WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic ecosystems pollution

  1. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  2. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, Cecilia

    1999-04-01

    The load of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered high in the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea spans over 12 latitudes and the regional differences in climate affect the behavior of POPs. Therefore spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of POPs in air and precipitation within this area has been investigated at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990-1993. In addition, the deposition of gaseous and particulate associated POPs to the Baltic Sea is estimated from empirical data. This atmospheric input of POPs is compared with the input from rivers. Additionally, data from Ross Island, Antarctica and Lake Kariba, Zimbabve, Africa is presented, and all results are discussed and explained using the `global fractionation hypothesis` as a framework. In the Baltic Sea, concentration of individual POPs in air were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient air temperature and location. A latitudinal gradient, with higher levels in the south was found for PCBs and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners in air increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentration increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic, or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites. The concentrations of individual congeners in precipitation were found to be influenced by atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, ambient temperature, precipitation volume and

  3. Fuzzy model for risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, X; Pujolasus, E; Betrò, S; Agueda, A; Casal, J; Ocampo-Duque, W; Rudolph, I; Barra, R; Páez, M; Barón, E; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D; Darbra, R M

    2013-07-01

    We developed a model for evaluating the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to aquatic organisms. The model is based on fuzzy theory and uses information provided by international experts through a questionnaire. It has been tested in two case studies for a particular type of POPs: brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The first case study is related to the EU-funded AQUATERRA project, with sampling campaigns carried out in two Ebro tributaries in Spain (the Cinca and Vero Rivers). The second one, named the BROMACUA project, assessed different aquatic ecosystems in Chile (San Vicente Bay) and Colombia (Santa Marta Marsh). In both projects, the BFRs under study were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). However, the model can be extrapolated to other POPs and to different aquatic ecosystems to provide useful results for decision-makers. PMID:23524177

  4. Impact of petroleum pollution on aquatic coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although oil activities generate numerous forms of environmental impact on biological communities, studies of these impacts on Brazilian coastal ecosystems are rate. Results of tests for the content of oil in sediments and organisms indicate a substantially high rate of degradation. Results for uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bivalves suggested the recent occurrence of oil spills and that these organisms differed in their capabilities to bioconcentrate oil. The mangrove community has suffered constant inputs of oil and has responded with increased numbers of aerial roots, generation of malformed leaves and fruits by plants, and a decrease in litter production. Studies of the impact of oil on rocky shore communities and the toxicity of oil and its by-products to marine organisms have confirmed the results reported in the literature. Presently most of the available studies deal with the macroscopic effects of oil on organisms and have indicated that the nature of oil, climate characteristics, the physical environment, and the structure of the community influence the symptoms of oil contamination in organisms of coastal waters. Long-term studies should be carried out to assess changes in community structure, sublethal effects in populations, and the resilience of contaminated ecosystems

  5. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavymetal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. Heavymetal contamination in aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of industrial effluents may pose a serious threat to human health. Alkaline precipitation, ion exchange columns, electrochemical removal, filtration, and membrane technologies are the currently available technologies for heavy metal removal. These conventional technologies are not economical and may produce adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Phytoremediation of metals is a cost-effective "green" technology based on the use of specially selected metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals from soils and water. Wetland plants are important tools for heavy metal removal. The Ramsar convention, one of the earlier modern global conservation treaties, was adopted at Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 and became effective in 1975. This convention emphasized the wise use of wetlands and their resources. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. The extensive rhizosphere of wetland plants provides an enriched culture zone for the microbes involved in degradation. The wetland sediment zone provides reducing conditions that are conducive to the metal removal pathway. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavymetal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some

  7. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  8. From a microcosm to the catchment scale: studying the fate of organic runoff pollutants in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, T.; Schroll, R.

