment of balance dysfunction in patients with moderate-stage PD. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  4. Physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises in healthy subjects: a qualitative review

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Marinho, Daniel A; Victor M. Reis; António J. Silva; José A. Bragada

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations’ health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation o...

  5. Remote sensing of aquatic plants. [New York, Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. S.; Link, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Various sensors were tested in terms of their ability to detect and discriminate among noxious aquatic macrophytes. A survey of researchers currently studying the problem and a brief summary of their work is included. Results indicated that the sensor types best suited to assessment of the aquatic environment are color, color infrared, and black-and-white infrared film, which furnish consistently high contrasts between aquatic plants and their surroundings.

  6. The Current Situation of Quality Supervision and Production Safety of Aquatic Products in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqin; ZHOU; Wenjie; LI

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City has been carried out rapidly, and the system of "origin exit, market access, sign traceability, real-time monitoring" has been basically formed, initially realizing the whole-process monitoring on the quality safety of aquatic products from "pond to table". We take the current situation of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City as the study object, take the basic work of supervision on aquatic products in Nanjing City and advancing both in scope and in depth as breakthrough point, to sum up the results achieved in the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City in recent years; make initial exploration and research, in order to consolidate the existing achievements, and further enhance the level of supervision on quality safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City.

  7. Effectiveness of aquatic exercise for treatment of knee osteoarthritis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meili; Su, Youxin; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Ziyi; Wang, Wenting; He, Zhen; Liu, Feiwen; Li, Yanan; Liu, Changyan; Wang, Yiru; Sheng, Lu; Zhan, Zhengxuan; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Naixi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of aquatic exercise for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, CAMbase, and the Web of Science were screened through to June 2014. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing aquatic exercise with control conditions were included. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the included trials, and extracted data. Outcome measures included pain, physical function, joint stiffness, quality of life (QOL), and safety. Pooled outcomes were analyzed using standardized mean difference (SMD). There is a lack of high quality studies in this area. Six RCTs (398 participants) were included. There was moderate evidence for a moderate effect on physical function in favor of aquatic exercise immediately after the intervention, but no evidence for pain or QOL when comparing aquatic exercise with nonexercise. Only one trial reported 3 months of follow-up measurements, which demonstrated limited evidence for pain improvement with aquatic exercise and no evidence for QOL or physical function when comparing aquatic exercise with nonexercise. There was limited evidence for pain improvement with land-based exercise and no evidence for QOL or physical function, when comparing aquatic exercise with land-based exercise according to follow-up measurements. No evidence was found for pain, physical function, stiffness, QOL, or mental health with aquatic exercise immediately after the intervention when comparing aquatic exercise with land-based exercise. Two studies reported aquatic exercise was not associated with serious adverse events. Aquatic exercise appears to have considerable short-term benefits compared with land-based exercise and nonexercise in patients with knee OA. Based on these results, aquatic exercise is effective and safe and can be considered as an adjuvant treatment for patients with knee OA. Studies in this area are still

  8. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  9. Molecular size of aquatic humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R.L.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.

  10. Riparian buffers and thinning in headwater drainages in western Oregon: aquatic vertebrates and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna H. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Th e Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study (DMS) of western Oregon is a template for numerous research projects on managed federal forestlands. Herein, I review the origins of Riparian Buffer Study component and summarize key findings of a suite of associated aquatic vertebrate projects. Aquatic vertebrate study objectives include characterization of headwater...

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of aquatic plants to bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S.; Fu, H.; Chen, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of producing bio-oils from aquatic plants by hydrothermal liquefaction using 2 typical aquatic plants as feedstocks, notably Enteromorpha prolifera and water hyacinth which are typical aquatic plants found in seawater and freshwater. Bio-oil production from these 2 feedstocks was studied in a batch reactor at controlled temperatures under an initial partial pressure of 2.0 MPa N2. The effects of temperature and reaction time on the liquefaction products yields were also studied. GC-MS and elemental analysis were carried out to analyze the composition of bio-oils. The bio-oil produced from Enteromorpha prolifera contained mainly fatty acids, esters and quite a few heterocyclic compounds. Phenols and their derivatives were found to be the main compounds in bio-oils produced from water hyacinth. An elemental analysis revealed that bio-oils produced from the 2 aquatic plants have higher energy density. It was concluded that the use of aquatic plants as feedstock for liquid fuel can contribute to environmental protection and sustainable energy development by reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Decomposition of aquatic plants in lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godshalk, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This study was carried out to systematically determine the effects of temperature and oxygen concentration, two environmental parameters crucial to lake metabolism in general, on decomposition of five species of aquatic vascular plants of three growth forms in a Michigan lake. Samples of dried plant material were decomposed in flasks in the laboratory under three different oxygen regimes, aerobic-to-anaerobic, strict anaerobic, and aerated, each at 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C. In addition, in situ decomposition of the same species was monitored using the litter bag technique under four conditions.

  13. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major ``greenhouse`` gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  14. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Sprague, S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse'' gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  15. Monitoring aquatic environments with autonomous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard

    High frequency measurements from autonomous sensors have become a widely used tool among aquatic scientists. This report focus primarily on the use of ecosystem metabolism based on high frequency oxygen measurements and relates the calculations to spatial variation, biomass of the primary producers...... and in shallow systems the macrophytes can completely dominate primary production. This was despite the fact that the plants in the studied system were light-saturated most of the light hours and occasionally carbon limited. It was also shown that the GPP and the total phytoplankton biomass in a nutrient...

  16. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases in two aquatic bacteria with high specificity for thymidine and deoxyadenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinta, Tinkara; Christiansen, Louise Slot; Konrad, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) are essential in the mammalian cell but their 'importance' in bacteria, especially aquatic ones, is less clear. We studied two aquatic bacteria, Gram-negative Flavobacterium psychrophilum JIP02/86 and Polaribacter sp. MED152, for their ability to salvage......, these two bacteria are missing this activity. When tens of available aquatic bacteria genomes were examined for the presence of dNKs, a majority had at least a TK1-like gene, but several lacked any dNKs. Apparently, among aquatic bacteria, the role of the dN salvage varies....

  17. Study on the mercury evolution in a laboratory multi specific aquatic system by using instrumental neutron activation analysis; Estudio de la evolucion del mercurio en un sistema acuatico de laboratorio multiespecifico utilizando analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubach, Debora; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Analisis por Activacion Nautronica; Pechen de d`Angelo, Ana; Ferrari, Ana; Venturino, Andres [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary study on the evolution of mercury in the organisms of a laboratory multi specific aquatic system was performed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Some of the possible effects of mercury toxicity were monitored by analyzing early biochemical indicators. The system consisted of an aquarium with bed sediments, aquatic macrophytes (Myriophyllum sp.), bivalves (Diplodom sp.) and exotic fish, simulating a long term contamination situation of unknown causes, where the sediments are the contaminant reservoir. Samples of the abiotic components of the system were analyzed at the beginning of the experiment, and again when the organisms were sampled. Fish carcass, kidney and liver samples, bivalve hepatopancreas, and whole macrophytes were extracted ana analyzed for mercury and other elements by INAA at the beginning of the experiment, and after 48 and 96 hours. Since some crustal elements such as Sc and La were detected in the hepatopancreas and macrophyte samples, enrichment factors for mercury, with respect to the <63 {mu}m sediment fraction, were computed to discriminate the metabolized Hg content from that associated to the particulate. The hepatopancreas index, some indicators of oxidative stress ({gamma}-Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine content and lipid peroxidation) and brain acetilcolinesterasa were measured as early indicators of toxicity. (author) 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... to distribute photons evenly between the photosynthetic tissues. As scattering and attenuation in the water column increase, the effect of thallus structure on production declines and thin transparent macrophytes are more efficient at utilizing light than thick opaque macrophytes. The results confirm...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...

  19. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment.

  20. Aquatic pollution-induced immunotoxicity in wildlife species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, R W; Hodson, P V; Faisal, M; Ross, P S; Grasman, K A; Zelikoff, J

    1997-05-01

    The potential for chemicals to adversely affect human immunologic health has traditionally been evaluated in rodents, under laboratory conditions. These laboratory studies have generated valuable hazard identification and immunotoxicologic mechanism data; however, genetically diverse populations exposed in the wild may better reflect both human exposure conditions and may provide insight into potential immunotoxic effects in humans. In addition, comparative studies of species occupying reference and impacted sites provide important information on the effects of environmental pollution on the immunologic health of wildlife populations. In this symposium overview, Peter Hodson describes physiological changes in fish collected above or below the outflows of paper mills discharging effluent from the bleaching process (BKME). Effects attributable to BKME were identified, as were physiological changes attributable to other environmental factors. In this context, he discussed the problems of identifying true cause and effect relationships in field studies. Mohamed Faisal described changes in immune function of fish collected from areas with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination. His studies identified a contaminant-related decreases in the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to bind to and kill tumor cell line targets, as well as changes in lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens. Altered proliferative responses of fish from the contaminated site were partially reversed by maintaining fish in water from the reference site. Peter Ross described studies in which harbor seals were fed herring obtained from relatively clean (Atlantic Ocean) and contaminated (Baltic Sea) waters. Decreased natural killer cell activity and lymphoproliferative responses to T and B cell mitogens, as well as depressed antibody and delayed hypersensitivity responses to injected antigens, were identified in seals fed contaminated herring. In laboratory studies, it was

  1. Report on stakeholder evaluation of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    degradation, changing demand for goods and services and modified highland aquatic resources management practices on these values has also been assessed. To help structure this analysis stakeholder Delphi studies have been undertaken in each country involving representatives from all stakeholder groups......This report gives an overview of completed research activities on the value ascribed by users, local communities and stakeholders to functions, goods and services (including non‐use values) derived from the aquatic resources in the study areas. The perceived impact of factors such as environmental...... to better characterise constraints and conflicts, and build consensus concerning opportunities for better conservation and management of highland aquatic resources, opportunities for livelihoods enhancement and sustaining ecosystem services....

  2. Aquatic plant control research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, E.G. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States). Hydro Generation Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  3. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  4. Molecular Barcoding of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Implications for Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, Régis; Wyler, Sofia; Lafont, Michel; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25856230

  5. Molecular barcoding of aquatic oligochaetes: implications for biomonitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Vivien

    Full Text Available Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Efficacy of aquatic therapy for multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvillo, Iluminada; Varela, Enrique; Armijo, Francisco; Alvarez-Badillo, Antonio; Armijo, Onica; Maraver, Francisco

    2017-02-17

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, progressive, disabling autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. Symptoms and signs of MS vary widely and patients may lose their ability to walk. To date the benefits of aquatic therapy often used for rehabilitation in MS patients have not been reviewed. To systematically review the current state of aquatic treatment for persons with MS (hydrotherapy, aquatic therapy, aquatic exercises, spa therapy) and to evaluate the scientific evidence supporting the benefits of this therapeutic option. The databases PubMed, Scopus, WoS and PEDro were searched to identify relevant reports published from January 1, 2011 to April 30, 2016. Of 306 articles identified, only 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 5 randomized controlled, 2 simple randomized quasi-experimental, 1 semi-experimental, 1 blind controlled pilot and 1 pilot. Evidence that aquatic treatment improves quality of life in affected patients was very good in two studies, good in four, fair in two and weak in two.

  7. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments: a comparative study of regions in China with different urbanization levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Saichang

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed and compared the distributions of 13 target pharmaceuticals in different water samples from the Hangzhou metropolitan area and Linan County, Southeast China. Sampling was conducted in five hospitals, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and Qiantang River. Samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and PPCP concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Trimethoprim, erythromycin A dihydrate, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, diclofenac sodium, and atenolol were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Most of the pharmaceutical concentrations in hospital effluents were higher than those in the WWTP influents. Although both WWTPs adopt the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic treatment process, the removal rates for pharmaceuticals, such as trimethoprim and diclofenac sodium, were completely different. Meanwhile, erythromycin A dihydrate, ofloxacin, penicillin-G, cephalexin, cefazolin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac sodium were detected in Qiantang River. These results indicate that hospitals are more concentrated sources of pharmaceuticals than WWTPs, and the WWTPs are not the only route of entry of pharmaceuticals into aquatic environments in these two regions.

