WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic heavy metals

  1. Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vardanyan, L.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    , selenium, arsenic, mercury, chromium and etc. Some sources of heavy metals are industry, municipal wastewater, atmospheric pollution, urban runoff, river dumping, and shore erosion. Heavy metals in surface water systems can be from natural... in surface water may pose a health risk to humans and to the environment. The water, sediments and plants in wetlands receiving urban runoff contain higher levels of heavy metals than wetlands not receiving urban runoff. Large aquatic plants are known...

  2. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. PMID:27474848

  3. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.

  4. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Mbaa River and the impact on aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, M N O; Nnodi, P C; Ogo, O A; Adaka, G S; Osuigwe, D I; Njoku, D C

    2015-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of heavy metals have caused ecological damage to aquatic ecosystem. In this study, concentration of heavy metals including zinc, lead, cadmium, iron, and copper were determined in the sediment and water as well as in the muscle, gill, and intestine of two fish species (Pelmatochromis guentheri and Pelmatochromis pulcher) of Mbaa River in Southeastern Nigeria. Samples were collected at three different spots from the river, and the level of heavy metals specified above were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after a modified wet digestion process. The results indicated that sediment had the highest concentration of the heavy metals investigated while water had the lowest concentration. Fish tissues showed appreciable bioaccumulation of these metals as evidenced by a higher concentration profile when compared with that of water. Furthermore, the concentration of these heavy metals in water and their bioconcentration factor in the fish were above the recommended limit by WHO and FEPA, indicating that Mbaa River along Inyishi may not be suitable for drinking nor the fish safe for human consumption. The study also reveals the use of fish as bioindicator of aquatic environment. PMID:26597816

  6. Modeling the ecological impact of heavy metals on aquatic ecosystems: a framework for the development of an ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M; Wang, Z; Tang, H

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, an ecological model is proposed to predict the effects of heavy metals on aquatic ecosystems. The bioavailable concentration of metals and a concept of toxicity strength (TS) are combined. The integrated ecological model relates the transport, distribution and speciation of heavy metals and their toxicity, and the effect of environmental variability on metal toxicity. It also emphasizes the link between physical and chemical processes of heavy metals in rivers and ecological effects. Based on the data obtained from research in the CERP project (Co-operative Ecological Research Project), the ecological impact of heavy metals on the aquatic ecosystem of the Le An River (polluted by heavy metals from a copper mine) was predicted. The results show that the estimated values of toxicity strength for surface water are in agreement with the percentage inhibition for the test organism (P. phosphoreum) and that the predicted ecological effect of polluted sediment is consistent with natural variability in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:11258829

  7. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavymetal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. Heavymetal contamination in aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of industrial effluents may pose a serious threat to human health. Alkaline precipitation, ion exchange columns, electrochemical removal, filtration, and membrane technologies are the currently available technologies for heavy metal removal. These conventional technologies are not economical and may produce adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Phytoremediation of metals is a cost-effective "green" technology based on the use of specially selected metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals from soils and water. Wetland plants are important tools for heavy metal removal. The Ramsar convention, one of the earlier modern global conservation treaties, was adopted at Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 and became effective in 1975. This convention emphasized the wise use of wetlands and their resources. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. The extensive rhizosphere of wetland plants provides an enriched culture zone for the microbes involved in degradation. The wetland sediment zone provides reducing conditions that are conducive to the metal removal pathway. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavymetal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some

  8. The influence of speciation on the ecotoxic effects of heavy metals in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karen S.; Borggaard, Ole K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    .56. Calculations showed that the speciation is very dependent on the metal concentration and the composition of the media. A large variation in heavy metal toxicity for the same test organism was found for a given metal in different media. Our main hypothesis is that this is due to differences in speciation......The fate, bioavailability and exposure of aquatic organisms to potentially toxic metals are strongly influenced by the speciation of the metal ions in the medium. Metal speciation is mainly controlled by pH, ionic strength, and presence of ligands ranging from small ions (e.g. citrate, EDTA...... for the total chemical mass emitted into the environment. In this study we show that by means of the metal speciation, EF can be corrected in such a way that the resulting CF becomes more accurate for each metal in the LCIA. The chemical speciation in various media was calculated by Visual Minteq ver. 2...

  9. Aquatic snails from mining sites have evolved to detect and avoid heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcort, H; Abbott, D P; Cleary, D A; Howell, E; Keller, N C; Smith, M M

    2004-05-01

    Toxicants in polluted environments are often patchily distributed. Hence, rather than being passive absorbers of pollution, some organisms have evolved the ability to detect and avoid toxicants. We studied the avoidance behavior of Physella columbiana, an aquatic pulmonate snail, in a pond that has been polluted with heavy metals for more than 120 years. Populations of this snail are rare at reference sites and are only robust at heavy-metal-polluted sites. We hypothesized that the snails are able to persist because they have evolved the ability to minimize their exposure to metals by actively avoiding metals in their environment. Using a Y-maze flow tank, we tested the avoidance behavior of snails to heavy-metal-polluted sediments and single-metal solutions of cadmium, zinc, or lead. We also tested the avoidance behaviors of the snails' laboratory-reared offspring raised in nonpolluted conditions. In addition, we tested the avoidance behavior of a small population of snails from a reference pond. Although all the snails we tested were able to detect low concentrations of heavy metals, we found that snails from the polluted site were the most sensitive, that their offspring were somewhat less sensitive, and that snails from the reference site were the least sensitive. This suggests that the ability of polluted-site snails to avoid heavy metals is both genetic and environmental. The concentrations of metals avoided by the snails from the polluted site were below the levels found at hot spots within their natal pond. The snails may be able to persist at this site because they decrease their exposure by moving to less-polluted sections of the pond. One application of our findings is the use of aquatic snails and our Y-maze design as an inexpensive pollution detector. Environmental pollutants such as lead, zinc, and arsenic are a problem throughout the world. People in underdeveloped countries often lack sophisticated pollution detection devices. We have developed a

  10. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-12-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  11. Development of a fluorescent transgenic zebrafish biosensor for sensing aquatic heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nilambari; Gireesh-Babu, P; Sabnis, Supriya; Rasal, Kiran; Murthy, Renuka; Zaidi, S G S; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2016-10-01

    We report a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) designed to respond to heavy metals using a metal-responsive promoter linked to a fluorescent reporter gene (DsRed2). The metallothionein MT-Ia1 promoter containing metal-responsive elements was derived from the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis. The promoter is known to be induced by a broad spectrum of heavy metals. The promoter-reporter cassette cloned into the Tol2 transposon vector was microinjected into zebrafish embryos that were then reared to maturity. A transgene integration rate of 28 % was observed. The confirmed transgenics were mated with wild-type counterparts, and pools of F1 embryos were exposed to sub-lethal doses of Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+). The red fluorescence response of zebrafish embryos was observed 8 h post- exposure to these sub-lethal doses of heavy metals using a fluorescence microscope. Reporter expression estimated by real-time PCR revealed eightfold, sixfold and twofold increase on exposure to highest concentrations of Hg(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+), while Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) had no effect. This biosensor could be a first-level screening method for confirming aquatic heavy metal bio-toxicity to eukaryotes. PMID:27120052

  12. Heavy metal pollution induced due to coal mining effluent on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and its management through naturally occurring aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, V.K.; Upadhyaya, A.R.; Pandey, S.K.; Tripathi, B.D. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2008-03-15

    Three aquatic plants Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhhiza were used in laboratory for the removal of heavy metals from the coal mining effluent. Plants were grown singly as well as in combination during 21 days phytoremediation experiment. Results revealed that combination of E. crassipes and L. minor was the most efficient for the removal of heavy metals while E. crassipes was the most efficient in monoculture. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Translocation factor i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of aquatic macrophytes. Analytical results showed that plant roots have accumulated heavy metals approximately 10 times of its initial concentration. These plants were also subjected to toxicity assessment and no symptom of metal toxicity was found therefore, this method can be applied on the large scale treatment of waste water where volumes generated are very high and concentrations of pollutants are low.

  13. Relationship between aquatic insects and heavy metals in an urban stream using multivariate techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, the relationship between some aquatic insect species (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata) and some heavy metals (cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, iron and manganese) and boron were assessed using data obtained from the Ankara Stream, which flows through Ankara, the capital city of Turkey and receives high organic and industrial wastes. Sampling was carried out monthly along the Ankara Stream in 1991. Environmental data were used to explain biological variation using multivariate techniques provided by the program canonical correspondence analysis ordination. The ordination method canonical correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships between environmental variables and distribution of aquatic insect larvae. Data sets were classified by two way indicator species analysis. In this study, aquatic insecta communities have been shown by canonical correspondence analysis ordination as related to total hardness, p H, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, iron, manganese and boron. Cadmium, lead, copper and boron exceeded limits of the United States Environmental Protection Agency criteria for aquatic life. Trichopteran, Dinarthrum iranicum was an indicator of two way indicator species analysis and was placed close to the arrow representing copper. Odonate, Aeschna juncea was an indicator of two way indicator species analysis in site 10 and was placed close to the arrows representing manganese, lead, and nickel. Trichopteran, Cheumatopsyche lepida and odonate, Platycnemis pennipes were indicators of two way indicator species analysis for sites 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18 and were placed close to the arrows representing cadmium, boron, iron and total hardness.

  14. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  15. Comparative Studies of the Phytoextraction Capacity of Five Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet BUTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uptake capacity of the aquatic plants (Salvinia natans Kunth., Eichhornia crassipes Mart., Lemna minor L., Elodea canadensis Michx., Pistia stratiotes L. was analyzed in phytoextraction of Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. It was attend to study the plants capacity comparatively using mono and multimetallic systems. In particular, the chlorophyll, protein and carotenoids contents were studied during heavy metals uptake, in order to observe the stress effect on plants. The results obtained for the monometallic system showed that Salvinia natans Kunth. accumulated the highest quantity of Cu2+ (4.72 mg/g, Zn2+ (2.23 mg/g and Cd2+ (1.90 mg/g. The leaves of Lemna minor L. accumulated the highest concentration of Cu2+ (10.80 mg/g and Cd2+ (2.78 mg/g in multimetallic system. The water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. translocated the highest quantity of Zn2+ in its roots (4.80 mg/g. The chlorophyll and the carotenoids levels decreased under the stress of heavy metals in both systems, while protein content increased under the influence of Cu2+ and Cd2+, but decreased for Zn2+.  The studied hydrophytes proved to be useful in the uptake of heavy metals in monometallic system and much more effective in the multimetallic system and showed great potential for further applications in the industrial and commercial wastewater treatments.

  16. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals from Soil and Aquatic Environment: An Overview of Principles and Criteria of Fundamental Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Dixit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the environment, but indiscriminate use for human purposes has altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in excess release of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc etc. into natural resources like the soil and aquatic environments. Prolonged exposure and higher accumulation of such heavy metals can have deleterious health effects on human life and aquatic biota. The role of microorganisms and plants in biotransformation of heavy metals into nontoxic forms is well-documented, and understanding the molecular mechanism of metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications for bioremediation of metal-contaminated sites. In view of this, the present review investigates the abilities of microorganisms and plants in terms of tolerance and degradation of heavy metals. Also, advances in bioremediation technologies and strategies to explore these immense and valuable biological resources for bioremediation are discussed. An assessment of the current status of technology deployment and suggestions for future bioremediation research has also been included. Finally, there is a discussion of the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in microbes, with special reference to the genomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes involved in tolerance and detoxification.

  17. Toxicity of certain heavy metals on fish in the aquatic environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On the earth's crust there are 59 heavy metals of which 17 are considered toxic to biological communities. Here in Alaska, we have thus far considered the following...

  18. Determination of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance profiles of some bacteria isolated from aquatic amphibian and reptile species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Nurcihan; Tosunoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals (Lissotriton vulgaris, Pelophylax ridibundus, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, and Natrix natrix) in Turkey (Kavak Delta). A total of 153 bacteria have been successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptilians which were found, namely, Aeromonas sp. (n = 29), Plesiomonas sp. (n = 7), Vibrio sp. (n = 12), Citrobacter sp. (n = 12), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia sp. (n = 22), Klebsiella sp. (n = 22), Edwardsiella sp. (n = 6), Hafnia sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 19), Providencia sp. (n = 8), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 4). In terms of antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 12 antibiotics and 4 metals. There was a high incidence of resistance to cefoxitin (46.40 %), ampicillin (44.44 %), erythromycin (35.29 %), and a low incidence of resistance to gentamicin (6.53 %), kanamycin (8.49 %), chloramphenicol (9.15 %), and cefotaxime (10.45 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised amphibians and reptiles have been exposed to tested antibiotics, with results ranging from 0 to 0.58. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from100 to >3,200 μg/mL. According to these results, a significant occurrence of bacteria in the internal organs of reptiles and amphibians, with a high incidence of resistance against antibiotics and heavy metals, may risk aquatic animals and the public health. These data appoint the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environment protection programs for amphibian and reptile species.

  19. Heavy metals in sediments, soils, and aquatic plants from a secondary anabranch of the three gorges reservoir region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Min; Sun, Xiu-Qian; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Wei, Yun-Mei; Guo, Jin-Song; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Ke

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Znic (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and magnesium (Mg) in sediments, as well as in related soils and aquatic plants in the Liangtan River, a typical secondary anabranch of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. We found that sediments accumulated more metals than soils and aquatic plants. Concentrations of the nine metals in sediments and soils followed the same sequence, while their concentrations in aquatic plants followed a different sequence. Potential adverse effects of contaminated sediments on benthic fauna were evaluated, and the results showed that the toxic effect on benthic organisms followed the sequence Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Pb. The potential ecological risk index analysis indicated that Cd in sediments had considerable ecological risk, whereas Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb had low ecological risk. The potential ecological risk index (RI) of the heavy metals in sediments of the Liangtan River was 174.9, indicating moderate ecological risk. The transfer factor trend of metals for aquatic plants showed that Cd and Ni had the most and least accumulation, respectively. For Cu, Cd, Mg, Pb, and Cr, a significant positive correlation of the metal concentrations was observed between sediments and soils, but no correlations (excluding Cr) were detected between sediments and aquatic plants. Our study indicated that anthropogenic input may be the primary source of metal contamination in the Liangtan River, and that Zn and Cd pollution in the Liangtan River should be further explored. PMID:27055891

  20. Concentrations of heavy metals and aquatic macrophytes of Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar an anthropogenic lake affected by coal mining effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Upadhyay, Alka Rani; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-06-01

    Five heavy metals Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg were found in high concentration from three sampling sites located in Asia's largest anthropogenic lake Govind Ballabh Pant GBP Sagar. Concentrations of these heavy metals were measured in Water, bottom sediment and in different parts of the aquatic macrophytes collected from the reservoir. Plants collected from the lake were Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla pinnata, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Potamogeton pectinatus, Marsilea quadrifolia, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquqtica, Potamogeton crispus, Hydrilla verticillata and Aponogeton natans. These plants have shown the high concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Hg in their different parts due to bioaccumulation. In general plant roots exhibited higher concentrations of heavy metals than corresponding sediments. A comparison between different morphological tissues of the sampled plants revealed the metal concentration in following order roots > leaves. Analyses of bottom sediment indicated the higher concentrations of Cd, Mn, Cu and Pb. Strong positive correlations were obtained between the metals in water and in plants as well as between metal in sediment and in plants. Indicating the potential of these plants for pollution monitoring of these metals. PMID:17674134

  1. Complexation capacity of aquatic systems in dependence on different ligands and heavy metals - Electroanalytical investigations and statistical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einax, J; Kunze, C

    1996-03-01

    Heavy metals exist in natural waters in different species. Mobility and bioavailability of bound metals can be influenced by some complex factors in the aquatic environment. Therefore, it is useful to determine the complexation properties of various ligands influenced by different metals. The copper and zinc complexation capacity was determined for a natural ligand (fulvic acid) and anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. nitrilotriacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). The interactions between several ligands and metal ions and their effects on the complexation capacity were analyzed in particular. Applying methods of experimental design, such as multifactorial plans, it is possible to determine influence and interaction of various parameters (e.g. concentration of zinc or copper) by a minimum number of experiments. Differential pulse polarography was used for the determination of the complexation capacity. Methods of parametric and robust multiple linear regressions were applied for the interpretation of the measured values.

  2. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  3. A Selective Bioreduction of Toxic Heavy Metal Ions from Aquatic Environment by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rahatgaonkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to remove or recover metal ions from industrial wastewater has been established in financial as well as environmental terms. This need has been proved financially in terms of cost saving through metal reuse or sale and environmentally as heavy metal toxicity can affect organisms throughout the food chain, including humans. Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution remains a major challenge in environmental biotechnology. Current removal strategies are mainly based on bioreduction of Co++, Ni++, Cu++ and Cd++ to their metallic forms by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in buffered aqueous solution. The rate of biotransformation was significantly influenced by pH of aqueous solution, concentration of biomass and hardness of water. All reaction conditions were optimized and maximum reduction of Co++, Cd++, Ni++ and Cu++ were observed as 80%, 63%, 50%, and 44% respectively. Unreacted Co++, Cd++, Ni++metal ions were extracted by 8-hydroxyquinoline and Cu++ by diethylthio carbamate in CHCl3 at different pH. Furthermore, the concentrations of unreacted metal ions were established spectrophotometrically.

  4. Thiols as biomarkers of heavy metal tolerance in the aquatic macrophytes of Middle Urals, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Maleva, Maria; Kumar, Adarsh; Prasad, M N V

    2016-10-01

    Aquatic macrophytes, viz. Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Lemna gibba L., Elodea canadensis Michx., Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix.) Bosch., Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton sp. (P. perfoliatus L., P. alpinus Balb., P. crispus L., P. berchtoldii Fieber, P. friesii Rupr., P. pectinatus L.) were collected from 11 sites for determining their metal accumulation and thiols content. Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(3+) exceeded maximum permissible concentrations in chosen sites. Significant transfer of metals from water to leaves is observed in the order of Ni(2+) gibba are the most suitable species for phytoremediation of highly multimetal contamination, while E. canadensis and some species of Potamageton are suitable for moderately metal-polluted sites. PMID:27167595

  5. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Tellez

    Full Text Available Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment.

  6. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    significantly raised the amount of heavy metals and radionuclides in it. Also, these activities are continuously increasing the area of the contaminated sites. In this context, an attempt has been made to review different modes of the phytoremediation and various terrestrial and aquatic plants which are being used to remediate the heavy metals and radionuclide-contaminated soil and aquatic systems. Natural and synthetic enhancers, those hasten the process of metal adsorption/absorption by plants, are also discussed. The article includes 216 references.

  7. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    significantly raised the amount of heavy metals and radionuclides in it. Also, these activities are continuously increasing the area of the contaminated sites. In this context, an attempt has been made to review different modes of the phytoremediation and various terrestrial and aquatic plants which are being used to remediate the heavy metals and radionuclide-contaminated soil and aquatic systems. Natural and synthetic enhancers, those hasten the process of metal adsorption/absorption by plants, are also discussed. The article includes 216 references. PMID:25277712

  8. Phytoremediation of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by two aquatic macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and Lemna gibba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Wetland plants are being used successfully for the phytoremediation of trace elements in natural and constructed wetlands. Under the present investigation, two aquatic macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and Lemna gibba, were tested for their effectiveness at removing two toxic metals (Pb and Cr). These plants were grown at four different concentrations in single-metal solutions of the two metals and were separately harvested after 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 days in a laboratory experiment. These plants performed extremely well at removing the chromium and lead from their solutions and were capable of removing up to 95% of lead and 84% of chromium during the 12-day incubation period. The removal continued through the 12 days and up to the highest value on the 12th day of the experiment. The results revealed that, of the two species, L. gibba was the most efficient for the removal of selected heavy metals. The plants accumulated heavy metals without the production of any toxicity or reduction in growth. PMID:22988621

  9. Multi-Elemental Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopic Calibration Problems of the Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Fractionation of the Heavy Metal Content from Aquatic Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Heltai György; Fekete Ilona; Halász Gábor; Kovács Katalin (1978-) (biokémikus); Horváth Márk; Takács Anita; Boros Norbert; Győri Zoltán (1948-) (vegyész)

    2015-01-01

    For the characterisation of the environmental mobility of heavy metal contamination in aquatic sediments, the EU Bureau of Reference has proposed a fractionation by sequential extraction procedure. For its validation, the CRM-701 sample is available containing Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. In this paper, the matrix-matched calibration problems are presented. A multi-elemental inductively coupled plasma-optical emission technique is employed for the detection of heavy metals in the extracts. It ...

  10. IMPACT OF DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS UPON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HEAVY METALS SALTS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI AQUATIC STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Panus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the relationships among the expression of susceptibility to heavy metal salts, different incubation temperatures and chemical composition of the culture media in E. coli aquatic strains. 100 strains of E. coli isolated from Black Sea were investigated for the expression of resistance to different bivalent metals (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn, Ni compounds. The experiments were performed comparatively at different incubation temperatures (22°C, 37°C and 44°C in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, NaCl concentrations (from 0 to 10%, glucose (1.5 and 3% and pH (5.0, 7.2 and 9.6. The metals susceptibility patterns varied with the tested parameter and the bivalent metal compounds. The temperature growth induced an increase in susceptibility of the tested strains to Zn (from 85% at 22°C, 20% at 37°C and 100% at 44°C, Mn (from 50% at 22°C, 15% at 37°C and 75% at 44°C, Cu (from 10% at 22°C, 0% at 37°C and 55% at 44°C, Co (from 10% at 22°C, 0% at 37°C and 30% at 44°C, Ni (from 0% at 22°C, 0% at 37°C and 5% at 44°C. Concerning the influence of salinity, the highest 10% NaCl induced to occurrence of susceptibility to all tested metals, followed by 2, 6 and 7% NaCl with susceptibility to 4 of 5 metals. The highest susceptibility levels to Zn and Mn was expressed in inverse order to 3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 2 and 0.5 % NaCl, while to Cu at 3, 2 and 7% NaCl. The tested strains were very resistant to Ni and Co, at the majority of tested salinities. Concerning the relationship between the chemical composition of the culture medium and the susceptibility levels to metals, the higher glucose concentration of 3% and the alkaline pH induced higher rates of susceptibility Mn, Zn and Ni. In conclusion the expression of heavy metals susceptibility features of the E. coli strains is strongly influenced by the incubation temperature and salinity, demonstrating the role of these parameters in the selection of resistance genes in the aquatic strains.

  11. Heavy metal in water and aquatic organisms from different intertidal ecosystems, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanpour, Shirin; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Lotfi Ashtiyani, Seyede Masoumeh

    2014-09-01

    Intertidal ecosystems are being damaged by anthropogenic activities, particularly in the developing countries. In this study, the load of heavy metals was determined in water, fish, shrimp, and crab collected from four intertidal ecosystems, including coral reef, rocky shore, mangrove forest, and muddy habitat along the Persian Gulf coasts. Generally, the sequence of metal accumulation in the water of coral reef and mangrove forest was Ni > Pb > V > Cd > As > Hg, whereas in muddy habitats and rocky shores, the sequence was Ni > Pb > V > Cd > Hg > As and Ni > V > Pb > As > Hg > Cd, respectively. Water of the coral reef had the highest level of Ni (97.44 μg l(-1)), Pb (3.92 μg l(-1)), V (10.42 μg l(-1)), Cd (3.92 μg l(-1)), As (1.87 μg l(-1)), and Hg (0.74 μg l(-1)). For the most part, the highest concentrations of the studied metals were found in the liver and the gills of Johnius belangerii and the hepatopancreas of Portunus pelagicus and Metapenaus affinis collected from the coral reef ecosystem. PMID:24802589

  12. Construction of a self-luminescent cyanobacterial bioreporter that detects a broad range of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Betancor, Keila; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Muñoz-Martín, M A; Leganés, Francisco; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    A self-luminescent bioreporter strain of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was constructed by fusing the promoter region of the smt locus (encoding the transcriptional repressor SmtB and the metallothionein SmtA) to luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens; the sensor smtB gene controlling the expression of smtA was cloned in the same vector. The bioreporter performance was tested with a range of heavy metals and was shown to respond linearly to divalent Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Hg, and monovalent Ag. Chemical modeling was used to link bioreporter response with metal speciation and bioavailability. Limits of Detection (LODs), Maximum Permissive Concentrations (MPCs) and dynamic ranges for each metal were calculated in terms of free ion concentrations. The ranges of detection varied from 11 to 72 pM for Hg(2+) (the ion to which the bioreporter was most sensitive) to 1.54-5.35 μM for Cd(2+) with an order of decreasing sensitivity as follows: Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Ag(+) > Co(2+) ≥ Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). However, the maximum induction factor reached 75-fold in the case of Zn(2+) and 56-fold in the case of Cd(2+), implying that Zn(2+) is the preferred metal in vivo for the SmtB sensor, followed by Cd(2+), Ag(+) and Cu(2+) (around 45-50-fold induction), Hg(2+) (30-fold) and finally Co(2+) (20-fold). The bioreporter performance was tested in real environmental samples with different water matrix complexity artificially contaminated with increasing concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ag, and Cu, confirming its validity as a sensor of free heavy metal cations bioavailability in aquatic environments. PMID:25806029

  13. Construction of a self- luminescent cyanobacterial bioreporter that detects a broad range of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila eMartin-Betancor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A self-luminescent bioreporter strain of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was constructed by fusing the promoter region of the smt locus (encoding the transcriptional repressor SmtB and the metallothionein SmtA to luxCDABE from Photorhabdus luminescens; the sensor smtB gene controlling the expression of smtA was cloned in the same vector. The bioreporter performance was tested with a range of heavy metals and was shown to respond linearly to divalent Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Hg and monovalent Ag. Chemical modelling was used to link bioreporter response with metal speciation and bioavailability. Limits of Detection (LODs, Maximum Permissive Concentrations (MPCs and dynamic ranges for each metal were calculated in terms of free ion concentrations. The ranges of detection varied from 11 to 72 pM for Hg2+ (the ion to which the bioreporter was most sensitive to 1.54-5.35 µM for Cd2+ with an order of decreasing sensitivity as follows: Hg2+ >> Cu2+ >> Ag+ > Co2+ ≥ Zn2+ > Cd2+. However, the maximum induction factor reached 75-fold in the case of Zn2+ and 56-fold in the case of Cd2+, implying that Zn2+ is the preferred metal in vivo for the SmtB sensor, followed by Cd2+, Ag+ and Cu2+ (around 45-50-fold induction, Hg2+ (30-fold and finally Co2+ (20-fold. The bioreporter performance was tested in real environmental samples with different water matrix complexity artificially contaminated with increasing concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ag and Cu, confirming its validity as a sensor of free heavy metal cations bioavailability in aquatic environments.

  14. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendoza-carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-lozada, Alejandra; Dias-ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the b

  15. Speciation of Aquatic Heavy Metals in Humic Substances by$^{111m}$Cd/$^{199m}$Hg-TDPAC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Humic substances are ubiquitous in waters and soils and act as complexing agents for different heavy metals, e.g. Cd, Hg. Toxicity, reactivity, fixation and migration are therefore strongly influenced by the interactions between heavy metals and humic substances. Humic substances derive from postmortal materials such as rotten plants, have dark colours and usually a molecular weight between 500 and 10~000 Dalton. Complex formation studies with different heavy metal ions indicate at least two different kinds of metal sites. Usually, these studies are restricted to heavy metal concentrations 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the natural heavy metal abundance (i.e. 10$^{-10}$ molar). This serious limitation can be overcome by the use of suitable radiosotope techniques capable of metal speciation at extreme sensitivity levels such as TDPAC (Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation of~$\\gamma$-rays). Thus, we studied the interaction of heavy metals with humic substances by monitoring the nuclear quadru...

  16. Synergistic effects of heavy metal pollutants on senescence in submerged aquatic plants. [Potamogeton pectinatus L. , Vallisneria spiralis L. , Hydrialla Verticillata (L. f. ) Royle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, S.; Choudhuri, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of many combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants, viz., mercuric chloride, lead acetate, cadmium chloride and cupric sulphate, on the senescence of isolated mature leaves of submerged aquatic plants, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Vallisneria spiralis L., and Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metal pollutants caused senescence in all three species by decreasing chlorophyll, DNA, RNA, protein and dry wt, and increasing free amino acid, tissue permeability, the activities of protease and RNase, and the ratio of acid to alkaline pyrophosphatase activity over control values. The effects were highest in Potamogeton and lowest in Hydrilla. The degree of senescence in the three submerged plants by combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants is much higher due to synergism than that by individual heavy metal pollutants.

  17. Methods for processing aquatic mosses used as monitors of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehr, J.D.; Empain, A.; Mouvet, C.; Say, P.J.; Whitton, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation is reported of methods used to prepare mosses for analysis when required for monitoring metal pollution. Fontinalis antipyretica and Rhynchostegium riparioides taken from the River Hoegne, Belgium, were used for the study. The stages in preparation studied critically were the storage of the moss after it had been collected from the river, washing, choice of which particular fraction to use and the conditions for final drying prior to digestion. For any one particular treatment, the concentrations of metals analysed (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were usually lower in Fontinalis than Rhynchostegium. Metal concentrations found as a result of the various treatments differed markedly for some metals, including Zn, Cd and Pb. However not one sequence of methods is ideal for all purposes. Criteria that need to be considered when selecting methods include the time and facilities available and whether the moss is to be used for monitoring long-term or short-term pollution.

  18. Mass balance approaches to assess critical loads and target loads of heavy metals for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Posch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Critical loads of heavy metals address not only ecotoxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters, but also food quality in view of public health. A critical load for metals is the load resulting at steady state in a metal concentration in a compartment (e.g. soil solution, surface w

  19. Occurrence of heavy metals in fish: a study for impact assessment in industry prone aquatic environment around Kolkata in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Md Wasim; Sengupta, Dwaipayan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted during November 2005-October 2006 for determining the heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments and giving prime thrust to determine the heavy metal concentrations fish samples collected from various points of the river Ganga at different time interval. Fish samples (viz., Channa marulius and Aorichthys seengala) were analyzed for heavy metals using standard laboratory procedures by AAS method. In impact points the annual average values for Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn were 0.15, 0.04, 0.03, 0.02 and 0.29 ppm, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the riverine water collected from middle point had the order Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd > Pb. The data indicated that copper was maximally accumulated in the riverine sediments whereas least annual average concentration was obtained for lead. The trend of accumulation suggested deposition was maximum for zinc and minimum for cadmium in the muscles of both fish species. Only zinc has shown some significant seasonal variation in relation to metal deposition in fish muscles (minimum in monsoon and maximum in summer). The heavy metal contamination to fish may be due to indiscriminate discharge of polluted and untreated sewage sludge to the river. The heavy metal contents in fish at some places are alarming. PMID:21136286

  20. Dynamics of toxic heavy metals in different compartments of a highly urbanized closed aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bina; Kumar, Rahul; Rani, Manviri; Agarwal, Tripti

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the dynamics of chromium, nickel, copper and lead among the different components namely water, surface sediments, submerged and free floating macrophytes and fish of the twin manmade lakes, Upper and Lower lakes, of Bhopal (M.P., India). Some basic parameters of water and sediment have also been studied. The basin of the lake system is densely populated and the water is used for various purposes including drinking. Ni and Pb along with nitrate in both lakes are significantly higher than the drinking water quality criteria of USEPA. The concentration of the metals in the sediments is noticeably higher than that present in the adjoining rock, particularly Ni and Pb. There is a significant uptake of metals by the macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata) and fish (Labeo rohita and Oreochromis niloticus) mainly in summer. The fish of Lower lake (O. niloticus) is unfit for human consumption. The data have been statistically treated. Principle component analysis and cluster analysis were performed to define the origin of metals and to assess the relationship among the sites. Overall the Lower lake is more polluted than the Upper lake. In aggregate, the lake system is under an environmental stress due to certain practices. PMID:22290427

  1. A comparison of freshwater mussels and passive samplers as indicators of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning;

    2013-01-01

    The utility of passive sampling as a tool for determining the ecological state of wet retention ponds was investigated as an alternative to the analysis of living organisms. The accumulation of heavy metals over time in mussels and passive samplers exposed to artificial stormwater was examined...... there was no strong correlation between the heavy metal concentrations observed in the mussels and those in the passive samplers....

  2. Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

  3. Distribution, speciation, environmental risk, and source identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daoquan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Kefu

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and speciation of several heavy metals, i.e., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China, were studied comparatively. The mean contents of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were 1.72, 38.07, 0.18, 51.54, and 142.16 mg/kg, respectively, which were about 1.5-6 times higher than their corresponding regional sediment background values. Metal speciation obtained by the optimized BCR protocol highlighted the bioavailable threats of Cd, Cu, and Zn, which were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (the labile phase). Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that in sediments, As and Cr were mainly derived from natural and industrial sources, whereas fertilizer application might lead to the elevated level of Cd. Besides, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were related to traffic activities. The effects-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that Hg, Pb, and Zn could pose occasional adverse effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. However, based on the potential ecological risk assessment (PER) and risk assessment code (RAC), Cd was the most outstanding pollutant and posed the highest ecological hazard and bioavailable risk among the selected metals. Moreover, the metal partitioning between water and sediments was quantified through the calculation of the pseudo-partitioning coefficient (K P), and result implied that the sediments in this karst aquatic environment cannot be used as stable repositories for the metal pollutants. PMID:26832870

  4. The toxic effects of heavy metal stress on the growth of aquatic plant%重金属水污染对植物生长影响的方式及研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金朝

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the contamination of heavy metals is becoming more and more serious in our country, which has obviously put great toxic effects on aquatic ecosystem and human health. Hence, studies on the toxic mecha- nism of aquatic plants of heavy metal stress are on the increase. According to my studies, the paper introduces the definitions of heavy metal and heavy metal water pollution, summarizes the research contents of the toxic effects of heavy metal stress on the growth of aquatic plants and their relevant methods in recent years, explains the general patterns of the toxic effects, and reviews the toxic mechanism of aquatic plants of heavy metal stress.%我国重金属水污染日趋严重,已明显危害到水生态和人类健康,有关重金属水污染对植物毒害机理的研究越来越多.本文结合笔者的研究工作,介绍了重金属与重金属水污染的概念,总结了近年来有关重金属水污染对植物毒害影响的研究内容及相应研究方法,归纳了重金属水污染对植物毒害的一般规律与可能机理.