    2009-04-01

    Spray-drift, drainage, erosion and runoff events are the major causes responsible for deportation of agrochemicals as micropollutants to aquatic non-target sites. These processes can lead to the contamination of nearby freshwater ecosystems with considerably high concentrations of xenobiotics. Thus, it is important to unravel the fate of these pollutants and to evaluate their ecological effects. A novel approach to address this goal was established by the development of a microcosm with multiple sampling abilities enabling quantitative assessment of organic volatilisation, mineralization, metabolization and distribution within the aquatic ecosystem. This microcosm system was designed to support modelling approaches of the catchment scale and gain insights into the fate of pesticides simulating a large scale water body. The potential of this microcosm was exemplified for Isoproturon (IPU), a phenylurea derived systemic herbicide, which is frequently found as contaminant in water samples and with the free-floating macrophyte Lemna minor as non-target species, that is common to occur in rural water bodies. During 21 days exposure time, only a small amount of 14C labeled IPU was removed from the aquatic medium. The major portion (about 5%) was accumulated by Lemna minor resulting in a BCF of 15.8. IPU-volatilisation was very low with 0.13% of the initially applied herbicide. Only a minor amount of IPU was completely metabolized, presumably by rhizosphere microorganisms and released as 14CO2. The novel experimental system allowed to quantitatively investigate the fate of IPU and showed a high reproducibility with a mean average 14C-recovery rate of 97.1

  9. Bibliography of selected references on the effects of coal mine pollutants on aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, T F; Daniels, L K; Olsen, R D; Johnson, D O

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains more than 1400 references dealing with field and laboratory research on potential toxicities and disturbances known or postulated to be caused by pollutants found in coal mine effluents. The first of the three sections into which the bibliography is divided contains a select list of published bibliographies and literature reviews. In the second section are references on mine drainage studies, general references on environmental pollutants, and references dealing with two or more specific parameters. The third section includes references for 40 parameters under individual parameter headings. The multi parameter references in the second section are therefore also listed in the third section under individual headings. An author index is also provided.

  10. Heavy metal pollution induced due to coal mining effluent on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and its management through naturally occurring aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, V.K.; Upadhyaya, A.R.; Pandey, S.K.; Tripathi, B.D. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2008-03-15

    Three aquatic plants Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhhiza were used in laboratory for the removal of heavy metals from the coal mining effluent. Plants were grown singly as well as in combination during 21 days phytoremediation experiment. Results revealed that combination of E. crassipes and L. minor was the most efficient for the removal of heavy metals while E. crassipes was the most efficient in monoculture. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Translocation factor i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of aquatic macrophytes. Analytical results showed that plant roots have accumulated heavy metals approximately 10 times of its initial concentration. These plants were also subjected to toxicity assessment and no symptom of metal toxicity was found therefore, this method can be applied on the large scale treatment of waste water where volumes generated are very high and concentrations of pollutants are low.

  11. An aquatic ecosystem in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeste, D; Andriske, M; Paris, F; Levine, H G; Blum, V

    1999-07-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Mini-Module experiment was designed to study aquatic ecosystem performance within a middeck locker on the Space Shuttle. CEBAS was flown aboard STS-89 in January 1998 with a population of four pregnant Xiphophorus helleri female fish and eleven adult Biomphalaria glabrata snails in the first compartment and 200 juvenile X. helleri and 48 adult and juvenile B. glabrata in the second compartment. A plant compartment contained eleven snails and 53 g of the aquatic angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum. During the flight, Ceratophyllum fresh weight increased from 53 g to 117 g. All adult fish and 65 juveniles survived the flight experiment and 37 adult snails and 40 newly laid snail spawn packs were recovered after the flight. Oxygen production and pH were as expected.

  12. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  13. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  14. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  15. Spatial Pattern Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystem Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales. It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs retrieved from Remote Sensing i

  16. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Daniela Urdeş; Cristiana Diaconescu; Geanina Vlase; Daniela Ianiţchi; Ştefan Diaconescu; Marius Hangan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts), to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out ...

  17. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  18. Constructed wetlands to reduce metal pollution from industrial catchments in aquatic Mediterranean ecosystems: a review to overcome obstacles and suggest potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Philippe, Anna; Masotti, Véronique; Höhener, Patrick; Boudenne, Jean-Luc; Viglione, Julien; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-03-01