  9. Study on Cultivation Technique and Model Innovation of Aquatic Vegetables%浙江水生蔬菜栽培技术和模式的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑寨生; 张尚法; 王凌云; 陈淑玲; 张雷; 袁名安; 孔向军

    2013-01-01

    通过水生蔬菜栽培技术和模式创新研究,先后总结出单季茭“一茬双收”栽培技术、双季茭“三改两优化”栽培技术、莲藕“五改”早熟栽培技术、子莲“早鲜多”栽培技术和菱角“带果移栽”长季栽培技术等,并在产区得到大面积推广,取得明显成效.%This paper summarized a series of cultivation techniques by researching on the cultivation technique and model innovation of aquatic vegetables, such as "One cropping and double harvest" of single - cropping water bamboo, "Three transformation and two optimization" of double - cropping water bamboo, "five transformation" of early maturing lotus root, "early maturity - fresh - high yield" of seed lotus, and "transplanting with immature fruit" long - season cultivation technique of water chestnut. These techniques obtained large - scale promotion in the production region, and achieved remarkable results.

  10. Study on pricing model of aquatic environment quality resources%水环境质量资源定价模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊能; 许振成; 彭晓春; 胡习邦; 张修玉

    2011-01-01

    在水环境质量资源的价格分析中,引入"级差地租"理论,以水质差异而造成的水价不同作为水环境质量资源的定量依据,结合模糊综合评判法,建立一种新的适用于复杂且模糊的多指标评价体系的环境质量资源定价方法.以广州流溪河为例,分析了各河段的水质价格,分析表明,本文提供的模型可为合理调整水价,修正水资源核算,制定水资源管理的相关政策提供依据.%Using price difference caused by water quality difference as the quantifying base of water environmental quality, introducing differential rent theory and combining with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, a pricing method of aquatic environment quality resources was proposed.This new pricing method was applicable to complicated and fuzzy multi-index evaluation system.Taking Liuxi River in Guangzhou as an example, water quality price in each river section was calculated, which provided a base for rationally adjusting water price, correcting water resources checking and making relevant police of water resources management.

  11. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution.

  12. COMPOSTING AQUATIC MACROPHYTES: SALVINIA AURICULATA AND EICHHORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available High population growth and densities in urban areas and the consumerism present in modern societies have pronounced effect on the generation of organic waste, which may become an environmental problem. Aerobic composting is one of the best known alternatives to treating these wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of composting as an alternative to the disposal of organic wastes from aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata collected in the reservoir UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Tocantins, Brazil and also produce an organic compound from different combinations of macrophytes, prunning residues and organic waste generated by the Campus of Palmas of UFT, TO. The study was conducted in an area of 80m² in unprotected environment at the experimental station of the Campus of Palmas. The experiments were done as three replications in the dry season (from 18.09.2008 to 11.21.2008 and rainy season (from 03.09.2009 to 05.04.2009 and the parameters temperature, pH, total nitrogen and carbon, and organic matter were monitored along with counts of microorganisms. It was possible to produce compost from the combinations of organic wastes within 65 days of composting during the dry season and 55 days in the rainy season. The aquatic macrophytes resulted in a good raw material for composting, since there is not a destination for the excess plant materials removed by the cleaning process of the reservoir.

  13. Effects of triclosan on various aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Teshima, Kenji; Kishi, Katsuyuki; Arizono, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in various industrial products, such as textile goods, soap, shampoo, liquid toothpaste and cosmetics, and often detected in wastewater effluent. However, there is a paucity of data on the toxicity of triclosan and its effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, the acute toxicity of triclosan to the Microtox bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), a microalga (Selenastrum capricornutum), a crustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes) was examined. As a result, the MicrotoxR bacterium, crustacean and fish had similar sensitivities towards triclosan toxicity (i.e., IC25 from 0.07 to 0.29 mg/L triclosan). In contrast, the microalga was about 30-80-fold (IC25 = 0.0034 mg/L triclosan) more sensitive to triclosan toxicity than the bacterium and fish. Therefore, triclosan is quite highly toxic to aquatic animals, and is particularly highly toxic to the green alga used as a test organism in this study. This result indicates that triclosan exerts a marked influence on algae, which are important organisms being the first-step producers in the ecosystem; therefore, the possible destruction of the balance of the ecosystem is expected if triclosan is discharged into the environment at high levels.

  14. Effects of the antihistamine diphenhydramine on selected aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Jason P; Du, Bowen; Connors, Kristin A; Eytcheson, Stephanie A; Kolkmeier, Mark A; Prosser, Krista N; Valenti, Theodore W; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-09-01

    In recent years pharmaceuticals have been detected in aquatic systems receiving discharges of municipal and industrial effluents. Although diphenhydramine (DPH) has been reported in water, sediment, and fish tissue, an understanding of its impacts on aquatic organisms is lacking. Diphenhydramine has multiple modes of action (MOA) targeting the histamine H1, acetylcholine (ACh), and 5-HT reuptake transporter receptors, and as such is used in hundreds of pharmaceutical formulations. The primary objective of this study was to develop a baseline aquatic toxicological understanding of DPH using standard acute and subchronic methodologies with common aquatic plant, invertebrate, and fish models. A secondary objective was to test the utility of leveraging mammalian pharmacology information to predict aquatic toxicity thresholds. The plant model, Lemna gibba, was not adversely affected at exposures as high as 10 mg/L. In the fish model, Pimephales promelas, pH affected acute toxicity thresholds and feeding behavior was more sensitive (no-observed-effect concentration = 2.8 µg/L) than standardized survival or growth endpoints. This response threshold was slightly underpredicted using a novel plasma partitioning approach and a mammalian pharmacological potency model. Interestingly, results from both acute mortality and subchronic reproduction studies indicated that the model aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was more sensitive to DPH than the fish model. These responses suggest that DPH may exert toxicity in Daphnia through ACh and histamine MOAs. The D. magna reproduction no-observed-effect concentration of 0.8 µg/L is environmentally relevant and suggests that additional studies of more potent antihistamines and antihistamine mixtures are warranted. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  15. Contaminação do ambiente aquático por pesticidas. Estudo de caso: águas usadas para consumo humano em Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso - análise preliminar Aquatic environment contamination by pesticides. Case study: water used for human consumption in Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso - preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Freire Gaspar de Carvalho Dores

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary analyses of the possible contamination of superficial and underground water by the active ingredients of the pesticide products used in the surroundings of the urban area of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brazil, was carried out. A description of the study region and of its environmental characteristics, which can favor the contamination of the local aquatic environment, was presented. The EPA screening criteria, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS and the criteria proposed by Goss were used to evaluate which pesticides might contaminate the local waters. Among the active ingredients studied, several present risks to the local aquatic environment.

  16. Biological Fenton's oxidation of pentachlorophenol by aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Andre Rodrigues dos; Kyuma, Yukako; Sakakibara, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    This study proposes a new treatment method to decompose persistent chemicals such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water, utilizing hydrogen peroxide present in aquatic plants to proceed the biological Fenton reaction. PCP was not effectively removed by aquatic plants. However, by adding 2.8 mM of Fe(2+), there was a rapid removal of PCP while at the same time consumption of endogenous hydrogen peroxide occurred. It was observed the increase of chloride ions formation in water-confirming the complete degradation of PCP. These results demonstrated that PCP was oxidized through a biological Fenton reaction, and hydrogen peroxide in aquatic plants was a key endogenous substance in treatment of refractory toxic pollutants.

  17. Biotechnological potential of aquatic plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, L; Nüsslein, K

    2010-06-01

    The rhizosphere in terrestrial systems is the region of soil surrounding plant roots where there is increased microbial activity; in aquatic plants, this definition may be less clear because of diffusion of nutrients in water, but there is still a zone of influence by plant roots in this environment [1]. Within that zone chemical conditions differ from those of the surrounding environment as a consequence of a range of processes that were induced either directly by the activity of plant roots or by the activity of rhizosphere microflora. Recently, there are a number of new studies related to rhizospheres of aquatic plants and specifically their increased potential for remediation of contaminants, especially remediation of metals through aquatic plant-microbial interaction.

  18. NASDA next generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Ishioka, N.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.

    2003-10-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grewto adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad ( Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day.

  19. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  20. Dissolved organic matter enhances transport of PAHs to aquatic organisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laak, T.L.; ter Bekke, M.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the uptake of pyrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene by an aquatic worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) coated glass fiber was studied at different humic acid concentrations. The accumulation of pyrene was not affected by the presence of the humic matrix. However, the a

  1. Intracellular proliferation of Legionella pneumophila in Hartmannella vermiformis in aquatic biofilms grown on plasticized polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.W.; Wullings, B.A.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Beumer, R.R.; Kooij, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    The need for protozoa for the proliferation of Legionella pneumophila in aquatic habitats is still not fully understood and is even questioned by some investigators. This study shows the in vivo growth of L. pneumophila in protozoa in aquatic biofilms developing at high concentrations on plasticized

  2. Kinematical characterization of a basic head-out aquatic exercise during an incremental protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Olveira, C.; Teixeira, Genoveva; Costa, M.J.; Marinho, D. A.; Silva, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Massive research has been produced throughout the last decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations’ health (Barbosa et al, 2009). Indeed, such studies aimed to characterize the physiological acute and/or chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises.

  3. Kinematical characterization of the head-out aquatic exercise "sailor's jigs"

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Teixeira, Genoveva; Oliveira, C.; Costa, M.J.; Marinho, D. A.; Silva, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Massive research has been produced throughout the last decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations’ health (Barbosa et al, 2009). Indeed, such studies aimed to characterize the physiological acute and/or chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises.

  4. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses during Aquatic Exercise in Water at Different Temperatures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Matten, Sonia; Sieverdes, John C.; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during upper-body aquatic exercises in older adults with different pool temperatures. Method: Eleven older men (aged 65 years and older) underwent 2 identical aquatic exercise sessions that consisted of 3 upper-body exercises using progressive intensities (30, 35, and 40…

  5. Analysis study on maximum use levels for the food additives in aquatic products and advices%水产品中食品添加剂限量标准分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娣; 宋怿; 房金岑

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of establishing maximum use levels for food additives in aquatic products were introduced in this study, which analyzed the difference in food additives standards among codex alimentarius commission ( CAC) ,American, Japan , EU and China, then advanced some measures and advices for advancing national standards.%介绍CAC、美国、日本、欧盟等我国几个主要水产品出口对象的食品添加剂限量标准,并与我国相关标准要求进行了对比分析,探讨了我国现行水产品中食品添加剂限量标准存在的问题,提出了对策和建议.

  6. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  7. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    detoxification and bioactivation. Hydrophobic pesticides that are expected to be highly stored in tissues would not be bioconcentrated if susceptible to biotic transformation by aquatic organisms to more rapidly metabolized to hydrophilic entities are generally less toxic. By analogy, pesticides that are metabolized to similar entities by aquatic species surely are les ecotoxicologically significant. One feature of fish and other aquatic species that makes them more relevant as targets of environmental studies and of regulation is that they may not only become contaminated by pesticides or other chemicals, but that they constitute and important part of the human diet. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the enzymes that are capable of metabolizing or otherwise assisting in the removal of xenobiotics from aquatic species. Many studies have been performed on the enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics. In addition to the use of conventional biochemical methods, such studies on enzymes are increasingly being conducted using immunochemical methods and amino acid or gene sequences analysis. Such studies have been performed in algae, in some aquatic macrophytes, and in bivalva, but less information is available for other aquatic species such as crustacea, annelids, aquatic insecta, and other species. Although their catabolizing activity is often lower than in mammals, oxidases, especially cytochrome P450 enzymes, play a central role in transforming pesticides in aquatic organisms. Primary metabolites, formed from such initial enzymatic action, are further conjugated with natural components such as carbohydrates, and this aids removal form the organisms. The pesticides that are susceptible to abiotic hydrolysis are generally also biotically degraded by various esterases to from hydrophilic conjugates. Reductive transformation is the main metabolic pathway for organochlorine pesticides, but less information on reductive enzymology processes is available. The

  8. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  9. The effectiveness of video prompting on teaching aquatic play skills for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Mehmet; Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yilmaz, Ilker

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of the video prompting procedure on teaching aquatic play skills and to determine the effects of aquatic exercise training on the motor performance of children with autism. A multiple probe design across behaviours was used and replicated across subjects for the instructional part of this study. Pretest-posttest design was applied for the exercise training part of this study. Three children with autism were taught three aquatic play skills in a one-to-one training format. Aquatic play skills intervention and aquatic exercise training were performed separately throughout 12 weeks at three sessions per week, each lasting 1 h. The video prompting procedure was utilized for the instruction part of this study. Video prompting was effective in teaching aquatic play skills to children with autism. In addition, aquatic exercise training increased the total motor performance scores of all the participants after 12 weeks. According to the social validity results, the families gave positive feedback about the learned skills and movement capabilities of their children. Aquatic play skills and swimming pools are favoured for children with autism. This attractive intervention is recommended as a means to extend knowledge of leisure skills and motor development of children with autism.

  10. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  11. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  12. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system.