  5. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Daniela Urdeş; Cristiana Diaconescu; Geanina Vlase; Daniela Ianiţchi; Ştefan Diaconescu; Marius Hangan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts), to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out ...

  6. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in suspended load, sediment, primary producers, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, in a deltaic lagoon habitat in the Tabasco coast, with the aim to assess the potential ecological risk in that important wetland. Zn showed the highest concentrations, e.g., in suspended load (mean of 159.58 mg kg(-1)) and aquatic consumers (15.43-171.71 mg kg(-1)), particularly Brachyura larvae and ichthyoplankton (112.22-171.71 mg kg(-1)), followed by omnivore Callinectes sp. crabs (113.81-128.07 mg kg(-1)). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Zn were observed for planktivore and omnivore crustaceans (3.06-3.08). Zn showed a pattern of distribution in the food web through two pathways: the pelagic (where the higher concentrations were found), and the benthic (marsh plants, sediment, mollusk, fish). The other heavy metals had lower occurrences in the food web. Nevertheless, high concentrations of Ni and Cr were found in phytoplankton and sediment (37.62-119.97 mg kg(-1)), and V in epiphytes (68.64 mg kg(-1)). Ni, Cr, and Cd concentrations in sediments surpassed international and national threshold values, and Cd entailed a "considerable" potential risk. These heavy metals are most likely transferred into the food web up to fishes through the benthic pathway. Most of the collected fishes are residents in this type of habitat and have commercial importance. Our results show that the total potential ecological risk in the area can be considered as "moderate". Nevertheless, heavy metal values were similar or surpassed the values from other highly industrialized tropical coastal regions. PMID:26708770

  7. Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 microm), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p < 0.01). Likewise, significant positive correlation was recorded with metals concentration in plants and lake ambient, which further indicated the potential of aforesaid set of wetland macrophytes for pollution monitoring. PMID:18998227

  8. Water mutagenic potential assessment on a semiarid aquatic ecosystem under influence of heavy metals and natural radioactivity using micronuclei test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luiz Cláudio Cardozo; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia; Ferreira da Costa, Thomas; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Souza do Amaral, Viviane

    2016-04-01

    The contamination of water bodies by heavy metals and ionizing radiation is a critical environmental issue, which can affect water quality and, thus, human health. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Boqueirão de Parelhas Dam in the Brazilian semiarid region. A 1-year study (2013-2014) was performed through the assessment of physicochemical parameters, heavy metal content, and radioactivity along with the mutagenicity potential of water using micronuclei test in Orechromis niloticus (in vivo) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes (in vitro). A deterioration of water organoleptics characteristics by the presence of high levels of sulfate and total solids was observed. High concentrations of aluminum, nickel, silver, and lead along with the alpha particle content were higher than the limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation for drinking water. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities was observed in both experimental models. The results obtained confirmed the mutagenic potential present in water samples. This study highlights that geogenic agents affect water quality becoming a human health concern to be taken into account due to the relevance that this water reservoir has in the region. PMID:26732704

  9. 水生植物对水体重金属污染的监测和生态修复%Biomonitoring and Ecological Restoring Heavy Metal Polluted Water by Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠峰; 王良桂

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic plants have excellent ability in biomonitoring and ecological restoring heavy metal polluted water. Bryophytes are excellent biomonitors of heavy metal pollution, so they can be used to monitor and evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of the studied water. Moreover, four life forms of aquatic plants (including emergent, free-drifting, floating-leaved and submergent) all have certain accumulation capacity on heavy metals, so they are appropriate materials for ecological restoring of heavy metal polluted water. Using aquatic plants to treat heavy metal polluted water is a simple and low cost method, and won't bring secondary pollution. This phytoremediation method can not only restore heavy metal pollution, but also prettify the environment and bring direct and indirect economic benefits.%水生植物对水体重金属污染具有良好的监测和生态修复功能.苔藓植物是重金属污染良好的生物监测器,可用于水体重金属污染状况的监测和评价.同时,4种生活型的水生植物(挺水、浮叶、漂浮和沉水植物)对重金属都有一定的富集能力,对重金属污染水体有生态修复作用.利用水生植物对水体进行生态修复具有简便易行、成本较低、不易形成二次污染的优势,在修复水体重金属污染的同时还可以美化环境,并可产生直接或间接的经济效益.

  10. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  11. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN BIOTA OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Bilyk, Tetiana; Tsurkan, Katerina; Koren, Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of biota of Vyrlytsa Lake. Thecontents of movable forms of heavy metals in aquatic plants, fish and snails was determined by atomicabsorbtion method and were made the conclusions about general state of the water object.Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, biota, pollution, atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Background concentrations of heavy metals in aquatic bryophytes used for biomonitoring in basaltic areas (a case study from central France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A. [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Ecology and Nature Protection; Kempers, A.J. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Aquatic Ecology and Biogeology

    1999-12-01

    Studies were made of the aquatic bryophytes Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., Plathypnidium rusciforme (Neck.)Fleisch and Chiloscyphus sp. (Hoffm.)Dum. from streams embedded in basaltic rocks (Le Puy, central France). Water from these streams possessed elevated levels of Cu, Zn, Sr, V, Ba, Ni and Co, reflecting the geochemistry of the basalts, a basic type of igneous rocks containing elevated levels of these elements. The concentration of elements in bryophytes is correlated to the chemical composition of water of their sampling sites. Contents of trace elements in plants were higher than background values. The elevated levels of these elements possibly caused disturbances in the ionic equilibrium within the bryophytes. The molar ratio between contents of Ca and Mg in water (from 0.44 to 1) was different from that typical for natural water. (orig.)

  13. Radiation induced copolymerization of binary monomers system(styrene/acrylic acid) and its application in removal of some heavy metals and dyes from aquatic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced coploymerization of binary monomer system styrene/acrylic acid (Sty/AAc) using direct radiation technique has been investigated. The appropriate reaction conditions such as solvent, commonomer concentration, commonomer composition and irradiation dose at which the coplymerization process was carried out successfully were selected. The effect of different parameters on the conversion percent of the commonmer into coplomer was studied by gravimetric method. It was found that, using methanol/distilled water as a cosolvent with composition 80/20 wt% enhanced the copolymerization process. The conversion (%) of the commonomer was increased with increasing radiation dose. Some properties of the coplymer such as wate uptake, thermal stability, surface topography were investigated. The improvement in such properties of the prepared coplymers was observed which makes possible uses in some practical applications such as in the removal of some heavy metals and dyes from wastewater. the prepared copolymer has good chemical and thermal stability where as the styrene content lead to increase the swelling behaviour. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the coplymer is ordered in the sequence of Bp2+>Cu2+>Ni2+. The possibility of the removal of three classes of dyes from aqueous solutions; namely wegocet yellow 4GL (direct yellow 44), congo red (diect red 28). Remacryl blue 3G (basic blue3) and xylene blue *acid blue 7 was studied. It could be concluded that the Sty/AAc copolymer with composition 20/80 wt % can be used as a contrilled water retainer for carrying of some substance in aquatic fields involving environmental treatments. Also, it could be concluded that the most important parameter affecting the swelling behaviour and characteristic of the prepared copolymer are the type of conversion due to chemical treatment, the pH of the medium and coonstituents of the prepared copolymer

  14. Simultaneous determination of silver and other heavy metals in aquatic environment receiving wastewater from industrial area, applying an enrichment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, silver (Ag, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, cobalt (Co and lead (Pb were simultaneously determined in water samples of fresh water canal receiving untreated effluents from an industrial area, of Sindh Pakistan. The analytes in the water sample were determined by CPE using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC as a complexing agent and then entrapped in non-ionic surfactant, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114. The surfactant rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps such as pH of sample solution, concentration of oxine and Triton X-114, equilibration temperature and time period for shaking were investigated in detail. The validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of a certified reference sample of water (CRM1634e. Reliability of the proposed method was also checked by the standard addition method in a real sample at three concentration levels of all metals. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration of 10 mL sample solutions, allowed preconcentration factor of 20-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained for Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb was 0.42, 0.48, 0.92, 0.62, and 1.42 μg L−1, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to waste and fresh water samples for simultaneous determination of different metals. The concentration of Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb has shown a decreased trend from 46.5–6.96, 23.0–8.92, 30.2–12.8, 14.2–4.45 and 15.3–5.32 μg L−1, respectively from initial entrance of waste water along the downstream of canal.

  15. Heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are released into environment from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Aquatic ecosystems are normally at the receiving end and in many cases, with lakes as intermediaries.Lacustrine sediments are important sinks for heavy metals and play a significant role in enrichment and remobilization of heavy metals in aquatic systems. Therefore, characteristics of heavy metal in lacustrine sediments become one of the important issues in environmental sciences. Progress in heavy metal research of lake sediments since late 1980s is reviewed comprehensively in this paper from over 100. The Highlights are placed on the establishment of aquatic sediment quality guidelines, references chemical speciation of heavy metals, heavy metal transport mechanisms in lakes, and high-resolution study of lake borehole cores.Meanwhile, suggestions for heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment in the future are proposed, including such issues as using integrated approaches to assess aquatic ecosystem, modern lake dynamic process,high-resolution evolutionary sequence and spatial differentiation of environments and international lake database, which should be referential to the promotion of research on heavy metal in aquatic system.

  16. Changes of Heavy Metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Su Kwon; Mi-Jung Bae; Young-Seuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Tr...

  17. Biosorption of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)]|[B.V. Sorbex, Inc., Montreal (Canada); Holan, Z.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-building capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. 115 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Economic Aquatic Animals in Huaihe River Segment of Bengbu Sampling Points%淮河蚌埠段采样点鱼虾贝类重金属的富集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明松; 王松; 鲍方印; 崔峰; 康健

    2011-01-01

    应用WFX - 110型原子吸收分光光度法测定淮河蚌埠段污染较重采样点鱼虾贝类不同组织中重金属(Cu,Mn,Zn,Fe,Ni,Cd和Pb)的含量.结果表明:在同一组织中w(Fe),w(Zn),w(Cu),w(Mn)和w(Ni)高于w(Cd)和w(Pb),变化趋势为日本沼虾>河蚌>鱼;鱼虾贝类不同组织重金属含量变化趋势为w(Fe)>w(Mn)>w(Zn)>w(Ni)>w(Cu)>w(Pb)>w(Cd).w(Cu),w(Mn),w(Zn)和w(Fe)在肠、鳃、肝胰脏等组织中较高,在精巢、肌肉等组织中较低;w(Ni),w(Cd)和w(Pb)在肝胰脏、鳃等组织中较高,在肌肉、脑等组织中较低.其中,日本沼虾和河蚌对重金属元素的富集能力明显强于淡水鱼类;而肝胰脏和鳃是鱼虾贝类体内重金属富集的主要部位;其食用部分w(Cd)和w(Pb)均超过无公害食品水产品中有害物质限量( NY 5073-2006)和人体卫生消费标准,因此不宜食用,表明淮河蚌埠段采样点附近生物受重金属影响明显.%The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd and Pb) were measured by WFX-110 atomic absorption spectrophotometry in different tissues of economic aquatic animals from sampling points of the Bengbu segment of the Huaihe River. The results showed that the concentrations of the seven heavy metals were different in the same tissues of different animals. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni were higher than those of Cd and Pb. The variation tendency of heavy metals was in the order of Macrobrachium nipponense >A. Woodiana woodiana > fishes. The content sequence of the seven heavy metals in fish and shellfish was Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd. Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe were mainly accumulated in the intestines, gills, hepatopancreas, etc. , but were lower in the testes, muscles, etc. Tissue of the fish and shellfish. The concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb were higher in the hepatopancreas, gills, etc. , but lower in the muscles, brain and other tissues of the tested animals. Enrichment of heavy metals in

  19. The Analysis and Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution of the Main Aquatic Products in Xinyang%信阳市主要水产品重金属污染现状分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坤杰

    2016-01-01

    测定了信阳市主要水产品Pb、Hg、Cd、As和Cr的含量,并根据单因子污染指数评价法对信阳市主要水产品的品质进行质量安全评价。结果表明,8种信阳市主要水产品的所有样品中均检出Pb和Cr,但均未检出Cd和Hg。在鲤鱼、鲫鱼、克氏原螯虾、鳙鱼和白鲢中检出As,检出率分别为60%、40%、40%、60%和40%。单因子污染指数评价法表明,8种信阳市主要水产品均受到不同程度的Pb污染,鲫鱼、白鲢和鳙鱼受到了轻度的As污染。%This paper has measured the concentration of heavy metal( Hg、Cd、Pb、As、Cr) in the main aquatic products in Xinyang and used the single factor pollution index to assess the quality and safety of the main aquatic products in Xinyang. The results showed that all samples of the main aquatic products in Xinyang were detected by Pb and Cr, but no Cd and Hg. As was detected in Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Procambarus clarkia, Aristechthys nobilis and Hypophtyalmichthys molitrix, the detection rate respectively was 60%、40%、40%、60% and 40%. The Assessment by the single factor pollution index showed that all the main aquatic products in Xinyang were moderatly or badly polluted by Pb. Carassius auratus, Hypophtyalmichthys molitrix and Aristechthys nobilis were mildly polluted by As.

  20. Concentration and partitioning of heavy metals in the Scheldt estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Van Alsenoy, V.

    1993-01-01

    The continuous growth of technology has lead to an (uncontrolled) introduction of contaminants into the biosphere. The efforts of removing man-made pollutants from the natural environment have been unable to cope with the increasing amounts of waste materials and growing population. This work studies one group of substances which have a particular lasting effect on the natural balance in aquatic systems; the heavy metals. Trace metals are present in all the abiotic reservoirs of the aquatic s...

  1. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  2. Natural and active chemical remediation of toxic metals, organics, and radionuclides in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Pintauro, P.; O`Connor, S. [and others

    1996-05-02

    This project focuses on the chemical aspects of remediation, with the underlying theme that chemical remediation does occur naturally. Included are studies on the fate of heavy metal and organic contaminants discharged into aquatic environments; accurate assay metal contaminants partitioned into soils, water and tissue; development of novel polymeric membranes and microporous solids for the entrapment of heavy metals; and the development of hybrid chemo-enzymatic oxidative schemes for aromatics decontamination. 49 refs.

  3. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  4. Metals in Mediterranean aquatic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study on metals in Mediterranean fish and fishery products. • Data collected for several contaminants in wild and farmed species of commercial interest. • Samples compliance with EU regulatory limits. • Identification of Mediterranean Sea areas showing background concentrations. • An interpretation of the chemical pollution issue of Marine Framework Strategy Directive. - Abstract: Metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), have been determined in species of Mediterranean marine organisms collected from areas supposed to be at background contamination levels. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) approach was adopted for the determination of all the metals. Arsenic, Cd and Pb determined in the 42 samples, do not exceed the pertinent maximum level except a sample of hake. In wild fish, the concentration range for Cr, Ni, V and Cu was, respectively: 0.07–0.09, 87.6–124, 0.022–0.075 and 0.79–1.74 μg/g fresh weight (fw). The farmed fish samples show concentration levels below the wild fish ones, except for Cr which range at the same levels. Cadmium and Pb show a high sample number under the quantification limit. The elements do not bio-magnify among the species considered and appear to show low variations in relation to organisms’ position in the food chain and at sampling sites

  5. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  6. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  7. Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J.; Grudinina, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn...

  8. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.

    1982-09-01

    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  9. EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENTS OF THE MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY IN THE SHORT CREEK/EMPIRE LAKE AQUATIC SYSTEM, CHEROKEE COUNTY, KANSAS: A RECOMMENDATION FOR SITE-SPECIFIC CRITERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study uses statistical analysis techniques to determine the effects of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, manganese, and zinc) on the macroinvertebrate community using the data collected in the fall 1987.

  10. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Preslan, J. [and others

    1996-05-02

    This project discusses the following studies: identification and quantitation of heavy metals and petroleum products present in Bayou Trepagnier relative to control sites; assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of metals and organic contaminants of interest in aquatic species; establishment and use of polarographic methods for use in metal speciation studies to identify specific chemical forms present in sediments, waters and organism; and evaluation of contaminants on reproductive function of aquatic species as potential biomarkers of exposure. 14 refs.

  11. COMPARISON AMONG ORGANIC MATTER, NUTRIENTS AND HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN SEDIMENTS OF TWO LOTIC AQUATIC SYSTEMS, RIBEIRA DO IGUAPE WATERSHED, SP, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Calijuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Developed in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed, one of the poorest regions in São Paulo state, Southeast Brazil, this research aimed to characterize the sediment of Jacupiranguinha and Pariquera-Açu Rivers. Eight sampling stations were demarcated on each river, covering strategic places. In all samples, organic matter content, total phosphorus and nitrogen, cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and mercury concentrations were determined. The results showed that the sediment of both rivers could be considered mineral, since the organic matter contents were all lower than 10%. There was evident increment on total phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations after the discharge of a fertilizers’ factory effluent, in Jacupiranguinha River, and after the effluent of a stabilization pound in Pariquera-Açu River. The highest copper, manganese and mercury concentrations were detected in Jacupiranguinha River sediment: 22.0 mg kg-1, 551.0 mg kg-1 e 0.15 mg kg-1 (Sampling Station 6, which corresponds to the discharge of the industrial effluent. The highest lead concentration was found in Pariquera-Açu River, 26.0 mg kg-1, in Sampling Station 8. Igeo (Geoaccumulation Index calculus revealed that the sediments of both rivers were not polluted by the metals that were quantified.

  12. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Ahmad; Ali Muhammad Yousafzai; Muhammad Siraj; Rashid Ahmad; Israr Ahmad; Muhammad Shahid Nadeem; Waqar Ahmad; Nazia Akbar; Khushi Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals includin...

  13. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AT WATER-SEDIMENT INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferronato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries. The natural and artificial water courses flowed in agricultural, urban and industrial land. The heavy metals concentration in water and sediment discriminated the human pressure on the land and their spatial distribution in sediment could predict the hazard of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. We compared the heavy metals concentrations in pore water and superficial water determined in natural rivers and artificial canals, and more pollution in artificial canals than natural rivers was found. Furthermore, the coefficient of partition (log Kd between water and sediments was calculated to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals adsorbed on the sediments. The heavy metals extracted in deionised water at equilibrium after 16 h showed higher concentrations than those determined directly on water samples.

  14. Heavy metal pollution of industrial cities

    OpenAIRE

    Бувалец, Дарья Юрьевна; Капустин, Алексей Евгеньевич

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of cities is an urgent environmental problem. As an example we took Mariupol, on the territory of this city there are two large metallurgical plants. We have studied the heavy metal pollution of urban soils, river water and sediment, which are under the influence of the steel industry. Studies have established the degree and nature of pollution of the Mariupol by various heavy metals. Also, study revealed excess of some heavy metals in the river waters and sediments. We ...

  15. Heavy metal pollution at mine sites: Rehabilitation of Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse effects from release of heavy metals into the aquatic environment are briefly described. The importance of bacterial leaching in pyritic waste heaps is noted, together with current research at a mine site in Australia. The operational history and waste management practices at the former uranium mine site at Rum Jungle leading to a sustained annual input of heavy metals into the Finniss River are discussed. The objectives and measures adopted for physical rehabilitation of the Rum Jungle site, completed in June 1986 at a cost of about $A16 million (1982 $), are outlined. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  17. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  18. Assessment on Heavy Metal Pollution and its Change in the Sediment of the Aquatic Culture Zone on Coastal Mudflat along the North Branch of Yangtze River Estuary%长江入海口北支沿海滩涂养殖区底泥重金属污染特征及趋势评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建兰

    2012-01-01

    The pollution level of heavy metals in the sediment of the mudflat was investigated in aquatic culture zone along the north branch of Yangtze River estuary. The resuhs showed that the heavy metal contents met the standard I of Ocean Sediment Quality Standard and the pollution belonged to the level in safe Class I, of which the potential ecological harm reached a level of light pollution. The ecological risk of heavy metals was ranked as Cd 〉 Hg 〉 Cu 〉 Cr 〉 Pb 〉 As. During 2005- 2011 the heavy metal pollution was under a safe level of Class I.%对长江入海口北支沿海滩涂养殖区底泥重金属污染的总体水平进行调查,结果表明,滩涂养殖区底泥重金属含量满足海洋沉积物质量一类标准要求,污染程度属于安全Ⅰ级水平,重金属潜在生态危害属轻微级别,6种重金属潜在生态危害由大到小排序依次为Cd﹥Hg﹥Cu﹥Cr﹥Pb﹥As,2005年~2011年,底泥重金属污染程度均处于安全的Ⅰ级水平。

  19. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  20. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Story, Sandra; Altman, Denis; Berry, Christopher J.

    2009-01-06

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  1. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AT WATER-SEDIMENT INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Ferronato; Livia Vittori Antisari; Monica Marianna Modesto; Gilmo Vianello

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy) depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries). The natural and artificial w...

  2. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediation strategy investigated for remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Although the efficiency of phytoextraction remains a limiting feature of the technology, there are numerous reports that soil microorganisms can improve rates of heavy metal extraction.This review highlights the unique challenges faced when remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils as compared to static aquatic systems and suggests new strategies for using microorganisms to improve phytoextraction. We compare how microorganisms are used in soil bioremediation (i.e. phytoextraction and water bioremediation processes, discussing how the engineering of microbial communities, used in water remediation, could be applied to phytoextraction. We briefly outline possible approaches for the engineering of soil communities to improve phytoextraction either by mobilizing metals in the rhizosphere of the plant or by promoting plant growth to increase the root-surface area available for uptake of heavy metals. We highlight the technological advances that make this research direction possible and how these technologies could be employed in future research.

  3. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  4. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation and Toxicity with Special Reference to Microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results from their binding to the sulphydryl groups in proteins or disrupting protein structure or displacing essential elements. Metals can break the oxidative balance of the algae, inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The amount of oxidized proteins and lipids in the algal cells thus indicates the severity of the stress. Algal tolerance to heavy metal is highly dependent upon the defense response against the probable oxidative damages. Production of binding factors and proteins, exclusion of metals from cells by ion-selective transporters and excretion or compartmentalization have been suggested with regard to reducing heavy metal toxicity. However, a comprehensive description on the mechanisms underlining metal toxicity of microalgae and gaining tolerance is yet to be elaborated.

  5. Influence of Heavy Metals on the Environmental from Tarnita Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucan Victor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects related to water pollution with heavy metals from the Tarnita mining area before and after the cessation of the mining activity. The impact of heavy metals on waters is important because these metals have a negative impact on both human health and aquatic ecosystems. All research data showed that, even the mining activities from this area were suspended, the sterile still pollutes the soil and water

  6. Phytoremediation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and V) in gas refinery wastewater using common reed (Phragmitis australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Hamidian; Majid Atashgahi; Nematollah Khorasani

    2014-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are of the major sources of heavy metal pollution in the environment. In the Middle East, gas and oil industry is the major source of heavy metal pollution and releases significant amounts of metals into the terrestrial and aquatic environment. In this research the capability of the common reed (Phragmitis australis) in absorbing heavy metals Cd, Pb and V from the wastewater of a gas refinery plant in Iran was investigated. The plant samples were collected from the vici...

  7. Hematologic effects of heavy metal poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringenberg, Q S; Doll, D C; Patterson, W P; Perry, M C; Yarbro, J W

    1988-09-01

    Heavy metal poisoning can cause a variety of hematologic disorders. Exposure to heavy metals is ubiquitous in the industrial environment and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many types of anemia. The heavy metals most commonly associated with hematologic toxicity are arsenic and its derivative arsine, copper, gold, lead, and zinc. A few distinctive clinical features characterize the hematologic manifestations of many occult heavy metal poisonings. These features have a limited differential diagnosis. A knowledge of these clinical features can assist the astute clinician in making the correct diagnosis.

  8. Transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring trace metal mobilization in acidified streams of the Vosges Mountains, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mersch, J.; Guerold, F.; Rousselle, P.; Pihan, J.C. (Univ. of Metz (France))

    1993-08-01

    As a result of acid depositions, trace metals are mobilized from the soils to the aquatic environment. Especially in poorly mineralized waters, elevated metal concentrations may rapidly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In particular, it has been shown that aluminium, a key element in the acidification process, is a toxic cofactor for fish and other biota. An accurate assessment of this specific form of water pollution may not be possible when only based on analyses of single water samples. On the one hand, water metal concentrations are often close to the detection limit of usual analytical techniques, and on the other hand, levels in acidified streams undergo strong temporal variations caused by acid pulses following meteorological events such as heavy rainfall and snowmelt. Compared to water analyses, indirect monitoring methods provide undeniable advantages for assessing water contamination. Aquatic bryophytes, in particular, have been regarded as interesting indicator organisms for trace metal pollution. However, their use has mainly been restricted to the lower course of streams for evaluating the impact of industrial discharges. The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of transplanted aquatic mosses for monitoring aluminium and four other trace metals (copper, iron, lead and zinc) in the particular context of acidifed streams draining a forested headwater catchment. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  10. Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇİN, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Wetland plants are successfully used in the biosorption of heavy metals in natural and constructed wetlands. In this study, the removal of heavy metals by water hyacinth [ Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)Solms)] were investigated. The plants were grown under control in the Turkish climate. The biosorption was dependent on factors such as metal concentration, constant temperature, pH and relative moisture. The plants were exposed to different metal concentrations of Chromium(III), Chromi...

  11. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater). Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported ab...

  12. Research advances in heavy metal biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of heavy metal has wide applications. The mechanisms of heavy metal biosorption, including complexation, ion exchange, microprecipitation and oxidation reduction, are presented. Thermodynamics and dynamics of biosorption are also discussed. Key factors of influencing biosorption, such as pH values, coexistence ions and temperature are explained. The research directions are explored. (authors)

  13. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  14. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention was paid

  15. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  16. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  17. Heavy metal speciation and toxicity characteristics of tannery sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Md. Ariful Islam; Chowdhury, Zia Uddin Md.; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals present in tannery sludge can get mobilized in the environment in various forms and can be a cause for concern for the natural ecosystem and human health. The speciation of metals in sludge provides valuable information regarding their toxicity in the environment and determines their suitability for land application or disposal in landfills. Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, As and Cu) in tannery sludge were determined to evaluate their toxicity levels. Metal contents ranged over the following intervals: As: 1.52-2.07 mg/kg; Pb: 57.5-67 mg/kg; Cr: 15339-26501 mg/kg; Cu: 261.3-579.5 mg/kg; Zn: 210.2-329.1 mg/kg and Ni: 137.5-141.3 mg/kg (dry weight basis). The concentrations of all heavy metals in the sludge samples were lower compared to EPA guidelines except chromium which was found to be several orders of magnitude higher than the guideline value. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test indicated that the leaching potential of chromium was higher compared to the other heavy metals and exceeded the EPA land disposal restriction limits. To quantitatively assess the environmental burden of the chromium associated with tannery sludge, the IMPACT 2002+ methodology was adopted under the SimaPro software environment. Considering the USEPA limit for chromium as the baseline scenario, it was found that chromium in the tannery sludge had 6.41 times higher impact than the baseline in the categories of aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and non-carcinogens. Chromium has the highest contribution to toxicity in the category of aquatic ecotoxicity while copper is the major contributor to the category of terrestrial ecotoxicity in the tannery sludge.

  18. Heavy metal deposition mapping: concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in rural areas of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Heath; Fowler, David; Crossley, Alan; Kentisbeer, John; Hallsworth, Steve; Lawlor, Alan; Rowland, Phil; Guyatt, Hayley; Beith, Sarah; Thacker, Sarah; Halford, Alan; ROGERS Stuart; Cape, J. Neil; Leeson, Sarah; Harmens, Harry

    2012-01-01

    CEH has been monitoring the concentrations of a range of heavy metals in rural locations across the UK since 2004. This report presents the annual average concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in air and rainfall samples collected from rural locations during 2011 and it reviews the temporal and spatial trends in heavy metal concentrations and deposition between 2004 and 2011. The monitoring network was established to measure the background concentration of a range of heavy meta...

  19. Bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity from factory effluents by transconjugants bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zahrani, Hind A; El-Saied, A I

    2011-12-01

    The presence of heavy metals in aquatic environments is known to cause severe damage to aquatic life, beside the fact that these metals kill microorganisms during biological treatment of wastewater with a consequent delay of the process of water purification. Most of the heavy metal salts are soluble in water and form aqueous solutions and consequently cannot be separated by ordinary physical means of separation. Five bacterial strains were used in this study. Bacterial strains were marking using 10 antibiotics and 7 heavy metals to be use as a selectable markes in conjugation process. Mating were performed using five bacterial strains. These strains were genetically marking in relation to their tolerance to the different antibiotics and heavy metals. All matings between bacterial strains were successes. The biosorption capacities for all heavy metals determined were higher for some metals than others. The transconjugants strain Tr5 resulted from mating between the parental bacterial strains (B-6bs X B-21) was more efficient in molybdenum uptake than all bacterial strains when supplementednutrient media wi th wastewater. Bacterial strains (B-21) appeared a good uptake of heavy metal ions (copper, cadmium, iron, cadmium and Lead) than other bacterial strains. This work highlights the potential of bacterial strains B-21 in uptake of heavy metals. The transconjugant strain Tr3 resulted from mating between parental bacterial strains (B-1584 X B-287) was more efficient in chromium uptake than all bacterial strains. PMID:22435157

  20. Effect of pH and time on the accumulation of heavy metals in Gram-negative bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yamina Benmalek

    2014-01-01

    The release of heavy metals into our environment is very important and causes an environmental pollution problem. Contamination of the aquatic environment by toxic heavy metals is a serious pollution problem because they can reach water-courses either naturally through a variety of geochemical processes or by direct discharge of municipal, agricultural and industrial wastewater. The bioremediation of heavy metals using microorganisms has received a great deal of attention in recent years beca...

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the distribution of heavy metals among the components of freshwater ecosystems. Findings. The review of the works of many scientists showed that heavy metals are widespread in the biotic and abiotic components of freshwater ecosystems. The article highlights the distribution of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments, natural food base, fish organs and tissues. It has been shown that as a result of global pollution of the ecosystem, the majority of Ukrainian rivers belong to polluted and very polluted. Of special interest are the studies of the distribution of heavy metals in phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos because these components occupy a certain position in fish food chain. The presence of heavy metals in the natural food base showed that, on one hand, it could accumulate heavy metals in large amounts in such a way cleaning the water; and on the other hand, the heavy metals could migrate in the food web and contaminate fish. Ones of objects, which should be given attention when assessing toxicologic pollution, are aquatic plants, in particular phytoplankton. Studies showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in plants occurred first of all by their adsorption on the cellular wall. It explains the maximum adsorption of heavy metals by plants immediately after introduction of heavy metals into their culture. Fish as a rule occupy in the food web of water bodies one of the last places. They actively move in the aquatic environment and accumulating heavy metals at the same time they provide the most integrated and precise estimate of environmental pollution. By analyzing the distribution of heavy metals in fish organs and tissues, depending on their ability to accumulate them, it can be noted that the accumulation is the most intensive in such organs as gills, liver, and kidneys. Usually, their lowest content is observed in muscles that is important for human life because they are the main

  2. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-02-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala. PMID:7621793

  3. The possibility for application of zeolite in the treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Blažev, Krsto; Krstev, Aleksandar; Zendelska, Afrodita

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are one of the most serious threats to the aquatic environment. Mine drainage, which present complex of elements may cause various harmful effects on wildlife, but unfortunately are treat rare. There are many technologies for treating water contaminated with heavy metals, mainly divided into two broad categories: passive and active treatment. Passive treatments are cheaper and do not require special equipment or chemicals, while the active treatment are more complex and higher...

  4. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  5. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Determination of heavy metals in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of heavy metals in sludge has been investigated. The sludge was separated from waste water sewage by precipitation. The heavy metals analysis has been done using neutron activation (NAA) and x-ray fluorescence. The existence of some metals (Cu, Fe, Ca, K, and Ti) is very important for plants. Otherwise, Pb and Cr had polluted the environment. The results are compared with sheep dung, rubbish and cow dung that are used as natural fertilizer. It is found that the sludge has a low concentration of heavy metals than other. Tow standard samples derived from IAEA have been analyzed with our samples. It is found that our sludge contains some concentration of heavy metals less than the standard. It is found that the increase of Cu and Zn concentration due to uses of pesticides. (author)

  7. Spatial Distribution and Corresponding Factors of Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dongjiang River Basin (Southeast China is the world’s most populous and highly economic development region over the last few decades. The present study is the first systematic analysis of heavy metals of the aquatic environment in this area. Eighty seven samples were taken from the tributaries of the river network to investigate the characteristics of heavy metal pollutants within the catchment, which suggests a generally good water quality in terms of heavy metals, i.e., the mean metal concentrations of the tributaries are generally well below those recommended for drinking purposes and lower than metal concentrations in other regions and in world average background concentrations. Different multivariate statistical techniques are combined to analyze the spatial pattern and the origin of, and the land-use effects on heavy metal pollutants. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Redundant Analysis (RDA are applied to group the different heavy metals according to their variability at different sites. Relatively high levels of Hg originated from various sources and cannot be quickly scavenged in the Dongjiang River system. An improved understanding of the sources and their binding behaviors of heavy metals have implied the trend of elevated toxic potential from certain metal groups in this aquatic ecosystem, which suggests the analysis of contaminates should probably be combined with biological evaluations of toxicity at specific sites in future work.