    In the Mediterranean area, surface waters often have low discharge or renewal rates, hence metal contamination from industrialised catchments can have a high negative impact on the physico-chemical and biological water quality. In a context of climate and anthropological changes, it is necessary to provide an integrative approach for the prevention and control of metal pollution, in order to limit its impact on water resources, biodiversity, trophic network and human health. For this purpose, introduction of constructed wetlands (CWs) between natural aquatic ecosystems and industrialised zones or catchments is a promising strategy for eco-remediation. Analysis of the literature has shown that further research must be done to improve CW design, selection and management of wetland plant species and catchment organisation, in order to ensure the effectiveness of CWs in Mediterranean environments. Firstly, the parameters of basin design that have the greatest influence on metal removal processes must be identified, in order to better focus rhizospheric processes on specific purification objectives. We have summarised in a single diagram the relationships between the design parameters of a CW basin and the physico-chemical and biological processes of metal removal, on the basis of 21 mutually consistent papers. Secondly, in order to optimise the selection and distribution of helophytes in CWs, it is necessary to identify criteria of choice for the plant species that will best fit the remediation objectives and environmental and economic constraints. We have analysed the factors determining plant metal uptake efficiency in CWs on the basis of a qualitative meta-analysis of 13 studies with a view to determine whether the part played by metal uptake by plants is relevant in comparison with the other removal processes. Thirdly, we analysed the parameters to consider for establishing suitable management strategies for CWs and how they affect the whole CW design process

  19. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  20. Measuring Complexity in an Aquatic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Nelson; Gershenson, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We apply formal measures of emergence, self-organization, homeostasis, autopoiesis and complexity to an aquatic ecosystem; in particular to the physiochemical component of an Arctic lake. These measures are based on information theory. Variables with an homogeneous distribution have higher values of emergence, while variables with a more heterogeneous distribution have a higher self-organization. Variables with a high complexity reflect a balance between change (emergence) and regularity/orde...

  1. Aquatic pollution increases use of terrestrial prey subsidies by stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pomeranz, Justin F.; Todd, Andrew S.; Walters, David M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Stream food webs are connected with their riparian zones through cross-ecosystem movements of energy and nutrients. The use and impact of terrestrial subsidies on aquatic consumers is determined in part by in situ biomass of aquatic prey. Thus, stressors such as aquatic pollutants that greatly reduce aquatic secondary production could increase the need for and reliance of stream consumers on terrestrial resource subsidies.

  2. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  3. The Beddington-De Angelis and the HTII product response functions: Application to polluted ecosystems biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulai, Iulia Martina; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider an aquatic ecosystem consisting of bacteria, organic pollutants and dissolved oxygen. By formulating two suitable mathematical models for their interactions, we investigate the sustainability in time of this ecosystem.

  4. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based......" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes...

  5. Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems in Boreal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schindler

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Few boreal waters are managed in a sustainable manner, because cumulative effects of a variety of human activities are not considered. Fisheries and water quality have declined in most large water bodies of the southern boreal zone. Some of the reasons are direct, including overexploitation of fisheries, alteration of flow patterns, introductions of non-native species, and discharge of eutrophying nutrients and persistent contaminants. However, improper management of watersheds and airsheds also causes degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Clear-cut logging, climatic warming, acid precipitation, and stratospheric ozone depletion are among the more important of these indirect stressors. There are important interactions among these stressors, requiring that they not be treated in isolation. Ecological sustainability of boreal waters would require that exploitation of all parts of the boreal landscape be much lower than it is at present. Unfortunately, management for sustainability is lagging far behind scientific understanding in most countries.

  6. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  7. Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrington, J W

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussing chemical and geochemical aspects of biogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of...

  8. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...

  9. Development of resource shed delineation in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical fo...

  10. Toxicity assessment of boron (B) by Lemna minor L. and Lemna gibba L. and their possible use as model plants for ecological risk assessment of aquatic ecosystems with boron pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Nurcan; Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun

    2016-08-01

    As many of the metalloid-based pollutants, the boron (B) toxicity issues have aroused more and more global attentions, especially concerning drinking water sources which flow through boron-rich areas. Therefore, feasible and innovative approaches are required in order to assess B toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the toxic effects of B on Lemna minor L. and Lemna gibba L. were investigated using various endpoints including number of fronds, growth rates, dry biomass and antioxidants enzymatic activities. Lemna species were exposed to B concentrations of 2 (control), 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg L(-1) for a test period of 7 days. The results demonstrated that plant growth was significantly reduced when the B concentration reached 16 mg L(-1). Furthermore, our results also concluded that among the antioxidative enzymes, SOD, APX and GPX can serve as important biomarkers for B-rich environment. The present results suggested that L. minor and L. gibba are very useful model plants for phytoremediation of low-B contaminated wastewater and they are also suitable options for B biomonitoring due to high phototoxic sensitivity against B. In this respect, the scientific insight of the present study is to fill the gaps in the research about the use of L. minor and L. gibba in ecotoxicological research associated with B toxicity. PMID:27192627