  13. Modelling bioaccumulation of oil constituents in aquatic species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, de L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Schipper, A.M.; Veltman, K.; Laender, de F.; Viaene, K.P.J.; Klok, C.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil poses a risk to marine ecosystems due to its toxicity and tendency to accumulate in biota. The present study evaluated the applicability of the OMEGA model for estimating oil accumulation in aquatic species by comparing model predictions of kinetic rates (absorption and elimination) and bi

  14. Effects of acid-mine wastes on aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John David Parsons

    1976-01-01

    The Cedar Creek Basin (39th N parallel 92nd W meridian) was studied for the period June 1952 through August 1954 to observe the effects of both continuous and periodic acid effluent flows on aquatic communities. The acid strip-mine effluent contained ferric and ferrous iron, copper, lead, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, titratable acid, and elevated hydrogen ion...

  15. Two-dimensional hydrologic modeling to evaluate aquatic habitat conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela Edwards; Frederica Wood; Michael Little; Peter Vila; Peter Vila

    2006-01-01

    We describe the modeling and mapping procedures used to examine aquatic habitat conditions and habitat suitability of a small river in north- central West Virginia where fish survival and reproduction in specific reaches are poor. The study includes: (1) surveying cross sections of streambed reaches and measuring discharges and corresponding water-surface elevations,...

  16. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Paulo, Brazil. In the review, we analyzed 10 articles, where we obtained data on 41 species. We also sampled 5 macrophyte genera, Egeria, Salvinia, Utricularia, Eleocharis, and Ceratophyllum, in August and December 2012 and in March and April 2013, in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas. We registered 21 Oligochaeta species associated to these macrophytes. With the data obtained in the review along with the inventory of the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas, we found a total of 41 species associated to aquatic macrophytes, with a higher richness of the Naididae family (93.33%, followed by Opistocystidae (4.44%, and Alluroididae (2.22%. Our study inventoried about 48% of the Oligochaeta diversity registered in continental ecosystems in Brazil, thus highlighting the significance of macrophytes as a resource for these invertebrates, mainly for the Naididae family.

  17. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  18. Factors Determining Awareness and Knowledge of Aquatic Invasive Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Yen, S.T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species

  19. Selective preservation and origin of petroleum-forming aquatic kerogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Spiker, E. C.; Szeverenyi, N.M.; Maciel, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of a marine algal sapropel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, by 13C NMR and stable carbon isotopic methods show that precursors of aquatic kerogen (insoluble, macromolecular, paraffinic humic substances) are primary components of algae and possibly associated bacteria and that these substances survive microbial decomposition and are selectively preserved during early diagenesis. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  20. Degradation of munitions and chlorinated solvents by aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, N.L.

    1995-04-22

    Nitroreductase and dehalogenase enzymes have been isolated from sediments and soils. Using enzyme linked immunospecific assays (ELISA), a number of aquatic plants have been identified as sources of the enzymes. The plants were then brought back into the laboratory and evaluated as candidates for further remediation studies.

  1. Factors Determining Awareness and Knowledge of Aquatic Invasive Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Yen, S.T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species (A

  2. Niche differentiation between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coci, M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was the search for niche differentiation between the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are chemolitho-autotrophic microorganisms responsible for the first, mostly rate-limiting step of the nitrification

  3. Visual observation of fishes and aquatic habitat [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; J. Ellen. Marsden

    2012-01-01

    Whether accomplished above the water surface or performed underwater by snorkel, scuba, or hookah divers or remotely operated vehicles (ROVs); direct observation techniques are among the most effective means for obtaining accurate and often unique information on aquatic organisms in their natural surroundings. Many types of studies incorporate direct observation...

  4. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Eggen, Trine [Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp St. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    isomers), metabolites of non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol-polyethoxylates), UV-filter compound ethyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) and bisphenol A (BPA) were particularly determined in the sediment samples at high {mu}g/kg dry weight concentration. Measuring contaminants in such areas will help in increasing governmental, societal and industrial awareness on the extent and seriousness of the contamination both at waste disposal sites and surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid waste management in developing countries Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid waste as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contaminant leaching from solid waste to surrounding environment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of several contaminants of emerging concern and with endocrine-disrupting activities Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalates are the dominant contaminant group with concentrations that are comparable with other countries.

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology and aquatic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Alexis M; Spyropoulos, Demetri D

    2014-06-01

    Aquatic animal species are the overall leaders in the scientific investigation of tough but important global health issues, including environmental toxicants and climate change. Historically, aquatic animal species also stand at the forefront of experimental biology, embryology and stem cell research. Over the past decade, intensive and high-powered investigations principally involving mouse and human cells have brought the generation and study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to a level that facilitates widespread use in a spectrum of species. A review of key features of these investigations is presented here as a primer for the use of iPSC technology to enhance ongoing aquatic animal species studies. iPSC and other cutting edge technologies create the potential to study individuals from "the wild" closer to the level of investigation applied to sophisticated inbred mouse models. A wide variety of surveys and hypothesis-driven investigations can be envisioned using this new capability, including comparisons of organism-specific development and exposure response and the testing of fundamental dogmas established using inbred mice. However, with these new capabilities, also come new criteria for rigorous baseline assessments and testing. Both the methods for inducing pluripotency and the source material can negatively impact iPSC quality and bourgeoning applications. Therefore, more rigorous strategies not required for inbred mouse models will have to be implemented to approach global health issues using individuals from "the wild" for aquatic animal species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. No evidence of aquatic priming effects in hyporheic zone microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mia M; Wagner, Karoline; Burns, Nancy R; Herberg, Erik R; Wanek, Wolfgang; Kaplan, Louis A; Battin, Tom J

    2014-06-05

    The priming effect refers to quantitative changes in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant organic matter upon addition of labile organic matter and is a phenomenon that mainly has been reported and debated in soil science. Recently, priming effects have been indicated in aquatic ecosystems and have received attention due to the potential significance for ecosystem carbon budgets. Headwater stream biofilms, which are important degraders of both allochthonous, presumably recalcitrant, organic matter and labile autochthonous organic matter, may be sites where priming effects are important in aquatic environments. We have experimentally tested for priming effects in stream biofilms within microcosms mimicking the stream hyporheic zone. A (13)C labeled model allochthonous carbon source was used in combination with different carbon sources simulating autochthonous inputs. We did not detect changes in respiration, removal or incorporation of allochthonous organic matter in response to autochthonous treatments, thus not supporting the occurrence of priming effects under the experimental conditions. This study is the first to address priming effects in the hyporheic zone, and one of very few studies quantitatively assessing aquatic priming effects. The results contrast with existing studies, which highlights the need for quantitative approaches to determine the importance of priming effects in aquatic environments.

  7. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  8. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to

  9. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  10. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  11. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  12. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  13. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  14. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  15. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  16. 水生细菌对原生动物的反捕食对策%DEFENSE STRATEGIES OF AQUATIC BACTERIA TO PROTOZOA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周可新; 许木启; 曹宏; 仝恩丛; 李志杰; 马向民; 尹彦品; 刘伟

    2003-01-01

    The research progress in the defense strategies of aquatic bacteria to protozoa was reviewed in this paper, Aquatic bacteria can reduce or avoid grazing mortality from protozoa through changing size or shape, reducing cell surface hydrophobieity, reducing mobility or searching refuges. It is the main trends of the field in the future to study the coevolution mode of aquatic bacteria and protozoa. Ref 47

  17. [Aquatic exercise in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Bjelaković, Bojko; Lazović, Milica; Stanković, Ivona; Čolović, Hristina; Kocić, Mirjana; Zlatanović, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic exercise is one of the most popular supplementary treatments for children with neuro-motor impairment, especially for cerebral palsy (CP). As water reduces gravity force which increases postural stability, a child with CP exercises more easily in water than on land. The aim of the study was to examine aquatic exercise effects on gross motor functioning, muscle tone and cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP. The study included 19 children of both sexes, aged 6 to 12 years, with spastic CP. They were included in a 12-week aquatic exercise program, twice a week. Measurements of GMFM (gross motor function measurement), spasticity (MAS-Modified Ashworth Scale), heart rate (HR) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were carried out before and after treatment. The measurement results were compared before and after treatment. GMFM mean value before therapy was 80.2% and statistically it was significantly lower in comparison to the same value after therapy, which was 86.2% (p therapy; the mean value before treatment was 3.21 according to MAS, and after treatment it was 1.95 (p Aquatic exercise program can be useful in improving gross motor functioning, reducing spasticity and increasing cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP.

  18. Impact of Organic Contamination on Some Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasser, El-Nahhal; Shawkat, El-Najjar; Samir, Afifi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contamination of water systems with organic compounds of agricultural uses pose threats to aquatic organisms. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diuron were considered as model aquatic pollutants in this study. The main objective of this study was to characterize the toxicity of organic contamination to two different aquatic organisms. Materials and Methods: Low concentrations (0.0–60 µmol/L) of carbaryl, diuron and very low concentration (0.0–0.14 µmol/L) of chlorpyrifos and their mixtures were tested against fish and Daphnia magna. Percentage of death and immobilization were taken as indicators of toxicity. Results: Toxicity results to fish and D. magna showed that chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound (LC50 to fish and D. magna are 0.08, and 0.001 µmol/L respectively), followed by carbaryl (LC50 to fish and D. magna are 43.19 and 0.031 µmol/L), while diuron was the least toxic one (LC50 values for fish and D. magna are 43.48 and 32.11 µmol/L respectively). Mixture toxicity (binary and tertiary mixtures) showed antagonistic effects. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference among mixture toxicities to fish and D. magma. Conclusion: Fish and D. magam were sensitive to low concentrations. These data suggest potent threats to aquatic organisms from organic contamination. PMID:26862260

  19. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  20. Cetacean brains: how aquatic are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2007-06-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to a fully aquatic lifestyle represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Two of the most salient features of modern cetaceans are their fully aquatic lifestyle and their large brains. This review article will offer an overview of comparative neuroanatomical research on aquatic mammals, including analyses of odontocete cetacean, sirenian, pinniped, and fossil archaeocete brains. In particular, the question of whether a relationship exists between being fully aquatic and having a large brain is addressed. It has been hypothesized that the large, well-developed cetacean brain is a direct product of adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. The current consensus is that the paleontological evidence on brain size evolution in cetaceans is not consistent with this hypothesis. Cetacean brain enlargement took place millions of years after adaptation to a fully aquatic existence. Neuroanatomical comparisons with sirenians and pinnipeds provide no evidence for the idea that the odontocete's large brain, high encephalization level, and extreme neocortical gyrification is an adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. Although echolocation has been suggested as a reason for the high encephalization level in odontocetes, it should be noted that not all aquatic mammals echolocate and echolocating terrestrial mammals (e.g., bats) are not particularly highly encephalized. Echolocation is not a requirement of a fully aquatic lifestyle and, thus, cannot be considered a sole effect of aquaticism on brain enlargement. These results indicate that the high encephalization level of odontocetes is likely related to their socially complex lifestyle patterns that transcend the influence of an aquatic environment.

  1. Microscale Canopy Interactions in Aquatic Phototrophs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenberg, Mads

    Photosynthetic production and light utilization efficiencies in aquatic organisms and microbial communities is determined by the irradiance incident on the system, which on a macroscale is dependent on factors such as, water depth and turbidity. However, on a microscale the light field inside...... phototrophic tissues and communities is determined by interactions between the incident light and the optical properties of the system, which is influenced by pigmentation, organization of tissue structural components, and the intracellular organisation of phytoelements. Our current understanding of how...... photosynthesis is influenced by light interactions is largely based on studies of terrestrial plants where canopy interactions have been described across scales; from landscape-level down to the organization of individual chloroplasts. How light interactions and photosynthetic efficiencies are influenced...