  8. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  9. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  10. Heavy Metals Accumulation of Dominant Aquatic Plants in the Wetland of Le'an River and Poyang Lake%乐安河-鄱阳湖湿地优势水生植物对重金属污染物的富集作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪玲; 熊建秋; 简敏菲; 陈朴青; 徐鹏飞; 李玲玉

    2013-01-01

    With the field sampling methods and laboratory experiments analysis,the concentration of Cu,Cd,Pb were measured in 18 species of dominant aquatic plants and the habitat soils or sediments in Le'an River and Poyang Lake,the enrichment and accumulation of the dominant aquatic plants were also evaluated by using the methods of Bio-concentration Factors(BCF) and Metal Pollution Index(MPI).The results indicated that most aquatic plants in the sampling sits grew well without any toxic symptoms.In some test soils or sediments,the concentration of Cu and Cd exceeded the third standard value of Soil Environment Quality.All 18 species of aquatic plants showed hyperaccumulation ability to one or two kinds of the heavy metal pollutants included Cu,Pb and Cd because the value of BCF were larger than one.Some plants also showed the common enrichment characteristics,e.g.Vallisneria natans,Celosia argentea and Ceratophyllum demersum had strong accumulation on both heavy metals of Pb and Cd,and Polygonum sieboldii had strong accumulation on both heavy metals of Cu and Cd.The results of correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the concentration of Cu,Cd,Pb in 18 species of dominant aquatic plants and those of their habitat soils.The results of the value of Metal Pollution Index indicated that the MPI value of Polygonum lapathifolium was 2 102.25,which was the highest and reflected the heavy metal pollution on the habitats.The value of MPI can also be reflected the heavy metals compound pollution on the habitats comprehensively.18 species of aquatic plants had the greater development potential and application prospect in the phytoremediation of the wetland water and soil contaminated by heavy metals such as Cu,Pb and Zn.%通过野外调查和室内分析,采用生物富集因子和重金属污染指数等方法研究乐安河-鄱阳湖段水土或底泥环境中Cu、Pb、Cd等重金属的含量及不同生境中自然生长的18种水生植

  11. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth′s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

  12. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consumer products.
    A literature survey was commissioned by the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment. Objective was to gather information about actions and checks in other countries o...

  13. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  14. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  15. Heavy metals in equine biological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the blood (Pb, Ni and Cd, serum (Cu and Zn and hair (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn of horses raised in non-industrial and industrial areas (with steel mill, and to verify the possibility to use these data as indicators of environmental pollution. The samples were collected during summer and winter, aiming to verify animal contamination related to environment and season of the year. Copper and Zn contents determined in the serum and Cd and Ni contents obtained in the blood indicated no contamination effects of industries. For some animals, contents of Pb in the blood were higher than those considered acceptable for the species, but without relationship with industrialization and without clinical signs of Pb intoxication. The heavy metals evaluated on the hair of horses in this study were not increased with the presence of industries, but Cu and Cd contents were influenced by the season. The contents of some heavy metals in biological components analyzed were influenced by season sampling; however, serum, blood and hair may not be suitable to indicate differences in environmental contamination between the two contrasting areas. Most part of the heavy metal contents was lower or close to the reference values for horses. Serum, blood and hair components from horses may not be effective as indicators of environmental pollution with heavy metals. Industrialization and seasons have no effects on most part of heavy metals contents from those components.

  16. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and CODMn in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community

  17. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  18. Plant transporters involved in heavy metal homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Podar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions (predominately manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc havean array of catalytic and regulatory roles in the growth and development of all living organisms.However, an excess of these metal ions can also be toxic to any life form and therefore every cell andwhole organism needs to maintain the concentration of these essential nutrient metals within a narrowrange: a process known as metal homeostasis. Heavy metal ions are taken up into cells by selectivetransporters and as they cannot be degraded, the “desired” levels of metal ions are achieved by anumber of strategies that involve: chelation, sequestration and export out of the cell. Cation DiffusionFacilitators (CDF is a large family of transporters involved in maintaining the cytosolic metalconcentration. They transport different heavy metal divalent ions, but exhibit main affinity for zinc, ironand manganese. Metal Tolerance Proteins (MTPs are a subfamily of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDFfamily found in plants. There has been much interest in these heavy metal transporters in order toprovide an insight into plant metal homeostasis, which has significant implications in human health andphytoremediation. Although data regarding the CDFs/MTPs mechanism is gathering there is still littleinformation with respect to metal selectivity determinants.

  19. Controls on metal exposure to aquatic organisms in urban streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin-Nagel, Katelyn; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-08-10

    Streams in urban ecosystems receive metal inputs primarily from stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The relative contribution of these metal sources to stream impairment is difficult to discern based on simple water characteristics and biological surveys. Stream impairment in these systems is often indicated by reduced abundance and diversity of aquatic insects, which tend to be more sensitive to chronic metal exposures. Metal species and controls on metal species in both the waterborne and dietborne exposure pathways to aquatic organisms are reviewed here. In addition, ecological changes that can control dietborne species are discussed. A main focus is on how organic matter from different anthropogenic sources may control both aqueous metal speciation as well as interaction with various inorganic or microbiological surfaces in streams. Most of the reviewed research focuses on Cu, Zn or Pb as those are the primary metals of concern in developed systems and Cu and Pb have unique and strong interactions with organic matter. Recommendations for further research are described in the context of exposure species, dynamics of exposure, stoichiometry, or advanced analytical tools, and regulatory implications are discussed. PMID:27170052

  20. Effects of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd) in the aquatic medium on the restoration potential and accumulation in the stem cuttings of the terrestrial plant, Talinum triangulare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K; Sivakumar, S; Senthilkumar, P; Prabha, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Song, Y C

    2009-10-01

    The heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd) accumulation capacity of the stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Talinum triangulare was assessed in hydroponic medium. The stem cuttings of T. triangulare, grew well in distilled water regenerating roots and aerial parts. On exposure to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd, a concentration dependent decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced and roots regenerated and an increase in the number of days required for the initiation of roots. The number of leaves produced showed an increasing trend in almost all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd with an increase in the duration of experiment, whereas, with an increase in the treatment concentration of metals a significant (P triangulare was observed which was not persistent and disappeared after a few days. Decaying of stem was observed when exposed to Ni and Cd but not to Cu and Pb. Although, copper accumulation by T. triangulare at treatment concentration of 15 and 20 mg l(-1) exceeded 1,000 mg kg(-1) dry matter, necessary pot culture experiment is required before "T. triangulare" can be definitely classified as a Cu hyperaccumulator. PMID:19590954

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, I.; Tsegaye, T.; M. Silitonga; W Tadesse

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal elements and pH as a resu...

  2. Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rama; Rai, J P N

    2010-03-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymatically synthesized peptides known to involve in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation, which have been measured in plants grown at high heavy metal concentrations, but few studies have examined the response of plants even at lower environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species enabling molecular biological studies to untangle the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis and its regulation. The present paper embodies review on recent advances in structure of PCs, their biosynthetic regulation, roles in heavy metal detoxification and/or accumulation, and PC synthase gene expression for better understanding of mechanism involved and to improve phytoremediation efficiency of plants for wider application.

  3. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal so

  4. Toxic heavy metals: materials cycle optimization.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, R U

    1992-01-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are in...

  5. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  6. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  7. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  8. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gillian M; Song, Qi Jun

    2002-04-01

    Composting is one of the more efficient and environment friendly methods of solid waste disposal and has many advantages when compared with landfill disposal on which the UK and Ireland are currently heavily dependent. Composting is a very complicated process involving intensive microbial activity and the detailed mechanisms of the process have yet to be fully understood. Metal speciation information can provide an insight into the metal-microbial interaction and would help in the evaluation of the quality of compost. This would facilitate the exploitation of composts in remediation of heavy metal contaminated land. In this work a systematic approach to metal speciation in compost has been taken by applying the three-step method for operationally defined metal speciation of soils and sediments, developed by the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme to monitor the change in metal speciation with time (up to 106 days) for four different waste composting processes. The results have shown that in general metals become less available for the first extraction step as the composting process proceeds. This implies that composting tends to redistribute the metals from more labile forms to more fixed forms which may explain why the application of composts could be useful for with heavy metal contaminated land. There are exceptions to this trend and in some cases, certain metals appear to behave differently depending on the source of the compost. PMID:11993774

  9. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

    2007-01-01

    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  10. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  11. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  12. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment.

  13. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment. PMID:26315592

  14. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  15. The Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentration per Distance and Depth around the Vicinity of Open Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sharifah Mastura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal is a source of environmental pollutant affecting the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The sources of heavy metal pollution are the industries, domestic sewage and landfills. Landfill operation is a sourceof heavy metal pollution which not only affected the biospehere, hydrospehere and athmosphere, but also the litospheresystems around it. This study aims to analyse the heavy metals concentration around the landifill vicinity for indication of heavy metal pollution. This study analysedthe soil content of the heavy metal based on the distance and depth around the vicinity of the landfill. Field sampling of the soil and laboratory analysis were used. The field study involved 20 stations and 60 samples according to the wind directions: North, East, South and West.The analysis was conducted through the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS. Seven types of heavy metals were identified as indicators for pollution namely Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. The results indicated that the concentration of Fe was the most dominant per specific distances and depths and exceeded the DOE minimum standard (301 mg/L in North, East and West directions. While Cu was the second most dominant, with concentraion exceeding minimum DOE standard (19.8 mg/L per specific distance and depth, mainly in the West direction.

  16. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  17. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  18. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. (ed.)

    1994-03-01

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored by the moss technique. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicat the location of important heavy metal pollution sources. Samples of mainly the moss species Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Hypnum cupresiforme were collected during the summertime 1990. The total concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, vanadium and zinc were determined and the results presented in the form of coloured contour maps of Europe. In the Nordic countries and adjacent areas the regional deposition pattern of all the metals shows a decreasing gradient from relatively high values in the southern parts of Scandinavia to low values towards the North. A significant decreas. in the concentrations of most elements was found in this area during the last 10-20 years. Important local enhancements of the concentrations in moss were found superimposed on the regional background pattern, especially at the great smelting combinates in Nikel, Zapolyarnyj and Monchegorsk in Russia in the western part of the Kola Peninsula. Higher levels of metals are found at Mazeikiai (oil refinery) in Lithuania, close to Liepaja (steel mill) and Riga in Latvia and in the industrial north-eastern area of Estonia and adjacent area of Russia. Higher levels of metals were found in the metropolitan area of St. Petersburg. In Central Europe, Poland, and the Czech Republic have numerous sources of air pollution, as well as area in Germany. The Netherlands is particularly affected by pollution from Belgium and western Germany. The Environmental Monitoring and Data Group in the Nordic Countries would like the next survey of heavy metals, including mercury, in moss to take place in 1995. (EG) (45 refs.)

  19. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness. Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  20. Metal contents in tench otoliths: relationships to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, G; Miletić, M; Siviero, P; Barbieri, P; Reisenhofer, E

    2001-01-01

    A monitoring of the quality of waters was attempted determining metal accumulation in target organs as otoliths of freshwater fish. Tenchs of age ranging between 2 and 10 years were sampled in three different canals receiving wastewater from industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Metal contents were determined in both lapilli and asterisci otoliths, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Analytical data are reported for minor metals and for some trace metals. Al, Fe and Zn have contents depending on the environment where the fish has lived, while Na, K, Ca and Sr contents are insensitive to the different aquatic habitat. Considering the two types of otolith separately, lapilli display a different affinity for trace metals (Al, Fe and Zn), while in asterisci this affinity is matched only for zinc. The high affinity of zinc for both types of otoliths suggests using this metal for discriminating the fresh waters by checking its accumulation in otoliths, as well as correlating this accumulation with age of the fish: a negative power curve equation is proposed. Since highest concentrations are found in individuals of 2-3 yr., it is advisable to use this fish for such environmental studies. PMID:11554178

  1. Risk of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil and Diversity of Aquatic Plant Communities in the Le'an River-Poyang Lake Wetland%乐安河-鄱阳湖段湿地表土重金属污染风险及水生植物群落多样性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简敏菲; 徐鹏飞; 熊建秋; 陈朴青; 李玲玉

    2013-01-01

    The typical wetland at the estuaries of the Le'an River and Raohe River to the Poyang Lake was selected as a subject for the study on methods for risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu,Pb and Cd) pollution of surface soil of the wetland.Four different methods,i.e.the single factor index method,the geo-accumulation index method,the Nemero comprehensive pollution index method and the potential ecological hazard index method,were used and compared for merits and shortcomings.Correlations between diversity of aquatic plant communities and heavy metal pollution of the surface soil were also analyzed by taking into account results of the investigations of aquatic plant communities in various sampling sites.It was found that the surface soil of the wedand was polluted mainly by copper and much less by lead and cadmium.The pollutant of Cu came mainly with the acid heavy metal-containing wastewater discharged through the Dawu River from the copper minings.The four methods were used to evaluate the 6 sampling sites exposed seriously to pollution of the acid heavy metal wastewater from the copper minings in the upstreams of the Le'an River and yielded similar conclusions,i.e.extremely polluted.But they differed slightly in conclusion when used to evaluate sampling sites not so severely polluted.Generally speaking,the sampling sites along the Le'an River decreased in ecological risk of the heavy metal pollution with their locations from the mid-streams to the down-streams.Results of the four methods were quite objective.Significant negative relationships were observed of the diversity of aquatic plant communities with the integrated potential ecological risk index of heavy metal pollution in the surface soil and the single-factor potential ecological risk index of copper in various sampling sites.%以鄱阳湖重要支流饶河-乐安河段及其入鄱阳湖口的典型湿地作为研究区,采用单因子污染指数法、地累积指数法、内梅罗综合污染指数法和

  2. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system......Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g...

  3. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel.

  4. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.

  5. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L⁻¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L⁻¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L⁻¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  7. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  8. Structural and functional effects of heavy metals on the nervous system, including sense organs, of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1991-01-01

    metals are well known pollutants in the aquatic environment. Their interaction with relevant chemical stimuli may interfere with the communication between fish and environment. 5. The affinity for a number of ligands and macromolecules makes heavy metals most potent neurotoxins. 6. The present Mini......, including their sense organs, for mediating relevant behaviour such as food search, predator recognition, communication and orientation. 3. Unfortunately, the nervous system is most vulnerable and injuries to its elements may dramatically change the behaviour and consequently the survival of fish. 4. Heavy...

  9. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred [University of California, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail: wilfred@engr.ucr.edu

    2005-10-15

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted.

  10. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Meenakshisundaram, V; Venkatachalapathy, R; Ponnusamy, V

    2011-10-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited.

  11. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  12. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  13. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko; Nataliya Lvovna Khimenko

    2016-01-01

    The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc i...

  14. Determination of heavy metals in fish scales

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Nováková; Markéta Holá; Jozef Kaiser; Jiří Kalvoda; Viktor Kanický*

    2010-01-01

    The outcomes from measurements of amount of selected elements in the fish scales of common carp are presented. Concentrations in the scales were identified and differences between storage of heavy metals in exposed and covered part of scale were studied. The spatial distribution of elements on the fish scale´s surface layer was measured by Laser Ablation–Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS). The average amount of elements in the dissolved scal...

  15. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi.

  16. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  17. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800℃ for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  18. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  19. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  20. Deriving Aquatic Water Quality Criteria for Heavy Metals in Taihu Lake by Probabilistic Species Sensitivity Distribution%应用概率物种敏感度分布法研究太湖重金属水生生物水质基准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芊渊; 侯俊; 王超; 王沛芳; 苗令占; 吕博文; 顾起豪

    2015-01-01

    目前广泛使用的水质基准推导方法—物种敏感度分布法存在曲线拟合模型不确定、曲线拟合效果不佳、种内差异欠考虑、基准值不准确等诸多问题,概率物种敏感度分布法可有效解决上述问题。应用概率物种敏感度分布法构建了太湖水体中5种重金属Ag、Pb、Cd、Hg和Zn的概率物种敏感度分布曲线,在此基础上得到了保护水生生物的急性水质基准分别为1.079μg•L-1、637.973μg•L-1、19.465μg•L-1、8.729μg•L-1和105.506μg•L-1,慢性水质基准分别为0.108μg•L-1、63.797μg•L-1、1.947μg•L-1、2.340μg•L-1和52.753μg•L-1;不同类群间生物对重金属的敏感度存在差异,不同重金属对同一类群生物的毒性也存在差异;通过与国内外已有的重金属水质基准值比较,发现水质基准具有明显的区域性,目前基于国外水质基准或我国整体水域特点来制定的太湖水质标准,往往造成对太湖水生生物欠保护或过保护的状况。%The widely used method of species sensitivity distribution has a number of disadvantages, such as the uncertainty of statistical models, the undesirable effectiveness of fitted curve, the deficient consideration for in-traspecies variation and the inaccuracy of water quality criteria. The method of probabilistic species sensitivity dis-tribution (PSSD) can solve these problems effectively. Probabilistic species sensitivity distribution curves and water quality criteria for 5 heavy metals (Ag, Pb, Cd, Hg and Zn) in Taihu Lake were achieved by the method of PSSD. The derived acute criteria for 5 heavy metals were 1.079 μg•L-1, 637.973 μg•L-1, 19.465 μg•L-1, 8.729 μg•L-1 and 105.506μg•L-1, respectively. The corresponding chronic criteria were 0.108μg•L-1, 63.797μg•L-1, 1.947μg•L-1, 2.340μg•L-1 and 52.753μg•L-1, respectively. In this study, sensitivities of different taxa to heavy metals and toxicities of different heavy

  1. Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation of Metal-Based Engineered Nanomaterials in Aquatic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luoma, Samuel; Khan, Farhan R.; Croteau, Marie-Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Bioavailability of Me-ENMs to aquatic organisms links their release into the environment to ecological implications. Close examination shows some important differences in the conceptual models that define bioavailability for metals and Me-ENMs. Metals are delivered to aquatic animals from Me-ENMs...

  2. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  3. Modified silicates applied in adsorption of heavy metal; Silicatos modificados aplicados na adsorcao de metal pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, M.C.M. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2010-07-01

    The levels of heavy metals in the environment has increased considerably in recent decades due to various human activities, which cause serious pollution problems, both in aquatic systems and in soil. The clay minerals present himself as amenable to the adsorption of metal ions and, sometimes, taking the advantage of being abundant and inexpensive. Vermiculite has intrinsic characteristics which favor its use as adsorbent. In this work, we investigate the adsorption of lead (II) from aqueous solutions by vermiculite fractions in commercial, fine to medium in molar concentration between 1-4 mmol (s). The samples provided by the Uniao Brasileira de Mineracao/Paraiba/Brazil were modified thermal and organically. The results of X-ray diffraction associated with the results of X-ray fluorescence showed that the average fraction vermiculite exfoliated organically modified responded most significantly to the adsorption process when compared to vermiculite fine fraction under the same conditions. (author)

  4. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano José Corbi; Claudio Gilberto Froehlich; Susana Trivinho Strixino; Ademir dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated b...

  5. Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Ranju; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity.

  6. Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Ranju; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity. PMID:21660552

  7. Magnetotactic bacteria. Promising biosorbents for heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong [Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Chengdu (China). Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. (orig.)

  8. Mussel shell evaluation as bioindicator for heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Lopes, Fabio; Galvao, Tiago D. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Recently, in Brazil, it has been appearing a new and unusual 'plague' in leisure and commercial fishing, caused by the parasitic larval phase of certain native bivalve mollusks of fresh water known as 'Naiades'. Such situation involves the presence of big bivalve of fresh water, mainly Anodontites trapesialis, in the tanks and dams of the fish creation, such bivalve mollusks belonging to the Ordem Unionoida and the Familia Mycetopodidae. The present work objectified to analyze the shells of such mollusks to verify the possibility of such mollusks as bioindicators of heavy metals in fresh water. The mollusks shells were collected in a commercial fishing at Londrina-PR, and analyzed qualitatively to determine the chemical composition and possible correlation with existent heavy metals in the aquatic environment. Studies of the literature have been showing that those mollusks are susceptible the existent chemical alterations in the aquatic environment due to anthropogenic action. Three different shells were analyzed, with the measures done on the external and internal side, using a portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence system (PXRF-LFNA-02). The measures were realized in the applied nuclear physics laboratory of State University of Londrina, and the PXRF-LFNA-02 is composed by a X-Ray tube (with Ag target and filter) with potency of 4W, and a detector Si-PIN model XR-100CR of Ampetc Inc. with resolution of 221eV for the line of 5.9 keV of the {sup 55}Fe (with a 25{mu}m Be window thickness and Ag collimator), Current 10 mA and High Voltage 28 kV. In the internal part of shells were identified the elements Ca, P, Fe, Mn and Sr and in the external part were identified Ca, P, Fe, Mn, Sr and Cu. The Ca ratio among the external and internal sides of the analyzed shells is around of 1, and it was expected because Ca is the main composed of mollusks shells. The ratio of P, Fe, Mn, and Sr for Ca stayed constant in all analyzed shells

  9. Detoxification of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Damian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the heavy metals in the soils from the strong affected zones because of the mining and metallurgical industry, Baia Mare and Zlatna (Romania, is significant due to the high values of the contents and association of the four metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd. The efficacy of the natural zeolites in heavy metals immobilization from the studied soils was evaluated in experiments in which the plant growth was observed. Heavy metals contaminated soils have been treated with a mixture of organic substance and zeolites (organo – zeolitic material. Zeolitic tuffs were roll-crushed and ground in small grains with dimensions between 0.05 and 2.0 mm. Clinoptilolite is the predominant zeolite and appears as compact masses of tabular and prismatic micron – sized crystals that are evident in SEM images. In the mixture, the polluted soil represents 83% and the organo – zeolitic material represents 17%. The soils used in the experiment are excessive contaminated with Pb (40375-1054ppm in association with Zn (1175-490ppm, Cd (24.2-13.2ppm and Cu (409.5-37.6ppm in Baia Mare zone and with Cu (7000-360ppm in association with Zn (3100-1900ppm, Cd (80-40ppm and Pb (2000-50ppm in Zlatna zone. The original soil and the treated soil have been planted with Lolium perenne. The growth of the plants has demonstrated that the soil treated with organo–zeolitic material allows the growth of vegetation much faster than the original soil. These results show that growth of the plants was possible because the organo–zeolitic material mixed with the soil provides the substances necessary for the plants to develop (ammonium, humus, potassium, calcium. At the same time, heavy metals that inhibit the plant development are blocked through the cationic exchange mechanism that makes them enter the zeolites structure and they no longer directly have access to the plant roots.

  10. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  11. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  12. Heavy Metal Contents of Lake Sapanca

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Nevin; SEVİNÇ, Vahdettin

    2001-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution of Lake Sapanca located in the Marmara region (Turkey), was investigated over time. The lake is the drinking water source of the city of Adapazarı and its environs. The D-80 (TEM) motorway passes about 5 km along the lake's zero point in the Sapanca district. The motorway's wastewater drainages have been connected to the lake without having been subjected to any wastewater treatment. The motorway was opened to service in October 1990. Analyses w...

  13. Heavy metal utilization by locally available plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pallewad, Sushma; Mali, R P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with removal of heavy metal namely Copper from polluted water using plant species oscimum and mint. The experiment was divided into 2 groups. Group one as control and group II treated as experimental which received 4ppm of Copper sulphate. In the experimental plants were exposed to 4ppm Cu  for 24 and 48 hrs. And the amount of Cu depleted from water was analyzed. From the experiment it is evident that the Cu from water was utilized by the plants was more during 48 hrs ...

  14. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc is manifested both in inhibition of lettuce growth and determined, above all, by the nature contamination, soil properties and biological specificity of the test plants.

  15. Impact of humic/fulvic acid on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using nanomaterials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wang-Wang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Bin-Bin

    2014-01-15

    Nowadays nanomaterials have been widely used to remove heavy metals from water/wastewater due to their large surface area and high reactivity. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) exist ubiquitously in aquatic environments and have a variety of functional groups which allow them to complex with metal ions and interact with nanomaterials. These interactions can not only alter the environmental behavior of nanomaterials, but also influence the removal and transportation of heavy metals by nanomaterials. Thus, the interactions and the underlying mechanisms involved warrant specific investigations. This review outlined the effects of HA/FA on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by various nanomaterials, mainly including carbon-based nanomaterials, iron-based nanomaterials and photocatalytic nanomaterials. Moreover, mechanisms involved in the interactions were discussed and potential environmental implications of HA/FA to nanomaterials and heavy metals were evaluated.

  16. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  17. A Better Method for Evaluating Heavy Metal Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Janet

    2002-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, and even trace amounts of some, can be harmful to both plants and animals. The toxicity of heavy metal contamination, however, is highly dependent on the chemical form of the metal in question. Metals that are bound in particles or to organic (carbon-containing) compounds are less toxic than dissolved free ions, less toxic meaning that the metals are less readily available for uptake by marine organisms.

  18. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  19. Heavy metal adsorption by sulphide mineral surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gilles E.; Bancroft, G. Michael

    1986-07-01

    The adsorption of aqueous Hg 2+, Pb 2+, Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ complexes on a variety of sulphide minerals has been studied as a function of the solution pH and also as a function of the nature of the ligands in solution. Sulphide minerals are excellent scavengers for these heavy metals. The adsorption is strongly pH dependent, i.e. there is a critical pH at which the adsorption increases dramatically. The pH dependence is related to the hydrolysis of the metal ions. Indirect evidence suggests that the hydrolyzed species are adsorbed directly on the sulphide groups, probably as a monolayer. The results also suggest the presence of MCI n2- n species physisorbed on the adsorbed monolayer. A positive identification of the adsorbed species was not possible using ESCA/XPS.

  20. Biogeochemistry of heavy metals in contaminated excessively moistened soils (Analytical review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Plekhanova, I. O.

    2014-03-01

    The biogeochemical behavior of heavy metals in contaminated excessively moistened soils depends on the development of reducing conditions (either moderate or strong). Upon the moderate biogenic reduction, Cr as the metal with variable valence forms low-soluble compounds, which decreases its availability to plants and prevents its penetration into surface- and groundwater. Creation of artificial barriers for Cr fixation on contaminated sites is based on the stimulation of natural metal-reducing bacteria. Arsenic, being a metalloid with a variable valence, is mobilized upon the moderate biogenic reduction. The mobility of siderophilic heavy metals with a constant valence grows under the moderate reducing conditions at the expense of dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides as carriers of these metals. Zinc, which can enter the newly formed goethite lattice, is an exception. Strong reduction processes in organic excessively moist and flooded soils (usually enriched in S) lead to the formation of low-soluble sulfides of heavy elements with both variable (As) and constant (Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb) valence. On changing aquatic regime in overmoistened soils and their drying, sulfides of heavy metals are oxidized, and previously fixed metals are mobilized.

  1. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, J. F. P

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through test and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. The chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, an increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slag samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-through test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5 % (Ca and 1% (other elements.

    Este articulo contiene los resultados obtenidos en ensayos de lixiviación de escorias de acero (horno electrico y cuchara ejecutados siguiendo la metodologia de flujo dinámico así como el ensayo normalizado DIN 38414-S4. El primer ensayo intenta simular el comportamiento de lixiviación de las escorias en vertedero. Para las escorias ensayadas se han complementado los ensayos con el análisis químico de los lixiviados y se ha verificado un aumento de la liberación de metales pesados. El ensayo DIN 38414-S4 se ha utilizado para evaluar la lixiviación por agua de metales pesados, en muestras de escorias originales. Despues de un año de ensayos, se han observado niveles muy bajos de lixiviación. Los elementos mas lixiviados han sido calcio y magnesio. No obstante, en los ensayos de flujo dinámico, el calcio y el magnesio lixiviados de las escorias sólidas era menor de 0,5% y el resto de los otros metales era inferior a 0,1%. Los lixiviados obtenidos con el ensayo DIN 38414-S4 presentan, como era de esperar, valores

  2. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. The heavy metals are highly toxic and are non-biodegradable, therefore they must be removed from the polluted streams in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental quality standards. Removal of heavy metals can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. Conventional methods typically involve the use of processes such as coag...

  3. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    OpenAIRE

    Slávik Marek; Tóth Tomáš; Kopernická Miriama; Árvay Július; Harangozo Ľuboš

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the sam...

  4. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Rzymski; Katarzyna Tomczyk; Pawel Rzymski; Barbara Poniedziałek; Tomasz Opala; Maciej Wilczak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female repr...

  5. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2014-06-02

    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Heavy metal screening in compounds feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are generally classified as basic groups of pollutants that are now a days found in different environmental compartments. This is quite a large group of contaminants, which have different characteristics, effects on the environment and sources of origin. For environment pose the greatest risks, especially heavy metals produced by anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the health and vitality of organisms and natural environmental conditions. Livestock nutrition is among the main factors which affect not only the deficiency of livestock production and quality of food of animal origin, but they are also a factor affecting the safety and wholesomeness and the animal health. Compound feeds is characterized as a mixture of two or more feed grain. Containing organic, inorganic nutrients and specifically active compound feed meet the nutritional requirements of a given kind and age category of animals. They are used mainly in the diet of pigs, poultry, but also the nutrition of cattle, sheep, horses and other animal categories. The basic ingredients are cereals in proportion of 60-70 %. The aim of this thesis was to analyze the content of hazardous elements (copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury in 15 samples of compound feeds and then evaluating their content in comparison with maximum limits laid down by Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic and Regulation Commission (EC.

  7. Distribuição de metais pesados em sedimentos do sistema estuarino da Ilha de Vitória-ES Distribution and abundance of heavy metals in sediments from Vitória Island estuarine system

    OpenAIRE

    Honério Coutinho de Jesus; Elza de Abreu Costa; Antônio Sérgio Ferreira Mendonça; Eliana Zandonade

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-metal concentration in sediment is an important parameter for identifying pollution sources and assessing pollution levels in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the present study aimed at determining concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from the Vitória estuarine system, Brazil. Twenty nine stations were surveyed to assess the spatial distribution of heavy metals. The metals for silt-clay fractions (

  8. Decontamination of aquatic vegetable leaves by removing trace toxic metals during pickling process with acetic acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenbiao; Yang, Yixing

    2011-01-01

    The heavy-metal content of aquatic plants is mainly dependent upon their ecological system. This study indicated that although the toxic heavy-metal contents could be above the recommended maximum levels depending upon their concentrations in growing water, they can be decontaminated by pickling with 5% acetic acid solution. Almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.5% Pb, 96.7% Ag, or 97.1% Al were removed from Water Spinach leaves by soaking in acetic acid solution. For Water-Shield leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Pb, Ba, or Sb and 95.0% Ag or 96.1% Al were removed. For Watercress leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Pb or 99.7% Ag were removed. For Water Hyacinth leaves, almost all Cd, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Hg, 98.5% Pb, 95.0% Ag, or 98.7% Al were removed. PMID:21888602

  9. Determination of heavy metal toxicity of finished leather solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ahmet

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the toxicity in leather products of heavy metals known to be detrimental to the ecosystem. Heavy metal concentrations in leather samples were identified with ICP-OES, and toxicity was determined using a MetPLATE bioassay. Chromium and aluminium were found to constitute 98% of the total concentration of heavy metals in finished leather tanned with chromium and aluminium salts, while in some vegetable-tanned leather, zirconium was the only heavy metal identified. The average inhibition values for chromium, aluminium and vegetable tanned leather were 98.08%, 97.04% and 62.36%, respectively.

  10. Research on Distribution Pattern of Heavy Metals in Yanzhou Coalfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-zhu; YANG Feng-jie; CHENG Jian-guang; Wang Cui-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution brings extensive concerns since 1940s. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution on the farmland of Yanzhou coalfield, 216 soil samples and 54 combined samples were collected. Lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, zinc, and nickel contained in both topsoil and deep soil were analyzed using atomic absorbent spectrometry analyzer (AAS). Fuzzy clustering method was used in data processing. And fuzzy synthetic assessment was applied to assess the soil contamination by heavy metals. The result shows that Yanzhou coalfield has been polluted by the heavy metals to some extent.

  11. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment DCE at Aarhus University annually reports heavy metals (HM) emissions to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). This report presents updated heavy metal emission factors......-2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...

  12. Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, F.-A. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Minna J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsumin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43 {+-} 0.37 {mu}g/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. - Metal effects occur in India's mangrove ecosystem.

  13. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  14. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  15. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José Corbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and that the collector organisms as Chironomus species accumulated higher concentration of metals than the predator organisms.

  16. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  17. Survey of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu Contamination in Sediment of Three Sites Anzali Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M khosravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:Anzali Wetland is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems of Iran which is located in south-west of the Caspian sea. This Wetland provides a suitable and non-market price habitat for valuable fish and aquatic animals which have an important role in the life cycle of this ecosystem. This study reports the results of some heavy metals contamination monitoring in superficial water of the Anzali Wetland, Iran.Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from three sites (east, center and west of Anzali Wetland, in each site three stations existed and each sample replicated three times.Results: The results showed high heavy metal levels in eastern site of wetland, where there were high levels of contamination. The mean of heavy metals concentration in sediment from Anzali Wetland were in order as Cd 157.023, Pb 3.646 and Hg 300.692 ng /g dried weight, Zn 186.953 and Cu 44.452 mg /g dried weight in eastern site. The concentration levels of heavy metals in three sites were in order as follows: Zn > Cu > Hg > Cd > Pb. Conclusion: Concentrations of heavy metals in eastern zone reflected metal loadings from anthropogenic sources located at and in the vicinity of the sampling sites.

  18. Considerations on the significance of a holistic approach of the issue of heavy metal and radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper takes into consideration the aspects of heavy metal and radioactive pollution. Models of ecological system structure such as structural homomorphic models and mathematical models are discussed. The results of measurements of metal migration (Pb, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn) in aquatic ecosystems are presented. The radionuclide distribution in sediments, soil and water as well as the impact on human population by external irradiation is considered

  19. Heavy metal retention of different roadside soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Emissions from major highways contain different kinds of contaminants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and road salts which can occur in both particulate and dissolved form. Pollutants are transferred to the environment via aerial transport or the infiltration of road runoff and spray water. A significant rate of the road runoff infiltrates into the Embankment which is usually built during road construction and located next to the road edge. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. According to valid German law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bear-ing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of accurately defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfil this requirement. To determine and com-pare the total and dissolved concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seep-age water of newly constructed embankments, we installed 6 Lysimeter along the edge of the German highway A115. Three lysimeter were filled with different materials which are recently used for embankment construction in Germany. Three further lysimeter where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Fist results showed that heavy metal concentrations determined in the road runoff were compara-ble to literature values. The solute concentrations in the seepage water of the different embank-ment materials do not show considerable differences and exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection & Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV) only sporadically. Total concentra-tions of the seepage water are significantly higher than solute concentrations and clearly differ be-tween stable and non stable variant. In order to estimate the risk of groundwater pollution further monitoring of seepage water quality is necessary.