  11. Investigations of Altered Aquatic Ecosystems: Biomonitoring, Disease, and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Kevin Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Changes to hydrology, water chemistry, physical habitat, and the landscape surrounding aquatic ecosystems can have profound effects on their biological communities, potentially reducing important ecosystem services and functions provided to wildlife and humans. In this dissertation, I examine how environmental variables, human activities, and management practices have affected stream and wetland biota throughout Northern California. The parasitic trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to...

  12. An automated platform for phytoplankton ecology and aquatic ecosystem monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomati, F.; Jokela, J.; Simona, M.; Veronesi, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    High quality monitoring data are vital for tracking and understanding the causes of ecosystem change. We present a potentially powerful approach for phytoplankton and aquatic ecosystem monitoring, based on integration of scanning flow-cytometry for the characterization and counting of algal cells wi

  13. Herbivores Enforce Sharp Boundaries Between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, Judith M.; Huig, N.; Veen, G. F.; Rip, W.; Bakker, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    The transitions between ecosystems (ecotones) are often biodiversity hotspots, but we know little about the forces that shape them. Today, often sharp boundaries with low diversity are found between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This has been attributed to environmental factors that hamper suc

  14. Ecotoxicological Studies on Egyptian Aquatic Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameeh A. Mansour

    2004-01-01

    @@ Within the framework of a national research project, Egyptianaquatic ecosystems represented by Lakes of Qarun and Wadi El-Rayan,aswell as other related ecosystems, were subjected to certain toxicologicalstudies.

  15. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.;

    2012-01-01

    Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv......) avoid 're-inventing the wheel', thus accelerating improvements to aquatic ecosystem models. We intend to achieve this as a community that fosters interactions amongst ecologists and model developers. Further, we outline scientific topics recently articulated by the scientific community, which lend...

  16. Interfaces in aquatic ecosystems: Implications for transport and impact of anthropogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knulst, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mechanisms that govern transport, accumulation and toxicity of persistent pollutants at interfaces in aquatic ecosystems were the foci of this thesis. Specific attention was paid to humic substances, their occurrence, composition, and role in exchange processes across interfaces. It was concluded that: The composition of humic substances in aquatic surface microlayers is different from that of the subsurface water and terrestrial humic matter. Levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic surface microlayer reflect the DOC levels in the subsurface water. While the levels and enrichment of DOC in the microlayer generally show small variations, the levels and enrichment of particulate organic carbon (POC) vary to a great extent. Similarities exist between aquatic surface films, artificial semi-permeable and biological membranes regarding their structure and functioning. Acidification and liming of freshwater ecosystems affect DOC:POC ratio and humic composition of the surface film, thus influencing the partitioning of pollutants across aquatic interfaces. Properties of lake catchment areas extensively govern DOC:POC ratio both in the surface film and subsurface water. Increased UV-B irradiation changes the DOC:POC ratio in the surface film and thus affect transfer of matter across the interface. Transport of lipophilic, persistent organic pollutants across semi-permeable membranes is influenced by the solutes organic composition. 106 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  17. Effects of modifications of aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies under this program historically have been concerned with the effects of a variety of stress factors on aquatic populations and communities. Current research was focused principally on ionizing radiation, and includes studies on the interaction of acute radiation and temperature on fish, the in situ measurement of radiation exposure in an aquatic environment, and the uptake and retention of tritium in a simulated pond community. In response to the expanded responsibilities of the recently formed Energy Research and Development Administration in dealing with all forms of energy related problems, this program will be redirected in the coming year to nonnuclear energy research

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentès, Sophie; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Monperrus, Mathilde; André, Jean-Marc; Davail, Stéphane; Legeay, Alexia

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs.