  2. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  3. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  4. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  5. Biomass or growth rate endpoint for algae and aquatic plants: relevance for the aquatic risk assessment of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtold, Matthias; Dohmen, Gerhard Peter

    2011-04-01

    Ecotoxicological studies with algae and aquatic plants are essential parts of the aquatic risk assessment for crop protection products (CPP). Growth rate is used as a response variable and in addition the effects on biomass and/or yield (in the following biomass) can be measured. The parameter biomass generally provides a lower numerical value compared with the growth rate for systematic and mathematical reasons. Therefore, some regulators prefer to use the EbC50 value (i.e., the concentration at which 50% reduction of biomass is observed) rather than ErC50 (the concentration at which a 50% inhibition of growth rate is observed) as the endpoint for ecotoxicological risk assessment. However, the parameter growth rate is scientifically more appropriate and robust against deviations in test conditions, permitting better interpretation of, and comparison between, studies. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the growth rate and biomass parameters with regard to their protectiveness and suitability for environmental risk assessment of CPP. It has been shown for a number of herbicides that the use of the EC50 value (without distinction between growth rate and biomass endpoints) from laboratory studies in combination with an assessment factor of 10 is sufficiently protective for aquatic plants (except for the herbicide 2,4-D). In this paper we evaluated EbC50 and ErC50 values separately. Data on 19 different herbicides were compiled from the literature or GLP reports. The EbC50 and ErC50 values obtained in laboratory studies were compared with effect concentrations in ecosystem studies (mainly mesocosm). This comparison of laboratory and field data shows that the overall aquatic risk assessment using ErC50 values in combination with the currently applied assessment factor of 10 is sufficient to exclude significant risk to aquatic plants in the environment. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  6. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCorno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of antibiotics (AB into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of ABresistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5-6 fold.These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of

  7. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eYoshida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different species of aquatic plants was in the range of 3.7 – 37 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 dry weight, which was ca 5.7-370 fold higher than epiphytic CH4 consumption in submerged parts of emergent plants. The qPCR-estimated copy numbers of the particulate methane monooxygenase-encoding gene pmoA were variable among the aquatic plants and ranged in the order of 105 to 107 copies⋅g-1 dry weight, which correlated with the observed CH4 consumption activities. Phylogenetic identification of methanotrophs on aquatic plants based on the pmoA sequence analysis revealed a predominance of diverse gammaproteobacterial type-I methanotrophs, including a phylotype of a possible plant-associated methanotroph with the closest identity (86-89% to Methylocaldum gracile.

  8. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  9. Aquatic dissipation of triclopyr in Lake Seminole, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodburn, K.B.; Green, W.R.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the environmental dissipation of triclopyr herbicide under aquatic-use conditions. Three 4-h plots in Lake Seminole, Georgia, were selected for use: one control, one aerial plot, and one subsurface plot; both applications were at the maximum aquatic-use rate of 2.5 mg/L. Water, sediment, plants, fish, clams, and crayfish were all analyzed for residues, and water temperature, oxygen levels, pH, and conductivity were monitored. The half-life for aqueous-phase triclopyr ranged from 0.5 to 3.6 days, and the dissipation in surface and bottom waters was equivalent. The intermediate decay product of triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), had an observed aquatic half-life of less than 1 day. No accumulation of triclopyr or TCP on sediment was observed. The half-life of triclopyr metabolized by aquatic plants averaged 4 days. Fish species did not exhibit any bioconcentration of triclopyr or TCP, with only trace amounts of either compound found in fish tissue. Both clams and crayfish contained detectable residues of triclopyr. The elimination of triclopyr from clam tissue was more rapid, with an observed half-life of 1.5 days, vs 12 days for crayfish; retention of triclopyr in the crayfish carcass (carapace, chelopeds, and gills) may have been an important mechanism. There was no detectable decline in water quality in either treatment plot. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  10. Ranking of aquatic toxicity of esters modelled by QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Battaini, Francesca; Gramatica, Paola

    2005-02-01

    Alternative methods like predictions based on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) are now accepted to fill data gaps and define priority lists for more expensive and time consuming assessments. A heterogeneous data set of 74 esters was studied for their aquatic toxicity, and available experimental toxicity data on algae, Daphnia and fish were used to develop statistically validated QSAR models, obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) by the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) method and GA-VSS (Variable Subset Selection by Genetic Algorithms) to predict missing values. An ESter Aquatic Toxicity INdex (ESATIN) was then obtained by combining, by PCA, experimental and predicted toxicity data, from which model outliers and esters highly influential due to their structure had been eliminated. Finally this integrated aquatic toxicity index, defined by the PC1 score, was modelled using only a few theoretical molecular descriptors. This last QSAR model, statistically validated for its predictive power, could be proposed as a preliminary evaluative method for screening/prioritising esters according to their integrated aquatic toxicity, just starting from their molecular structure.

  11. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  12. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF 17β-ESTRADIOL IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS AROUND KLANG VALLEY, MALAYSIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the existing concentration of 17β-estradiol(E2)in the sulfate water samples collected from rivers and lakes around Klang Valley,Malaysia.E2,which is a natural feminizing chemical produced in female organisms.regularly used to compare with other environmental estrogens because they behave similarly and react effectively as a hormone at a very low concentration.It was found that the average concentration of E2 in the aquatic environment of Klang Valley was(14.08 ±3.67)pg/mL,which was 14 times higher than those in the Japanese aquatic environment in this study.The river system had the average concentration of(20.02±5.26)pg/mL while the lake had an average concentration of(5.91 ±3.39)pg/mL.The E2 concentration was presumed high if the sourcesoccurred nearby the area.Current levels of E2 in the aquatic environment may possess threats to existing aquatic organisms.Since high level of E2 has been discovered in the aquatic environment around Klang Valley,further studies and monitoring of E2 and other EDCs concentrations are needed to determine their levels in Malaysian aquatic environment and help to control these chemicals pollution in the aquatic environment.

  14. Geometrical optics approach to modelling vision in semi-aquatic snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashhad, Khadijah Abdrabalnabi

    Snake's eyes have some very special characteristics that make them rather enviable. One interesting characteristic about semi-aquatic snakes is their ability to adapt their vision on land or underwater to interact with their environment without any problems, so semi-aquatic snakes constitute a threat to prey on both media. Semi-aquatic snake's eye, in general, is not largely studied in terms of optical properties and the mechanical properties. We examined the optical properties by studying the behavior of refractive index of a lens under stress while we investigated the mechanical properties to understand the relationship between force and compression by using the Hertzian theory of elastic.

  15. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  16. Estudo da labilidade de Cu(II, Cd(II, Mn(II e Ni(II em substâncias húmicas aquáticas utilizando-se membranas celulósicas organomodificadas Lability study of Cu(II, Cd(II, Mn(II and Ni(II complexed by aquatic humic substances using organomodified cellulose membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Henrique Rosa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work commercial filters papers were organomodified with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTS, aiming at the development of a new analytical procedure for in-situ speciation of labile and inert metal species in aquatic systems. Parameters that exert influence on the metal lability such as pH, chelating time, concentration and characteristics of the organic matter were studied in the laboratory using tests for metal recuperation. The results showed slower kinetics for Cu ion than for Ni, Mn and Cd in the absence of aquatic humic substances (AHS. The relative lability observed for complexed metals in aquatic humic substances using organomodified filter papers was Cu>>Cd>Ni>Mn. The pH values, structural characteristics and concentration of AHS exert strong influence on the lability of the metals. The results obtained showed that the utilization of organomodified filter papers can be an interesting and promising alternative for in situ characterization of metal lability in aquatic systems.

  17. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  18. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  19. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.

  20. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  1. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs......), and considers the acute and chronic ecotoxicity. The chapter examines in more detail the processes that influence this toxicity, for example, agglomeration and aggregation, and photocatalytic activity upon exposure to UV light. It covers the longer-term effects of various nanomaterials by reviewing literature...

  2. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  3. Suitability of Aquatic Plant Fibers for Handmade Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordiah Bidin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns for future fiber supplies in pulp and paper industries has shifted interest in nonwood sources from agriculture residues and aquatic plants. Aquatic plants with short growth cycles, in abundance, and with low lignin are a potential fiber source. Five aquatic plant species, Cyperus digitatus, Cyperus halpan, Cyperus rotundus, Scirpus grossus, and Typha angustifolia, were examined for fiber dimensions and chemical composition (cellulose, lignin and compared with other nonwood plants. All aquatic plants possessed short (length, 0.71–0.83 mm and thin (diameter, 9.13–12.11 µm fibers, narrow lumen (diameter, 4.32–7.30 µm, and thin cell wall (thickness, 2.25–2.83 µm compared with most other nonwood plants. Slenderness ratio ranged from 73.77 to 89.34 with Typha angustifolia having the highest ratio. Except for Scirpus grossus, the flexibility coefficient ranged from 52.91 to 58.08. Scirpus grossus has low Runkel ratio, 0.84 ± 0.17. Fiber characteristics, short and thin fibers, Slenderness ratio >60, flexibility coefficient within 50–75, and Runkel ratio 34% is suitable for pulp and papermaking. Lignin content in aquatic plants in the present study ranged 9.54–20.04% and below the wood lignin content of <23–30% encountered in pulp and papermaking. Handmade paper sheets produced for paperboard, craft, and decorative purposes are with permissible tensile strength, breaking length, and low moisture content.

  4. A long-term, multitrophic level study to assess pulp and paper mill effluent effects on aquatic communities in four US receiving waters: characteristics of the study streams, sample sites, mills, and mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy J; Ragsdale, Renee L; Arthurs, William J; Ikoma, Joan; Borton, Dennis L; Cook, Diana L

    2009-04-01

    Watershed characteristics, study streams, sample sites, mills, and mill effluents are provided for 4 streams included in a long-term study to assess potential effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on US receiving waters. The study streams are Codorus Creek (Pennsylvania, USA), Leaf River (Mississippi, USA) and McKenzie and Willamette rivers (Oregon, USA) and were chosen to represent a blend of mill process types, effluent concentrations, and coldwater/warmwater stream systems. The described effluent quality, water quality, and habitat data sets encompass the initial 7 to 8 y of a study anticipated to continue >10 y and provide a backdrop to a series of articles describing periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish community properties in these same streams. The mean in-stream waste concentration (IWC) for these 4 effluent discharges was 32.4%, 2.0%, 0.5%, and 0.2% v/v for Codorus Creek and Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers, respectively, as compared with a median of 0.4% for US mills. Effluent quality measurements included Selenastrum capricornutum, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pimephales promelas chronic bioassays as sanctioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency for estimating effluent effects on receiving-water aquatic communities. Based on mean bioassay inhibition concentration for a 25% effect and on mean IWC, a margin of safety against adverse biological effects of 2, 25, 137, and 150 times was indicated for Codorus Creek and Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers, respectively. Habitat and water quality assessment was carried out over a gradient of sample sites above and below the effluent discharge to determine nonmill-related conditions that might interfere with interpretation of effluent effects. Noneffluent related localized differences in conditions for some parameters, including current velocity (McKenzie River), and surface incident photosynthetically active radiation (Codorus Creek and Willamette River) occurred at the sample stations immediately

  5. Origin, causes and effects of increased nitrite concentrations in aquatic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, S.; Laanbroek, H.J.; Verstraete, W.

    2002-01-01

    Literature frequently mentions increased nitrite concentrations along with its inhibitory effect towards bacteria and aquatic life. Nitrite accumulation has been studied for decades, and although numerous causal factors have already been commented on in literature, the mechanism of nitrite

  6. Effects of micro- and nanoplastics on aquatic ecosystems: Current research trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-17

    Contamination by bulk plastics and plastic debris is currently the one of the most serious environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, small-scale plastic debris such as microplastics and nanoplastics has become leading contributors to the pollution of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Studies are investigating the impacts of micro-and nanoplastics on aquatic organisms and ecosystems worldwide. This review covers 83 studies that investigated the distribution of microplastics and the ecotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems. The studies indicated that micro-sized plastics and plastic debris were distributed at various concentrations in aquatic ecosystems around the world. They had various effects on the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and mortality of aquatic animals. We discuss these studies in detail and suggest directions for future research.

  7. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  8. Sunlight affects aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigate the role of simulated sunlight on the physicochemical properties, aggregation, and deposition of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments. Results show that light exposure under varied environmental conditions significantly impacts the physicochem...

  9. Chemical residence time and hydrological conditions influence fipronil reduction in vegetated aquatic mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil, a phenyl-pyrazole insecticide and its metabolites (Fipronil sulfone, sulfide and desulfinyl) is often used in rice production agriculture with elevated runoff concentrations and loads having potential toxicological effects on downstream aquatic environments. This study evaluated two specie...

  10. Effectiveness of emergent and submergent aquatic plants in mitigating a nitrogen-permethrin mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study assessed the effectiveness of varying combinations of two common aquatic vascular macrophytes, parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) and cattail (Typha latifolia) for mitigating contamination from a mixture of nitrogen (ammonium nitrate) and permethrin. Hydraulically connected we...

  11. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  12. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  13. Biological indicators of aquatic ecosystem stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, S. M

    2002-01-01

    ... biological measures into the bioassessment programs. Relying on chemical criteria alone for assessing the status of surface water integrity can inaccurately portray the biological and ecological condition of aquatic systems...

  14. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  15. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  16. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  17. VT Biodiversity Project - Aquatic Sites boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Exemplary aquatic sites in Vermont, both standing water and running water, are represented in this dataset. It is the result of an analysis by the...

  18. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  19. Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  20. Whole effluent toxicity of agricultural irrigation drainwater entering Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, NV : Acute toxicity studies with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the acute toxicity studies conducted with samples collected from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. The objective of these studies was to...