  20. Heavy metals detection using nanostructured screen printed electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Prasek*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problematic of heavy metals dissolved inaqueous solution detection using standard electrochemical methods. The problematic of low signal response of miniaturizedelectrochemical electrodes for electrochemical analysis is mentioned here. Finally some solutions for electrodes miniaturization and examples of fabricated electrodes and their heavy metals detection capabilities on a real sample are shown and discussed here.

  1. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  2. Removal of Heavy Metals in Effluent by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting LI; Xia LI; Bing Ru ZHANG; Qing Hua OUYANG

    2004-01-01

    The silicate colloids with an average diameter 100 nm, were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TES), NH4OH (30%) and then modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane ( APS). The colloids can adsorb heavy metals such as Pb and Cr in effluent and after adsorption the colloids can be separated by coagulation of aluminum sulfate. The removal of heavy metals is up to 99%.

  3. Heavy Metal Biosorption Sites Studies of Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Aihong; WANG Xian; DENG Yongzhi; CHEN Lidan

    2005-01-01

    The role played by the functional groups of Laminaria japonica treated by methanol and formaldehyde in biosorption of the heavy metals was investigated.Infrared spectroscopy analysis and biosorption experiments show that both carboxyl and amino groups join in the sorption; chemical treatment decreased the biosorption efficiency of the heavy metals.

  4. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  5. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  6. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  7. Heavy metals determination in aquatic species for food purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2001-02-01

    New analytical procedures and sample mineralizations are proposed regarding the determination of arsenic, selenium, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury in matrices involved in food chain as mussel, clams and fishes. As regards As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn determinations. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3} acidic mixture is used for the digestion is performed using a concentrated supra pure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} mixture and the results are compared with those from other conventional methods (DPASV) are employed for determining simultaneously selenium, arsenic and copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, respectively, while mercury determination is carried out by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The voltammetric measurements were performed using a conventional three-electrode cell and the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer (ph 9.3) as supporting electrolyte. For all the elements, in addition to the detection limits, precision and accuracy data are also reported: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (S{sub r}), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), are in all cases between 3 to 6%. [Italian] Viene proposta una nuova procedura analitica ed una nuova mineralizzazione del campione per la determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco e mercurio in matrici coinvolte nella catena alimentare come mitili e pesci. Per la determinazione di As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, le matrici sono state mineralizzate con una miscela acida H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}. Nel caso del Hg, la mineralizzazione del campione e' stata effettuata mediante una miscela H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ed i risultati confrontati con quelli ottenuti impiegando altri metodi convenzionali. Per la simultanea determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco, sono state impiegate la voltammetria differenziale pulsata catodica (DPCSV) ed anodica (DPASV), mentre il mercurio e' stato determinato mediante spettroscopia di assorbimento atomico accoppiato alla tecnica dei vapori freddi (CV-ASS) mediante riduzione coN SnCl{sub 2}. Le misure voltammetriche venivano effettuate impiegando una convenzionale cella a tre elettrodi, usando tampone ammoniacale (pH 9.3) come elettrolita di supporto. Per tutti gli elementi, unitamente al limite di rivelabilita', vengono riportati i dati di precisione ed accuratezza: la prima, espressa come deviazione standard relativa (S{sub r}), e la seconda, espressa come errore relativo (e), sono risultate in tutti i casi dell'ordine del 3-6%.

  8. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  9. Benthic foraminiferal response to heavy metal pollution in Izmir Bay (eastern Aegean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benthic foraminifera are interestingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Sixteen sediment samples were collected in November 2002 from surficial sediments of Izmir Bay for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Izmir Bay is located in Western Turkey and surrounded by a densely populated community. Foraminifera (class Foraminifera, phylum Granuloreticulata) are among the more abundant protozoa in marine and brackish water habitats. They are unicellular protista that construct shells of one and many chambers. Studies of pollution effects on benthic foraminifera were initiated by Resig (1960) and Watkins (1961). The studies have often focused on areas exposed to direct pollution sources such as industrial, agricultural wastes. Some studies also take into account thermal and various kinds of chemical pollution and heavy metal pollution. In our research, we identified 28 foraminifera species. A total of 16 sediment samples used for this study come from selected stations at Izmir Bay. Heavy metals and chemicals are unlikely to favor any particular species of benthic foraminifera. In practice, however, it is often difficult to separate effects caused by heavy metals from those caused by organic material because most polluted areas are subjected to some kind of organic enrichments. Of the major environmental components (water, sediment, flora and fauna), sediments have been thoroughly analyzed to study the occurrence and distribution of metals. They present the clearest indication of metal input and accumulation in aquatic environments. Izmir Bay has been contaminated by numerous heavy metals, but geochemical analyses have shown that metals are significant pollutants in the inner part of the bay. Correlation analysis shows that there is a significant correlation between foraminifera species and heavy metals. Amphycoryna scalaris has

  10. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechan Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity, central nervous system (neurotoxicity, DNA (genotoxicity, and kidney (nephrotoxicity in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s. This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.

  11. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Said Mohamed Daboor; Amany Mohamed Haroon; Neven Abd Elfatah Esmael; Slah Ibrahem Hanona

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment) were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+, Pb2+and Fe2+single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+>Pb2+>Fe2+ ) was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe2+and Pb2+adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  12. Contamination, toxicity and speciation of heavy metals in an industrialized urban river: Implications for the dispersal of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Zhou, Haichao; Tam, Nora F Y; Tian, Yu; Tan, Yang; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Chen, Yongheng; Leung, Jonathan Y S

    2016-03-15

    Urban rivers are often utilized by the local residents as water source, but they can be polluted by heavy metals due to industrialization. Here, the concentrations, toxicity, speciation and vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment were examined to evaluate their impact, dispersal and temporal variation in Dongbao River. Results showed that the sediment in the industrialized areas was seriously contaminated with Cr, Cu and Ni which posed acute toxicity. Heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, were mainly associated with non-residual fractions, indicating their high mobility and bioavailability. The non-industrialized areas were also seriously contaminated, suggesting the dispersal of heavy metals along the river. The surface sediment could be more contaminated than the deep sediment, indicating the recent pollution events. Overall, when the point sources are not properly regulated, intense industrialization can cause both serious contamination and dispersal of heavy metals, which have far-reaching consequences in public health and environment. PMID:26856647

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golnaz Karimi; Parisa Ziarati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of d...

  14. Adaptation of plants to an environment polluted with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Antosiewicz, Danuta M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of tolerance of plants to heavy metals. Induction, development and stability of tolerance are described. Multiple and co-tolerance are presented in the context of specificity of acquired tolerance to heavy metals. Phenomena involved in the uptake and distribution of metals in plant tissues along with the mechanisms of exclusion and accumulation are discussed. The problem of tolerance development in plants is presented also in the light of the nutritional condit...

  15. Heavy metals quantification on alkaline batteries incineration emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos; Silva, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals emissions associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a point of discussion and care due to the known harmful effects of these metals on humans and environment. Batteries are appointed as one of the main contributors for those emissions, particularly for mercury, cadmium, zinc and lead. In this paper, results for heavy metals emissions from alkaline batteries obtained in a laboratorial incinerator are presented. The incineration process took place in a tubular ove...

  16. Heavy Metal Accumulation is Associated with Molecular and Pathological Perturbations in Liver of Variola louti from the Jeddah Coast of Red Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh A. Mohamed; Elshal, Mohamed F; Kumosani, Taha A; Mal, Ahmad O.; Ahmed, Youssri M; Yaaser Q. Almulaiky; Asseri, Amer H.; Zamzami, Mazin A.

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of waste water are discharged daily from the Jeddah Metropolitan Area into the Red Sea. Sewage draining into the Red Sea causes widespread chemical pollution that is toxic to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of pollution and assess the presence of heavy metals in fish tissue and study their association with biological and biochemical alterations. The average concentrations of heavy metals found in hepatic tissues of Variola louti fish...

  17. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.* PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild amaranth was investigated in alkaline (pH=8 and acidic (pH=5 soils and also using three substances such as EDTA, ammonium citrate and phosphate. The concentrations of these metals in leachate were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry method. Findings Lead, cadmium and zinc levels in leachate in treatments with plants were less than unplanted ones. The concentrations of these metals in the produced leachate of treatments with acidic soils were higher than those with alkaline soils. In the treatments of soil polluted with additives, treatments containing ammonium phosphate and EDTA had the lowest and highest concentrations of heavy metals, respectively. Concentrations of these metals in treatments without plants were higher than those with plants. Conclusion Increasing of soil pH is effective on stabilization of heavy metals in soil. Ammonium phosphate plays an important role in stabilizing and EDTA and ammonium citrate increase the mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium in soil and groundwater.

  18. Phytoremediation of heavy metals in a tropical impoundment of industrial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Aquatic pollution poses a serious challenge to the scientific community worldwide, since lakes or reservoirs find multifarious use and most often their water is used for drinking, bathing, irrigation, and aquaculture. Nine metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004 to 2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and sediments. Following the water quality monitoring, 2-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25% to 67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25% to 77.14% at Dongia nala (with E. crassipes, L. minor and Azolla pinnata), and 25% to 71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with L. minor and A. pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems. PMID:19430918

  19. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  20. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (Kav, Pav, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals — the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: ► Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. ► Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. ► Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. ► Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  1. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics - a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26940747

  2. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  3. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be

  5. Smouldering peat fires in polluted landscapes and their impact on heavy metal mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Rothwell, James; Shuttleworth, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are commonly viewed as a threat confined to Southern Europe, Australia, and North America, recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has been growing in recent years. UK wildfires often occur on heathland vegetation underlain by peat. These areas can contain industrially-derived legacy pollutants, such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Ignition of the peat can lead to long-term smouldering fires that are difficult to extinguish, leading to large-scale damage. While work on assessing post-fire damage of peatlands has focussed on carbon and nutrient dynamics, there has been little attention on the release of heavy metals following wildfires. This paper presents initial data from a preliminary study to assess heavy metal release from smouldering peat fires. A homogenised sample of peat from the Peak District National Park, UK was ignited, monitored using thermocouples and an IR camera, and left to smoulder until self-extinguished (~9 hours). Total mass loss was 61%. Samples of pre- and post-burn peat were analysed for their heavy metal concentrations using XRF, ICP-MS, and CVAFS. Sample analysis is ongoing, but initial data shows that there is a substantial (3x) relative enrichment in heavy metal concentrations in post-fire ash. This has important implications for subsequent mobilisation in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as consequences for human health risk through atmospheric redistribution.

  6. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  7. Removal of heavy metals through adsorption using sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The removal of four heavy metals i.e. Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn from their aqueous solutions, using ordinary sand as an adsorbent, was studied at 20oC. The amount of metal adsorbed to form monolayer on sand(am), obtained from Langmuir isotherm, exhibited the preference of metals for sand in the order Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn. The heavy metal-sand adsorption phenomena can be illustrated on the basis of the interaction between surface functional group of silicates (sand) and the metal ions. It is deduced that sand can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater (containing low conc. of metals), especially in the developing countries.

  8. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Dianchi Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ren-Ying; YANG Hao; ZHOU Zhi-Gao; L(U) Jun-Jie; SHAO Xiao-Hua; JIN Feng

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of heavy metals in sediments can help in understanding potential hazards of heavy metals.The present study analyzed total concentrations and fractions of selected heavy metals(Cd,Cr,Cu,Pb,and Zn)in surfaca sediments from Dianchi Lake,Yunnan Province,China,as well as factors that may affect distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.Total concentrations of the heavy metals decreased in the order Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd.These heavy metals,except Cr,were much higher than their background levels,indicating that Dianchi Lake was polluted by Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu.Cadmium occurred mainly as the non-residual fraction(sum of the HOAc-soluble,reducible,and oxidizable fractions)(97.6%),and Zn(55.7%)was also predominantly found in the non-residual fraction.In contrast,most of the Cr(88.5%),Pb(81.8%),and Cu(59.2%)occurred in the residual fraction.Correlation analysis showed that total heavy metal concentrations,organic matter and reducible Fe were the main factors affecting the distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.In the Waihai section of Dianchi Lake (comprising 97%of the lake area),the concentrations of Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu in the non-residual fraction were significantly lower(P≤0.01 or 0.05)than those of the Caohai section (3% of the lake area).This indicated that potential heavy metal hazards in the Caohai section were greater than the Waihai section.

  9. Improving crop tolerance to heavy metal stress by polyamine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Ursu, Marina; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2016-12-15

    Many areas have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals from industry and are not suitable for food production. The consumption of contaminated foods represents a health risk in humans, although some heavy metals are essential at low concentrations. Increasing the concentrations of essential elements in foods is one goal to improve nutrition. The aim of this study was to increase the accumulation of heavy metals in plant foods by the external application of putrescine. The levels of cadmium, zinc and iron were measured in different vegetables grown in hydroponic medium supplemented with heavy metals and compared with those grown in a reference medium. The estimated daily intake, based on the average daily consumption for various vegetable types, and the influence of polyamines on metal uptake were calculated. PMID:27451175

  10. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.;

    1994-01-01

    and heavy metals has been developed during the past two years. The concept is based on guidelines that are made according to considerations of me environment and the treatment plant system, and that encourage the introduction of a cleaner technology and integrated preventive measures. For most organic...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...... for sludge intended for use in agriculture, and the quality criteria for the aquatic environment. Proposals for general guidelines have been calculated using a simple mass balance model combined with water quality criteria and the Danish limit values for use of sludge in agriculture....

  11. Heavy metal music and adolescent suicidality: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, K R; Westefeld, J S

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among 121 high school students. Heavy metal fans had less strong reasons for living (especially male fans) and had more thoughts of suicide (especially female fans). For a large majority, listening to music (all types) had a positive effect on mood. Overall, the results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be a "red flag" for increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggest that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial characteristics than in any direct effects of the music. Implications for intervention and for future research are discussed. PMID:10494975

  12. Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Mayumi; Minamisawa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Takai, Nobuharu

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and 6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples. PMID:15373400

  13. Extraction, identification and quantification of heavy metals in Venice lagoon sediments using toxicity tests with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarini, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.; Sperni, L.; Salizzato, M.; Pavoni, B. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    Sediments are the major sink for metal pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem but also an important source for the release of them in the water. In order to assess the contribution of heavy metals to the total sediment toxicity, a methodology that permits to integrate the chemical approach with a direct toxicological approach has been ste up. Toxicological results using Microtox test are compared with analytical results. [Italian] I sedimenti sono il principale deposito per contaminanti metalli nel''ecosistema acquatico, ma anche una fonte importnate di rilascio nell'acqua. Al fine di valutare il contributo dei metalli pesanti alla tossicita' totale del sedimento, e' stata messa a punto una metodologia che permette di integrare l'appoccio chimico con un approccio tossicologico diretto. I risultati dei test di tossicita' Microtox vengono confrontati con i risultati analitici.

  14. Assessment of native plant species for phytoremediation of heavy metals growing in the vicinity of NTPC sites, Kahalgaon, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Lal, Brij; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Kahalgaon, Bihar, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 30 plant species (5 aquatic and 25 terrestrial including 6 ferns) were collected and their diversity status and dominance were also studied. After screening of dominant species at highly polluted site, 8 terrestrial and 5 aquatic plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd). Differential accumulations of various heavy metals by different species of plants were observed. Typha latifolia was found to be most efficient metal accumulator of Fe (927), Cu (58), Zn (87), Ni (57), Al (67), Cd (95), and Pb (69), and Azolla pinnata as Cr (93) hyper-accumulator among aquatic species in µg g(-1). In terrestrial species the maximum levels of Fe (998), Zn (81), Ni (93), Al (121), and Si (156) were found in Croton bonplandium. However, there was high spatial variability in total metal accumulation in different species indicated by coefficient of variation (CV%). These results suggest that various aquatic, some dominant terrestrial plants including fern species may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated wastelands. PMID:26442874

  15. Phytoremediation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and V in gas refinery wastewater using common reed (Phragmitis australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Hamidian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastewaters are of the major sources of heavy metal pollution in the environment. In the Middle East, gas and oil industry is the major source of heavy metal pollution and releases significant amounts of metals into the terrestrial and aquatic environment. In this research the capability of the common reed (Phragmitis australis in absorbing heavy metals Cd, Pb and V from the wastewater of a gas refinery plant in Iran was investigated. The plant samples were collected from the vicinity of the Bidboland gas refinery plant in Iran and were used for the treatment of wastewaters collected from the outflow of the refinery plant. The metal concentrations were measured in the roots of the plant species before treatment and after 2, 6 and 10 days of treatment procedure. The heavy metal concentrations were measured after acid digestion and using an ICP-OES instrument. After 10 days of treatment, the concentrations of the metals in plant tissues increased by 2.5, 6.9 and 2.7 times for Cd, Pb and V, respectively. The best treatment time was suggested to be 6 days. The common reed was observed to have a very good capability in removing heavy metals from the gas refinery wastewater.

  16. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  17. Coupling bioleaching and electrokinetics to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyun; Yu, Zhen; Pang, Ya; Wang, Yueqiang; Cai, Zhihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, bioleaching was coupled with electrokinetics (BE) to remove heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) from contaminated soil. For comparison, bioleaching (BL), electrokinetics (EK), and the chemical extraction method were also applied alone to remove the metals. The results showed that the BE method removed more heavy metals from the contaminated soil than the BL method or the EK method alone. The BE method was able to achieve metal solubilization rates of more than 70 % for Cu, Zn and Cr and of more than 40 % for Pb. Within the range of low current densities (bioleaching coupled with electrokinetics can effectively remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils and that preliminary tests should be conducted before field operation to detect the lowest current density for the greatest metal removal. PMID:25680933

  18. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  19. Heavy metals and epigenetic alterations in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Maria; Caruso, Gerardo; Fata, Giuseppe La; Barresi, Valeria; Visalli, Maria; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals and their derivatives can cause various diseases. Numerous studies have evaluated the possible link between exposure to heavy metals and various cancers. Recent data show a correlation between heavy metals and aberration of genetic and epigenetic patterns. From a literature search we noticed few experimental and epidemiological studies that evaluate a possible correlation between heavy metals and brain tumors. Gliomas arise due to genetic and epigenetic alterations of glial cells. Changes in gene expression result in the alteration of the cellular division process. Epigenetic alterations in brain tumors include the hypermethylation of CpG group, hypomethylation of specific genes, aberrant activation of genes, and changes in the position of various histones. Heavy metals are capable of generating reactive oxygen assumes that key functions in various pathological mechanisms. Alteration of homeostasis of metals could cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and alteration of proteins. In this study we summarize the possible correlation between heavy metals, epigenetic alterations and brain tumors. We report, moreover, the review of relevant literature. PMID:25646073

  20. Toxicological Response of the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris, to Some Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Afkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: The disturbance of aquatic ecosystems provoked by heavy metals pollution from industrial and domestic sources, has as consequence the loss of biological diversity, as well as increased bioaccumulation and magnification of toxicants in the food chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some heavy metals on some physiological activities of Chlorella vulgaris beyerinck with special references to metal bioaccumulation. Approach: Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A standard initial inoculum of the isolated algae was inoculated to culture flasks. The culture flasks were supplied with various concentrations of Cobalt, Copper and Zinc ranging from 10-6-10-9 M. At the end of the incubation period cultures were filtered and washed several times by distilled water for measurements the various experimental parameters. Results: The data show that the lower doses of the three tested metals had stimulatory effect in biomass yield of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas the higher doses were inhibitory depending on the type of the metal. The inhibitory effect of copper to the growth parameters of Chlorella vulgaris was more pronounced than other two tested metals. The total protein content, total carbohydrate and the total free amino acids of the tested green alga Chlorella vulgaris gradually decreased in a manner dependent on the metal concentration in the medium. On the other hand, bioaccumulation of cobalt, copper and zinc by Chlorella vulgaris cells were parallel to increasing the concentrations in the culture medium. Conclusion: The inhibitory and stimulatory effects of either of the used heavy metals depend on concentration. Different organisms, however, have different sensitivities to the same metal and the same organisms may be more or less damaged by different metals. The uptake of an element from the surrounding medium is seldom exactly proportional to the amount present

  1. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  2. RESPONSE MICROORGANISMS TO SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Kaczynska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to evaluate the effect that the soil contamination with zinc, copper and cadmium has on the number of (CFUAzotobacter, organotrophic bacteria and Streptomyces. The results of the experiment revealed their role in the CFU modification and the impact on the level of soil contamination with heavy metals. Organotrophic bacteria have a similar tolerance to the heavy metals as Streptomyces, since the lowest resistance characterizes the Azotobacter. The toxicity of the examined heavy metals can be ranked as follows (from the most sensitive to the least: Azotobacter>organotrophic bacteria>Streptomyces. It can be concluded that the succession of the microorganuisms is determined by the soil fertility, which stimulates both the characteristics and biochemical transformations, that occur in it through the mechanisms involved in reducing the negative impact of the heavy metals on the number of microorganisms.

  3. Polysiloxane based CHEMFETs for the detection of heavy metal ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, Ronny J.W.; Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1996-01-01

    The development of polysiloxane based chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs) for heavy metal ions is described. Different polar siloxane copolymers have been synthesized via an anionic copolymerization of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, [3-(methacryloxy)propyl]pentamethylcyclotrisiloxan

  4. Heavy metal pollution disturbs immune response in wild ant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in both humans and wildlife is growing and practically nothing is known about this impact on terrestrial invertebrates, even though they are known to easily accumulate pollutants. We studied the effect of industrial heavy metal contamination on immune defense of a free-living wood ant (Formica aquilonia). To find out whether ants show an adapted immune function in a polluted environment, we compared encapsulation responses between local and translocated colonies. Local colonies showed higher heavy metal levels than the translocated ones but the encapsulation response was similar between the two groups, indicating that the immune system of local ants has not adapted to high contamination level. The encapsulation response was elevated in moderate whereas suppressed in high heavy metal levels suggesting higher risk for infections in heavily polluted areas. - Heavy metal pollution affects immune function in ants

  5. Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Feng, Shaolong; Teh, Yi Chen; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-15

    Heavy metal pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide. Current methods for the detection of heavy metals require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Various microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have been developed recently as simple, cheap and disposable alternatives to conventional ones for on-site detection of heavy metals. In this review, we first summarize current development of paper-based analytical devices and discuss the selection of paper substrates, methods of device fabrication, and relevant theories in these devices. We then compare and categorize recent reports on detection of heavy metals using paper-based microfluidic devices on the basis of various detection mechanisms, such as colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical methods. To finalize, the future development and trend in this field are discussed. PMID:27131999

  6. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  7. Heavy metals removal from dredged sediments using electro kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammami M. T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the use of a remediation process to remove particle-bound recalcitrant pollutants (heavy metals from dredged harbor sediments which must be previously treated before reuse in civil engineering. Electrokinetic (EK remediation is generally accepted as one of the most suitable technologies for extracting cationic heavy metals from fine grained sediments. Many batch tests were performed to better understand the capacity of various additives to improve sediment decontamination (when applying a constant voltage gradient of 1 V.cm-1, and the combination of enhancing agents (acids + surfactants were assessed to obtain an efficient removal of heavy metals. We succeeded in proving that mixing citric acid and a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20, additives which are environmentally friendly, was a good association to enhance heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn removal.

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in oil-contaminated peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Savichev, A. T.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence and X-ray radiometry represent easy and simple methods to determine concentrations of heavy metals in the ash of peat soils contaminated with oil and can be applied for soil monitoring purposes. Oil spills on peat bogs produce two contamination zones differing in the composition of heavy metals. In the zone of primary contamination, the peat surface is covered by a bitumen crust with V, Ni, Sr, Ba, Ce, and La accumulating there. This zone adjoins the zone of secondary peat contamination, where heavy alkaline-earth metals (Sr, Ba) and lanthanides (Ce and La) are accumulated to a lesser extent. Biological preparations recommended for remediation of oil-contaminated peat soils should be tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals, particularly, V, Ni, and Ba that are present in the oil contaminated soils in relatively high amounts.

  9. HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION OF SOIL IN THE REGIONAL CITY PLAYGROUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Tsuzuki, Megumi; Asakura, Hiroshi

    It seems important to examine heavy metal concentration in playgrounds, to evaluate potential risk for heavy metal ingestion by children. In this study, heavy metal concentrations of soil samples in 40 playgrounds in K-city were investigated by the voltammetric method. To visualize heavy metal concentration distribution in playgrounds, free GIS software MANDARA was used. According to the comparison between the 1 N HCl dissolved concentration and the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), playgrounds in K-city may not have intake risk of lead. Even if the possibility of the risk was very low, there are differences of the intensities. As for the specific playground where concentration is high, investigating continuously may be desirable hereafter.

  10. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  11. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ahmadi, David, E-mail: david.ahmadi@web.de [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Engel, Alice; Weidemann, Joerg [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver [Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine (ZfAM), University of Hamburg (Germany); Frick, Ulrich [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Healthcare Management, Carinthia University of Applied Sciences (Austria); Hauser, Simone [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Dahmen, Norbert [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  12. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Heavy Metals in Three Gorges Reservoir and Effect of Biological Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li-li; Zhou, Qiong; Xie, Cong-xin; Wang, Jun; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) reached the maximum water level (175 m) of impoundment in Oct. 2010. In order to reveal the potential influence of the greatest water-level impoundment on the heavy metal pollution in the typical waters of TGR, the content level of trace metals ( Hg, Cd and Pb) in biota and potential biomagnification along the aquatic food chain were investigated in the main stem of TGR from July 2011 to August 2012, as well as the relationship between the trace metal concentrations of aquatic consumers (fish and aquatic invertebrate) and biological factors. Our study showed that no individual data of the three trace metals in biota exceeded the edible safety criteria of aquatic products in China and FAO. In contrast with those before the impoundment of TGR, Hg showed a little higher, while Cd and Pb exhibited a little lower level after the impoundment. Trace metals in TGR exhibited relatively lower concentrations compared with those in reservoirs in other countries. Significant correlations were found between the Cd concentration and body size (body length and body weight) of Cyprinus carpio, as well as the Hg concentration and body size (body length and body weight) of Erythroculter ilishaeformis. As for feeding habits, there was statistically significant difference between trace metal concentrations in herbivorous, planktonic, omnivorous and carnivorous fish. However, no significant difference was found between the metal concentrations in fish with different habitats (pelagic, mesopelagic and benthic). Even so, the overall trend was that fish living in benthic layer had higher heavy metal concentrations than those in pelagic and mesopelagic zones. The regression slopes of log-Hg concentration versus delta(15)N, served as an indicator of trophic magnification factor (TMF). Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed for Hg in the food web of TGR. TMF of Hg in TGR indicated lower level (0.046-0.066) in contrast with those in the reservoirs of

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tadesse

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and chromium (Cr, in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal elements and pH as a result of spatial and temporal variability and land use/land cover changes, there is a need to monitor water bodies on a constant basis. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impacts of spatial and temporal variability on heavy metals and pH as a result of land use/land cover changes and provide a baseline for future water quality study from non-point sources in two watersheds. Spatial and temporal variability factors were not significant for all the heavy metal elements. Significant water quality changes occurred between 2003 and 2004 for the two of the five heavy metals (Pb, and Ni and pH. However, this was not true for the other of heavy metals investigated (Cd, Cr, and Zn. There was no influence of watershed observed for any of the heavy metals and pH in this study. To accurately quantify environmental impacts of heavy metals as well as pH, land use changes, and natural processes leading to spatial and temporal variability of water quality variables, continuous monitoring of surface water is necessary to improve the water quality of these watersheds.

  15. Variation in dry grassland communities along a heavy metals gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł; Stefanowicz, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in plant communities growing on metal-enriched sites created by historical Zn–Pb mining. The study sites were 65 small heaps of waste rock covered by grassland vegetation and scattered mostly over agricultural land of southern Poland. The sites were described in terms of plant coverage, species richness and composition, and the composition of plant traits. They were classified using phytosociological methods and detrended correspondence analysis. Identified plant communities were compared for vegetation parameters and habitat properties (soil characteristics, distance from the forest) by analysis of variance. The variation in plant community parameters was explained by multiple regression, in which the predictors were properties of the habitat selected on the basis of factor analysis. Grasslands that developed at low and high concentrations of heavy metals in soil were similar to some extent: they were composed on average of 17–20 species (per 4 m(2)), and their total coverage exceeded 90%. The species composition changed substantially with increasing contamination with heavy metals; metal-sensitive species withdrew, while the metal-tolerant became more abundant. Other important predictors of community structure were: proximity to the forest (responsible for the encroachment of competitive forest species and ruderals), and the thickness of the surface soil (shallow soil favored the formation of the heavy metal grassland). The heavy metal grassland was closely related to the dry calcareous grasslands. The former was an earlier succession stage of the latter at low contamination with heavy metals. PMID:26493699

  16. RESPONSE MICROORGANISMS TO SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH HEAVY METALS

    OpenAIRE

    Grazyna Kaczynska; Aneta Lipinska; Jadwiga Wyszkowska; Jan Kucharski

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of our work was to evaluate the effect that the soil contamination with zinc, copper and cadmium has on the number of (CFU)Azotobacter, organotrophic bacteria and Streptomyces. The results of the experiment revealed their role in the CFU modification and the impact on the level of soil contamination with heavy metals. Organotrophic bacteria have a similar tolerance to the heavy metals as Streptomyces, since the lowest resistance characterizes the Azotobacter. The toxicity of the ...

  17. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical...

  18. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Monge; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Antonio García-Alix; Francisca Martínez-Ruiz; Nadine Mattielli; Clive Finlayson; Naohiko Ohkouchi; Miguel Cortés Sánchez; Jose María Bermúdez de Castro; Ruth Blasco; Jordi Rosell; José Carrión; Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal; Geraldine Finlayson

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution ...

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution in the Boatin Reserve (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELOV, Georgi Borisov

    2008-01-01

    Background concentrations of the heavy metals Mn, Ni, Cd, Co, Zn, Cu, and Pb in the soils and plant monitors of the Boatin Reserve were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Surface soil layers of the Boatin Reserve were polluted with Cu, as its concentration exceeded both the national legal standards and the content of Cu in non-polluted areas. Analysis of heavy metals accumulation in all studied plant monitors indicated that the content of Cu, Pb, ...

  20. Semen quality and heavy metal and pesticides toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jaime Mendiola Olivares; Alberto Manuel Torres-Cantero

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive function has deteriorated significantly in the past 50 years and this change could be related to an exposure to occupational and environmental pollutants and toxicants. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the negative impact of human exposure to heavy metals and pesticides on the male reproductive function. Most pesticides and heavy metals are considered reproductive toxicants and may adversely harm the male reproductive system due to their disrupting effect on the hyp...

  1. An optical dosimeter for monitoring heavy metal ions in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Regan, Fiona; Leamy, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ciaccheri, L.

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an optochemical dosimeter for determining and discriminating nickel, copper, and cobalt ions in water that can be used as an early warning system for water pollution. An inexpensive fiber optic spectrophotometer monitors the sensor's spectral behavior under exposure to water solutions of heavy metal ions in the 1-10 mg/l concentration range. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method quantitatively determines the heavy metals and discriminates their type and combination.

  2. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  3. Heavy metals removal from dredged sediments using electro kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Ammami M. T.; Benamar A.; Koltalo F.; Wang H. Q.; LeDerf F.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the use of a remediation process to remove particle-bound recalcitrant pollutants (heavy metals) from dredged harbor sediments which must be previously treated before reuse in civil engineering. Electrokinetic (EK) remediation is generally accepted as one of the most suitable technologies for extracting cationic heavy metals from fine grained sediments. Many batch tests were performed to better understand the capacity of various additives to improve sediment decontaminat...

  4. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sapana; Jena, V.; Jena, S.; Davić, Neda; Matić, Natalija; Radojević, D.; Solanki, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amara...

  5. Heavy Metal Desorption From Cement Hydrates Caused by Chloride Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Akihiko; Ogawa, Yuko; Kawai, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    After the demolition of concrete structures, it is expected to recycle the whole of the demolished concrete. As of now, however, it is difficult to recycle the fine powders generated in the processes of demolition of concrete and manufacture of recycled aggregate because these powders may contain heavy metals exceeding the soil environmental standard, and such powders are disposed finally. It is well known that heavy metals are easily adsorbed on cement hydrates. To promote the total recyclin...

  6. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; S. C. Obiora

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  7. Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sethy, Sunil Kumar; Ghosh, Shyamasree

    2013-01-01

    With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and m...

  8. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM MINE SOILS USING HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Ruiz Fernández, Juan; Masaguer Rodríguez, Alberto; Moliner Aramendia, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an environmental-friendly and cost-effective technology that uses metal hyperaccumulator plants to remove heavy metals from soils. The metals are absorbed by the roots, transported and accumulated in the aerial parts of the plants, which can be harvested and eliminated. The aim of this work was to study some hyperaccumulator species that could be useful to decontaminate mine soils and also to investigate the bioavailability and uptake of these metals by plants with the addi...

  9. Selective adsorption of heavy and light metals by natural zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Reitz, Magdali; Waanders, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that zeolite can be applied through an ion-exchange process to remove metals from solutions. In this paper the potential of two zeolites to perform as sorbents for treatment of multi-metal system is investigated. Parameters such as initial metal concentration, contact time, zeolite type and affinity for heavy versus light metals are taken into consideration. All the samples were prepared and characterized by XRD, XRF and FTIR. Evaluating suitable model for the det...

  10. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems. PMID:20734618

  11. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  12. Comparison of eleven heavy metals in moringa oleifera lam. products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Limmatvapirat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  13. Removal of Heavy Metals from Textile Wastewater using Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normala Halimoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. Textile dyes pollutants are being released to the environment at various stages of operation therefore it is necessary that the pollutants are treated before discharge using zeolite with and without alum. A study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of treatment using zeolite with and without alum for the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr in textile effluent. The concentrations of these heavy metals in the textile wastewater samples were reduced to more than 50 percent after treating with zeolite. The sequence in increasing order of removal efficiency of these heavy metals using zeolite was Cd < Pb < Cr < Cu. When the textile wastewater sample was treated using zeolite and 10 mg/L of alum, 80% of the heavy metals (Cd and Cu were removed. The most effective treatment prior to removal of heavy metals from textile wastewater sample is by using zeolite with the addition of 10 mg/L of alum as flocculants.