  19. Algal Bloom in Aquatic Ecosystems-an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Algae play an important role in all aquatic ecosystems by providing all living organisms of water bodies with preliminary nutrients and energy required. However, abnormal and excessive algal growth so-called algal bloom would be detrimental as much. Given the importance of algae in aquatic environment as well as their sensitivity to environmental changes, algal measurements are of key components of water quality monitoring programs. The algal blooms could include a variety of adverse impacts on environmental, social, cultural and economic environments. The present study is an overview on the algal growth, its mechanisms and mitigating strategies in aquatic ecosystems whereas in spite of the growing knowledge of human being of ecological, physiological, and functional conditions of eutrophication, a systematic understanding of algal blooms is still lacking.

  20. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  1. Cyanobacteria blooms: effects on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Karl E

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria become increasingly dominant as concentrations of TP and TN increase during eutrophication of lakes, rivers and estuaries. Temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria blooms are variable--in some systems persistent blooms occur in summer to fall, whereas in other systems blooms are more sporadic. Cyanobacteria blooms have a wide range of possible biological impacts including potential toxic effects on other algae, invertebrates and fish, impacts to plants and benthic algae due to shading, and impacts to food web function as large inedible algae produce a bottleneck to C and energy flow in the plankton food web. In lakes with dense blooms of cyanobacteria, accumulation of organic material in lake sediments and increased bacterial activity also may lead to anoxic conditions that alter the structure of benthic macro-invertebrates. Diffusive internal P loading may increase, and hypolimnetic anoxia may lead to a loss of piscivorous fish that require a summer cold water refuge in temperate lakes. Ecosystem changes associated with frequent blooms may result in delayed response of lakes, rivers and estuaries to external nutrient load reduction. Despite numerous case studies and a vast literature on species-specific responses, community level effects of cyanobacterial blooms are not well understood--in particular the realized impacts of toxins and changes in food web structure/function. These areas require additional research given the prevalence of toxic blooms in the nation's lakes, rivers and coastal waters--systems that provide a wide range of valued ecosystem services. PMID:18461790

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A panel of experts in November 1971 specifically considered the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms and ecosystems and formulated detailed suggestions for research in the area. A further panel meeting took place in April 1974. The results of the work are presented in this report which is divided into 3 chapters in the first chapter the concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in aquatic environments and the radiation dose rates received by aquatic organisms are discussed. In particular, simple dosimetry models for phytoplankton, zooplankton, mollusca, crustacea and fish are presented which permit the estimation of the dose rates from incorporated radionuclides and from radionuclides in the external environment. In the second chapter the somatic and genetic effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms are reviewed. Somatic effects are discussed separately as effects due to short-term (acute) exposure to near-lethal doses of radiation. Great attention is paid to the effects due to long-term (chronic) exposure at lower doses rates. Consideration is given to behaviour, repair mechanisms and metabolic stimulation after exposure, and also the influence of environmental factors on radiation effects. In the third chapter the potential effects of low-level irradiation on aquatic populations are considered. First, the possible consequences of somatic effects on egg and larval mortality, stock-recruitment, fecundity and ecosystem stability are discussed. Subsequently, the assessment of genetic effects as they relate to population genetics and increased mutation rates are considered

  3. Modeling the ecological impact of heavy metals on aquatic ecosystems: a framework for the development of an ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M; Wang, Z; Tang, H

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, an ecological model is proposed to predict the effects of heavy metals on aquatic ecosystems. The bioavailable concentration of metals and a concept of toxicity strength (TS) are combined. The integrated ecological model relates the transport, distribution and speciation of heavy metals and their toxicity, and the effect of environmental variability on metal toxicity. It also emphasizes the link between physical and chemical processes of heavy metals in rivers and ecological effects. Based on the data obtained from research in the CERP project (Co-operative Ecological Research Project), the ecological impact of heavy metals on the aquatic ecosystem of the Le An River (polluted by heavy metals from a copper mine) was predicted. The results show that the estimated values of toxicity strength for surface water are in agreement with the percentage inhibition for the test organism (P. phosphoreum) and that the predicted ecological effect of polluted sediment is consistent with natural variability in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:11258829

  4. The need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters

    OpenAIRE

    Onyari, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The need for baseline data on pollution studies to the aquatic biota of Kenyan Inland waters is of profound importance. Aware of the possible contamination of the rivers and Lakes with heavy metals, pesticides and other pollutants used around them for the control of tropical diseases and treatment of agricultural crops, a monitoring programme is necessary.