  1. Splashing Our Way to Playfulness! An Aquatic Playgroup for Young Children with Autism, A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an aquatic playgroup on the playfulness of children, ages 2 to 3 with autism spectrum disorder. Using a repeated measures design, we followed 10 children and their caregivers who participated in a 6-week aquatic playgroup in southwest Florida. Four dyads completed the entire 12-week study period. The…

  2. Splashing Our Way to Playfulness! An Aquatic Playgroup for Young Children with Autism, A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an aquatic playgroup on the playfulness of children, ages 2 to 3 with autism spectrum disorder. Using a repeated measures design, we followed 10 children and their caregivers who participated in a 6-week aquatic playgroup in southwest Florida. Four dyads completed the entire 12-week study period. The…

  3. 定量评估水生资源及生态系统的EWE营养模型研究%Study on EWE Nutrition Model for the Quantitative Assessment of Aquatic Resources and Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳力剑; 胥献宇; 胡思玉; 刘文

    2011-01-01

    According to environmental data. Ecopath with Ecosim (EWE) can quantitatively describe the energy flow in the produolion and consumption of function components of system by using trophodynamics, and accurately assess the biomass and stable state of aquatic ecosys tem. In the paper, the basic principle and parameter) of EWE model were introduced firstly, then the relationship between Q/B (the important parameter of EWE model) and basic life indies of fish was discussed, and the current study and typical results of EWE model were analyzed finally.%基于环境调查数据,EWE生态营养通道模型利用营养动力学原理,定量描述系统中各功能成分生产和消耗的能量流动,能较为准确地评估稳定状态下水域生态系统组份的生物量及其系统稳定状态:首先概括了EWE模型的基本原理和基本参数,然后探讨了EWE重要参数Q/B与鱼类基本生命指标之间的关系,最后分析了EWE模型的研究现状及典型研究成果.

  4. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Fungal Communities in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic): Aquatic Fungi in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the diversity and distribution of fungi in 13 water samples collected from four aquatic environments (stream, pond, melting ice water, and estuary) in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Aquatic fungal communities in this region showed high diversity, with a total of 43,061 reads belonging to 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 200 belonged to Ascomycota, 196 to Chytridiomycota, 120 to Basidiomycota, 13 to Glomeromycota, and 10 to early diverging fungal lineages (traditional Zygomycota), whereas 102 belonged to unknown fungi. The major orders were Helotiales, Eurotiales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycota; Chytridiales and Rhizophydiales in Chytridiomycota; and Leucosporidiales and Sporidiobolales in Basidiomycota. The common fungal genera Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Epicoccum, Glaciozyma, Holtermanniella, Betamyces, and Phoma were identified. Interestingly, the four aquatic environments in this region harbored different aquatic fungal communities. Salinity, conductivity, and temperature were important factors in determining the aquatic fungal diversity and community composition. The results suggest the presence of diverse fungal communities and a considerable number of potentially novel fungal species in Arctic aquatic environments, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological and evolutionary responses of fungi to climate change in the Arctic ecosystem.

  5. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  6. Effects of Eichhornia crassipes Growth on Aquatic Plants in Dianchi Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of Eichhornia crassipes as an invasive plant on aquatic plants in Dianchi Lake. [Method] Based on the determination of chlorophyll content of phytoplankton and submerged plant (Potamogeton pectinatus) in Dianchi Lake in different months, the effects of E. crassipes on aquatic plants in Dianchi Lake were studied, and the allelopathy effect of root culture solution of E. crassipes on Microcystis aquaticum was discussed. [Result] The growth of E. crassipes in Dianch...

  7. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  8. Exploring the suitability of causal loop diagrams to assess the Value chains of aquatic ecosystem services: A case study of the Baviaanskloof, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawlins, JM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the suitability of causal loop diagrams (CLDs) to assess the value chains of AESs in South Africa within the context of a case study. AESs do not usually have finite market values nor are they traded in formal markets, thus a...

  9. Immunotoxicological profile of chloramine in female B6C3F1 mice when administered in the drinking water for 28 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tai L; Germolec, Dori R; Collins, Bradley J; Luebke, Robert W; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L

    2011-01-01

    Monochloramine has been used to provide a disinfecting residual in water distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain an adequate free-chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product formation is of concern. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of chloramine in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered via the drinking water. Mice were exposed to chloramine-containing deionized tap water at 2, 10, 20, 100, or 200 ppm for 28 days. No statistically significant differences in drinking water consumption, body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or hematological parameters between the exposed and control animals were noted during the experimental period. There were no changes in the percentages and numbers of total B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages in the spleen. Exposure to chloramine did not affect the IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or anti-SRBC IgM antibody production. Minimal effects, judged to be biologically insignificant, were observed in the mixed-leukocyte response and NK activity. In conclusion, chloramine produced no toxicological and immunotoxic effects in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered for 28 days in the drinking water at concentrations ranging from 2-200 ppm.

  10. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  11. Unifying Rules for Aquatic Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mehdi; Domel, August; di Santo, Valentina; Lauder, George; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Strouhal number, St (=fA/U) , a scaling parameter that relates speed, U, to the tail-beat frequency, f, and tail-beat amplitude, A, has been used many times to describe animal locomotion. It has been observed that swimming animals cruise at 0.2 experimental evidence of a self-propelled fish-like swimmer, we show that when cruising at minimum hydrodynamic input power, St is predetermined, and is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area. The narrow range for St, 0.2-0.4, has been previously associated with optimal propulsive efficiency. However, St alone is insufficient for deciding optimal motion. We show that hydrodynamic input power (energy usage to propel over a unit distance) in fish locomotion is minimized at all cruising speeds when A* (= A/L), a scaling parameter that relates tail-beat amplitude, A, to the length of the swimmer, L, is constrained to a narrow range of 0.15-0.25. Our analysis proposes a constraint on A*, in addition to the previously found constraint on St, to fully describe the optimal swimming gait for fast swimmers. A survey of kinematics for dolphin, as well as new data for trout, show that the range of St and A* for fast swimmers indeed are constrained to 0.2-0.4 and 0.15-0.25, respectively. Our findings provide physical explanation as to why fast aquatic swimmers cruise with relatively constant tail-beat amplitude at approximately 20 percent of body length, while their swimming speed is linearly correlated with their tail-beat frequency.

  12. Aquatic toxicology of fluoxetine: understanding the knowns and the unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Grossman, Leah; Nguyen, Michael; Maximino, Caio; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Echevarria, David J; Kalueff, Allan V

    2014-11-01

    Fluoxetine is one of the most prescribed psychotropic medications, and is an agent of increasing interest for environmental toxicology. Fish and other aquatic organisms are excellent models to study neuroactive small molecules like fluoxetine. However, prone to variance due to experimental factors, data obtained in these models need to be interpreted with caution, using proper experimental protocols, study designs, validated endpoints as well as well-established models and tests. Choosing the treatment protocol and dose range for fluoxetine and other serotonergic drugs is critical for obtaining valid test results and correct data interpretation. Here we discuss the value of aquatic models to study fluoxetine effects, based on prior high-quality research, and outline the directions of future translational studies in the field. We review fluoxetine-evoked phenotypes in acute vs. chronic protocols, discussing them in the contact of complex role of serotonin in behavioral regulation. We conclude that zebrafish and other aquatic models represent a useful in-vivo tool for fluoxetine pharmacology and (eco)toxicology research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of aquatic and traditional exercise programs on persons with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, F B; Milam, S; Manske, R C; Deere, R

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to detect if increases in functional levels for patients with osteoarthritis show differences between an aquatic exercise program and a land-based exercise program. Forty-six subjects between the ages of 45 and 70 years participated in 1 of 2 exercise groups. Pre- and posttest measurements included knee range of motion (ROM), thigh girth, subjective pain scale, and time for a 1-mile walk. Both exercise groups showed a significant (p aquatic exercise group and the land-based exercise group pertaining to knee ROM, thigh girth, and time for a 1-mile walk. Subjective pain levels were significantly less in the aquatic group when compared with the land-based group. This study concludes that both aquatic and land-based exercise programs are beneficial to patients with osteoarthritis.

  14. Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment : a comparative screening study of their occurrence, formation of phototransformation products and their in vitro toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Data allowing for a complete environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and their photoderatives in the environment are still scarce. In the present study, in vitro toxicity and both bio- and photopersistence of various pharmaceuticals (aciclovir, allopurinol, cetirizine, cimetidine, fluconazole, hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril, phenytoin, primidone, ranitidine, sotalol, sulpiride, tramadol and valsartane) as well as their phototransformation products were evaluated in order to fill dat...

  15. FABM-PCLake - linking aquatic ecology with hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fenjuan; Bolding, Karsten; Bruggeman, Jorn; Jeppesen, Erik; Flindt, Morgens R.; van Gerven, Luuk; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Mooij, Wolf M.; Trolle, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    This study presents FABM-PCLake, a redesigned structure of the PCLake aquatic ecosystem model, which we implemented in the Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM). In contrast to the original model, which was designed for temperate, fully mixed freshwater lakes, the new FABM-PCLake represents an integrated aquatic ecosystem model that can be linked with different hydrodynamic models and allows simulations of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes for zero-dimensional, one-dimensional as well as three-dimensional environments. FABM-PCLake describes interactions between multiple trophic levels, including piscivorous, zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish, zooplankton, zoobenthos, three groups of phytoplankton and rooted macrophytes. The model also accounts for oxygen dynamics and nutrient cycling for nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, both within the pelagic and benthic domains. FABM-PCLake includes a two-way communication between the biogeochemical processes and the physics, where some biogeochemical state variables (e.g., phytoplankton) influence light attenuation and thereby the spatial and temporal distributions of light and heat. At the same time, the physical environment, including water currents, light and temperature influence a wide range of biogeochemical processes. The model enables studies on ecosystem dynamics in physically heterogeneous environments (e.g., stratifying water bodies, and water bodies with horizontal gradients in physical and biogeochemical properties), and through FABM also enables data assimilation and multi-model ensemble simulations. Examples of potential new model applications include climate change impact studies and environmental impact assessment scenarios for temperate, sub-tropical and tropical lakes and reservoirs.

  16. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  17. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  18. Survival and conjugal transfer between Bacillus thuringiensis strains in aquatic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Furlaneto Luciana; Saridakis Halha Ostrensky; Arantes Olívia Márcia Nagy

    2000-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to assess the survival of cells and spores and plasmid transfer between Bacillus thuringienis strains in aquatic environment. Results indicated that cells and spores of B. thuringiensis can survive for 10 days in water, without altering their number. The sporulation process began after 12-15 hours of inoculation of water. B. thuringiensis was able to transfer conjugative plasmids in the aquatic environment.

  19. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  20. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  1. Immunotoxicological Assays Using the Japanese Medaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-31

    Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick Frederick , Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for public release; distribution...34Sc. ADDRESS (City. State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Fort Detrick PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Frederick , Maryland 21702-5012...toxicity, as manifested by decreased condition index (Roesijadi and Klerks 1989) and reduced shell growth (Shuster and Pringle 1969), starts to become

  2. General aspects of immunotoxicology including validation issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieke Kuper, C.

    2006-01-01

    Histologic examination of lymphoid organs has revealed immunotoxic effects of a broad range of substances. The thymus has proven especially sensitive. The relative lack of sensitivity of mucosa-associated lymphoid cells and tissues may be due to shortcomings in the way they are examined. Validation

  3. IMPORTANCE OF ENZYMATIC BIOTRANSFORMATION IN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many immunotoxic compounds, such as benzene and other organic solvents, pesticides, mycotoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, can alter immune function only after undergoing enzyme-mediated reactions within various tissues. In the review that follows, the role of enzymatic...

  4. Governance of Aquatic Agricultural Systems: Analyzing Representation, Power, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake D. Ratner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders over rights to access and use natural resources, land, water, wetlands, and fisheries, essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision making amidst competition that spans sectors and scales, building capacities for resilience, and for transformations in institutions that perpetuate poverty. In this paper we provide a simple framework to analyze the governance context for aquatic agricultural system development focused on three dimensions: stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and mechanisms of accountability. Case studies from Cambodia, Bangladesh, Malawi/Mozambique, and Solomon Islands illustrate the application of these concepts to fisheries and aquaculture livelihoods in the broader context of intersectoral and cross-scale governance interactions. Comparing these cases, we demonstrate how assessing governance dimensions yields practical insights into opportunities for transforming the institutions that constrain resilience in local livelihoods.