  14. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  15. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn

  16. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on heavy metal decontamination in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porova, Nataliya; Botvinnikova, Valentina; Krasulya, Olga; Cherepanov, Pavel; Potoroko, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound has been found useful in increasing the efficiency and consumer safety in food processing. Removal of heavy metal (lead, mercury, and arsenic) contamination in milk is extremely important in regions of poor ecological environment - urban areas with heavy motor traffic or well established metallurgical/cement industry. In this communication, we report on the preliminary studies on the application of low frequency (20kHz) ultrasound for heavy metal decontamination of milk without affecting its physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. PMID:24746508

  17. Heavy metal chelation in neurotoxic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Hoffman, Robert S

    2011-08-01

    Metals such as iron and copper are critical to living organisms, whereas other metals such as lead and arsenic have no known biologic role. Any metals in large amounts may cause toxicity. Many metals cause pervasive systemic effects involving the nervous system, which can be subtle in some cases. Although challenging, the diagnosis and treatment of metal poisoning can be made based on history, physical examination, and the proper use of metal testing. This article focuses on the use, and misuse, of chelation in the diagnosis and management of metal intoxication. PMID:21803213

  18. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  19. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen. PMID:27127923

  20. Heavy metals effect in Drosophila melanogaster germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals occur naturally and some of them are very important in cellular metabolism. Industrial development has increased metal concentration in the environment and in the living organisms tissues. This increase promotes the human risk to suffer teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Different biological systems have been used to proof the genetic effect of heavy metals including Drosophila. In the present work chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc and arsenic salts were administered to Drosophila females and males adults in order to determine the genetic effect produced by these compounds, in both femenine and masculine germinal cells. The mating system used (''Oster males'' and y2wsup(a)/y2wsup(a); e/e females) permited to determine among two succesive generations, the mutagenic effects produced by heavy metals in Drosophila. The salts administration to adult flies was made by injection. Non-disjunction, X-chromosome loss, and sex linked recessive lethals frequency was increased by heavy metals. It was observed a fertility disminution between F 1 descendants from individuals treated with the metalic salts. It was demonstrated that heavy metals can interact with genetic material at different levels in the two types of gametic cells to produce genetic damage. (author)

  1. HEAVY METALS IN WATERS, PENETRATING THE FOOD, ECOSYSTEMS AND THE ECONOMY OF KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Dreshaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The waters of the oceans and seas play an important role in the hydrological cycle of the Earth. With Kosovo's economic development, increasing population developed many branches of industry, which caused pollution of rivers with heavy metals such as mine "Trepça", the treatment of agriculture products with pesticides and herbicides, eutrophication of lakes, transition metal in agricultural products, coming up ecological balance disorders. Uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources, irresponsible treatment (industrial waste and sewage, has caused contamination above the permitted ecosystem with toxic elements such as: Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, etc. Heavy metals in natural waters unpolluted behave low concentration (approximately 1μg / l; some of them are essential for enzymatic reactions. Increase their concentration as a result of industrial activities, often exceeds the allowed limit, causing serious changes to cosystems and tourist areas, to living organisms in natural aquatic systems. Ecological preservation of ecosystems from heavy metals is vital for the environment, food security and the preservation of ecological habitats which represents an economic cost in R. Kosovo.

  2. Study on the heavy metals having effect on the water biocenoses in the backwaters at Alpar and Lakitelek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekete, E.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy metals which have an effect on the water biocenosis were determined monthly during 1982 in the Tisza backwaters at Alpar and Lakitelek, Hungary. Copper, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and mercury contents of the water were determined. Organic matter, ammonium, nitrate, pH, sodium and potassium content were determined jointly with the studies of the heavy metals. On the basis of water quality indexes, the water quality of Lakitelek backwater is more stable than that of the Alpar backwater. Correlations were observed between the zinc and copper content and aquatic life. The two backwaters have significant mercury content, which is due to agricultural runoff. It is striking that cadmium does not occur in significant concentrations in the backwaters. Samples originating from the bottom sediments should be included in the studies on heavy metals, to obtain complete information on equilibrium and transport process taking place in the backwaters. 13 references, 12 figures.

  3. Exploratory Evaluation of Retranslocation and Bioconcentration of Heavy Metals in Three Species of Mangrove at Las Cucharillas Marsh, Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Lorraine Mejías; Juan Carlos Musa; Juan Otero

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the coastal area of Cataño, Puerto Rico accountable to anthropogenic sources is of great concern due to the risk posed over the surrounding communities and adjacent ecosystems. Estuarine ecosystems are widely recognized for the presence of mangroves. This type of flora is recognized for their many beneficial properties for example, the ability to purge aquatic ecosystems where they stand. Exploratory analyses on the phytoaccumulative capacity of three mangrove sp...

  4. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  5. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems. PMID:26832725

  6. Virulence and Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Crustaceans and Shellfish in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiongxia; Chen, Lanming

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause serious human seafoodborne gastroenteritis and even death. In this study, we isolated and characterized 208 V. parahaemolyticus strains from 10 species of commonly consumed crustaceans and shellfish available in fish markets in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, in 2014. Most of these aquatic species had not been detected previously. The results revealed an extremely low occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying the toxin gene trh (1.9%). However, a high level of resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin (94.2%), rifampin (93.3%), and streptomycin (77.9%) was found. Approximately 74.5% of the isolates had multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Tolerance to the heavy metals Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+) was detected in the majority of antibiotic resistant isolates. The resistance patterns differed depending on the tested samples. The crustaceans Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus harbored more antibiotic-resistant bacteria, whereas the isolates from the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei and the shellfish Busycon canaliculatus had high tolerance to eight heavy metals tested. In contrast to the wide distribution of multidrug resistance and tolerance to heavy metals, lower percentages of plasmid DNA (22.6%) and SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative elements (4.8%) were detected in the isolates, suggesting that V. parahaemolyticus in these aquatic species may have adopted some other molecular mechanisms that mediated the high prevalence of resistance determinants. The results of this study support the need for food safety risk assessment of aquatic products.

  7. Magnetic filtration of heavy metals containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-intensity magnetic separation is applied above all in the beneficiation of fine-grained weakly magnetic ores, but also in the treatment of industrial, especially metallurgical and mining waters as well as of wastewaters from nuclear power stations. Similarly, it can be used in the field of geothermal energy supply and gases filtration. The magnetic separation or filtration respectively, directly enables the treatment of waters contaminated by solid ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. The magnetic filtration can remove heavy metals ions and even the oil substances by means of magnetic sorbents or special additives. The filtration of solid magnetic particles can be carried out in matrix-less and matrix separators. On the basis of mathematical description of particles dynamics and hydrodynamic conditions of suspension flow which resulted in the determination of geometrical parameters of separating zone the design of matrix-less magnetic separator was carried out. A strong, high-intensity magnetic field was created by means of a superconductive magnetic circuit. It was found out that for the achievement of optimal technological parameters during the magnetic separation of solid particles with grain size under 40 mm, the maximal solids concentration is to be 200 g/L. The design of matrix parameters and selection of inductive filling resides in theoretical considerations as well as in experimental works. Under laboratory condition the influence of following parameters on magnetic filtration process have been observed: the diameter of inductive ferromagnetic balls, the thickness of filtration layer, the intensity of magnetic field, the flow velocity of suspension, the density of suspension, the grain size of solids and the temperature of suspension. It was found that a spatial arrangement of inductive bodies in filtration layer influences not only the velocity of suspension flow but also a room size for catching of magnetic particles. The acting of magnetic

  8. Investigation of Media Effects on Removal of Heavy Metals in Bioretention Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyilmaz-Alhan, Cevza; Copty, Nadim K.

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are the most toxic elements at high concentrations, although some of them such as Cu and Zn are essential to plants, humans, and animals within a limited value. However, some heavy metals, such as Pb, have adverse effects even at low concentrations. Therefore, it is known that the toxic metals such as Zn, Cu and Pb in storm water runoff are serious threat for aquatic organisms. It is very important to control and reduce heavy metal concentration in urban storm water runoff. There are several methods to remove the aforementioned toxic metals such as electrolyte extraction, chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, adsorption, cementation, and electrochemical treatment technologies. However, these methods are highly expensive and hard to implement for treatment of big volumes of water such as storm water. For this purpose, Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) have become popular to collect, infiltrate, and treat toxic metals in storm water runoff in recent years. LID-BMP is a land planning method which is used to manage storm water runoff and improve water quality by reducing contaminant in storm water runoff. Bioretention is an example of LID-BMP application of which usage has recently been started in storm water treatment. Researchers have been investigating the advantages of bioretention systems and this study contributes to these research efforts by seeking for the media effects of bioretention on heavy metal removal. For this purpose, batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the distribution coefficients and retardation factor of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) for bioretention media such as mulch, turf, local or vegetative soil, sand and gravel. Furthermore, sorption reaction kinetics of Cu, Pb and Zn are tested in order to assess the sorption equilibrium time of these metals for 5 bioretention media. The results of sorption test show that turf has higher sorption

  9. Modelling heavy metal and phosphorus balances for farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, A.N.; Schulin, R.

    2003-01-01

    Accounting for agricultural activities such as P fertilization in regional models of heavy metal accumulation provides suitable sustainable management strategies to reduce nutrient surpluses and metal inputs in agricultural soils. Using the balance model PROTERRA-S, we assessed the phosphorus ( P),

  10. Biosorption of heavy metals by free and immobilised biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beolchini, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli studi de L' Aquila (Italy); Pagnanelli, F.; Toro, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Roma (Italy); Esposito, A.; Veglio, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genova (Albaro) (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    A review of the research activities carried out by the authors on biosorption of heavy metals is reported in this work. In particular, biomass characterisation, biosorption equilibrium with single metal system, biomass immobilisation in polymeric matrix and related kinetics, biosorption in membrane reactor systems are the main aspects reported in the paper. (orig.)

  11. Heavy Metals in a Sulfidic Minespoil: Fractions and Column Leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Fractions of various heavy metals in a sulfidic minespoil were investigated. Column leaching experimentwas also conducted to simulate "acid mine drainage" (AMD) from the minespoil. The results show thatleaching of heavy metals from the minespoil was extremely significant during the initial water flushing.The amounts of heavy metals leached out dramatically reduced after leaching twice. It is worthwhile tonote that in this study, Zn, Mn, Fe, As and Ni in the first leachate exceeded the total amount of eachcorresponding water-extractable (1:5, soil:water) metal contained in the minespoil sample. This appears tosuggest that 1:5 water extraction did not allow accurate estimation of water-leachable concentrations of theabove heavy metals. This work has implications for the management of sulfidic minespoils. Acid drainageof great environmental concerns is likely to occur only during heavy rainfall events after substantial solubleand readily exchangeable acid and metals are accumulated in the minespoils. The slow-reacting fractionsother than water-soluble and readily exchangeable fractions may pose little environmental hazards. This isparticularly true for Pb, As and Ni.

  12. Influence of Agriculture on Water Quality: Significance of Heavy Metals Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Nusreta Đonlagić; Amra Odobašić; Amra Bratovčić

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural activities directly influence the quality of water systems. Investigations showed that application of various agro-technical measures results with the pollution of water streams with heavy metals and other polluters. Increased concentrations of heavy metals result with intake of heavy metals and their transfer to food chains, and for that reason it is necessary to monitor the content of heavy metals regularly. Broad investigations of bio-geochemical cycling of heavy metals in the...

  13. Mobility of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Luzán, María Teresa; Echeverría Morrás, Jesús; Garrido Segovia, Julián José

    2001-01-01

    Sewage sludges added to arable land can improve soil fertility and physical properties. However, the concentrations of heavy metals commonly found in sludges limits their application to soil. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in four soils amended with different rates (0, 80, 60 and 320 t ha-1) of anaerobically stabilized urban sewage sludge. Total metal content in the sewage sludge was Zn much greater than Cu > Pb > Ni much grea...

  14. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  15. Ecotoxicology of heavy metals: Liquid-phase extraction by nanosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A.; Romantsova, I.; Babkin, A.; Neskoromnaya, E.; Kucherova, A.; Kashevich, Z.

    2015-11-01

    The paper considers the problem of extreme toxicity heavy metal compounds dissolved in wastewater and liquid emissions of industrial enterprises to living organisms and environment as a whole. The possibility of increasing extraction efficiency of heavy metal ions by sorption materials was demonstrated. The porous space of the latter was modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during process of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon on metal oxide catalysts. The increasing of the sorption capacity (10-30%) and the sorption rate of nanomodified activated carbons in comparison with standard materials in the example of absorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions was proven.

  16. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...... that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (

  17. Risk assessment of Butrinti lagoon: spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in different pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Topi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals enter in lagoons from pedo-geological background as well as from man-made sources through several pathways. Heavy metals released into the water are eventually accumulated in the sediments and in the lagoon’s aquatic organisms, especially in mussels, which act as recorders of heavy metals pollution event. This study aims to contribute in (i quantifying the origin and degree of heavy metals pollution in the sediments, water lagoon and mussels, (ii exploring the concentrations of heavy metals in mussels widely cultivated in this Lagoon. The water samples were taken at the surface and bottom of the lake between May 2010 and January 2011. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd (2.9 mg kg-1 were higher in soils formed over lime in the north of the Lagoon. Hg was nearly 234.89 µg kg-1, which is also considered of medium values for these types of soil. The maximum values of Cr content were 237.38 mg kg-1, or much higher than the average of soils over lime in Albania. The highest concentrations in sediment samples (mg kg-1 for Pb (346, Cd (4.14, Cr (171.9 and Hg (36.4 were found in the eastern and southern area of the Lagoon where there have been intensive agricultural activities. The results showed that the concentration (µg L-1 of Pb (10.78 at the lake bottom in May was higher than at the surface of water but it was generally low when compared to the WHO standard. On the other hand Cr was high with mean values of 56.6 µg L-1 at the bottom of the lake water in August. The data also indicated that mussels’samples which was collected in May in the southern area of the Lagoon showed higher levels (mg kg-1 of Pb (0.49 and Hg (0.14. However, the highest concentrations of Cd (0.36, Cr (0.50 were recorded in August. There is a correlation between the heavy metals and their sources. We hold that some precautions should be taken against the heavy metal pollution around Butrinti Lake considering the ecological, agricultural and

  18. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  19. Synthesis and Characteristics of A Novel Heavy Metal Ions Chelator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuannian; SONG Yejing; HAN Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide-urea-sulfanilamide(PUS) was prepared as a novel heavy metal ions chelator and successfully used to simultaneously remove heavy metals from wastewater effluents.The effects of reaction parameters (sodium hydroxide,material ratio,temprature and contact time) were monitored to specify the best synthesis conditions.PUS was chemically characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis).The simultaneous chelation performance of PUS towards selected heavy metals ions,Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+,Cd2+ was discussed,showing that Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+ could be better chelated.It is indicated that the synthesized PUS is a potential remediation material when used for the treatment of wastewater containing metal ions.

  20. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummelin, Matti [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)]. E-mail: matti.nummelin@helsinki.fi; Lodenius, Martin [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Tulisalo, Esa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hirvonen, Heikki [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Alanko, Timo [Statistics Finland, FIN-00022 (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators.

  1. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators

  2. Molecular Indicators of Soil Humification and Interaction with Heavy Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Higashi, Richard M.; Cassel, Teresa; Green, Peter; Lane, Andrew N.

    2003-03-26

    For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, interaction of soil organic matter (SOM) with heavy metal ions is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using 13C- and 15N-labeled soil humates (HS), we investigated the turnover of five organic amendments (celluose, wheat straw, pine shavings, chitin and bone meal) in relation to heavy metal ion leaching in soil column experiments. The labeled molecular substructures in HS were examined by multinuclear 2-D NMR and pyrolysis GC-MS while the element profile in the leachates was analyzed by ICP-MS. Preliminary analysis revealed that peptidic and polysaccharidic structures were highly enriched, which suggests their microbial origin. Cd(II) leaching was significantly attenuated with humification of lignocellulosic materials. Correlation of 13C and 15N turnovers of HS substructures to metal leaching is underway.

  3. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the lo

  4. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface seawater and sediment near the outlet of a zinc factory in Huludao City, Liaoning Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongliang; Chen, Yanzhen; Wang, Jing; Gong, Yufeng; Liu, Xigang; Mu, Gang; Tian, Hua

    2016-03-01

    At present, the methods widely applied to assess ecological risk of heavy metals are essentially single-point estimates in which exposure and toxicity data cannot be fully used and probabilities of adverse biological eff ects cannot be achieved. In this study, based on investigation of concentrations of six heavy metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) in the surface seawater and sediment near the outlet of a zinc factory, located in Huludao City, Liaoning Province, China, a tiered approach consisting of several probabilistic options was used to refine ecological risk assessment for the individuals. A mixture of various heavy metals was detected in the surface seawater, and potential ecological risk index (PERI) was adopted to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediment. The results from all levels of aquatic ecological risk assessment in the tiered framework, ranging from comparison of single eff ects and exposure values to the use of distribution-based Hazard Quotient obtained through Monte Carlo simulation, are consistent with each other. Briefly, aquatic Zn and Cu posed a clear ecological risk, while Cd, Pb, Hg, and As in the water column posed potential risk. As expected, combined ecological risk of heavy metal mixture in the surface seawater was proved significantly higher than the risk caused by any individual heavy metal, calculated using the concept of total equivalent concentration. According to PERI, the severity of pollution by the six heavy metals in the surface sediment decreased in the following sequence: Cd>Hg>As>Pb>Cu>Zn, and the total heavy metals in the sediment posed a very high risk to the marine environment. This study provides a useful mathematical framework for ecological risk assessment of heavy metals.

  5. Heavy metals concentration in water and sediments of the Prut River lower sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matache M. L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 120 km sector of the Prut River, Eastern Romania, was surveyed for the concentration of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in water and sediments samples. The analysed sector is located on the border between Romania and Moldova and it is part of the Lower Prut Floodplain Natural Park. The most important steel-producing factory in Romania is located in the park vicinity. Four campaigns have been performed for water collection during different river regimes (both flooding and drought. The water quality is an essential condition for the wetland ecosystems within the park area and the aquatic biota they support, as trace elements bioaccumulation along the food webs might appear (David et al., 2012. Sediments can provide useful information regarding mid- and long-term pollution of the aquatic bodies, being capable of sequestering and releasing important amounts of heavy metals depending on the river regime and extreme situations (van Gestel, 2008; Verhoeven, 2009. For the sediments samples, there is an ascendant trend from upstream to the junction with the Danube River, as the distance to the main urban pole approaches, consequence of a strong human insertion. Romanian standards were used for comparison (MEWM, 2006.

  6. Investigation of heavy metal stress on chemoheterotrophic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Monballiu, Annick; Chiang, Yi Wai; Cardon, Nele; Cornelly, Christel; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching uses microorganisms to extract valuable metals from minerals. It has risen as a sustainable alternative to conventional metal recovery processes for low grade ores and industrial waste materials such as incineration ashes as it could be more economical and environmentally friendly [1-2]. However, inherently to these materials is the presence of the hazardous heavy metals that can become toxic to the bioleaching microorganisms when released from its solid form, and potentially can ...

  7. THE STUDY OF HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF THE BIEBRZA RIVER AND THREE TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples were taken in 11 measuring points of the Biebrza River and determined the contents of six metals (Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Zn. Arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation were calculated. The sources of heavy metals in bottom sediments are: pollutants of fieldsand meadows (admixtures of plant protection products and fertilizers, discharges of domestic sewage and municipal from local wastewater treatment plants, wastewater di-scharges from rural buildings and pollutions of anthropogenic origin. Research of pollution of bottom sediments with heavy metals are needed tool for monitoring the aquatic environ-ment. Continuous monitoring metal content of the sediments will counteract the effects of the threat of biological life in the water reservoir, which may occur in the case of notorious exceeded permissible content of harmful substances.

  8. Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Hua; Duan, Jing-Chun; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-Bin; Yu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7 ± 378.5 ng/m(3)), As (76.6 ± 49.1 ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6 ± 45.2 ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220 ng/m(3), 20.5 times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most

  9. New trends in removing heavy metals from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meihua; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Chaosheng; Rong, Hongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    With the development of researches, the treatments of wastewater have reached a certain level. Whereas, heavy metals in wastewater cause special concern in recent times due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Therefore, it is important to get rid of the heavy metals in wastewater. The previous studies have provided many alternative processes in removing heavy metals from wastewater. This paper reviews the recent developments and various methods for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. It also evaluates the advantages and limitations in application of these techniques. A particular focus is given to innovative removal processes including adsorption on abiological adsorbents, biosorption, and photocatalysis. Because these processes have leaded the new trends and attracted more and more researches in removing heavy metals from wastewater due to their high efficency, pluripotency and availability in a copious amount. In general, the applicability, characteristic of wastewater, cost-effectiveness, and plant simplicity are the key factors in selecting the most suitable method for the contaminated wastewater. PMID:27318819

  10. [Immobilization impact of different fixatives on heavy metals contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lie-shan; Zeng, Dong-mei; Mo, Xiao-rong; Lu, Hong-hong; Su, Cui-cui; Kong, De-chao

    2015-01-01

    Four kinds of amendments including humus, ammonium sulfate, lime, superphosphate and their complex combination were added to rapid immobilize the heavy metals in contaminated soils. The best material was chosen according to the heavy metals' immobilization efficiency and the Capacity Values of the fixative in stabilizing soil heavy metals. The redistributions of heavy metals were determined by the European Communities Bureau of Referent(BCR) fraction distribution experiment before and after treatment. The results were as follows: (1) In the single material treatment, lime worked best with the dosage of 2% compared to the control group. In the compound amendment treatments, 2% humus combined with 2% lime worked best, and the immobilization efficiency of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn reached 98.49%, 99.40%, 95.86%, 99.21%, respectively. (2) The order of Capacity Values was lime > humus + lime > ammonium sulfate + lime > superphosphate > ammonium sulfate + superphosphate > humus + superphosphate > humus > superphosphate. (3) BCR sequential extraction procedure results indicated that 2% humus combined with 2% lime treatment were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals, better than 2% lime treatment alone. Besides, Cd was activated firstly by 2% humus treatment then it could be easily changed into the organic fraction and residual fraction after the subsequent addition of 2% lime. PMID:25898680

  11. Impact of heavy metals on forest trees from mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truby, P. [Albert-Ludwigs Univ., Freiburg Bertoldstr (Germany). Inst. of Soil Science and Forest Nutrition

    2003-07-01

    Abandoned ore mines from the early Middle Ages in Germany are covered with vegetation and forest trees. A study was conducted in old mining areas of the southern Black Forest and in recent mining areas in the Northern Eifel Mountain to investigate the uptake and distribution of heavy metals by forest trees in heavily contaminated sites. The objective was to quantify the total uptake, trace the pathways of internal distribution, and examine the role of uptake by leafs. It was shown that medieval ore mine spoils from the Black Forest Silver fir and Douglas fir have taken up relatively high amounts of heavy metals. Lead content in the stemwood of a 120 year old tree was found to be 120 {mu}g/g d.m, but there was no apparent negative effect on tree growth and vitality. The trees from the Eifel site had individual heavy metal distribution patterns resulting from soils that are contaminated with zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper. Heavy metals were taken up mostly by the roots, with no significant leaf uptake. At all sites, the roots were mycorrhized but the number of species was reduced with the most abundant species being cenococcum. There was no evidence of specific damage to trees caused by heavy metal toxicity, even in highly contaminated soils and areas of high atmospheric input. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  13. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávik Marek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the samples was performed in accordance with the general requirements set out in the tenth chapter of the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. Mercury content in biological materials were assessed by total mercury as on the AMA 254 in fresh samples. The other heavy metal content, was determined after wet mineralization (HNO3: H2O - 1: 1 using the device AAS Varian 240 FS. The contamination of the environment showed increased accumulation of heavy metals in the - studiet sheep tissues intended for consumption. Such as Hg content in the kidneys of domestic sheep exceed the limit value by 1.3 times, whereas, in the case of cadmium 3 times exceeding the limit value in meat was recordered. Exceed limit was recorded in the case of lead and copper in the liver.

  14. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad) based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    OpenAIRE

    Fariborz Khodadadi; Abdolnaser Fazlnia; Hossein Pirkharrati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones). Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of o...

  15. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected...... that the speciation of these metals was similar in the two ashes. On the other hand, the leaching behaviour (and concentration) of Cr was diverse. The apparent similar speciation of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu was only partly confirmed in the following electrodialytic remediation experiments. Significant differences in re-moval...

  16. Heavy metal immobilization in mineral phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful waste form for toxic or radioactive metals must not only have the ability to chemically incorporate the elements but it must also be extremely stable in the geological environment. Thus, ceramic wasteforms are sought which mimic those minerals that have sequestered the hazardous metals for billions of years. One method for producing ceramics, metal organic deposition (MOD) is outstanding in its simplicity, versatility, and inexpensiveness. The major contribution that the MOD process can make to ceramic waste forms is the ability to mix the toxic metals at a molecular level with the elements which form the ceramic matrix. With proper choice of organic ligands, the inclusion of significant amounts of alkali metals in the ceramic and, hence, their detrimental effect on durability may be avoided. In the first stage of our research we identified thermally-unstable ligands which could fulfill the role of complexing toxic metal species and allowing their precipitation or extraction into nonaqueous solvents

  17. Heavy metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, John

    2009-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential e...

  18. Physico chemical characteristics and heavy metal contents of water from Butrinti lagoon, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Topi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted between May 2010 and January 20011 in the Butrinti Lagoon, an important ecological and economical area in the south of Albania. The study aimed to determine (i the water quality in the lagoon of Butrint using physico-chemical parameters and level of heavy metals, (2 its status to support living life in the aquatic ecosystem. Data on temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, EC were obtained in - situ using multiparameter portable instrument. Surface and bottom water of the lagoon were analyzed for heavy metals: Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg. The results showed that water temperature varies depending on the seasons. The highest temperatures were in August from 26 to 27.3 0C depending on the sampling station. pH in the water of the lagoon is basic, its values ranged from 8.12 to 8.49, and were optimal for the production of mussels. The values of salinity in the lagoon of Butrint are smaller than those of the Ionian sea influenced by rivers Bistrica, Pavlo and groundwater resources. Lower values of DO in the depth of the lagoon were recorded in August at stations SS2 (1.4 mg L-1 and SS5 (1.9 mg L-1, and therefore a damage was noticed in the growth of mussels in the lagoon. The heavy metals Cr, Pb, in some stations are found in higher levels than the values allowed by the EU and pose a potential health risk to humans and the aquatic life of the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  19. Volatilization of heavy metals during incineration of municipal solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-shi; S. Abanades; J.D.Lu; G.Flamant; D.Gauthier

    2004-01-01

    Incineration experiments with MSW, which had been impregnated with heavy metals, were presented toobtain information on the volatilization behavior of the elements cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) underdifferent conditions. Experiments were carried out in a bubbling fluid bed system connected to a customizedinductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy(ICP-OES) for analyzing metals in the flue gas. The resultsindicated that the combustion temperature, the gas atmosphere, and the chlorine content in the flue gas could affectthe volatilization behavior of heavy metals. In the fluidized bed combustion, a large surface area was provided by thebed sand particles, and they may act as absorbents for the gaseous ash-forming compound. Comparer with themetals Cd and Pb, the vaporization of Zn was Iow. The formation of stable compounds such as ZnO·Al2O3 couldgreatly decrease the metals volatilization. The presence of chlorine would enhance the volatilization of heavy metalsby increasing the formation of metal chlorides. However, when the oxygen content was high, the chlorinatingreaction was kinetically hindered, which heavy metals release would be delayed.

  20. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

  1. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecchio, A; Finoli, C; Di Simine, D; Andreoni, [No Value

    1998-01-01

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the a

  2. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul;

    2003-01-01

    that the method could be used for removal of different heavy metals from impregnated wood waste, fly ash from straw combustion, and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The best result was obtained with the wood waste where more than 80% of each of the polluting elements Cu, Cr and As was removed......A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...

  3. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation sewage sludges from Quibu plant, located in City of the Havana, with the objective of evaluating the capacity of accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol when in the wheat plants are cultivated (Triticum aestivum L.) , as well as the potential damages in this plants. Rates of 0, 60, 180 and 300 sludges tons/ soil hectare was applied and the plants were growth in recipient of 5 L of capacity. The levels of heavy metals were evaluated before the and after the crop. The extraction one carries out with the mixture HCl:HNO3 and they were determined by spectroscopy inductively coupled to plasma. Presence of Zn, Cu and Pb were detected in sludges and a tendency decrease is observed to heavy metals retention is observed in soil with the increase of the disposition rate together to a differential behavior of the different chemical species

  5. Multiscale analysis of heavy metal contents in Spanish agricultural topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Grau, José Manuel; Gil, Luis; López-Arias, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This study characterized and mapped the spatial variability patterns of seven topsoil heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg and Cd) within the Ebro river basin (9.3 million ha) by Multivariate Factorial Kriging. The variograms and cross-variograms of heavy metal concentrations showed the presence of multiscale variation that was modeled using three variogram models with ranges of 20km (short-range), 100km (medium-range) and 225km (long-range). Our results indicate that the heavy metal concentration is influenced by bedrock composition and dynamics at all the spatial scales, while human activities have a notorious effect only at the short- and medium-range scale of variation. Sources of Cu, Pb and Zn (and secondary Cd) are associated with agricultural practices (at the short-range scale of variation), whereas Hg variation at the short- and medium-range scale of variation is related to atmospheric deposition. PMID:17904195

  6. Heavy metals and organic micropollutants in Norwegian sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedland, Kjell Terje; Storhaug, Ragnar

    2003-07-01

    The heavy metal concentration in sewage sludge is one of the most important factors affecting sewage sludge use. During the last 20 years there has been a constant decline in the heavy metals concentration. Occasional point discharges and diffuse sources are now the main sources for heavy metals in sludge. In 1996-97 and in 2001-02 similar surveys of organic micropollutans in Norwegian sewage sludge have been performed. Monthly composite samples from 7 WWTPs have been analysed for PCDD/PCDF, PCB (7), PAH (16), NPE, DBP, DEHP and LAS. The two studies have used the same methods in the same months and at the same treatment plants. The results show a decline of between 23 and 92 % of different organic micropollutants in Norwegian sludge from 1996-97 to 2001-02. (author)

  7. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUM WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ADRIANA STEFANESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to characterize the bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals by Bacillus megaterium from phosphogypsum waste. The Bacillus megaterium strain (BM30 was isolated from soil near the phosphogypsum (PG dump. For the bioaccumulation quantification produced by BM30 strain were used three experimental treatments respectively with 2, 6 and 10 gL-1 PG. Cellular biomass samples were collected punctually at ages corresponding to the three stages of the development cycle of the microorganism: exponential phase, stationary phase and decline phase and the heavy metals concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The bioaccumulation yields in cell biomass, relative to the total amount of analyte introduced in the reaction medium were between 20 - 80 %, the lowest value was recorded by Cu and highest by Mn. The study results indicated that the isolated strain near the dump PG, BM30, bioaccumulate heavy metals monitored in cell biomass in the order Cu > Fe > Zn = Mn.

  8. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  9. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal contamination in coastal areas of South China has been reviewed. • Heavy metal levels were closely related to economic development in past decades. • Heavy metal levels from Hong Kong continually decreased from the early 1990s. • Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in mollusk. • Levels of heavy metals in part of seafood exceeded the safety limit. -- Abstract: Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit

  10. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  11. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  12. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhao Sun

    Full Text Available The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  13. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21′N, 111°11′E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982–2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.

  14. Science Letters: Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-wei; XU Xin-hua; JIN Jian; HE Ping; LIU Yong; WANG Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitrate removal when both are removed simultaneously. Even a little amount of copper can enhance nitrate removal efficiently.Different mechanisms of these contaminants removal by iron metal were also discussed.

  15. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using opalized tuff

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Boris; Jakupi, Shaban

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the examination of the possibility of applying opalized tuff as a natural raw material for disposal of heavy metals (copper, zinc, manganese and lead) from aqueous solutions. Of actual experiments obtained results show that working conditions attaching to the removal of Cu and Pb ions is more than 91% of zinc ions is above 81%, while manganese ions are removed about 77% .On this can be concluded that the removal of examined heavy metals using opalized tuff i...

  16. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  17. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild;

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound...

  18. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  19. Equations of state of heavy metals: ab initio approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of equations of states of heavy metals through ab initio calculation, i.e. without any adjustable parameter, allows to access to pressure and temperature thermodynamic conditions sometimes inaccessible to experiment. To perform such calculations, density functional theory (DFT) is a good starting point: when electronic densities are homogeneous enough, the local density approximation (LDA) remarkably accounts for thermodynamic properties of heavy metals, such as tantalum, or the light actinides, as well for static properties - equilibrium volume, elastic constants - as for dynamical quantities like phonon spectra. For heavier elements, like neptunium or plutonium, relativistic effects and strong electronic interactions must be taken into account, which requires more sophisticated theoretical approaches. (authors)

  20. Brassinosteroids and Response of Plants to Heavy Metals Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewska, Iwona; Talarek, Marta; Bajguz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis. PMID:27242833

  1. Heavy metals in the Ljubljanica catchment area (Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Branka Trček

    2006-01-01

    In main springs and swallowholes of the Ljubljanica River Basin the monitoring of heavy metals was established at the beginning of 2005 with the intention to study the solute transport in the water body and to analyse the risk of contamination with heavy metals. The results of the first monitoring phase are presented–elements that indicate the load of environment due to industry, traffic,agriculture and urbanisation:Al,As,Cd,Cl,Cr,Cu,Mn in Pb. The results point out that the vulnerability of k...

  2. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. PMID:27239687

  3. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not.

  4. Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, John Richard

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential extraction protocol is described. Two alternate approaches for assessing the environmental health risk to humans by undertaking in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (also known as the physiologically based extraction test, PBET) are considered. Finally, two acid digestion protocols that allow the pseudo-total metal content of samples to be assessed are provided.