  5. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with

  6. Fate and effects of amphoteric surfactants in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M Teresa; Campos, Encarna; Marsal, Agustí; Ribosa, Isabel

    2008-10-01

    Amphoteric surfactants form part of specialty surfactants available for formulators to improve or design new formulations in response to environmental, toxicity, safety and performance demands. Nevertheless, limited information on the ecological properties of amphoterics is available. In the present work, the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and the aquatic toxicity of different types of amphoteric surfactants (three alkyl betaines, one alkylamido betaine and three alkyl imidazoline derivatives) were studied. The amphoteric surfactants tested were readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions (CO2 headspace test) and alkylamido betaines and alkyl imidazoline derivatives were also easily biodegradable under anaerobic conditions (test based on the ECETOC method). Toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum and Daphnia magna increased with the fatty chain length of the surfactant. The EC50 toxicity values of the amphoterics tested were higher than 5 mg/L, and alkyl imidazoline derivatives, with EC50 values from 20 to > 200 mg/L, showed the lowest aquatic toxicity.

  7. [The criteria of identification of "critical" populations in aquatic radiochemoecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsytsugina, B G; Polikarpov, G G

    2006-01-01

    Data on chromosome mutagenesis levels in populations of aquatic organisms in the Black and the Aegean Seas, the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers, the 30-km zone of ChNPP are presented. The highest level of mutagenesis was observed in hydrobionts populations in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP. The obvious damaged effects of ionizing radiation were noted only in these populations. The comparison of the adaptation rate of aquatic crustaceans and worms populations with different reproduction modes was made. It is found that the studied species with sexual reproduction have higher rate of adaptation to the pollution in comparison with species with prevalent asexual reproduction. Hypothetic mechanisms of population adaptation are discussed. On the basis of species and populations characteristics, the criteria for the identification of "critical" populations (species) and an algoritm of ecological risk assessment for them are proposed.

  8. Theoretical study on aquation reaction of cis-platin complex: RISM-SCF-SEDD, a hybrid approach of accurate quantum chemical method and statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Daisuke; Ono, Kohei; Sato, Hirofumi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2011-11-14

    The ligand exchange process of cis-platin in aqueous solution was studied using RISM-SCF-SEDD (reference interaction site model-self-consistent field with spatial electron density distribution) method, a hybrid approach of quantum chemistry and statistical mechanics. The analytical nature of RISM theory enables us to compute accurate reaction free energy in aqueous solution based on CCSD(T), together with the microscopic solvation structure around the complex. We found that the solvation effect is indispensable to promote the dissociation of the chloride anion from the complex.

  9. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Feasibility of Relating Phenology and Carbohydrate Partitioning to Improve Aquatic Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    the submersed species, coontail (Ceratophyliuw demerswm), elodea (EZodea ccznadensi), and egeria (Egeria densa), were higher in winter, with a deple...Best, E. P. H. 1977. Seasonal changes in mineral and organic compounds of Ceratophylluwn demerswn and Elodea canadensis. Aquatic Botany 3:337-348. Best...E. P. H., and J. H. A. Dassen. 1987. A seasonal study of growth char- acteristics and the levels of carbohydrates and proteins in Elodea nuttallii

  10. Landscape Application of Aquatic Plants in Residential Areas - A Case Study of Haikou City%海口市居住区水生植物园林应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩凤

    2012-01-01

    对海口市居住区水生植物在园林上的应用现状进行了调查,共记录水生植物29种,隶属18科26属。调查结果表明,海口市居住区水景中尚存在水生植物物种多样性低、植物选择及配置不合理、缺乏科学管理、景观生态效果差等问题,并就存在的问题提出了建议。%A survey of aquatic plants used for landscaping was made in the residential areas of Haikou City, Hainan, China, and registered 29 species of aquatic plants under 26 genera and 18 families. This survey presents problems on use of aquatic plants for waterscaping in the residential areas, such as low species diversity, unreasonable plant selection and arrangement, poor waterscaping ecological effect, poor maintenance and care of the aquatic plants in waterscaping, etc. Some suggestions on solution to the problems are raised herein.

  11. The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition and nonspecific low back pain in elderly males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoust, Khadijeh; Taheri, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aquatic exercises on nonspecific low back pain (LBP) in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two elderly men aged 65 or older were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: aquatic training (3 d/wk for 12 wk) or a control group. Body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and trunk muscle mass were measured before and after training. [Results] The results suggested that all obesity variables including BMI, WHR, and PBF of the aquatic training group were decreased significantly, while the trunk muscle mass of the aquatic training group was increased significantly. Furthermore, low back pain was decreased in the subjects after the intervention. [Conclusion] The water-based program improved LBP and body composition in the elderly men. PMID:25729184

  12. The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Hill

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems in South Africa are prone to invasion by several invasive alien aquatic weeds, most notably, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laub. (Pontederiaceae (water hyacinth; Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae (water lettuce; Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae (salvinia; Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Conc. Verd. (parrot’s feather; and Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae (red water fern. Objective: We review the biological control programme on waterweeds in South Africa. Results: Our review shows significant reductions in the extent of invasions, and a return on biodiversity and socio-economic benefits through the use of this method. These studies provide justification for the control of widespread and emerging freshwater invasive alien aquatic weeds in South Africa. Conclusions: The long-term management of alien aquatic vegetation relies on the correct implementation of biological control for those species already in the country and the prevention of other species entering South Africa.

  13. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anekwe Jennifer Ebele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are a unique group of emerging environmental contaminants, due to their inherent ability to induce physiological effects in human at low doses. An increasing number of studies has confirmed the presence of various PPCPs in different environmental compartments, which raises concerns about the potential adverse effects to humans and wildlife. Therefore, this article reviews the current state-of-knowledge on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment. The environmental risk posed by these contaminants is evaluated in light of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria. Available literature on the sources, transport and degradation of PPCPs in the aquatic environment are evaluated, followed by a comprehensive review of the reported concentrations of different PPCP groups in the freshwater aquatic environment (water, sediment and biota of the five continents. Finally, future perspectives for research on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment are discussed in light of the identified research gaps in current knowledge.

  14. Studies on the ecology of aquatic bacteria of the lower Niger Delta: multiple antibiotic resistance among the standard plate count organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, M T; Nwiika, D E

    1993-05-01

    The ecology of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria in the fresh-waters of the lower Niger Delta was studied in the Port Harcourt area, Rivers State. On the basis of decreasing pollution levels three zones, A, B, C, were recognized. Cell recovery by two viable count media, casein-peptone-starch (CPS) and plate count (PC) agar containing chloramphenicol, tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin or ampicillin were compared in an initial study. Higher numbers of antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria were recovered on CPS containing tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin and ampicillin from the faecally-polluted New Calabar River (zone A) than on SPC agar containing similar antibiotics but the reverse was observed for forest stream (zone B) samples. Differences between the two media were also observed at individual sample sites. The proportions of strains of AR bacteria resistant to their primary isolation antibiotic varied from 55% (zone B) to 72% in the least polluted Isiokpo and Elele-Alimini streams (zone C), for ampicillin, and mostly count media without antibiotics included mainly species of Bacillus (12) and enterobacteria (18). Between five and 10 strains were resistant to > or = three antibiotics; seven were resistant to all five. The antibiograms of most strains were variable and depended on the method of drug application (discs or incorporation into agar), media and temperature of incubation (25 degrees, 37 degrees or 44.5 degrees C). Twenty-one strains were consistently resistant to ampicillin by the two methods; 10 to 19 were consistent for chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Aquatic exercise in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy

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    Dimitrijević Lidija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aquatic exercise is one of the most popular supplementary treatments for children with neuro-motor impairment, especially for cerebral palsy (CP. As water reduces gravity force which increases postural stability, a child with CP exercises more easily in water than on land. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine aquatic exercise effects on gross motor functioning, muscle tone and cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP. Methods. The study included 19 children of both sexes, aged 6 to 12 years, with spastic CP. They were included in a 12-week aquatic exercise program, twice a week. Measurements of GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measurement, spasticity (MAS – Modified Ashworth Scale, heart rate (HR and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max were carried out before and after treatment. The measurement results were compared before and after treatment. Results. GMFM mean value before therapy was 80.2% and statistically it was significantly lower in comparison to the same value after therapy, which was 86.2% (p<0.05. The level of spasticity was considerably decreased after therapy; the mean value before treatment was 3.21 according to MAS, and after treatment it was 1.95 (p<0.001. After treatment there was a statistically significant improvement of cardiorespiratory indurance, i.e., there was a significant decrease in the mean value of HR and a significant increase of VO2max (p<0.001. Conclusion. Aquatic exercise program can be useful in improving gross motor functioning, reducing spasticity and increasing cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175092

  16. Removal of fluoride contamination in water by three aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sukalpa; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation, popularly known as 'green technology' has been employed in the present investigation to examine the potential of fluoride removal from water by some aquatic plants. Fluoride contamination in drinking water is very much prevalent in different parts of the world including India. Batch studies were conducted using some aquatic plants e.g., Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, and Spirodela polyrhiza which profusely grow in natural water bodies. The experimental data exhibited that all the above three aquatic floating macrophytes could remove fluoride to some relative degree of efficiency corresponding to initial concentration of fluoride 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/l after 10 days exposure time. Result showed that at lower concentration level i.e., 3 mg/L removal efficiency of Pistia stratiotes (19.87%) and Spirodela polyrhiza (19.23%) was found to be better as compared to Eichhornia crassipes (12.71%). Some of the physiological stress induced parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total protein, catalase, and peroxidase were also studied to explore relative damage within the cell. A marginal stress was imparted among all the plants for lower concentration values (3 mg/L), whereas at 20 mg/l, maximum damage was observed.

  17. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  18. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

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    Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis, chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity, biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases, and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  19. LINKING NUTRIENTS TO ALTERATIONS IN AQUATIC LIFE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report estimates the natural background and ambient concentrations of primary producer abundance indicators in California wadeable streams, identifies thresholds of adverse effects of nutrient-stimulated primary producer abundance on benthic macroinvertebrate and algal community structure in CA wadeable streams, and evaluates existing nutrient-algal response models for CA wadeable streams (Tetra Tech 2006), with recommendations for improvements. This information will be included in an assessment of the science forming the basis of recommendations for stream nutrient criteria for the state of California. The objectives of the project are three-fold: 1. Estimate the natural background and ambient concentrations of nutrients and candidate indicators of primary producer abundance in California wadeable streams; 2. Explore relationships and identify thresholds of adverse effects of nutrient concentrations and primary producer abundance on indicators of aquatic life use in California wadeable streams; and 3. Evaluate the Benthic Biomass Spreadsheet Tool (BBST) for California wadeable streams using existing data sets, and recommend avenues for refinement. The intended outcome of this study is NOT final regulatory endpoints for nutrient and response indicators for California wadeable streams.

  20. Application of Bayesian regularized BP neural network model for analysis of aquatic ecological data--A case study of chlorophyll-a prediction in Nanzui water area of Dongting Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; ZENG Guang-ming; XU Xin-yi; HUANG Guo-he; SUN Wei; JIANG Xiao-yun

    2005-01-01

    Bayesian regularized BP neural network(BRBPNN) technique was applied in the chlorophyll-a prediction of Nanzui water area in Dongting Lake. Through BP network interpolation method, the input and output samples of the network were obtained. After the selection of input variables using stepwise/multiple linear regression method in SPSS 11.0 software, the BRBPNN model was established between chlorophyll-a and environmental parameters, biological parameters. The achieved optimal network structure was 3-11-1 with the correlation coefficients and the mean square errors for the training set and the test set as 0.999 and 0.00078426, 0.981 and 0.0216 respectively. The sum of square weights between each input neuron and the hidden layer of optimal BRBPNN models of different structures indicated that the effect of individual input parameter on chlorophyll-a declined in the order of alga amount > secchi disc depth(SD) > electrical conductivity (EC) . Additionally, it also demonstrated that the contributions of these three factors were the maximal for the change of chlorophyll-a concentration, total phosphorus(TP) and total nitrogen(TN) were the minimal. All the results showed that BRBPNN model was capable of automated regularization parameter selection and thus it may ensure the excellent generation ability and robustness. Thus, this study laid the foundation for the application of BRBPNN model in the analysis of aquatic ecological data(chlorophyll-a prediction) and the explanation about the effective eutrophication treatment measures for Nanzui water area in Dongting Lake.

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAD-OUT AQUATIC EXERCISES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art" about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported

  2. Oxidation mechanism and overall removal rates of endocrine disrupting chemicals by aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A R; Tabei, K; Sakakibara, Y

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate experimentally and theoretically the oxidation mechanisms and overall removal rates of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants. EDCs used in this study were bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Referring to reported detection levels in aquatic environments and contaminated sites, the feed concentration of each EDC was set from 1 to 100μg/L. Experimental results showed that, except for PCP, phenolic EDCs were stably and concurrently removed by different types of aquatic plants over 70 days in long-term continuous treatments. Primal enzymes responsible for oxidation of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP were peroxidases (POs). Moreover, enzymatic removal rates of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP by POs were more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than those by aquatic plants. Assuming that overall removal rates of EDCs are controlled by mass transfer rates onto liquid films on the surface of aquatic plants, an electrochemical method based on the limiting current theory was developed to measure the mass transfer rates of EDCs. Because of extremely large removal rates of EDCs by POs, observed removal rates by aquatic plants were in reasonably good agreement with calculated results by a mathematical model developed based on an assumption that mass transfer limitation is a rate-limiting step.

  3. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  4. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series.

  5. A Proposed Aquatic Plant Community Biotic Index for Wisconsin Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Stanley; Weber, Steven; Shaw, Byron

    2000-11-01

    The Aquatic Macrophyte Community Index (AMCI) is a multipurpose tool developed to assess the biological quality of aquatic plant communities in lakes. It can be used to specifically analyze aquatic plant communities or as part of a multimetric system to assess overall lake quality for regulatory, planning, management, educational, or research purposes. The components of the index are maximum depth of plant growth; percentage of the littoral zone vegetated; Simpson's diversity index; the relative frequencies of submersed, sensitive, and exotic species; and taxa number. Each parameter was scaled based on data distributions from a statewide database, and scaled values were totaled for the AMCI value. AMCI values were grouped and tested by ecoregion and lake type (natural lakes and impoundments) to define quality on a regional basis. This analysis suggested that aquatic plant communities are divided into four groups: (1) Northern Lakes and Forests lakes and impoundments, (2) North-Central Hardwood Forests lakes and impoundments, (3) Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains lakes, and (4) Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains impoundments, Driftless Area Lakes, and Mississippi River Backwater lakes. AMCI values decline from group 1 to group 4 and reflect general water quality and human use trends in Wisconsin. The upper quartile of AMCI values in any region are the highest quality or benchmark plant communities. The interquartile range consists of normally impacted communities for the region and the lower quartile contains severely impacted or degraded plant communities. When AMCI values were applied to case studies, the values reflected known impacts to the lakes. However, quality criteria cannot be used uncritically, especially in lakes that initially have low nutrient levels.

  6. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  7. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentès, Sophie; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Monperrus, Mathilde; André, Jean-Marc; Davail, Stéphane; Legeay, Alexia

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs.

  9. Aquatic exercise & balneotherapy in musculoskeletal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2012-06-01

    This is a best-evidence synthesis providing an evidence-based summary on the effectiveness of aquatic exercises and balneotherapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions addressed in this review include: low back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Over 30 years of research demonstrates that exercises in general, and specifically aquatic exercises, are beneficial for reducing pain and disability in many musculoskeletal conditions demonstrating small to moderate effect sizes ranging between 0.19 and 0.32. Balneotherapy might be beneficial, but the evidence is yet insufficient to make a definitive statement about its use. High-quality trials are needed on balneotherapy and aquatic exercises research especially in specific patient categories that might benefit most.

  10. Dynamic model for tritium transfer in an aquatic food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melintescu, A; Galeriu, D

    2011-08-01

    Tritium ((3)H) is released from some nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities. It is a ubiquitous isotope because it enters straight into organisms, behaving essentially identically to its stable analogue (hydrogen). Tritium is a key radionuclide in the aquatic environment, in some cases, contributing significantly to the doses received by aquatic, non-human biota and by humans. The updated model presented here is based on more standardized, comprehensive assessments than previously used for the aquatic food chain, including the benthic flora and fauna, with an explicit application to the Danube ecosystem, as well as an extension to the special case of dissolved organic tritium (DOT). The model predicts the organically bound tritium (OBT) in the primary producers (the autotrophs, such as phytoplankton and algae) and in the consumers (the heterotrophs) using their bioenergetics, which involves the investigation of energy expenditure, losses, gains and efficiencies of transformations in the body. The model described in the present study intends to be more specific than a screening-level model, by including a metabolic approach and a description of the direct uptake of DOT in marine phytoplankton and invertebrates. For a better control of tritium transfer into the environment, not only tritiated water must be monitored, but also the other chemical forms and most importantly OBT, in the food chain.

  11. Group aquatic aerobic exercise for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's diagnoses included autism spectrum disorder, myelomeningocele, cerebral palsy, or other developmental disability. More than half of the children ambulated independently without aids. Children swam laps and participated in relay races and games with a focus of maintaining a defined target heart rate zone. The strengthening component consisted of exercises using bar bells, aquatic noodles, and water resistance. The following outcomes were measured: half-mile walk/run, isometric muscle strength, timed floor to stand 3-meter test, and motor skills. Complaints of pain or injury were systematically collected. Significant improvements in the half-mile walk/run were observed, but not for secondary outcomes of strength or motor skills. The mean program attendance was 80%, and no injury was reported. Children with disabilities may improve their cardiorespiratory endurance after a group aquatic aerobic exercise program with a high adult:child ratio and specific goals to maintain training heart rates.

  12. A Study on Rapid Biological Screening of Estrogens in Aquatic Environment by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay%水环境中雌激素的酶联免疫快速生物筛选技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双庆; 沈根祥; 朱江; 张洪渠; 刘勇弟

    2012-01-01

    There has been more and more public concern about estrogens distributed extensively in aquatic environment as they may bring potential threat to human health and ecological safety due to their endocrine disrupting activities.The study aimed to determine contents of a typical estrogen 17β-estradiol(E2) in water samples collected from the Yangtze estuary and wastewater treatment plants by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),and then to verify the results by being compared with the measurements of a chemical method.It has shown that the lowest detection limit of ELISA could reach 0.5 ng/L and the coefficient of variance for the tests was below 30%indicating its high sensitivity and repeatability.E2 concentrations detected by ELISA were not greater than 0.7 ng/L in the water samples taken from the Yangtze estuary,and in the range of 2.5 ~ 11.5 ng/L in the samples from wastewater treatment plants,whilst they had a good correlation (R2 = 0.9147) with the results obtained by means of LC-MS/MS.On comparison,ELISA required less volume of water samples and took much less time for performing 43 sample analysis simultaneously by using 96-well microplates.It revealed that as a rapid,convenient and economical method and a highly throughput screening technique,ELISA could provide technical supports for environmental authorities to investigate and quickly examine estrogens in natural aquatic environment.%采用酶联免疫(ELISA)检测技术,对来自长江口及污水处理厂的水样分析典型雌激素雌二醇(E2)的浓度,将检测结果与化学方法检测数据进行比较验证,以阐明ELISA应用于水环境雌激素快速筛选的可行性。结果表明:ELISA的检测限可低至0.5 ng/L,试验的变异系数〈30%,具有较高的灵敏性和良好的重复性;ELISA检测长江口水样中E2浓度范围≤0.7 ng/L,污水处理厂水样为2.5~11.5 ng/L,与液相色谱串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)的检测数据进行

  13. The effects of aquatic therapy on mobility of individuals with neurological diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho-Buzelli, Andresa R; Bonnyman, Alison M; Verrier, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    To summarize evidence on the effects of aquatic therapy on mobility in individuals with neurological diseases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CENTRAL, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, PsycBITE and OT Seeker were searched from inception to 15 September 2014. Hand-searching of reference lists was performed in the selected studies. The search included randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies that investigated the use of aquatic therapy and its effect on mobility of adults with neurological diseases. One reviewer screened titles and abstracts of retrieved studies from the search strategy. Two reviewers independently examined the full texts and conducted the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. A narrative synthesis of data was applied to summarize information from included studies. The Downs and Black Scale was used to assess methodological quality. A total of 116 articles were obtained for full text eligibility. Twenty studies met the specified inclusion criteria: four Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), four non-randomized studies and 12 before-and-after tests. Two RCTs (30 patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy groups), three non-randomized studies and three before-and-after studies showed "fair" evidence that aquatic therapy increases dynamic balance in participants with some neurological disorders. One RCT (seven patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy group) and two before-and-after tests (20 patients with multiple sclerosis) demonstrated "fair" evidence on improvement of gait speed after aquatic therapy. Our synthesis showed "fair" evidence supporting the use of aquatic therapy to improve dynamic balance and gait speed in adults with certain neurological conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Ecotoxicological Studies on Egyptian Aquatic Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameeh A. Mansour

    2004-01-01

    @@ Within the framework of a national research project, Egyptianaquatic ecosystems represented by Lakes of Qarun and Wadi El-Rayan,aswell as other related ecosystems, were subjected to certain toxicologicalstudies.

  15. Miniaturized multi-sensor for aquatic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Karen; Hyldgård, Anders; Mortensen, Dennis;

    2011-01-01

    that allows for direct exposure to the seawater and thereby more accurate measurements. The chip contains a piezo-resistive pressure sensor, a pn-junction photodiode sensitive to visible light, a four-terminal platinum resistor for temperature measurement and four conductivity electrodes for the determination...

  16. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares available options for the aquatic ecotoxicological effect factor component in life cycle assessment (LCA). The effect factor is expressed here as the change in risk per unit change in cumulative exposure, ƒ´Effect/ƒ´Exposure. The comparison is restricted to approaches linked...... mixtures (ms), ƒ´C is the change in cumulative exposure concentration of the chemical of interest, and HC50 is the median, chronic Hazardous Concentration for regional, multiple species systems. The resultant aquatic effect factors are risk-based and can be readily estimated for many chemicals using...

  17. AMBIENT AQUATIC LIFE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonylphenol is a toxic breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. NPE surfactants are used in industrial cleaning applications and pesticide formulations. EPA published a draft ambient water quality criteria document for nonylphenol in January 2004. This document contains ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Acute and chronic criteria recommendations have been developed for the protection of aquatic life in both freshwater and saltwater. These criteria are published pursuant to Section 304 (a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and serve as technical information for States for establishing criteria within their State Water Quality Standards.

  18. Review: Do engineered nanoparticles pose a significant threat to the aquatic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, T M; van Aerle, R; Tyler, C R

    2010-08-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing industry of global economic importance, exploiting the novel characteristics of materials manufactured at the nanoscale. The properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) that make them useful in a wide range of industrial applications, however, have led to concerns regarding their potential impact on human and environmental health. The aquatic environment is particularly at risk of exposure to ENPs, as it acts as a sink for most environmental contaminants. This paper critically evaluates what is currently known about sources and discharge of ENPs to the aquatic environment and how the physicochemical characteristics of ENPs affect their fate and behaviour and thus availability for uptake into aquatic organisms, and assesses reported toxicological effects. Having reviewed the ecotoxicological information, the conclusion is that whilst there are data indicating some nanoparticles have the potential to induce harm in exposed aquatic organisms, there is insufficient evidence for harm, for known/modelled environmental concentrations for almost all ENPs considered. This conclusion, however, must be balanced by the fact that there are significant gaps in our understanding on the fate and behaviour of ENPs in the aquatic environment. Greater confidence in the assessments on ENP impacts in aquatic systems to enable effective comparisons across studies urgently requires more standardised approaches for ENP hazard identification, and critically, more thorough characterisations on the exposed particles. There is also an urgent need for the advancement of tools and techniques that can accurately quantify and visualise uptake of nanoparticles into biological tissues.

  19. The influence of the aquatic environment on the control of postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho-Buzelli, Andresa R; Rouhani, Hossein; Masani, Kei; Verrier, Mary C; Popovic, Milos R

    2017-01-01

    Balance training in the aquatic environment is often used in rehabilitation practice to improve static and dynamic balance. Although aquatic therapy is widely used in clinical practice, we still lack evidence on how immersion in water actually impacts postural control. We examined how postural sway measured using centre of pressure and trunk acceleration parameters are influenced by the aquatic environment along with the effects of visual information. Our results suggest that the aquatic environment increases postural instability, measured by the centre of pressure parameters in the time-domain. The mean velocity and area were more significantly affected when individuals stood with eyes closed in the aquatic environment. In addition, a more forward posture was assumed in water with eyes closed in comparison to standing on land. In water, the low frequencies of sway were more dominant compared to standing on dry land. Trunk acceleration differed in water and dry land only for the larger upper trunk acceleration in mediolateral direction during standing in water. This finding shows that the study participants potentially resorted to using their upper trunk to compensate for postural instability in mediolateral direction. Only the lower trunk seemed to change acceleration pattern in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions when the eyes were closed, and it did so depending on the environment conditions. The increased postural instability and the change in postural control strategies that the aquatic environment offers may be a beneficial stimulus for improving balance control.

  20. Antihistamines and aquatic insects: bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, M; Fick, J; Klaminder, J; Brodin, T

    2014-02-15

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 ± 42 and 2,200 ± 43 ng l(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted.