  5. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  6. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchio, A.; Finoli, C.; Di Simine, D.; Andreoni, V. [Department of Food Science and Microbiology, State University, Milan (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the assessment of the capability of Brevibacterium sp. cells to remove bivalent ions, when present alone or in pairs, from aqueous solutions, using immobilized polyacrylamide cells of the microorganism in a flow-through system. The biosorption capacity of Brevibacterium cells was studied for lead, cadmium and copper. The metal cell binding capacity followed the order Cu > Pb > Cd, based on estimated q{sub max}. These values, expressed as mmol metal/g dry weight cells, were 0.54 for Cu, 0.36 for Pb and 0.14 for Cd. Polyacrylamide-gel immobilized cells were effective in Pb, Cu and Cd removal. Lead removal was not affected by the presence of Cd and Cu; lead instead inhibited Cd and Cu removal. The desorption of the metal, by fluxing a chelating solution, restored the metal binding capacity of the cells, thus affording the multiple use of the same biomass in the remediation treatment. (orig.) (orig.) With 5 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  7. Diel cycle of iron, aluminum and other heavy metals in a volcano watershed in northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that heavy metals in surface water show diel (24-hr) changes in concentrations due to diel biogeochemical cycle. Accordingly, it is important to have a better sampling policy for monitoring the environmental impact of heavy metals of surface water, especially volcanic and mining areas. This study investigated Tatun Volcano watershed in northern Taiwan with a 24-h sampling operation to explore the diel cycle of arsenic concentrations and discuss on the corresponding biogeochemical processes. According to the previous studies, solar energy is the main factor of diel cycles, which could have strong effects on temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and many other water qualities. These changes produce a series of chain reactions and finally result in the change of heavy metal concentrations. In general, diel cycle of dissolved oxygen is dominated by metabolism of aquatic plants and sunlight photoreduction in acidic stream water; therefore, the Fe and Al contents would be accordingly changed. In addition, the concentrations of heavy metals will be simultaneously modified due to the high adsorption capacity of Fe and Al hydroxides. In this study, the results of hydro chemical analysis show that creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH value (3.0-4.5) and high SO4content(60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hot spring. That the pH dramatically drops in the noon demonstrates that pH is highly dependent on photoreduction. This can be confirmed by the opposite trend of Fe concentration. The high Fe content in the noon also demonstrates that the precipitation of Fe hydroxides is not dominant in the day time and Fe is mainly in dissolved and/or colloid forms. Under the situation, heavy metals are supposed to have a similar trend with Fe. However, arsenic, aluminum and rare earth elements show a quite different diel cycle from Fe and other heavy metals. It concludes that arsenic and rare earth elements may be adsorbed by Al hydroxides instead of Fe

  8. Degradative Plasmid and Heavy Metal Resistance Plasmid Naturally Coexist in Phenol and Cyanide Assimilating Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bahig E.  Deeb; Abdullah D. Altalhi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Heavy metals are known to be powerful inhibitors of xenobiotics biodegradation activities. Alleviation the inhibitory effect of these metals on the phenol biodegradation activities in presence of heavy metals resistant plasmid was investigated. Approach: Combination of genetic systems of degradation of xenobiotic compound and heavy metal resistance was one of the approaches to the creation of polyfunctional strains for bioremediation of s...

  9. Flow measurement techniques in heavy liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes several flow measurement systems qualified in the operation of different lead-bismuth loops in the KArslruhe Liquid Metal LAboratory (KALLA) during the last 5 years. There are several experimental techniques which were well proven in air and water and thus could be transferred similarly to liquid metals: these techniques are split into measuring local quantities as temperature, pressure e.g. by means of pressure taps or velocities using Pitot and Prandtl tubes or the Ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) for local flow velocities, as well as an integral quantity like the flow rate. Since the knowledge of the flow rate acts in terms of the operational safety of nuclear liquid metal systems as one of the most crucial parameters, this aspect is discussed widely herein. Unfortunately, as liquid metals are opaque, an optical access is not possible. Instead, one can take advantage of the high electric conductivity of liquid metals to measure integral and local quantities, like electromagnetic flow meters and miniaturised permanent magnetic probes for local velocity measurements. In this context especially the electromagnetic frequency flow meter (EMFM) is discussed as a prospective and reliable option to measure the flow rate without demanding extensive precognitions with respect to the fluid-wall interface behaviour. This article describes some of the techniques used in KALLA for different liquid metals, explains the measurement principle and shows some of the typical results obtained using these techniques. Also the measurement accuracy as well as the temporal and spatial resolution of each device is discussed and typical error sources to be expected are illuminated. Moreover, some hints for a correct placement of the individual sensor in the liquid metal environment are given.

  10. The Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Begej Canal (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmar, Dejan; Trickovic, Jelena; Grba, Nenad; Becelic Tomin, Milena; Pesic, Vesna; Varga, Natasa; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems has received huge concern due to their toxicity, persistence and subsequent accumulation in aquatic sediments. One of the most crucial properties of the metals, which differentiate them from organic pollutants, is that they are not biodegradable in the environment. Metals are part of biogeochemical cycles with aquatic sediments acting as their ultimate sinks for longer periods of time. However, when environmental conditions change (pH, redox potential, etc.) sediments act as secondary sources of metal pollution. The toxicity and mobility of metals depend strongly on the way they are associated with sediments. Therefore, information on the total concentrations of metals in sediment alone should not be used to assess the environmental impact of polluted sediments. The Begej Canal is navigation canal between Romania and Serbia and it is a part of Danube-Tisa-Danube hydrosystem in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia). Approximately, 500,000 m3 of sediment is accumulated in Begej canal which currently prevents canal's primary function - navigability. The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical quality of Begej canal sediments regarding heavy metals content. The concentrations of heavy metals were as follows: Cd - 2.4-4.9 mg/kg, Cr - 125-349 mg/kg, Cu - 65-124 mg/kg, Pb - 47-113 mg/kg, Ni - 45-88 mg/kg and Zn - 362-602 mg/kg. According to Serbian legislation (Official gazette, no. 50/12), sediment of Begej canal is the third class sediment which means that special measures should be taken in case of its removal from watercourse and final disposal in order to prevent contamination of other environmental compartments (soil, ground waters, surface waters, wildlife). Therefore, determination of third class has important economic and social implications. Additional tests to assess sediment quality included determination of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). In

  11. Experimental techniques for heavy liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the most interesting measurement systems which were tested in the Pb-Bi loops of the KALLA laboratory in Karlsruhe with the last 5 years. There are several experimental techniques which were well proven in air and water and thus could be transferred similarly to liquid metals: These techniques are split into measuring local quantities as temperature, pressure e.g. by means of pressure taps or velocities using Pitot and Prandtl tubes or the Ultra-Sound- Velocimetry (UDV) for local flow velocities, as well as global states like flow rate utilizing nozzles, orifices or turbines. Unfortunately, as liquid metals are opaque, an optical access is not given. Instead, one can take advantage of the high electric conductivity of liquid metals to measure integral and local quantities, like electromagnetic flow meters and miniaturized permanent magnetic probes for local velocity measurements. This article describes some of the techniques used in the KALLA for different liquid metals, explains the measurement principle and shows some of the results obtained using these techniques. Additionally a few words are spent with respect to the measurement errors to be expected and some hints for a correct placement of the individual sensor in the liquid metal environment. (authors)

  12. Heavy metal dispersion and soil pollution alongside two french highways

    OpenAIRE

    LEGRET, M; Pagotto, C.

    2002-01-01

    Road traffic and maintenance induce a chronic heavy metal pollution of runoff water an roadside soil. Part of the pollutants could be dispersed in the atmosphere or deposited onto soils due to wind dispersion. The atmospheric deposition and the quality of roadside soil have been investigated alongside two major rural highways. Metal deposition decrease rapidly and seem to reach the background level at a distance less than 25 m. Zinc deposition are the most important, followed by Pb and Cu dep...

  13. Magnetic fluctuations in heavy-fermion metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Petersen, T.; Aeppli, G.;

    1995-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering have been used to study the antiferromagnetic ordering and magnetic excitations of the U heavy-fermion superconductors UPd2Al3 and URu2Si2 above and below T-N. While both materials exhibit the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order......, the nature of the antiferromagnetic order and magnetic fluctuations is qualitatively quite different. UPd2Al3 resembles a rare earth magnetic system with coupling of the 4f electrons to the conduction electrons manifested in a broadening of otherwise conventional spin wave excitations. This is in marked...

  14. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem affected by sewage, mine and industrial pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wet, L.P.D. de; Schoonbee, H.J.; Pretorius, J.; Bezuidenhout, L.M. (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg (South Africa). Depts. of Zoology and Botany, Research Unit for Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems)

    1990-10-01

    The bio-accumulation of the heavy metals, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem polluted by effluents from sewage works, mines and industries was investigated. Results showed that the different metals can be accumulated by the water fern at concentration levels not necessarily related to their actual concentrations in the aquatic environment, as measured in this case, in the bottom sediments. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Difference Between Index of Geoaccumulation and Sequential Extraction Procedure on Evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution in Aquatic Sediments%水体沉积物重金属污染地累积指数法和分级提取评价技术的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于常武; 王琳; 高超

    2015-01-01

    运用地累积指数法和分级提取评价技术,对辽西钼矿区下游女儿河沉积物中的Cu、Zn和Mo的污染程度进行了评价。结果表明,两者的评价结果存在差异性,地累积指数法在一定程度上过高估计了沉积物中重金属污染的风险,分级提取评价技术科学性更强,建议推广应用。%Heavy Metal Pollution of Cu, Zn and Mo were evaluated in the Never River sediments impacted with Mo mining activities in western Liaoning,with Index of Geoaccumulation and Sequential Extraction Procedure. This study indicates that the Index of Geoaccumulation overestimated the degree of heavy metal pollution risk relative to the Sequential Extraction Procedure to some extent. The sequential extraction procedure should be generalized in China because of its scientificity.

  16. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  17. Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We review the recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. ► Different types of nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, different carbon nanomaterials or nanochannels have been applied on the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in various sensing formats/configurations. ► The great properties of nanomaterials allow the new devices to show advantages in terms of sensing performance (i.e. increase the sensitivity, decrease the detection limits and improve the stability). ► Between the various electrochemical techniques, voltammetric and potentiometric based ones are particularly taking interesting advantages by the incorporation of new nanomaterials due to the improved electrocatalytic properties beside the increase of the sensor's transducing area. - Abstract: Recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals are shown. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanochannels, graphene, etc. have been explored either as modifiers of electrodes or as new electrode materials with interest to be applied in electrochemical stripping analysis, ion-selective detection, field-effect transistors or other indirect heavy metals (bio)detection alternatives. The developed devices have shown increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits between other improvements of analytical performance data. The phenomena behind nanomaterials responses are also discussed and some typical responses data of the developed systems either in standard solutions or in real samples are given. The developed nanomaterials based electrochemical systems are giving new inputs to the existing devices or leading to the development of novel heavy metal detection tools with interest for applications in field such as diagnostics, environmental and safety and security controls or other industries.

  18. Adsorptive removal of heavy metals from water using sodium titanate nanofibres loaded onto GAC in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sounthararajah, D P; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2015-04-28

    Heavy metals are serious pollutants in aquatic environments. A study was undertaken to remove Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn individually (single metal system) and together (mixed metals system) from water by adsorption onto a sodium titanate nanofibrous material. Langmuir adsorption capacities (mg/g) at 10(-3)M NaNO3 ionic strength in the single metal system were 60, 83, 115 and 149 for Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, at pH 6.5 and 250 for Pb at pH 4.0. In the mixed metals system they decreased at high metals concentrations. In column experiments with 4% titanate material and 96% granular activated carbon (w/w) mixture at pH 5.0, the metals breakthrough times and adsorption capacities (for both single and mixed metals systems) decreased in the order Pb>Cd, Cu>Zn>Ni within 266 bed volumes. The amounts adsorbed were up to 82 times higher depending on the metal in the granular activated carbon+titanate column than in the granular activated carbon column. The study showed that the titanate material has high potential for removing heavy metals from polluted water when used with granular activated carbon at a very low proportion in fixed-bed columns.

  19. Development and application of a multimetal multibiotic ligand model for assessing aquatic toxicity of metal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santore, Robert C; Ryan, Adam C

    2015-04-01

    A multimetal, multiple binding site version of the biotic ligand model (mBLM) has been developed for predicting and explaining the bioavailability and toxicity of mixtures of metals to aquatic organisms. The mBLM was constructed by combining information from single-metal BLMs to preserve compatibility between the single-metal and multiple-metal approaches. The toxicities from individual metals were predicted by assuming additivity of the individual responses. Mixture toxicity was predicted based on both dissolved metal and mBLM-normalized bioavailable metal. Comparison of the 2 prediction methods indicates that metal mixtures frequently appear to have greater toxicity than an additive estimation of individual effects on a dissolved metal basis. However, on an mBLM-normalized basis, mixtures of metals appear to be additive or less than additive. This difference results from interactions between metals and ligands in solutions including natural organic matter, processes that are accounted for in the mBLM. As part of the mBLM approach, a technique for considering variability was developed to calculate confidence bounds (called response envelopes) around the central concentration-response relationship. Predictions using the mBLM and response envelope were compared with observed toxicity for a number of invertebrate and fish species. The results show that the mBLM is a useful tool for considering bioavailability when assessing the toxicity of metal mixtures.

  20. Elimination of heavy metals from leachates by membrane electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Siedlungs- und Industriewasserwirtschaft, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Seidel, H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rahner, D. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Eektrochemie, Mommsenstrasse 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Morgenstern, P. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Analytik, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Loeser, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Lebensmittel- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Bergstrasse 120, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    The elimination of heavy metals from bioleaching process waters (leachates) by electrolysis was studied in the anode and cathode region of a membrane electrolysis cell at current densities of 5-20 mA/cm{sup 2} using various electrode materials. The leaching waters containing a wide range of dissolved heavy metals, were high in sulfate, and had pH values of approx. 3. In preliminary tests using a rotating disc electrode the current density-potential curve (CPK) was recorded at a rotation velocity of 0, 1000 and 2000 rpm and a scan rate of 10 mV/s in order to collect information on the influence of transport processes on the electrochemical processes taking place at the electrodes. The electrochemical deposition-dissolution processes at the cathode are strongly dependent on the hydrodynamics. Detailed examination of the anodic oxidation of dissolved Mn(II) indicated that the manganese dioxide which formed adhered well to the electrode surface but in the cathodic return run it was again reduced. Electrode pairs of high-grade steel, lead and coal as well as material combinations were used to investigate heavy metal elimination in a membrane electrolysis cell. Using high-grade steel, lead and carbon electrode pairs, the reduction and deposition of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and some Cd in metallic or hydroxide form were observed in an order of 10-40 % in the cathode chamber. The dominant process in the anode chamber was the precipitation of manganese dioxide owing to the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II). Large amounts of heavy metals were co-precipitated by adsorption onto the insoluble MnO{sub 2}. High-grade steel and to some extent lead anodes were dissolved and hence were proven unsuitable as an anode material. These findings were largely confirmed by experiments using combination electrodes of coal and platinized titanium as an anode material and steel as a cathode material.The results indicate that electrochemical metal separation in the membrane electrolysis cell can represent a

  1. Effects of heavy metal pollution on soil microbial biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass in metal-polluted soils. Laboratory and field investigations where metals were applied ass inorganic or organic salts demonstrated a significant decline in the size of s oil microbial biomass. In most of the cases, negative effects were evident at metal concentrations below the European Community's (EC) current permissible metal levels in the soil. Application of metal-enriched sludges and composts caused significant inhibition of microbial biomass at surprisingly modest concentrations of metals in the soil that were indeed smaller than those likely to decrease the growth of sensitive crop species. On the whole, relative toxicity of metals decreased in the order of Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb, but a few exceptions to this trend also existed. A significant decline in the biomass carbon to organic carbon ratio(Cmin/Corg) in metal-polluted soils indicated that this parameter can serve as a good indicator of the toxicity of metals on soil microflora. The knowledge regarding the response of soil biota to metal interactions and the factors affecting metal toxicity to soil microorganisms is still very limited and warrants further study.

  2. Speciation of heavy metals in River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, F.A.; Weng, L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical speciation of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in River Rhine was studied by measuring free ion concentration and distribution in nanoparticles, and by comparing the measurement with speciation modeling. Concentrations of free metal ions were determined in situ using Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). T

  3. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water, Sediments and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Fish Species from Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ogendi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to organisms causing lethal and sub lethal effects. Above threshold levels, these metals have been shown to adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Human health may also be impacted negatively through consumption of metal-contaminated foods and water. Lake Naivasha, Kenya, like many freshwater bodies in developing countries is a source of fish and water for human consumption in Naivasha town and its environs. Ironically, the lake receives untreated floricultural, agricultural and industrial effluents from its catchment area. In the recent past, there have been unconfirmed reports that fish from this lake are contaminated with heavy metals mainly Cu, Hg, Cd and Pb to levels that are harmful to humans. It is against this background that this study was conducted to determine the sources of the aforementioned heavy metals in the lake, their concentrations in water and sediments and in common carp (Cyprinus carpio that constitutes a major portion of the Lake Naivasha fishery. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from purposefully selected sites in six sampling occasions during both the dry and wet seasons. Analyses for heavy metals in fish, sediment and water samples were done using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The study findings indicate that the heavy metal concentrations in the water and sediments collected from impacted sites were significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to those from unexpected sites. In spite of this, the metal concentrations in water were significantly lower than those recommended by the WHO and USEPA as drinking water guideline values. Metal concentrations in C. carpio were also significantly lower (p<0.05 than the World Health Organization (WHO recommended levels for fish intended for human consumption. Based on these findings, it is safe to conclude that drinking water and fish collected from Lake Naivasha do not pose immediate health risks to human

  4. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  5. Structural and functional studies of heavy metal ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    to handle heavy metal ions. LpCopA is then compared to its two human homologues ATP7A and ATP7B, which cause the severe Menkes and Wilson diseases when malfunctioning. The differences between the three proteins are described and disease-causing mutations in the human proteins are analyzed. The crystal...

  6. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  7. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  8. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  9. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  10. Deposition of sediment and associated heavy metals on floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, floodplains have become widely acknowledged as important natural sinks for sediments and associated substances like nutrients, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals. The character of floodplains will change in the near future because of landscaping measures (excavation of secondary channels,

  11. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  12. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  13. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1997-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  14. Heavy metals fractionation in Ganga River sediments, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, P; Chakrapani, G J

    2007-09-01

    The Ganga River is the largest river in India which, originates in the Himalayas and along with the Brahmaputra River, another Himalayan river, transports enormous amounts of sediments from the Indian sub-continent to the Bay of Bengal. Because of the important role of river sediments in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, the Ganga river sediments, collected from its origin to the down stretches, were studied in the present context, to assess the heavy metals associated with different chemical fractions of sediments. The fractionation of metals were studied in the sediments using SM&T protocol for the extraction of heavy metals and geo-accumulation index (GAI) (Muller, Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des rheins - Veranderungen seit. Umschau, 79, 778-783, 1979) and Metal Enrichment Factor (MEF) in different fractions were calculated. As with many river systems, residual fractions constitute more than 60% of total metals, except Zn, Cu and Cr. However, the reducible and organic and sulfide components also act as major sinks for metals in the down stretches of the river, which is supported by the high GAI and MEF values. The GAI values range between 4 and 5 and MEF exceed more than 20 for almost all the locations in the downstream locations indicating to the addition of metals through urban and industrial effluents, as compared to the low metals concentrations with less GAI and MEF in the pristine river sediments from the rivers in Himalayas.

  15. Heavy metal pollution of man and environment - A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Normal' levels of heavy metals are disturbingly close to toxic levels. This may be a man-made or natural phenomenon. The man-made exposure to heavy metals started thousands of years ago. In some European populations in the past the lead level was orders of magnitude higher than now, where it is comparable with the prehistoric level. The former high contamination of human populations was due to intake of metals from immediate sources (utensils, drugs, etc) not to their dispersion in the environment. A dramatic decrease of lead level in man occurred recently, when the majority of the immediate sources disappeared, but when at the local (but not at the global) scale the environmental level of metals increased. The current flow of metals into the global atmosphere, similar to the pre-industrial flow, is still dominated by natural processes, such as biological methylization of metals. This leads to an enrichment of the airborne particles in metals up to several orders of magnitude above the crustal abundances. It is not the magnitude of emissions of metals into the global atmosphere that marks a new role of man in the biosphere, but the mass of anthropogenic mobilization of raw materials now reaching the geological dimensions. (author)

  16. Heavy metals fractionation in Ganga River sediments, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, P; Chakrapani, G J

    2007-09-01

    The Ganga River is the largest river in India which, originates in the Himalayas and along with the Brahmaputra River, another Himalayan river, transports enormous amounts of sediments from the Indian sub-continent to the Bay of Bengal. Because of the important role of river sediments in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, the Ganga river sediments, collected from its origin to the down stretches, were studied in the present context, to assess the heavy metals associated with different chemical fractions of sediments. The fractionation of metals were studied in the sediments using SM&T protocol for the extraction of heavy metals and geo-accumulation index (GAI) (Muller, Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des rheins - Veranderungen seit. Umschau, 79, 778-783, 1979) and Metal Enrichment Factor (MEF) in different fractions were calculated. As with many river systems, residual fractions constitute more than 60% of total metals, except Zn, Cu and Cr. However, the reducible and organic and sulfide components also act as major sinks for metals in the down stretches of the river, which is supported by the high GAI and MEF values. The GAI values range between 4 and 5 and MEF exceed more than 20 for almost all the locations in the downstream locations indicating to the addition of metals through urban and industrial effluents, as compared to the low metals concentrations with less GAI and MEF in the pristine river sediments from the rivers in Himalayas. PMID:17295113

  17. Characterization of the potential impact of metal contaminated sediments on aquatic plants and insects at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tim's Branch is an ephemeral second order tributary of Upper Three Runs Creek at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At present, Tim's Branch is the receiving stream for eight NPDES outfalls. Historic contamination of Tim's Branch through untreated discharges has resulted in significant levels of natural uranium, nickel, aluminum, mercury, copper, lead, chromium, and zinc in the stream sediments and flood plain. Indigenous plant and chironomid species in the area were identified. Sediment, benthic invertebrate and aquatic plant samples were harvested from several sites to determine metal concentrations. Physical and chemical parameters of sediment including acid volatile sulfides, pH, oxidation/reduction potential, organic carbon and particle size distribution were assessed to determine their influence on metal bioavailability. Laboratory tests indicated that significant levels of heavy metals are translocated from sediment to Hydrilla verticillata with a concurrent elevation of plant peroxidase activity. Laboratory sediment toxicity bioassays were also performed with laboratory-reared Chironomus tentans. In situ sediment toxicity bioassays were performed with indigenous chironomids and plants to validate laboratory results

  18. Water Quality Assessment Using Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metals of Gobind Sagar Lake, Himachal Pradesh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the environment has become harmful for the health of living organisms due to excessive pollution and contamination of natural resources. The present investigation has been carried out with the objective to assess the water quality of the Gobind Sagar Lake, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh (India using physico-chemical parameters with heavy metals of the lake. For this study, three sampling sites were identified and samples from different sites were collected in summer season and important parameters [Water Temperature , pH, Total Hardness, Dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS] with heavy metals [ Lead (P, Copper (Co, Iron (Fe, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and Manganese (Mn, Chromium (Cr were analyzed. The results revealed that the different conditions of Gobind Sagar Lake in different sampling stations showed fluctuations in some physico-chemical parameters and also in heavy metals. These result depicted that water of lake was polluted in the form of nutrient enrichment which is due to agricultural activities and its runoff in and around catchment area of the lake. There are other many ways that things can end up in the lake as the free style way of disposal of industrial and domestic effluents etc. Results of studies on heavy metals in pollution are well documented revealing the toxic effects of these metals on aquatic organisms.

  19. The Predisposition of Iraqi Rice Husk to Remove Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions and Capitalized from Waste Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nsaif

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is deal with study the potential of Iraqi Rice Husk (IRH on the removal of three heavy metals pollutant which were (Mg, Mn and Mo ions from industrial wastewater using different design parameters by adsorption process. Results show that the removal efficiency were (93.95, 97.18 and 95.26 % for heavy metal (Mg, Mn and Mo respectively from aquatic solution decreased with increasing of initial concentration and flow rate while the removal efficiency increased with increasing absorbance material bed height, pH and feeding temperature. Statistical model is achieved to find an expression relates the overall operating parameters with the removal efficiency for each metal ions used in this investigation in a general equation (each one alone. The samples of (IRH remaining after using it in the removal of (Mg, Mn and Mo heavy metal ions above from Simulated Synthetic Aqueous Solutions (SSAS to investigate the capitalized of it in different methods. Different benefits possess which are: remove the three toxic heavy metals ions contaminated the water, get rid of agricultural waste (IRH, in the same time, produce light and more benefit hydrocarbons from n-heptane isomerization using a type Y-zeolite catalyst synthesis from remaining (IRH and prepare a cheap and active rodenticide.

  20. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Contents of Water from Karavasta lagoon, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMINA KOTO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the Karavasta Lagoon(40º56’ N and 19º29’ E. Karavasta Lagoon is one of the largest lagoons in the Mediterranean Seaand one of the most important economic and ecological areas in the southern part of Albania. The overall complex is composed of four lagoons, sand dunes, and a river mouth has a surface of 10000 ha. It is situated in the central part of western region, between Shkumbini River in the north and Semani River in the south, 40 km west of the city of Lushnja, by the Adriatic coast. The study aimed to determine (i the water quality in the lagoon of Karavasta using physico-chemical parameters and the level of heavy metals, (2 its status to support living life in the aquatic ecosystem. Data on temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen were obtained in-situ using Hanna multi-parameters instruments. Surface water of the lagoon was analyzed for heavy metals: Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, As.The results showed that water temperature varies depending on the seasons. The highest temperatures were in July from 26 to 28.6 ºC depending on the sampling station.The results showed that water temperature varies depending on the seasons. Highest values of pH in the water of the lagoon are verified in December from 10.72 to11.98. The values of salinity in the lagoon of Karavasta are higher in Dajlani station SS1 ranging 42.31% in July to 40.83 %in December, depending from the connection with Adriatic Sea. Also it varies considerably from one area to another, and between seasons, depending on the degree of isolationThe heavy metals Cr, Pb, Cu in some stations are found to be close or higher than the values allowed by the EU and pose a potential health risk to humans and the aquatic life of the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  1. EFFECTS OF THE HEAVY METAL, ZINC, ON THE FRESHWATER FISH TILAPIA NILOTICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA S. CARING

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills, gonads, and blood of Tilapia nilotica exposed to different concentrations of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. 7H2O exhibited histological effects. Gills of posthatch larvae exposed chronically for 21 days to 2 ppm zinc sulfate and fingerlings to 10 ppm sublethal zinc concentrations exhibited hyperplasia that resulted in fusion of adjacent secondary gill lamellae. The same effects were observed in 4-hour short-term exposure to 30 ppm lethal dose. Posthatch larvae subjected to 2 and 5 ppm sublethal levels of zinc for 30 days retained undifferentiated gonads with differentiation with oogonial proliferation. Ovaries of control fish demonstrated healthy oocyte growth and other normal histological features after 57 days. In contrast, ovaries in treated groups exhibited excessive amounts of connective tissue, hyperemia and markedly reduced oocyte number. Oocytes had wavy irregular surface outlines. Deviation from normal was observed to be dose dependent. In juvenile tilapia, spermatogenesis was observed in control testes. Testes of zinc-exposed fish, on the other hand, remained immature. Hyperemia was markedly pronounced in both testes and ovary after 90 days exposure to zinc. Blood of Tilapia nilotica fingerlings exposed to sublethal concentrations of 2, 5, and 10 ppm zinc for 30, 60, and 90 days exhibited anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. There was an increase in hematocrit values in zinc-reared fish which, however, reverted to control/near control levels at day 90. Hemoglobin values were inversely proportional to the level of zinc in the rearing water. The marked reduction in hemoglobin values in fish reared at the higher zinc concentrations of 5 and 10 ppm suggests the development of some degree of anemia which is also supported by the observations of anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal contamination of aquatic environments has become a current serious problem because of increased industrialization. In the Philippines, data gathered

  2. Identification and Quantification of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Pistacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of heavy metals are very important in pistachio nuts, because the edible nuts have an important and increasing role in human nutrition. Pistachio is one of the native nuts of Iran which contains high genetic resources, but there is insufficient information regarding nutritional properties and other elements like heavy metals. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare heavy metals contents in the kernels of various pistachio samples including; ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Sephid’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Momtaz’, ‘Ahmad Aghaei’, ‘Badami Zarand’, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (‘Baneh’, Pistacia vera ‘Sarakhs’ and chance seedling as ‘Non-grafted 1’, ‘Non-grafted 2’ and ‘Non-grafted 3’. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer (ICP was used for the determination of aluminium, chromium, nickel, copper, strontium, arsenic, cadmium and cobalt concentrations in pistachio kernels. This study showed that there were significant differences among the samples in all measured heavy metals except the arsenic, cadmium and cobalt. The content of aluminium varied from 3.22 to 9.59 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and chromium concentration from 0.60 to 1.86 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The nickel content of examined pistachio samples was found between 0.43 and 3.63 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and copper ranged from 3.20 to 12.33 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The strontium content was observed between 4.96 and 24.93 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The contents of arsenic, cadmium and cobalt not reported, because their amounts were lower than the detection limit of the applied measuring method (ICP. These data demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals in pistachios varied by cultivar.

  3. Utilizing heavy metal-laden water hyacinth biomass in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Natalya N; Akimova, Elena E; Pisarchuk, Anna D; Yunusova, Tatyana V; Minaeva, Oksana M

    2015-05-01

    We studied the efficiency of water treatment by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu), as well as a possibility of using water hyacinth biomass obtained during treatment for vermicomposting by Eisenia fetida and the vermicompost quality in a model experiment. The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals in the trials with water hyacinth decreased within 35 days. We introduced water hyacinth biomass to the organic substrate for vermicomposting, which promoted a significant weight gain of earthworms and growth in their number, as well as a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in coprolite production. In the trial with 40 % of Eichhornia biomass in the mixture, we observed a 26-fold increase in the number and a 16-fold weight gain of big mature individuals with clitellum; an increase in the number of small individuals 40 times and in the number of cocoons 140 times, as compared to the initial substrate. The utilization of water hyacinth biomass containing heavy metals in the mixture led to a 10-fold increase in the number of adult individuals and cocoons, which was higher than in control. We found out that adding 10 % of Eichhornia biomass to the initial mixture affected slightly the number of microorganisms and their species diversity in the vermicompost. Adding Eichhornia biomass with heavy metals reduced the total number of microorganisms and sharply diminished their species diversity. In all trials, adding water hyacinth in the mixture for vermicomposting had a positive impact on wheat biometric parameters in a 14-day laboratory experiment, even in the trial with heavy metals. PMID:25501861

  4. IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT TISSUE OF MILK FISH Chanos chanos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Rajeshkumar,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metal accumulation on antioxidant activity in Chanos chanos, (Milk fish was studied in two different locations polluted sites (Kaattuppalli Island and less polluted sites (Kovalam estuary. Accumulation of heavy metals in the gills, liver and muscles were observed Zn >Fe >Cu >Pb >Mn >Cd >Ni. The results reveal that highest concentration of metals in muscle, gills and liver were observed in Kaattuppalli Island when compared to Kovalam estuary. The antioxidant activity showed significant increased in lipid peroxidase (LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-tranferese (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH in different tissues of Chanos chanos collected Kaattuppalli Island. Among the studied enzymes, total glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione Stransferase appeared to be the most responsive biomarkers of oxidative stress biomarkers and membrane disruption as the sensitive parameters of environmental pollutant contamination and their importance in biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. This is also the first such attempt reported at the tissue level from South India stressing the importance of biomarkers in biomonitoring programmes using fish muscle, gills and liver as the model system.

  5. PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-04-29

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium and the impurities associated therewith. The separation is effected by adding, to the solution containing hexavalent uranium and plutonium, acetate ions and the ions of an alkali metal and those of a divalent metal and thus forming a complex plutonium acetate salt which is carried by the corresponding complex of uranium, such as sodium magnesium uranyl acetate. The plutonium may be separated from the precipitated salt by taking the same back into solution, reducing the plutonium to a lower valent state on reprecipitating the sodium magnesium uranyl salt, removing the latter, and then carrying the plutonium from ihe solution by means of lanthanum fluoride.

  6. Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Elicker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering an electrolyte flow-rate of 1.34 L.h-1 at a voltage of 20 V, the removal rate of all the metals accompanied was over 50%; the highest removal efficiency was for Pb, with 72.49%. The results show the feasibility of using the electrochemical technique of electrokinetic remediation for metal removal from a sludge sewage treatment station.