  1. The role of "the aquatic" in human evolution: constraining the aquatic ape hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2014-01-01

    Few things show the distinctiveness of human evolution research better than the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH). On one hand, we have "orthodox" research into human evolution, firmly based on land; on the other, we have the aquatic ape community, convinced not only that our ancestors went through an aquatic phase, but that the professional scientific community ignores their work and keeps it out of the mainstream. How many fields of science have two entirely parallel communities that essentially are hermetically sealed from each other?

  2. The efficacy and feasibility of aquatic physiotherapy for people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrens, Aan Fleur; Soh, Sze-Ee; Morgan, Prue Elizabeth

    2017-08-09

    To critically evaluate the literature regarding the efficacy and feasibility of aquatic physiotherapy in people with Parkinson's disease. Relevant studies were identified through searches in nine health-related databases. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality using either the PEDro scale or a customised tool for safety and feasibility. Database searches yielded 88 articles, of which 10 met the inclusion criteria. Studies varied greatly in methodology, quality, interventions and outcome measures. Study quality was generally low in items reporting on safety precautions, adverse events, attrition, and adherence. Results suggest that aquatic physiotherapy may have a positive effect on motor symptoms, quality of life and balance. Aquatic physiotherapy may improve aspects of motor performance, quality of life and balance in people with Parkinson's disease, however, it remains unclear whether it is a safe and feasible treatment modality. The development of standardised outcome measures for people with Parkinson's disease (unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39) would aid study comparability and validate study outcomes. As safety criteria was grossly underreported, guidelines for mandatory reporting of safety criteria are essential to make conclusions regarding the feasibility of aquatic physiotherapy for people with Parkinson's disease. Implications for Rehabilitation Aquatic physiotherapy may be a beneficial treatment modality for people with Parkinson's disease. A minimum data set that includes the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and Parkinson's disease questionnaire 39 is required to aid future meta-analysis and to allow more definitive conclusions to be made regarding aquatic physiotherapy for people with Parkinson's disease. People with Parkinson's disease are a vulnerable population, where safety within an aquatic physiotherapy program needs to be well documented and addressed.

  3. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  4. Aquatic ecotoxicology: advancing tools for dealing with emerging risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amiard, J. C; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Amiard-Triquet, C

    2015-01-01

    "Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants...

  5. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  6. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Lacustrine Submergent Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Submergent aquatic vegetation (SAV) provides the foundation for wildlife use in aquatic systems. Sago pondweed is of particular significance in providing protein by...

  7. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  8. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  9. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  10. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  11. Arsenic and mercury in native aquatic bryophytes: differences among species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Santiago; Villares, Rubén; López, Jesús; Carballeira, Alejo

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the capacities of five species of aquatic bryophytes to accumulate As and Hg from their natural habitats in rivers in Galicia (NW Spain). The distributions of the concentrations of both elements in all species were skewed to the right, with a higher incidence of extreme values in the As data, which may indicate a greater degree of contamination by this metalloid. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of either of the elements between the different species studied, which justifies their combined use as biomonitors of As and Hg, at least in the study area.

  12. 水生植物在贵州的引种、栽培及应用研究%Study on Introduction, Cultivation and Application of Aquatic Plants in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    为丰富贵州园林水景中水生植物多样性,贵州省植物园2013年10月从武汉植物园引入水生植物35种,进行18个月的引种栽培试验,对所引水生植物半年成活率、生长适应性以及观赏性进行综合评价,最终筛选出10种适宜贵州园林水景应用的水生植物。%In order to enrich the diversity of aquatic plants in Guizhou, 35 species of aquatic plants from Wuhan botanical garden were introduced on October in 2013, and carried out a serious of experiments about introduction and cultivation in Guizhou botanical garden. Comprehensive evaluation of survival rate, growth adaptability and ornamental of the aquatic plants and ten species were selected for water landscape of Guizhou.

  13. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  14. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  15. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  16. Toxicokinetic modeling challenges for aquatic nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicity has become of increasing concern since the rapid development of metal nanoparticles (NPs. Aquatic nanotoxicity depends on crucial qualitative and quantitative properties of nanomaterials that induce adverse effects on subcellular, tissue, and organ level. The dose-response effects of size-dependent metal NPs, however, are not well investigated in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the uptake and elimination rate constants for metal NPs in the metabolically active/ detoxified pool of tissues, a one-compartmental toxicokinetic model can be applied when subcellular partitioning of metal NPs data would be available. The present review is an attempt to describe the nano-characteristics of toxicokinetics and subcellular partitioning on aquatic organisms with the help of the mechanistic modeling for NP size-dependent physiochemical properties and parameters. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models can provide an effective tool to estimate the time course of NP accumulation in target organs and is useful in quantitative risk assessments. NP accumulation in fish should take into account different effects of different NP sizes to better understand tissue accumulative capacities and dynamics. The size-dependent NP partition coefficient is a crucial parameter that influences tissue accumulation levels in PBPK modeling. Further research is needed to construct the effective systems-level oriented toxicokinetic model that can provide a useful tool to develop quantitatively the robustly approximate relations that convey a better insight into the impacts of environmental metal NPs on subcellular and tissue/organ responses in aquatic organisms.

  17. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  18. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  19. Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators. ... increased biochemical oxygen demand, increased water temperature and acidity of the water ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. ... Journal Quality · for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open ...

  20. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  1. Black magic in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption to sediment controlsthe actual fate and risks ofhydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs)in most aquatic environments. Sediment-bound HOCs are not readily available for uptake by organisms and degra

  2. Black magic in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption to sediment controlsthe actual fate and risks ofhydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs)in most aquatic environments. Sediment-bound HOCs are not readily available for uptake by organisms and

  3. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  4. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  5. The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in the ne

  6. Teachers and Aquatic Education--A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The Minnesota Sea Grant Education Sub-program provided funds to the University of Minnesota in 1980 to develop aquatic education materials (dealing with freshwater systems) for grades 5-9. The project resulted in the development and classroom testing of 13 instructional modules. A second grant (1982) funded workshops to introduce Minnesota…

  7. Adapted Aquatics for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Coleen A.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information for physical education teachers to use while teaching their students with autism in an adapted aquatics unit plan. Crollick, Mancil, & Stopka (2006) have found that activities such as running, cycling, or swimming can reduce inappropriate behaviors in children who are autistic. They recommend further that…

  8. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  9. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  10. Biodegradation of Guanidinium By Aquatic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates . Appl. Microbiol. 30:922-929. 21. Pfaender, F.K. and G.W. Bartholomew. 1982. Measurement of Aquatic Biodegradation Rates by...incubation, after which time its disappearance became linear , and it could no longer be detected by the 20th day. Results for an identical water sample

  11. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  12. The Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Physiological and Biomechanical Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent advances in aquatic research, technology, and facilities, many modes of aquatic therapy now exist. These aquatic modes assist individuals (e.g., osteoarthritis patients) in the performance of activities that may be too difficult to complete on land. However, the biomechanical requirements of each aquatic therapy mode may elicit different physiological and functional responses. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to: (a) provide a review of the physiological and biomechani...

  13. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    OpenAIRE

    VJ. Pott; Pott, A; LCP. Lima; SN. Moreira; AKM Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river fl...

  14. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Effects of Water Chemistry on Submersed Aquatic Plants: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    plants exhibiting C4 photosynthesis, C is conserved by refixing photorespired CO2. These terres- trial adaptations have counterparts in the aquatic...such as low photorespiration rates and low CO2 compensation points. The advantages of this photosynthetic pathway include conservation of... photorespired C and efficient C assimilation under the high dissolved oxygen and low free CO2 concentrations common in dense submersed aquatic plant populations

  15. Assessing the Fauna of Aquatic Insects for Possible Use for Malaria Vector Control in Large River, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Shayeghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insects with over 30,000 aquatic species are known as very successful arthropods in freshwater habitats. Some of them are applied as biological indicators for water quality control, as well as the main food supply for fishes and amphibians. The faunistic studies are the basic step in entomological researches; the current study was carried out emphasizing on the fauna of aquatic insects in Karaj River, northern Iran. A field study was carried out in six various sampling site of Karaj River during spring 2013. The aquatic insects were collected using several methods such as D-frame nets, dipping and direct search on river floor stones. Specimens were collected and preserved in Ethanol and identified by standard identification keys. Totally, 211 samples were collected belonging to three orders; Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. Seven genuses (Perla, Isoperla, Hydropsyche, Cheumatopsyche, Baetis, Heptagenia and Maccafferium from five families (Perlidae, Perlodidae, Hydropsychidae, Batidae, Heptagenidae were identified. The most predominant order was Plecoptera followed by Trichoptera. Karaj River is a main and important river, which provides almost all of water of Karaj dam. So, identification of aquatic species which exist in this river is vital and further studies about systematic and ecological investigations should be performed. Also, monitoring of aquatic biota by trained health personnel can be a critical step to describe water quality in this river. Understanding the fauna of aquatic insects will provide a clue for possible biological control of medically important aquatic insects such as Anopheles as the malaria vectors.

  16. Assessing the Fauna of Aquatic Insects for Possible Use for Malaria Vector Control in Large River, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Nejati, Jalil; Shirani-Bidabadi, Leila; Koosha, Mona; Badakhshan, Mehdi; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Arzamani, Kourosh; Choubdar, Nayyereh; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Saghafipour, Abedin; Veysi, Arshad; Karimian, Fateh; Akhavan, Amir Ahamd; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Insects with over 30,000 aquatic species are known as very successful arthropods in freshwater habitats. Some of them are applied as biological indicators for water quality control, as well as the main food supply for fishes and amphibians. The faunistic studies are the basic step in entomological researches; the current study was carried out emphasizing on the fauna of aquatic insects in Karaj River, northern Iran. A field study was carried out in six various sampling site of Karaj River during spring 2013. The aquatic insects were collected using several methods such as D-frame nets, dipping and direct search on river floor stones. Specimens were collected and preserved in Ethanol and identified by standard identification keys. Totally, 211 samples were collected belonging to three orders; Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. Seven genuses (Perla, Isoperla, Hydropsyche, Cheumatopsyche, Baetis, Heptagenia and Maccafferium) from five families (Perlidae, Perlodidae, Hydropsychidae, Batidae, Heptagenidae) were identified. The most predominant order was Plecoptera followed by Trichoptera. Karaj River is a main and important river, which provides almost all of water of Karaj dam. So, identification of aquatic species which exist in this river is vital and further studies about systematic and ecological investigations should be performed. Also, monitoring of aquatic biota by trained health personnel can be a critical step to describe water quality in this river. Understanding the fauna of aquatic insects will provide a clue for possible biological control of medically important aquatic insects such as Anopheles as the malaria vectors.

  17. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  18. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Edmund J; Taylor, Nicholas G H

    2011-08-11

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture.

  19. Biomarkers in aquatic plants: selection and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Cedergreen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    is thereby well suited for repeated measures of effect and recovery (Abbaspoor and Streibig 2005; Abbaspoor et al. 2006; Cedergreen et al. 2004). Bi-phasic responses (over time and with dose) are probably major sources of variation in sensitivity for many biomarkers. Metabolic enzymes, stress proteins, ROS and their corresponding scavenging enzymes increase in a time-frame and at doses in which plant cell damage is still repairable. However, when toxicity progresses to the point of cell damage, the concentration/activity of the biomarker either stabilizes or decreases. Examples of this response pattern are given in Lei et al. (2006); Pflugmacher et al. (2000b); Teisseire et al. (1998); and Teisseire and Guy (2000). Gene expression is also a time-dependent phenomenon varying several fold within a few hour. Therefore, bi-phasic response patterns make timing and dose-range, within which the biomarkers can be used as measures of both exposure and effect, extremely important. As a result, most biomarkers are best suited for situations in which the time and dose dependence of the biomarker, in the investigated species, are established. Notwithstanding the previously mentioned limitations, all assessed biomarkers provide valuable information on the physiological effects of specific stressors, and are valuable tools in the search for understanding xenobiotic modes of action. However, the future use of aquatic plant biomarkers will probably be confined to laboratory studies designed to assess toxicant modes of action, until further knowledge is gained regarding the time, dose and growth-factor dependence of biomarkers, in different species. No single biomarker is viable in gaining a comprehensive understanding of xenobiotic stress. Only through the concomitant measurement of a suite of appropriate biomarkers will our diagnostic capacity be enhanced and the field of ecotoxicology, as it relates to aquatic plants, advanced.

  20. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    , especially during the low water phase. Aquatic systems in Mamirauá floodplain represent limnological patterns of almost undisturbed areas and can be used as future reference for comparison with disturbed areas, such as those of the Lower Amazon, and as a baseline for studies on the effects of anthropogenic influences and climate change and on Amazon aquatic ecosystem.