  7. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  8. Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the levels of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. Pulau Indah primarily contains Westport (Malaysia’s major port), and a host of full scales factories. Therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of pollution in this water body and the aquatic organisms in the long term effects, due to the human activities in this area. Water samples in this study were taken from 8 locations along the coastal area. The water samples were collected using water sampler and sampling locations were determined using a Global Positioning system (GPS). Similarly, in situ water quality parameters including temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using portable multi probes meter. Then, the samples were acidified until pH 2 and filtered. Fish samples were purchased from local fisherman along the Pulau Indah coastal area and samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid in wet digestion method. The levels of selected heavy metals in four species of fish and seawater from Pulau Indah coastal area were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution to the samples. In general, the quality of water at Pulau Indah is lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard except for few locations were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The concentration of heavy metals which are lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and uranium (U) in water samples are in the range of 0.36-5.43 µg/L, 75.20-621.58 µg/L, 11.92-30.52 µg/L, and 4.00-4.65 µg/L respectively. While the results of the four selected fish showed the following order of abundance Zn> U> Cu> Pb. Transfer factor (TF) of heavy metals in fish tissue of selected fish species from the water was discussed. However, the observed metal concentration in the sample tissue did not exceed the allowable limit of Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulation (1985

  9. Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Yunus, Sabarina, E-mail: sabarina2020@salam.uitm.edu.m; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    This study focuses on the levels of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. Pulau Indah primarily contains Westport (Malaysia’s major port), and a host of full scales factories. Therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of pollution in this water body and the aquatic organisms in the long term effects, due to the human activities in this area. Water samples in this study were taken from 8 locations along the coastal area. The water samples were collected using water sampler and sampling locations were determined using a Global Positioning system (GPS). Similarly, in situ water quality parameters including temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using portable multi probes meter. Then, the samples were acidified until pH 2 and filtered. Fish samples were purchased from local fisherman along the Pulau Indah coastal area and samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid in wet digestion method. The levels of selected heavy metals in four species of fish and seawater from Pulau Indah coastal area were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution to the samples. In general, the quality of water at Pulau Indah is lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard except for few locations were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The concentration of heavy metals which are lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and uranium (U) in water samples are in the range of 0.36-5.43 µg/L, 75.20-621.58 µg/L, 11.92-30.52 µg/L, and 4.00-4.65 µg/L respectively. While the results of the four selected fish showed the following order of abundance Zn> U> Cu> Pb. Transfer factor (TF) of heavy metals in fish tissue of selected fish species from the water was discussed. However, the observed metal concentration in the sample tissue did not exceed the allowable limit of Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulation (1985

  10. Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Yunus, Sabarina; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on the levels of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. Pulau Indah primarily contains Westport (Malaysia's major port), and a host of full scales factories. Therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of pollution in this water body and the aquatic organisms in the long term effects, due to the human activities in this area. Water samples in this study were taken from 8 locations along the coastal area. The water samples were collected using water sampler and sampling locations were determined using a Global Positioning system (GPS). Similarly, in situ water quality parameters including temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using portable multi probes meter. Then, the samples were acidified until pH 2 and filtered. Fish samples were purchased from local fisherman along the Pulau Indah coastal area and samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid in wet digestion method. The levels of selected heavy metals in four species of fish and seawater from Pulau Indah coastal area were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution to the samples. In general, the quality of water at Pulau Indah is lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard except for few locations were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The concentration of heavy metals which are lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and uranium (U) in water samples are in the range of 0.36-5.43 µg/L, 75.20-621.58 µg/L, 11.92-30.52 µg/L, and 4.00-4.65 µg/L respectively. While the results of the four selected fish showed the following order of abundance Zn> U> Cu> Pb. Transfer factor (TF) of heavy metals in fish tissue of selected fish species from the water was discussed. However, the observed metal concentration in the sample tissue did not exceed the allowable limit of Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulation (1985

  11. A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.

    1996-05-02

    This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

  12. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION BY MARINE ALGAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  13. Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadevall, Miquel; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-08-01

    Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication.

  14. Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadevall, Miquel; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-08-01

    Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication. PMID:25994368

  15. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  16. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  17. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals. PMID:25603034

  18. Removal of heavy metals by hybrid electrocoagulation and microfiltration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi; Vinduja, V; Balasubramanian, N

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation of the performance of electrocoagulation (EC), followed by the microfiltration process for heavy metal removal in synthetic model waste water containing Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions. Effects of initial concentration, current density and pH on metal removal were analysed to optimize the EC process. The optimized EC process was then integrated with dead-end microfiltration (MF) and was found that the hybrid process was capable of 99% removal of heavy metals. The cake layer formed over the membrane by the hybrid process was analysed through scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size analysis of the sludge formed during EC was done to investigate the fouling caused during the process.

  19. Biosynthetic regulation of phytochelatins, heavy metal-binding peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kazumasa; Tsuji, Naoki; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa

    2005-12-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are heavy metal-binding peptides that play important roles in the detoxification of toxic heavy metals and the regulation of intracellular concentrations of essential metals in eukaryotes, including higher plants, fungi, and microalgae. Recently, PC synthase genes in higher plants and fission yeast have been identified and characterized, enabling molecular biological studies to unravel the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis. Moreover, recent routine database searches have unexpectedly identified genes that are similar to plant PC synthase genes in the genomes of worms and some prokaryotes. In this review, we introduce these recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for PC biosynthesis and functions in order to supply basic information about the unique and attractive peptides applicable to various fields.

  20. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor L. for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syeda Huma; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mohammad, Ashiq

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of L. minor for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) from two different types of effluent in raw form was evaluated in a glass house experiment using hydroponic studies for a period of 31 days. Heavy metals concentration in water and plant sample was analyzed at 3, 10, 17, 24, and 31 day. Removal efficiency, metal uptake and bio-concentration factor were also calculated. Effluents were initially analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters and results indicated that municipal effluent (ME) was highly contaminated in terms of nutrient and organic load than sewage mixed industrial effluent (SMIE). Results confirmed the accumulation of heavy metals within plant and subsequent decrease in the effluents. Removal efficiency was greater than 80% for all metals and maximum removal was observed for nickel (99%) from SMIE. Accumulation and uptake of lead in dry biomass was significantly higher than other metals. Bio-concentration factors were less than 1000 and maximum BCFs were found for copper (558) and lead (523.1) indicated that plant is a moderate accumulator of both metals. Overall, L. minor showed better performance from SMIE and was more effective in extracting lead than other metals.

  1. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor L. for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syeda Huma; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mohammad, Ashiq

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of L. minor for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) from two different types of effluent in raw form was evaluated in a glass house experiment using hydroponic studies for a period of 31 days. Heavy metals concentration in water and plant sample was analyzed at 3, 10, 17, 24, and 31 day. Removal efficiency, metal uptake and bio-concentration factor were also calculated. Effluents were initially analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters and results indicated that municipal effluent (ME) was highly contaminated in terms of nutrient and organic load than sewage mixed industrial effluent (SMIE). Results confirmed the accumulation of heavy metals within plant and subsequent decrease in the effluents. Removal efficiency was greater than 80% for all metals and maximum removal was observed for nickel (99%) from SMIE. Accumulation and uptake of lead in dry biomass was significantly higher than other metals. Bio-concentration factors were less than 1000 and maximum BCFs were found for copper (558) and lead (523.1) indicated that plant is a moderate accumulator of both metals. Overall, L. minor showed better performance from SMIE and was more effective in extracting lead than other metals. PMID:26114480

  2. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghassem Emamverdian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs or metallothioneins (MTs metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants.

  3. Multiple metal resistant transferable phenotypes in bacteria as indicators of soil contamination with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.P.; Ryan, D.J.; Dowling, D.N. [Dept. of Science and Health, Inst. of Tech. Carlow, Carlow (Ireland)

    2005-07-01

    Environmental contamination by heavy metals affects microbial communities. The number of single and multiple heavy metal resistant bacteria may be an indicator of the level of contamination. This paper details the isolation and characterisation of metal resistant microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere/soil samples obtained from an abandoned zinc, lead and copper mine and a local unaffected site. This data was compared to the level of heavy metal in the soils to establish the effect of metals on the microbial community and to determine the relationship between pollutant levels and resistant strains. This paper outlines the diversity of transferable resistance determinants between both sites and details the levels of heavy metal resistant bacteria and those expressing transferable multiple heavy metal tolerance. Methods. The sample sites were located in Co. Galway, Ireland. The first sample site (site A) was a former lead, zinc and copper mine, which was closed in 1961 due to exhaustion of ore. The second site (site B) was located two and a half kilometres from the mining site and was not affected by the mining operations. Composite soil samples were characterised for general soil matrix composition, organic content, pH and general chemical parameters. The soil was also enumerated for the total viable heterotrophic counts and tested on Pseudomonas selective agar (PSA) for total Pseudomonas counts and Sucrose Asparagine (SA), which is semi-selective for fluorescent Pseudomonas. (orig.)

  4. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  5. Multivariate-Statistical Assessment of Heavy Metals for Agricultural Soils in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Pingguo Yang; Miao Yang; Renzhao Mao; Hongbo Shao

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated eight heavy metals content and soil pollution from agricultural soils in northern China. Multivariate and geostatistical analysis approaches were used to determine the anthropogenic and natural contribution of soil heavy metal concentrations. Single pollution index and integrated pollution index could be used to evaluate soil heavy metal risk. The results show that the first factor explains 27.3% of the eight soil heavy metals with strong positive loadings on Cu, Zn, and C...

  6. Assessment of heavy metals contents in soil from an industrial plant of southern part of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Florescu; Andreea Iordache; Iuliana Piciorea; Ionete, Roxana E.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of soils is performed in order to establish the impact of heavy metal pollutionnear an industrial power plant. The use of synthetic products (e.g. pesticides, paints, batteries, industrialwaste and land application of industrial or domestic sludge) can result in heavy metal contamination ofsoils. Heavy metals also occur naturally, but rarely at toxic levels. Soil samples from different depth weredrawn. Heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were analysed to establish the leve...

  7. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Zhou; Wen-Tao Yang; Xin Zhou; Li Liu; Jiao-Feng Gu; Wen-Lei Wang; Jia-Ling Zou; Tao Tian; Pei-Qin Peng; Bo-Han Liao

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the...

  8. Review: Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISLAM Ejaz ul; YANG Xiao-e; HE Zhen-li; MAHMOOD Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants,particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  9. Use of non-hyperaccumulator plant species for the phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Anjos Souza; Fernando Angelo Piotto; Roberta Corrêa Nogueirol; Ricardo Antunes Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals is a challenge faced by many countries, and engineering technologies to solve this problem are expensive and can cause negative impacts on the environment. One way to minimise the levels of heavy metals in the soil is to use plants that can absorb and accumulate heavy metals into harvestable parts, a process called phytoextraction. Typical plant species used in research involving phytoextraction are heavy metal hyperaccumulators, but plants from this group a...

  10. Mechanism Analysis and Propagation Model of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Topsoil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-wei Wang; Yuan-biao Zhang; Zi-yue Chen; Ke-jia Li; Jia-lin Hu; Yu-jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    In order to further research on the polluting condition and spreading features of heavy metals in urban surface soil, this study makes statistical analysis on indexes of 8 heavy metal concentrations. Then Are GIS geo-statistical analyst was used for Kriging interpolation of each kind of heavy metal concentration before figuring out the spatial distribution. Firstly, heavy metal contamination was analyzed by single-element pollution evaluation and multi-element pollution evaluation, before rat...

  11. Active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution using Rosa rugosa plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: gianlorenzo.calzoni@unibo.it; Antognoni, Fabiana [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: fabiana.antognoni@unibo.it; Pari, Elena [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: epari@csaricerche.com; Fonti, Paolo [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: pfonti@csaricerche.com; Gnes, Antonio [ARPA - Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambientale, Sez. Provinciale di Ravenna, via Alberoni 17, Ravenna (Italy)], E-mail: agnes@ra.arpa.emr.it; Speranza, Anna [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.it

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of a rural area near Faenza (Italy) by using an active biomonitoring approach, i.e., by placing homogeneous individuals of the perennial shrub Rosa rugosa in different sites throughout the area. Further sites, within the city or its environs, were used for comparison. Soil and leaves of R. rugosa were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The total heavy metal pattern of leaves closely paralleled the pattern registered in soil, with the highest content (both in total and assimilable forms) at the site in the urban area, which is exposed to heavy traffic. Pollen quality (abortiveness and viability) was also tested as a potential indicator of pollution. Pollen abortiveness was strictly related to Pb levels in leaves, while viability was inversely related to leaf Cr content. Our results suggest that R. rugosa has the potential to be a good biomonitoring system. - Rosa rugosa leaves and pollen are - to different extents - suitable monitoring tools for heavy metal pollution.

  12. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants. PMID:26989941

  13. Paper-based three-dimensional microfluidic device for monitoring of heavy metals with a camera cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Li, Ya-jie; Wei, Jun-feng; Xu, Ji-run; Wang, Yun-hua; Zheng, Guo-xia

    2014-05-01

    A 3D paper-based microfluidic device has been developed for colorimetric determination of selected heavy metals in water samples by stacking layers of wax patterned paper and double-sided adhesive tape. It has the capability of wicking fluids and distributing microliter volumes of samples from single inlet into affrays of detection zones without external pumps, thus a range of metal assays can be simply and inexpensively performed. We demonstrate a prototype of four sample inlets for up to four heavy metal assays each, with detection limits as follows: Cu (II) = 0.29 ppm, Ni(II) = 0.33 ppm, Cd (II) = 0.19 ppm, and Cr (VI) = 0.35 ppm, which provided quantitative data that were in agreement with values gained from atomic absorption. It has the ability to identify these four metals in mixtures and is immune to interferences from either nontoxic metal ions such as Na(I) and K(I) or components found in reservoir or beach water. With the incorporation of a portable detector, a camera mobile phone, this 3D paper-based microfluidic device should be useful as a simple, rapid, and on-site screening approach of heavy metals in aquatic environments. PMID:24618990

  14. Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint. PMID:15337346

  15. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  16. Interaction of heavy metals with dehydrated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shafey E. I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated carbon material was prepared from date palm leaflets via sulphuric acid treatment. The acid causes dehydration via the removal of water. In addition it causes oxidation to the dehydrated carbon surface. The carbon was tested for the removal of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ag+, Pd2+ and Hg2+ from aqueous solution in terms of different pH, time and concentrations and temperature. Optimum pH was found to be in the range of 3-5 for the metals under investigation. Sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+ was found fast, reaching equilibrium within ∼ 2 hr while the sorption of Ag+, Pd2+ and Hg2+ (nitrate and chloride media was slow and required ∼80 hr to reach equilibrium. Activation energy, Ea, for the sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+ was 40 kJ/mol indicating a chemically controlled process. Equilibrium sorption capacity was much higher for Ag+, Pd2+ and Hg2+ than for Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+ with increased uptake, for both metals, by rising the temperature (25-45 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that Ag+ and Pd2+ were reduced to their respective elemental states. For Hg2+, reduction took place to elemental mercury from nitrate media and to Hg2Cl2 from the chloride media. However, no reduction processes were involved in the sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+.

  17. Effect of polluted water on soil and plant contamination by heavy metals in El-Mahla El-Kobra, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem Mahmoud, Esawy; Ghoneim, Adel Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The discharge of untreated waste water in Zefta drain and drain no. 5 is becoming a problem for many farmers in the El-Mahla El-Kobra area, Egypt. The discharged water contains high levels of contaminants considered hazardous to the ecosystem. Some plants, soil, water, and sediment samples were collected from the El-Mahla El-Kobra area to evaluate the contamination by heavy metals. The results showed that the heavy metals, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water of Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded permissible limits for irrigation. In rice and maize shoots grown in soils irrigated by contaminated water from Zefta drain and drain no. 5, the bioaccumulation factors for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn were higher than 1.0. The heavy metals content of irrigated soils from Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded the upper limit of background heavy metals. In this study, the mean contaminant factor values of the drain no. 5 sediments revealed that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni > 6, indicating very high contamination. The bioaccumulation coefficient values of Cynodon dactylon, Phragmites australis, and Typha domingensis aquatic plants growing in Zefta drain are high. These species can be considered as hyperaccumulators for the decontamination of contaminated water.

  18. Diazotrophs-assisted phytoremediation of heavy metals: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Abid; Mushtaq, Hafsa; Ali, Hazrat; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metals, which have severe toxic effects on plants, animals, and human health, are serious pollutants of the modern world. Remediation of heavy metal pollution is utmost necessary. Among different approaches used for such remediation, phytoremediation is an emerging technology. Research is in progress to enhance the efficiency of this plant-based technology. In this regard, the role of rhizospheric and symbiotic microorganisms is important. It was assessed by enumeration of data from the current studies that efficiency of phytoremediation can be enhanced by assisting with diazotrophs. These bacteria are very beneficial because they bring metals to more bioavailable form by the processes of methylation, chelation, leaching, and redox reactions and the production of siderophores. Diazotrophs also posses growth-promoting traits including nitrogen fixation, phosphorous solubilization, phytohormones synthesis, siderophore production, and synthesis of ACC-deaminase which may facilitate plant growth and increase plant biomass, in turn facilitating phytoremediation technology. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight the potential of diazotrophs in assisting phytoremediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils. The novel current assessment of literature suggests the winning combination of diazotroph with phytoremediation technology.

  19. Effects of irradiation of sewage sludge on heavy metal bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludges are a valuable resource to agriculture, but their use is limited by the hazards of pathogens, toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Irradiation can control the pathogens and deactivate some of the toxic chemicals. The relative cost of industrial-scale irradiation using accelerators has decreased progressively. This, coupled with the increasing necessity to recycle wastes, has led to renewed interest in irradiation of sludges. In response to this renewed interest, this report examines what is known about the effects of irradiation on the bioavailability of heavy metals. Very few studies have addressed this topic, although workers in the U.S. have claimed decreased solubility of metals in irradiated sludges. We have also briefly reviewed the general literature on sludge to gain indirect evidence on the likely effects. The scant data, often based on less than ideal experimental methodologies, show no major consistent effects of irradiation on the availability of heavy metals from sludge. The data are not sufficient to rule out such effects entirely, but the effects appear to be fairly subtle and not likely to persist beyond one growth season. 85 refs

  20. Plant response to air pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Mitsuki, H.; Takata, N.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of air pollutants on the concentration of heavy metals in leaves of trees in the neighborhood of a steel factory was studied. Paulownia trees, which absorb and accumulate heavy metals better than other trees, were sampled in the middle of November. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil was measured for every 10 cm vertically downward to a depth of 80 cm near the roots of the sample trees. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the dust were 34.6 to 57.8% and 0.41 to 3.21%, respectively, mainly in oxidized form. The amounts of these metals discharged from the factories were calculated from the concentrations in the atmosphere. Tree leaves in the polluted area were analyzed to determine the route of atmospheric iron from the source to the atmosphere to the soil, where it is absorbed by the roots to accumulate in the leaves. The concentration of Mn in soil exponentially decreases with distance from the source, but its concentration in tree leaves increases with distance. 4 figures.

  1. Geochemical background and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground of East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Hu, Gang; Kong, Xianghuai

    2015-12-01

    Surface sediment grain size as well as the spatial distribution, pollution status, and source identification of heavy metals in the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground (ZFG) of the East China Sea were analyzed to study the geochemical background concentrations of heavy metals and to assess their potential ecological risk. Our results show that surface sediments in the eastern part of study area were mainly composed of sand-sized components. Spatial distributions of heavy metals were mainly controlled by grain size and terrigenous materials, and their concentrations in the coarsest grain sediments formed primarily during the Holocene transgressive period could represent the element background values of our study area. Contamination factor suggests that there was no pollution of Pb, Zn, and Cr generally in our study area and slight pollution of Cu, Cd, and As (especially Cu) at some stations. In addition, ecological harm coefficient indicates that the ecological risk of each heavy metal, except for Cd, at two stations was low as well. These results are consistent with the pollution load index and ecological risk index, which suggest both the overall level of pollution and the overall ecological risk of six studied metals in sediment were relatively low in our study area. Enrichment factor indicates that the heavy metals came mostly from the natural source. Summarily, the quality level of sediment in our study area was relatively good, and heavy metals in sediments could not exert threat to aquatic lives in the ZFG until now.

  2. Behaviour of heavy metals in the partial oxidation of heavy fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, P.; Baitalow, F.; Seifert, P.; Meyer, B. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Department of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Reiche Zeche, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schlichting, H. [Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The behaviour of heavy metals in the partial oxidation of heavy fuel oils under a pressure of up to 100 bar (10 MPa) has been investigated. The tests were carried out in a 5 MW HP POX (High Pressure Partial Oxidation) test plant, that is operated by the IEC (Department of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering, TU Bergakademie Freiberg) in cooperation with Lurgi GmbH. In several test campaigns preheated oil with a viscosity of up to 300 cSt (= 300 mm{sup 2}/s) at the burner inlet has been gasified. The heavy metals nickel Ni, iron Fe and vanadium V occur in heavy residual oils in considerable concentration and may seriously impact the gasification itself and the synthesis gas conditioning and usage. While iron is largely recovered in the gasification residue, the recovery rates of nickel and vanadium depend on the process conditions. Volatile nickel compounds were detected in the raw synthesis gas. It was found that an incomplete carbon conversion enables the capture of nickel Ni and vanadium V in the solid residue phase and can thus mitigate the problem of volatile metal compounds in the raw synthesis gas. (author)

  3. Fate and effects of heavy metals in salt marsh sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntornvongsagul, Kallaya [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Burke, David J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); The Holden Arboretum, 9500 Sperry Road, Kirtland, OH 44094 (United States); Hamerlynck, Erik P. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Hahn, Dittmar [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States) and Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)]. E-mail: dh49@txstate.edu

    2007-09-15

    The fate and effects of selected heavy metals were examined in sediment from a restored salt marsh. Sediment cores densely covered with Spartina patens were collected and kept either un-amended or artificially amended with nickel (Ni) under standardized greenhouse conditions. Ni-amendment had no significant effect on the fate of other metals in sediments, however, it increased root uptake of the metals. Metal translocation into the shoots was small for all metals. Higher Ni concentrations in plants from amended cores were accompanied by seasonal reductions in plant biomass, photosynthetic capacity and transfer efficiency of open photosystem II reaction centers; these effects, however, were no longer significant at the end of the growing season. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) resembled that of natural salt marshes with up to 20% root length colonized. Although Ni-amendment increased AMF colonization, especially during vegetative growth, in general AMF were largely unaffected. - Spartina patens accumulates heavy metals in roots without significant translocation into shoots, and with only small seasonal effects on plant growth performance and mycorrhizal colonization.

  4. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Seok Kim; Ji-Whan Ahn; Gi-Chun Han; Mihee Lim; Kwang-Suk You

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching c...

  5. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Módenes, A.N., E-mail: anmodenes@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Espinoza-Quiñones, F.R.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Divalent metal ion removals by Egeria densa biosorbent. • Multielements concentrations in biosorbent samples by PIXE analysis. • Elements mass balance in liquid and solid phase before and after metal removals. • Assessment of the mechanisms involved in Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal by biosorbent. • Confirmation of the signature of ion exchange process in metal removal. -- Abstract: In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2 h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  6. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Seok Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT, leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L: 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L: 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT].

  7. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT]. PMID:20049231

  8. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health

  9. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics.

  10. Biochar Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sorption and Potential Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mining-affected lands are a global issue; in the USA alone there are an estimated 500,000 abandoned mines encompassing hundreds of thousands of hectares. Many of these sites generate acidic mine drainage that causes release of heavy metals, and subsequently degradation in environmental quality. Because of its potential liming characteristics, biochar may play a pivotal role as a soil amendment in future mine land reclamation. However, to date, most studies have focused on the use of biochar to sorb metals from solution. Previous studies suggest that metals are complexed by biochar surface function groups (leading to ion exchange, complexation), coordination with Pi electrons (C=C) of carbon, and precipitation of inorganic mineral phases. Several recent studies have focused on the use of biochar for amending mine land soils, showing that biochar can indeed reduce heavy metal lability, yet the mechanism(s) behind labile metal reduction have yet to be established. In a proof-of-concept study, we added lodgepole pine, tamarisk, and switchgrass biochar (0, 5, 10, 15% by weight; 500 oC) to four different western US mine land soils affected by various heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn). Extraction with 0.01M CaCl2 showed that increasing biochar application rate significantly decreased 'bioaccessible' metals in almost all instances. A concomitant increase in solution pH was observed, suggesting that metals may be rendered bio-inaccessible through precipitation as carbonate or (hydr)oxide phases, or sorbed onto mineral surfaces. However, this was only supposition and required further research. Thus, following the 0.01M CaCl2 extraction, biochar-soil mixtures were air-dried and metals were further extracted using the four-step BCR sequential removal procedure. Results from selective extraction suggest that, as compared to the controls, most metals in the biochar-amended mine land soils were associated with exchange sites, carbonate, and oxide phases. Biochar may play a

  11. Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. PMID:23024411

  12. How metal-tolerant ecotypes of ectomycorrhizal fungi protect plants from heavy metal pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Colpaert, Jan; Wevers, Jan; KRZNARIC, Erik; Adriaensen, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metal pollution is a strong driver of above- and belowground communities and triggers evolutionary adaptation in organisms. This review provides an overview of our knowledge on the effects of toxic concentrations of metals on ectomycorrhizal populations and communities. Discussion: Selection and adaptations within particular ectomycorrhizal species that colonise host plants in harsh environments is discussed. Among these adaptations, we focus on the metal exclusion strateg...

  13. Evaluation of Some Physiochemical Parameters and Heavy Metal Contamination in Hara Biosphere Reserve, Iran, Using a New Pollution Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zarei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pollution of the aquatic environment with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem during recent years, due to their potential toxic effects and ability to bio-accumulate in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals are sensitive indicators for monitoring changes in the aquatic environment. Methods: In this study, total concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe were measured in water and sediments from nine sites, based on ecological conditions and human activities and the effects of sediment pH and sediment organic matter on bioavailability of selected metals were determined. Modified degree of contamination (mCd was computed in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Results: Mean concentration of metals in water found to be in the following order: Pb > Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples it was Fe > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. The average content of examined metals in water was higher than the chronic values in marine surface water guideline values. Mean content of Cr, Pb and Fe in sediments were higher than average of the less contaminated sample but Cu and Zn were lower than this guideline value. In the study area, mCd values were less than 1.5 with values ranging from 0.71 to 1.02. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated with a decrease in organic matter and pH in sediments, the concentration of copper and iron increased. Base on modified contamination degree, the sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve are considered to be in the zero to very low contamination status.

  14. Sublethal Heavy Metal Stress Stimulates Innate Immunity in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sublethal heavy metal stress as plant biotic elicitor for triggering innate immunity in tomato plant was investigated. Copper in in vivo condition induced accumulation of defense enzymes like peroxidase (PO, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, and β-1,3 glucanase along with higher accumulation of total phenol, antioxidative enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, and total chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the treatment also induced nitric oxide (NO production which was confirmed by realtime visualization of NO burst using a fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA and spectrophotometric analysis. The result suggested that the sublethal dose of heavy metal can induce an array of plant defense responses that lead to the improvement of innate immunity in plants.

  15. Terbium-doped heavy metal glasses for green luminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Zur; J. Pisarska; W.A. Pisarski

    2011-01-01

    Compositional-dependent heavy metal lead borate glasses doped with Tb3+ ior were investigated.Green luminescence related to main 5D4→7F5 (543 nm) transition was registered under excitation of 5D3 state of Tb3+ ions.Based on excitation and luminescence measurements,several spectroscopic parameters for Tb3+ ions were examined as a function of heavy metal PbO content.Luminescence decay analysis indicated that the 5D4 luminescence lifetime of Tb3+ reduced from 2.83 to 1.42 ms,when PbO:B2O3 ratio was changed from 1:1 to 4:1.

  16. Environmental pollution with heavy metals in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview to the results from the application of various spectrometric (atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS; inductively coupled plasma-atomic mission spectrometry, ICP-AES; and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) and radioanalytical (neutron activation analysis, NAA) techniques in environmental pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia are presented. The results from the surveys of the pollution with heavy metals of soil, air and food are reported. The pollution with heavy metals in the particular regions was additionally investigated using moss, lichens, attic dust, soil, water and sediment samples. The results from the study of the pollution in the cities of Veles (lead and zinc smelter plant), Kavadartsi (ferronickel smelter plant), Radovish (copper mine and flotation), Probishtip, Makedonska Kamenitsa and Kriva Palanka (lead and zinc mines and flotation plants) and Bitola and Kichevo (thermoelectric power plants) are presented. (Author)

  17. Heavy metals in the Ljubljanica catchment area (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Trček

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In main springs and swallowholes of the Ljubljanica River Basin the monitoring of heavy metals was established at the beginning of 2005 with the intention to study the solute transport in the water body and to analyse the risk of contamination with heavy metals. The results of the first monitoring phase are presented–elements that indicate the load of environment due to industry, traffic,agriculture and urbanisation:Al,As,Cd,Cl,Cr,Cu,Mn in Pb. The results point out that the vulnerability of karst aquifers depends on aquifer hydrodynamic conditions, infiltration conditions and development of a karst drainage system. Furthermore, they indicated the local and regional geochemical and hydrogeological characteristics and enable to evidence the main processes and effects that impact on environmental changes.

  18. Brassinosteroids and response of plants to heavy metals action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona eRajewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs are a widespread group of plant hormones. These phytohormones play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development of various plant species, and they demonstrate high biological activity. BRs are considered to demonstrate protective activity in the plants exposed to various stresses. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals have become one of the most important plant stressors. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond the critical levels leads to oxidative stress. However, BRs may inhibit the degradation of lipids, resulted from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species under stress conditions, and increase the activity of antioxidants. They also have the ability to promote phytochelatins synthesis.

  19. Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5% for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

  20. Prolong Restoration of the Water Quality of River Ganga Effect of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Vinod; Basu, Subhankar

    2014-04-01

    The genesis of the present research was the belief since ages and the observations made through some studies that the water of river Ganga has unique characteristics, which allows storage of water quality even on prolong storage. Very few systematic studies have been conducted to support the contention that the Ganga water indeed has some special composition that could be attributed to its unique storage capacity. It was postulated that prolong restoration of water quality depends on the ability to arrest microbial activity that is generally responsible for deterioration in water quality on prolong storage. Hence, attempt has been made to identify the parameters that are likely to influence the prolong storage of river water. Along with Ganga river water, other three major rivers, viz. Yamuna, Godavari and Narmada, were selected for comparison. Emphasis was made on estimation of heavy metals, radioactive elements, dissolved carbon and other physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness and dissolved organic carbon. Based on the available information regarding the impact of heavy metals, radioactive elements vis-à-vis the chemical composition of water on microorganisms in the aquatic environment, an overall impact score for the waters of the four Indian rivers selected in the study has been assigned.

  1. Prolong Restoration of the Water Quality of River Ganga Effect of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Vinod; Basu, Subhankar

    2014-04-01

    The genesis of the present research was the belief since ages and the observations made through some studies that the water of river Ganga has unique characteristics, which allows storage of water quality even on prolong storage. Very few systematic studies have been conducted to support the contention that the Ganga water indeed has some special composition that could be attributed to its unique storage capacity. It was postulated that prolong restoration of water quality depends on the ability to arrest microbial activity that is generally responsible for deterioration in water quality on prolong storage. Hence, attempt has been made to identify the parameters that are likely to influence the prolong storage of river water. Along with Ganga river water, other three major rivers, viz. Yamuna, Godavari and Narmada, were selected for comparison. Emphasis was made on estimation of heavy metals, radioactive elements, dissolved carbon and other physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness and dissolved organic carbon. Based on the available information regarding the impact of heavy metals, radioactive elements vis-à-vis the chemical composition of water on microorganisms in the aquatic environment, an overall impact score for the waters of the four Indian rivers selected in the study has been assigned. PMID:26563059

  2. Decomposition of heavy metal contaminated nettles (Urtica dioica L.) in soils subjected to heavy metal pollution by river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2006-11-01

    Two incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in the microbial use of non-contaminated and heavy metal contaminated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) shoot residues in three soils subjected to heavy metal pollution (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) by river sediments. The microbial use of shoot residues was monitored by changes in microbial biomass C, biomass N, biomass P, ergosterol, N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates. Microbial biomass C, N, and P were estimated by fumigation extraction. In the non-amended soils, the mean microbial biomass C to soil organic C ratio decreased from 2.3% in the low metal soil to 1.1% in the high metal soils. In the 42-d incubation experiment, the addition of 2% nettle residues resulted in markedly increased contents of microbial biomass P (+240%), biomass C (+270%), biomass N (+310%), and ergosterol (+360%). The relative increase in the four microbial properties was similar for the three soils and did not show any clear heavy metal effect. The contents of microbial biomass C, N and P and ergosterol contents declined approximately by 30% during the incubation as in the non-amended soils. The ratios microbial biomass C to N, microbial biomass C to P, and ergosterol to microbial biomass C remained constant at 5.2, 26, and 0.5%, respectively. In the 6-d incubation experiment, the respiratory quotient CO(2)/O(2) increased from 0.74 in the low metal soil to 1.58 in the high metal soil in the non-amended soils. In the treatments amended with 4% nettle residues, the respiratory quotient was constant at 1.13, without any effects of the three soils or the two nettle treatments. Contaminated nettle residues led generally to significantly lower N mineralisation, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption rates than non-contaminated nettle residues. However, the absolute differences were small. PMID:16677685

  3. Pollution of forest wood species by heavy metals; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map pollution of forest wood species by heavy metals on the territory of the Slovak Republic is shown. The Kz heavy metal loading coefficient expresses exceeding of limit values of heavy metals in assimilation organs of forest wood species. Increased level of Kz is linked to industrial areas (such as central Spis), wood growths in the vicinity of the Polish and Czech frontiers, where the second black triangle in Europe was established while there are not any significant sources of heavy metal emissions. There were available 2,341 points with chemical analysis on heavy metals. (authors)

  4. Studies of leaching, recovery and recycling of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Askari, Hallo Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 04/02/2008. The leachability of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and zinc metals and their oxides, sulfides and carbonates by water, 0.5 mol dm-3 CH3COOH, 0.1 mol dm -3 HCl/NaCI (1: 1 mixture) and 2 mol dm -3 HNO3 is reported. The concentrations of the leached heavy metals are compared with the trigger levels set by World Health Organisation (WHO). Three leaching solutions (nitric, sulfu...

  5. Synthesis and heavy metal immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunsheng, Zhang; Wei, Sun; Qianli, Chen; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, two aspects of studies are carried out: (1) synthesis of geopolymer by using slag and metakaolin; (2) immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer in a presence of Pb and Cu ions. As for the synthesis of slag based geopolymer, four different slag content (10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) and three types of curing regimes (standard curing, steam curing and autoclave curing) are investigated to obtain the optimum synthesis condition based on the compressive and flexural strength. The testing results showed that geopolymer mortar containing 50% slag that is synthesized at steam curing (80 degrees C for 8h), exhibits higher mechanical strengths. The compressive and flexural strengths of slag based geopolymer mortar are 75.2 MPa and 10.1 MPa, respectively. Additionally, Infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are used to characterize the microstructure of the slag based geopolymer paste. IR spectra show that the absorptive band at 1086 cm(-1) shifts to lower wave number around 1007 cm(-1), and some six-coordinated Als transforms into four-coordination during the synthesis of slag based geopolymer paste. The resulting slag based geopolymeric products are X-ray amorphous materials. SEM observation shows that it is possible to have geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel forming simultaneously within slag based geopolymer paste. As for immobilization of heavy metals, the leaching tests are employed to investigate the immobilization behaviors of the slag based geopolymer mortar synthesized under the above optimum condition. The leaching tests show that slag based geopolymer mortar can effectively immobilize Cu and Pb heavy metal ions, and the immobilization efficiency reach 98.5% greater when heavy metals are incorporated in the slag geopolymeric matrix in the range of 0.1-0.3%. The Pb exhibits better immobilization efficiency than the Cu in the case of large dosages of heavy metals.

  6. Heavy metal evaporation kinetics in thermal waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Ch.; Stucki, S.; Schuler, A.J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    To investigate the evaporation kinetics of heavy metals, experiments were performed by conventional thermogravimetry and a new method using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The new method allows online measurements in time intervals that are typically below one minute. The evaporation of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from synthetic mixtures and filter ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was of major interest. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, R.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Collier, J.

    Earthworms are often utilized in the management and treatment of sludges. A study was conducted to determine earthworm bioaccumulation of heavy metals present in some sludges. Experimental methods and materials used are described. Conversion of activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor a decrease of extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, or lead. Bioaccumulations ranged from 8-250 ppm. (7 graphs, 18 references, 4 tables)

  8. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  9. Chelation of heavy metals by potassium butyl dithiophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xu; Zhigang Xie; Lu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Potassium butyl dithiophosphate (PBD) was developed and introduced as a new chelating agent for heavy metal removal.The synthesized PBD were characterized by IR and NMR.The effects of pH, chelating agent dosage, and other heavy metal ions on the performance of PBD in Cd2+ removal from water are investigated.Experimental results showed that the chelating agent could be used to treat acidic heavy metal wastewater.The Cd2+ removal was not affected by solution pH value within the range of 2 to 6.The Cd2+ removal rate could reach over 99%.Therefore, the deficiency of the precipitation process using hydroxide under alkaline condition can be overcome.Without the need for pH adjustment, the method could save on costs.If Cd2+ co-exists with Pb2+ and Cu2+, the affinity of the chelating agent with these three heavy metal ions was in the order of: Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+.Through PBD chelating precipitation,all the contents of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ in wastewater met the standard levels through a one-step treatment.The one-step treatment process was superior to the process (sectional treatment is required) of precipitation with hydroxide.When the pH was between 3 and 11, the amount of leached chelated Cd2+ was much lower than that obtained by precipitation with hydroxide.Therefore, the risk of environmental pollution could be further reduced.

  10. Chemical changes in heavy metals in the leachates from Technosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F X; Macías, F; Virgel, S; Blanco, F; Jiang, X; Camps Arbestain, M

    2009-09-01

    A 2 month long column study was conducted to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals eluting from Technosols constituted from sewage sludges (aerobic or anaerobic) (as controls) or a mixture of different types of sewage sludges with green foundry sand (FS) or/and Linz-Donowitz slag (LD). The organic and inorganic wastes were mixed at a ratio of 56:44 (w/w). The mixtures and the controls were moistened to field capacity before adding them to the polypropylene columns (4.5 cm wide and 14 cm long). During the 8-week experimental period, the columns were watered, twice a week, with 100 mL of deionised water. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) in the leachates were determined periodically. The concentrations of all the heavy metals were generally higher in the leachates from the Technosols containing anaerobic sewage sludge as a component. The concentration of Cu was strongly dependent on pH and was significantly higher (P10) than in the other leachates. More Zn was mobilized in the most acidic leachates (pH<6) than in other leachates. The concentration of Ni in 80% of the leachates exceeded the EU drinking water limit for Ni (0.02 mgL(-1)). The concentrations of Pb were lower in the Technosols containing FS. The concentrations of Cd in the leachates from Technosols containing the conditioners were relatively high, while concentrations of Cr were higher in the controls. As far as the potential toxicity of heavy metals is concerned, the combination of aerobic sludge, inorganic conditioners able to buffer the pH to around neutrality, and reactive aluminosilicates, can be regarded as suitable choice for formulating Technosols from wastes. PMID:19580987

  11. Methanogens, sulphate and heavy metals: a complex system

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Da, L.; Stams, A. J. M.; Machado de Sousa, D.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a well-established technology used for the treatment of wastes and wastewaters with high organic content. During AD organic matter is converted stepwise to methane-containing biogasa renewable energy carrier. Methane production occurs in the last AD step and relies on methanogens, which are rather sensitive to some contaminants commonly found in wastewaters (e.g. heavy metals), or easily outcompeted by other groups of microorganisms (e.g. sulphate reducing bacteria...

  12. Using biopolymers to remove heavy metals from soil and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Frederick, R.M.

    1993-11-19

    Chemical remediation of soil may involve the use of harsh chemicals that generate waste streams, which may adversely affect the soil's integrity and ability to support vegetation. This article reviews the potential use of benign reagents, such as biopolymers, to extract heavy metals. The biopolymers discussed are chitin and chitosan, modified starch, cellulose, and polymer-containing algae. (Copyright (c) Remediation 1994.)

  13. Collective Motion of Moshers at Heavy Metal Concerts

    CERN Document Server

    Silverberg, Jesse L; Sethna, James P; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the highly energized collective motion of attendees at heavy metal concerts. We find these extreme social gatherings generate similarly extreme behaviors: a disordered gas-like state called a mosh pit and an ordered vortex-like state called a circle pit. Both phenomena are reproduced in flocking simulations demonstrating that human collective behavior is consistent with the predictions of simplified models.

  14. Secondary mobilisation of heavy metals in overbank sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    Overbank sediments are a widely used sampling medium for geochemical mapping and ore exploration. In industrial areas, the pollution history of a river catchment is generally reflected in the geochemical signature of pollutants in overbank sediments. The secondary (chemical) mobilisation of heavy metals in overbank sediments may however affect the geochemical record carried by the sediments that were deposited over time. This can negatively affect the reconstruction of the pollution histo...

  15. Heavy metals distribution in fly ash from gangue power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-zhu; WANG Cui-zhen; HAN Zuo-zhen; YANG Hai-feng; WAN Rui

    2007-01-01

    To make assessment on its environmental security,fly ash samples were collected from the gangue power plant.Total content of heavy metals in sieved fly ash were analytically determined.We also carried out Tessier extractive experiments to check the chemical species of heavy metals.Experiment results show that the content of Cu,Zn,Pb and Cd ascend when particle size is smaller.Cu,Zn,Pb and Cd obviously enrich in particulate fly ash.The chemical species of heavy metal distribution ranking sequence generally is residual>organic combinative>Fe-Mn oxide combinative>carbonate combinative>ion-exchangeable.Lead's amiable-move species were high in proportion,amounted to 35%.Total content of Cadmium is at low level.but its ion-exchangeable species is relatively high in proportion.Nickel and zinc is mainly distributed in residue.CU is mainly distributed in residue and Organic combinative form.The content of manganese is relatively high in fly ash,and the carbonate combinative iron-manganese oxide combinative species are main chemical form.Cr is mainly distributed in residue.and its other chemical species are at low level.Compared with the soil background value of study area and Shandong Province,the content of Cu,Ni,Zn,Mn and Cr in fly ash of gangue power plant is lower.While contents of Pb and Cd were higher than background value,and amiable-move species is relatively high in proportion.They are more apt to cause heavy metal pollution.

  16. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  17. Bioavailability of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Luzán, María Teresa; Echeverría Morrás, Jesús; Garrido Segovia, Julián José

    2002-01-01

    The recycling of sewage sludge to agricultural land results in the slow accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metals in soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the bioavailability of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn applied to soils in urban anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge. The soils were Lithic Haplumbrept (Lh), Calcixerollic Xerochrept (Cx1 and Cx2) and Paralithic Xerorthent (Px). Sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L) were grown in. the soils following amendment with the slu...

  18. Heavy metal ion sensors based on organic microcavity lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lozenko, Sergii

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental pollutants present at low concentrations requires creation of miniature, low-cost, and highly sensitive detectors that are capable to specifically identify target substances. In this thesis, a detection approach based on refractive index sensing with polymer micro-lasers is proposed and its application to the detection of heavy metal pollutants in water (mercury – Hg2+, cadmium – Cd2+ and lead – Pb2+) is studied. The resonance frequencies of the microcavity are hig...

  19. Deposition of sediment and associated heavy metals on floodplains

    OpenAIRE

    Thonon, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, floodplains have become widely acknowledged as important natural sinks for sediments and associated substances like nutrients, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals. The character of floodplains will change in the near future because of landscaping measures (excavation of secondary channels, lowering floodplains and removing minor embankments) and the rehabilitation of floodplain forests. In addition, climate and upstream land-use change will change the discharge frequency distribution...

  20. Analytical Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals in the Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffan, I.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in textile wastewater represent a major environmental problem, and are a potential danger to human health when present on textiles. Furthermore, the presence of some metals influences the production of textiles. Heavy metals are often used as oxidizing agents, as metal complex dyes, dye stripping agents, fastness improvers, and finishers. Thus, they act as hazardous sources throughout entire textile processing. Toxic effects of heavy metals on humans are well documented. Therefore, it is important to monitor heavy metals throughout the entire production. Today, maximum permissible values for metals in textiles are given by different regulations, according to which the heavy metals have to be determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. Several analytical procedures for the determination of heavy metals were tested for their application on textiles. The advantages and disadvantages of TLC, UV-VIS, GF-AAS, ICP-OES, and ICP-MS methods are discussed.

  1. Efficacy of Locust Beans Husk Char in Heavy Metal Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Ayodeji Ajayi-Banji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most solid waste management schemes minimally consider low concentration biodegradable agricultural waste management, though the environmental impact of this waste category is significant over a time frame. The column-mode study seeks to address the issue by suggesting potential utilisation of post-harvest waste for heavy metal sequestering. Locust beans husk char of 100 and 200 g was employed to inspect removal efficiency, isotherm and kinetic models of some heavy metals at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min contact time. Elemental composition of the biosorbent was investigated using the SEM-EDX machine. The results obtained depict that over 85% aluminium and nickel removal was achieved at 150 min detention time. The Freundlich isotherm well described most of the sorbates sorption (R2 ≥ 0.91. The sorption rate equally fitted into the second-order pseudo kinetic model (R2 ≥ 0.88. Ion exchange took place during the sorption. Locust beans husk has promising adsorption potential in heavy metal ions removal from fouled surface water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.4.13081

  2. Heavy metals determinations in dry and wet meteoric deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain is now widely studied by analyzing the parameters that characterize it. As the latest researches demonstrate, it is possible to further understanding of meteoric deposition (i.e. bulk, wet and dry) by the metering of such micropollutants as heavy metals. These are released into the atmosphere as by-products of household heating fuels and industrial wastes. This paper seeks to provide an assessment of certain heavy metals present in meteoric samples and link their presence to the actual state of the environment in which they were detected. Samples of bulk and wet depositions were collected weekly and those of dry deposition monthly so as to achieve a uniform and representative quantity of the latter for subsequent determination. Both the wet and dry samples were collected from the center and outskirts of a large urban community, whereas only wet samples were also collected in the vicinity of a power plant. The wet samples were treated with HNO3 up to pH 1.8 and analyzed by atomic absorption in a Perkin-Elmer 4000 graphite furnace. The elements analyzed were Ni, V, Cd, As, Zn, Cr, Se, Pb. The dry samples were homogenized in an agate mortar and analyzed by high resolution neutron activation gamma spectrometry. Radiation time and flow of the Triga Mark II reactor varied depending on isotope, i.e. whether long, medium or short life. The heavy metals analyzed were Fe, Ni, V, Zn, Cr, Co, As, Sb and some others

  3. EVALUATION OF LANDFILL POLLUTION WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Vaverková

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring leachate, groundwater and surface water aiming to determinate the concentration of heavy metals (Hg, Zn, Ni, Cr6+,Cd, Pb at the municipal solid waste landfill Štěpánovice took place in the years 2002–2010. The values of heavy metals concentration oscillated as follows: Zn (0.05 – 0.37 μg/dm3, Cr+6 (0.01 – 3.3 μg/dm3, Hg (0.0001 – 0.001 (μg/dm3, Ni (0.001 – 0.19 μg/dm3, Cd (0.001 – 0.007 μg/dm3 and Pb (0.002 – 0.176 μg/dm3. The measured data show that the concentrations of heavy metals met the limits provided by law. Under the current landfill operation mode, the results of measurements do not indicate any negative impact on the quality of surface water, groundwater or leachate water.

  4. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions.

  5. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  6. Heavy metal content of soil in urban parks of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanoski Maja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on soil pollution in four urban parks of Belgrade. The sampling locations within each park were chosen based on proximity to streets characterized by heavy traffic, and soil samples were taken at different depths down to 50 cm. Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were measured using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF spectrometer. The following average abundance order of heavy metals was found: Fe >> Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu in topsoil samples. The highest enrichment in topsoil was observed for Zn. Copper and Zn, metals mainly related to traffic emissions, exhibited the highest concentrations at the sampling location close to a bus and trolleybus terminus. The highest Ni and Cr concentrations were observed in a park located in a city suburb, where a large number of individual heating units is present. The largest decrease in concentrations with soil dept was observed for Zn and Cu, followed by Ni and Cr, in the parks with the highest concentrations of these elements in topsoil. Generally high topsoil Cr and Ni concentrations were observed in comparison with average values reported in literature for other world cities. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007

  7. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  8. Review: Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yan-de; HE Zhen-li; YANG Xiao-e

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes.

  9. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  10. Chitosan Removes Toxic Heavy Metal Ions from Cigarette Mainstream Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wen; XU Ying; WANG Dongfeng; ZHOU Shilu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan.Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages.The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad,digested by a microwave digestor,and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions,including As(Ⅲ/Ⅴ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ),by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ).Of these,the percent removal of Ni(Ⅱ) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan.Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ),though with poor efficiency for Pb(Ⅱ).Except As(Ⅲ/Ⅴ),all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight.Nonetheless,the percent removal of Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa,followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight.Generally,chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions,and the percent removal of Cd(Ⅱ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ) was approximately 55%,45%,50%,and 16%,respectively.In a word,chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke,improve cigarette safety,and reduce the harm to smokers.

  11. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  12. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Soil Affected by Different Soil Uses of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J. A.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy metals are a natural constituent of rocks, sediments and soils. However, the heavy metal content of top soils is also dependent on other sources than weathering of the indigenous minerals; input from atmospheric deposition seems to be an important pathway. Atmospheric deposition is defined as the process by which atmospheric pollutants are transferred to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces and is commonly classified as either dry or wet. The interest in atmospheric deposition has increased over the past decade due to concerns about the effects of deposited materials on the environment. Dry deposition provides a significant mechanism for the removal of particles from the atmosphere and is an important pathway for the loading of heavy metals into the soil ecosystem. Within the last decade, an intensive effort has been made to determine the atmospheric heavy metal deposition in both urban and rural areas. The main objective of this study was to identification of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in soil affected by different soil uses. Study area is located in Murcia Province (southeast of Spain), in the surroundings of Murcia City. The climate is typically semiarid Mediterranean with an annual average temperature of 18°C and precipitation of 350 mm. In order to determine heavy metals atmospheric deposition a sampling at different depths (0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm) was carried out in 7 sites including agricultural soils, two industrial areas and natural sites. The samples were taken to the laboratory where, dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve, and grinded. For the determination of the moisture the samples were weighed and oven dried at 105 °C for 24 h. The total amounts of metals (Pb, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni and Cr) were determined by digesting the samples with nitric/perchoric acids and measuring with ICP-MS. Results showed that zinc contamination in some samples of industrial areas was detected, even this contamination reaches 30 cm depth; thus it is

  13. Soil metatranscriptomics for mining eukaryotic heavy metal resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehembre, Frédéric; Doillon, Didier; David, Elise; Perrotto, Sandrine; Baude, Jessica; Foulon, Julie; Harfouche, Lamia; Vallon, Laurent; Poulain, Julie; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Richaud, Pierre; Colpaert, Jan V; Chalot, Michel; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Blaudez, Damien; Marmeisse, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Heavy metals are pollutants which affect all organisms. Since a small number of eukaryotes have been investigated with respect to metal resistance, we hypothesize that many genes that control this phenomenon remain to be identified. This was tested by screening soil eukaryotic metatranscriptomes which encompass RNA from organisms belonging to the main eukaryotic phyla. Soil-extracted polyadenylated mRNAs were converted into cDNAs and 35 of them were selected for their ability to rescue the metal (Cd or Zn) sensitive phenotype of yeast mutants. Few of the genes belonged to families known to confer metal resistance when overexpressed in yeast. Several of them were homologous to genes that had not been studied in the context of metal resistance. For instance, the BOLA ones, which conferred cross metal (Zn, Co, Cd, Mn) resistance may act by interfering with Fe homeostasis. Other genes, such as those encoding 110- to 130-amino-acid-long, cysteine-rich polypeptides, had no homologues in databases. This study confirms that functional metatranscriptomics represents a powerful approach to address basic biological processes in eukaryotes. The selected genes can be used to probe new pathways involved in metal homeostasis and to manipulate the resistance level of selected organisms. PMID:23663419

  14. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  15. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  16. Heavy metal pollution model of tailings and the pollution simulation by visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song; WU Chao; YANG Fu-qiang; BAO Rui-xue

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of whole mining process in metal mines,it was pointed out that the investigation of the heavy metal pollution of railings should be taken as an important project for a metal mine.Combined with the anlysis of the characteristics of tailings,it is found that the transformation of the heavy metal dissolution process,the heavy metal ions migration with groundwater and the heavy metal transport in porous media are three key aspects.Accordingly,the models of heavy metal pollution were established with providing boundary conditions.Depending upon a case of Tonglushan Copper Mine tailings and its relevant area from Google maps',a three-dimensional grid view of the tailings was set up.By application of Fluent software,the contaminated process of the heavy metal pollutants in the tailings was shown through digital visualization pattern.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms and Genetic Basis of Heavy Metal Tolerance/Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-E YANG; Xiao-Fen JIN; Ying FENG; Ejazul ISLAM

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation has gained increased attention as a cost-effective method for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites. Because some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, they manage to survive under metal stresses. High tolerance to heavy metal toxicity could rely either on reduced uptake or increased plant internal sequestration,which is manifested by an interaction between a genotype and its environment. The growing application of molecular genetic technologies has led to increased understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants and, subsequently, many transgenic plants with increased heavy metal resistance,as well as increased uptake of heavy metals, have been developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. In the present review, our major objective is to concisely evaluate the progress made so far in understanding the molecular/cellular mechanisms and genetic basis that control the uptake and detoxification of metals by plants.

  18. Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

    2009-04-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metal and, though it, of groundwater represent a serious alteration of original geochemical levels owing to various human activities as: particular industrial processes and their non-correct treatment emission, urban traffic, use of phytosanitary product and mineral fertilizer. Heavy metals are genotoxic contaminants who can be found by environmental matrix analysis or by examination of the genetic damage inducted, after exposition, to sentry organism. In this last case we use a relative quantitation of the gene expression monitoring the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism hepatopancreas's gene of the organism used by bioindicator. This test is based on consideration that the hepatopancreas is the first internal organ affected by heavy metals or any other pollutant that the organism is exposed. In this work, the organism used by bioindicator to evalutate the pollutant contamination of waste water is Danio rerio (Zebrafish) that is a little tropical fish of 2-3 cm, native on asiatic south-east rivers. This organism has a large use in scientific field because its genoma is almost completely mapped and, above all, because the congenital gene cause in human, if it was mutated in zebrafish, similar damage or almost similar mutation that happens in human being so you can develop a dose - response curve. To do this, after prepared a cadmium solution with a concentration 10 times the Italian normative limit, the organisms have been put in the aquarium to recreate the optimal condition to survival of zebrafish observed by continuous monitoring by web-cam. After one month exposition, that we took little by little sample fish to analyzing, for different exposition time, the hepatopancreas's fish. First results shows considerable variation of the gene expression by interested gene in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism compared to control, highlighting the mutagenity caused by heavy metals on Danio rerio's hepatopancreas and, mutatis mutandis, also in

  19. Heavy Metals Contamination of Road-Deposited Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Yisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Impact of anthropogenic activities on man and his environment as a result of the growing rate of urbanization in Bida, Nigeria is of a great concern. Street sediments that accumulate along pavements in urban environments have the potential to provide considerable loadings of heavy metals to receiving waters and water bodies, particularly with changing environmental conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the streets sediment contamination in Bida, Nigeria. Approach: Fifty five sediment samples were collected from four roads that experience intense traffic conditions and analyzed in the laboratory for some heavy metals by atomic absorption Spectrophotometric method and multivariate statistical techniques. Results: The overall decreasing metal concentration order was: Pb > Mn > Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. Significantly positive correlation was only found between Cd and organic matter (r = 0.580. Factor analysis shows that road deposited sediment quality data consists of four major components accounting for 77.11% of cumulative variance of the contamination: Ni, pH and silt + clay; Cr, Fe and organic matter; Mn and Zn and finally Cu and Pb. Discriminant analysis revealed that the first two Discriminate Functions (DF1 and DF2 contain 90.61% information for Cu, Pb and Ni accumulation. Conclusion: This study concluded that the concentrations of all metals measured in Bida can be considered to present a low level of contamination and that multivariate statistical analysis is a useful tool in understanding contaminants relationships.

  20. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation. PMID:27272918

  1. Heavy Metal Mobility in Polluted Soils: Effect of Different Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Zubillaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of biosolid compost and phytoremediation applied on the leaching of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc, through the different horizons of a superficially polluted soil were determined. The soil was from the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was contaminated with cadmium copper, lead and zinc. Leaching columns were used with three different horizons: A: 0.12 m A horizon, B: 0.12 m horizon A+0.15 Bt horizon and C: 0.12 m A horizon+0.15 m Bt horizon+0.13 m BC horizon. The treatments were i. Witness (contaminated soil, II. contaminated soil+plants (Plant, III. contaminated soil+50 Mg has-1 biosolid compost (Compost and iv. contaminated soil+50 Mg has-1 biosolid compost+plants (Compost-Plant. The leached ones were gathered after incorporating to the columns the following volumes of water A: 1000 mL, B: 1200 mL and C: 2000 mL. Leachates were obtained out after harvesting vegetal material. It was found that horizon Bt presents a barrier to metal leaching. Both concentration of clay and type of clay appears to immobilize heavy metals in those soils. The clay content over 40% and/or 53.4 g smectite g-1 soils reduce the heavy metal leaching. The application of organic amendment or occurrence of plant eventually used in remediation techniques did not influence on the leaching of metals.

  2. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  3. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  4. Barley HvHMA1 Is a Heavy Metal Pump Involved in Mobilizing Organellar Zn and Cu and Plays a Role in Metal Loading into Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela;

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...

  5. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    15th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (15th ICHMET) is a continuation of a series of conferences that have been held since 1975. These conferences typically draw 500-1000 participants from countries in many parts of the world. The ICHMETs are the only forum that provide an integrated perspective on research and policy initiatives on all heavy metals in a trans-disciplinary context. There is a need to understand not only the unique features and behavior of individual heavy metals but also the differences, similarities and interactions of different metals at the ecosystem, systemic and cellular levels if we are to deal with the problems of global heavy metal pollution in a sustainable manner. The presented contributions concerned problems: (1) trend tracking/analysis of heavy metals data; (2) analytical tools and techniques; (3) heavy metals in the marine environment; (4) accumulation in foods and crops; (5) soil contamination; (6) heavy metals in sediments and remediation technologies; (7) effects on human health; (8) heavy metals in the atmosphere; (9) sources, emissions and control of heavy metals; (10) phytoremediation; (11) wastewater treatment; (12) heavy metals in the historical pollution record.

  6. Heavy metals accumulation and possible translocation in seagrass, Zostera capricorni Aschers

    OpenAIRE

    Ambo-Rappe, Rohani

    2008-01-01

    Seagrass, Zostera capricorni was used to indicate heavy metal pollution in this study. The following hypothese were tested: (1) there will be higher concentrations of heavy metals in seagrass tissue in polluted than control locations, (2) there will be different accumulation patters of the non-essential and essential metals in different parts of seagrass (leaves vs roots/rhizomes). Seven locations were chosen along the western side of Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. Heavy metal co...

  7. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Waseem; Jahanzaib Arshad; Farhat Iqbal; Ashif Sajjad; Zahid Mehmood; Ghulam Murtaza

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food c...

  8. Concentration levels of heavy metals in muscle tissue of european hake (Merluccius merluccius)

    OpenAIRE

    ENKELEDA OZUNI; LULJETA DHASKALI; EGON ANDONI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and monitor the concentration level of heavy metals namely, Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr in muscle tissue of Merluccius merluccius (European hake) species. The concentration level of heavy metals in muscle tissue was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result of the investigation revealed that heavy metals are present in Merluccius merluccius at different concentration values. The distribution of metals followed this order: Cd>Cr>Hg>Pb....

  9. Determining the level of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Gulf of Chabahar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bazzi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Generally, concentration of heavy metals in the study area was less than the quality guidelines for sediments and water. However, between different stations, higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in stations nearby the fishing ports. The results show that increase in the concentrations of heavy metals can contribute considerable impacts on the pollution level due to fishing boats in the study area; although some metals are also of natural origin.

  10. Heavy metals in estuarine surface sediments of the Hai River Basin, variation characteristics, chemical speciation and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pei; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Lv, Shucong; Tang, Wenzhong

    2016-04-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to the high regional population density and rapid economic development. The estuaries of the HRB, which receive pollutants from terrestrial rivers, may subsequently suffer potential pollution and result in ecological risk of heavy metals. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in estuarine surface sediments from 10 estuaries of the HRB to investigate their variation characteristics and ecological risks. The spatial difference of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sediments was higher than that of the rest two elements. The Yongdingxin Estuary (YDX) and Ziyaxin Estuary (ZYX) in the Northern Hai River System (NHRS) were the most severe in terms of heavy metal contamination. According to the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) classification, Cd associated with the exchangeable and carbonate fraction (the average of 21.3 %) indicated medium risk to high risk. More than 50 % of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn on average were associated with the residual fraction. Based on the sum of the first three fractions (exchangeable and carbonate + reducible + oxidizable), the mobility order of these heavy metals was Cd >Pb > Zn ≈ Cu > Ni > Cr. Compared to the background values of cinnamon soil, the potential ecological risk index (RI) values ranged from 25.6 to 168, with an average of 91.2, indicating a low ecological risk in estuarine sites of the HRB. Cd and Pb were the dominant contributors to the toxic-response factor (45.8 and 25.5 %, respectively). The results give insight into the different control measures pertaining to heavy metal pollution and risk for both relatively clean estuaries and urban seriously polluted areas, respectively, for the formation of protect strategies of aquatic environment in the HRB. PMID:26758307

  11. Metallothionein as biomarker of mussel exposure to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effect of marine pollution with heavy metals is followed in bivalves by means of the induced amount of metallothioneins (MTs), determined in different tissue types. The biological effect of the available toxic metals, cadmium and mercury, are related to the amount of MTs in the whole edible part, gills and the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis. For that purpose highly sensitive chemical and biochemical methods for metal and metallothionein content determination were developed and applied. The study was conducted in the Kastela Bay, which is the urban and industrial center of Dalmatia, Croatia, with two groups of mussels, indigenous and the transplanted. In accordance with the objective of the Symposium the results on monitoring the marine pollution by means of MTs as a biomarker, isolated from the edible, sessile and filter-feeding bivalves are discussed. (author)

  12. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by fimbrial designer adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, Kristian; Klemm, Per

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring adhesins bind to specific molecular targets in a lock-and-key fashion due to the composition of the binding domain of the adhesin. By introduction of random peptide libraries in a suitable surface exposed carrier protein it is possible to create and select designer adhesins wi...... for the bioaccumulation of heavy metals from the environment. (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved........ By serial selection and enrichment procedures specific sequences were identified which conferred the ability on recombinant cells to adhere to various metal oxides (PbO2, CoO, MnO2, Cr2O3 ) The properties inherent in these sequences permitted the distinct recognition of metals to varying degrees, indicating...

  13. Trace enrichment of metal ions in aquatic environments by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapolelo, M; Torto, N

    2004-09-01

    Sorption properties of baker's yeast cells, characterised as Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated for trace enrichment of metal ions: Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cr(6+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) from aqueous environments. Metal concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Parameters affecting metal uptake such as solution pH, incubation time, amount of yeast biomass and effect of glucose concentration (energy source) were optimised. Further studies were carried out to evaluate the effects on metal uptake after treating yeast with glucose as well as with an organic solvent. The results showed that trace enrichment of the metals under study with yeast, depends upon the amount of yeast biomass, pH and incubation time. Treatment of yeast cells with 10-20mM glucose concentration enhanced metal uptake with exception to Cr(6+), whose metal enrichment capacity decreased at glucose concentration of 60mM. Of the investigated organic solvents THF and DMSO showed the highest and lowest capacity, respectively, to enhance metal uptake by yeast cells. Trace enrichment of metal ions from stream water, dam water, treated wastewater from a sewage plant and wastewater from an electroplating plant achieved enrichment factors (EF) varying from 1 to 98, without pre-treatment of the sample. pH adjustment further enhanced the EF for all samples. The results from these studies demonstrate that yeast is a viable trace metal enrichment media that can be used freely suspended in solution to achieve very high EF in aquatic environments. PMID:18969566

  14. Analytical fractionation of aquatic humic substances and their metal species by means of multistage ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aster, B; Burba, P; Broekaert, J A

    1996-03-01

    The molecular-size fractionation of aquatic humic substances (HS) and their metal species by means of a novel sequential-stage ultrafiltration (UF) device equipped with five appropriate ultramembranes (1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kD) is described. First of all, the concentration dynamics of macromolecules, particulary HS, during five-stage UF and its subsequent washing step has been modelled. Based on these results, the fractionation of aquatic HS (from ground and bog water) by means of multistage UF has been optimized for an analytical scale (10 ml sample, 1 mg/ml HS, 10 ml washing solution, pH 6.0). The molecular size-distribution of selected aquatic HS (BOC 1/2 from the "DFG-Versuchsfeld Bocholt", VM 5 from "Venner Moor", Germany) studied by five-stage UF exhibited strong systematic influences of the procedure used for their isolation. The molecular-size distribution of HS obtained by on-line UF and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed a satisfactory agreement in the range 1-50 kD. Moreover, when interrupting multistage UF for > 48 h a slow transformation in the HS samples has been found as gradually additional HS fractions of 50 kD, which seemed to be rather acid-inert. With complexation times of 10 kD) has been found.

  15. Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. L.

    1999-02-26

    In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that

  16. Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by activated phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elouear, Z. [Laboratoire Eau Energie et Environnement, Departement de genie geologique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038, Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: zouheir.elouaer@tunet.tn; Bouzid, J.; Boujelben, N. [Laboratoire Eau Energie et Environnement, Departement de genie geologique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038, Sfax (Tunisia); Feki, M. [Unite de chimie industriel I, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Jamoussi, F. [Laboratoire de Georessources CERTE BP 95, 2050 Hamam-Lif (Tunisia); Montiel, A. [Societe Anonyme de Gestion des Eaux de Paris, 9 rue Schoelcher, 75675 Paris cedex 14 (France)

    2008-08-15

    The use of natural adsorbent such as phosphate rock to replace expensive imported synthetic adsorbent is particularly appropriate for developing countries such as Tunisia. In this study, the removal characteristics of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc ions from aqueous solution by activated phosphate rock were investigated under various operating variables like contact time, solution pH, initial metal concentration and temperature. The kinetic and the sorption process of these metal ions were compared for phosphate rock (PR) and activated phosphate rock (APR). To accomplish this objective we have: (a) characterized both (PR) and (APR) using different techniques (XRD, IR) and analyses (EDAX, BET-N{sub 2}); and, (b) qualified and quantified the interaction of Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} with these sorbents through batch experiments. Initial uptake of these metal ions increases with time up to 1 h for (PR) and 2 h for (APR), after then, it reaches equilibrium. The maximum sorption obtained for (PR) and (APR) is between pH 2 and 3 for Pb{sup 2+} and 4 and 6 for Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. The effect of temperature has been carried out at 10, 20 and 40 deg. C. The data obtained from sorption isotherms of metal ions at different temperatures fit to linear form of Langmuir sorption equation. The heat of sorption ({delta}H{sup o}), free energy ({delta}G{sup o}) and change in entropy ({delta}S{sup o}) were calculated. They show that sorption of Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}on (PR) and (APR) an endothermic process. These findings are significant for future using of (APR) for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater under realistic competitive conditions in terms of initial heavy metals, concentrations and pH.

  17. Exploratory Evaluation of Retranslocation and Bioconcentration of Heavy Metals in Three Species of Mangrove at Las Cucharillas Marsh, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lorraine Mejías

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in the coastal area of Cataño, Puerto Rico accountable to anthropogenic sources is of great concern due to the risk posed over the surrounding communities and adjacent ecosystems. Estuarine ecosystems are widely recognized for the presence of mangroves. This type of flora is recognized for their many beneficial properties for example, the ability to purge aquatic ecosystems where they stand. Exploratory analyses on the phytoaccumulative capacity of three mangrove species for ten metals (Hg, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Zn were performed in this research. Random soil samples and both green and senescent leaves of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans from three different sites of Peninsula La Esperanza were analyzed in order to apply the retranslocation efficiency (RT% and bioconcentration factor (BCF concepts. After calculating the RT% and the BCF, comparison analyses among the three mangrove species were performed. In general, the results showed low RT% values for Avicennia in comparison with Rhizophora and Laguncularia. BCF values confirmed RT% results for Avicennia, showing higher heavy metal concentrations in its senescent leaves in contrast with the other species. Therefore, these preliminary results suggest that Rhizophora and Laguncularia act better as phytoremediators for heavy metals in polluted areas due to their ability to accumulate lower concentrations in senescent leaves; preventing further contamination in surrounding ecosystems by encapsulating the pollutants instead of exporting them.

  18. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M U; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Nawi, S M; Usman, A R; Amin, Y M; Daar, E; Bradley, D A; Ahmed, H; Okhunov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  19. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Straits of Malacca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Khandaker

    Full Text Available The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  20. Analysis of industrial impact on physiochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations in waters of river Majidun, Molatori and Ibeshe around Ikorodu in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.E. Bolawa; Gbenle, G.O

    2012-01-01

    The pollution of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals has assumed serious proportion due to their toxicity and accumulative behavior. Various hydrochemical parameters of river water (pH, total dissolved solid, sulfate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium) in these rivers around Ikorodu were studied in 2005. The main aim of this study is to assess the impact of effluent discharge on the water quality of rivers Majidun, Molatori and Ibeshe. Physiochemical parameters including pH, total solids, total diss...