  5. The behavior of 89Sr and tritium water (HTO) in a model terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of land polluted by 89Sr on water body and the immigration of HTO from water body to land were studied in a modelling terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem. The results are as follows: (1) The 89Sr in soil quickly migrated to common bean plants and its concentration in common bean plants was increasing with the time, but the concentration of 89Sr in soil was exponentially declining with the depth. About 5% of 89Sr was migrated to water body by rainfall then distributed to other components, and it can be concentrated by aquatics in a certain degree. (2) when HTO entered into the water body, it would migrate to other components of the ecosystem. and the HTO in the pool was linearly decreasing with the time. However, the concentration of HTO in the sediments and aquatics would firstly increase then reached the peak and went down. The tritium of HTO was existed in two forms in the sediments and aquatics, free water (HTO) and bound tritium. HTO was also migrated to the adjacent land soil and absorbed by land crop plants, within one and half months the land system contained 24% of the total tritium in the aquatic system

  6. Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: Bistability and soil phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R Carpenter

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication (the overenrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients leading to algal blooms and anoxic events) is a persistent condition of surface waters and a widespread environmental problem. Some lakes have recovered after sources of nutrients were reduced. In others, recycling of phosphorus from sediments enriched by years of high nutrient inputs causes lakes to remain eutrophic even after external inputs of phosphorus are decreased. Slow flux of phosphorus from overfertilized soils ...

  7. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    alteration). Considering the strong trophic links that characterize aquatic ecosystems, this framework is relevant to anticipate the far-reaching consequences of biological invasions on the structure and functionality of aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  9. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, James R.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  10. Agrochemical residue-biota interactions in soil and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two FAO/IAEA coordinated research programmes are concerned with isotopic tracer-aided studies of agrochemical residue-biota interactions in soils and aquatic ecosystems. They currently involve 18 studies in 14 countries: Brazil, Canada, Egypt, F.R. Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, USA and USSR. The aim was to develop, standardize and apply labelled substrate techniques for comparative assays of primary autotrophic and microheterotrophic production and decay, and complementary tracer techniques to determine the fate, persistence and bioconcentration of trace contaminants. Comparable data were studied concerning the current status of water bodies and likely changes due to contaminants. Soil capacity to decompose undesirable contaminants and residues, and to promote desirable transformations were studied. The techniques were also applied as a diagnostic and prognostic tool, with priority given to rice ecosystems

  11. Physical Thresholds as Ecological Proxies in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, M. B.; Gaines, D. B.; Morrison, R. R.; Sada, D. W.; Scoppettone, G. G.; Stone, M. C.; Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Wilson, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    It is often difficult to directly quantify ecological thresholds and predict ecological responses to changing environmental conditions. Here, we present two case studies from Death Valley National Park - Devils Hole and Travertine Springs - in which physical parameters are used as proxies for ecological processes to assess the consequences of environmental change on aquatic ecosystems. In Devils Hole, seasonal thresholds for water temperature and food availability are defined to quantify the optimal recruitment window for the Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). At Travertine Springs, physical thresholds of water depth, velocity, and temperature are used to define the spatial extent of the preferred habitat of several threatened macroinvertebrate species. In both systems, mechanistic models are developed to predict the response of those physical thresholds to changing environmental conditions informed by climate change scenarios and potential changes in water availability. By examining the temporal and spatial response of targeted physical parameters to alternative scenarios, we can assess potential ecosystem impacts without direct measurement of ecological processes.

  12. 75 FR 18499 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields'' (EPA/600/R-09/138A) and (2... Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields'' and ``A Field-based Aquatic...

  13. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  14. Synthesis report: program ecosystems, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Ecosystems, Transports, Pollution Program'' ETP Program, has been elaborated to evaluate the road pollution impacts on the mountain ecosystems. Four mountains valleys have been chosen: two in Alps (Chamonix and Maurienne) and two in Pyrenees (Biriatou and Vallee d'Aspe). This Program presents six objectives: the road traffic characterization, the pollutants emission estimation, the pollutants concentrations in the air, the pollutants dispersion according to relief, the relationships between pollutants emissions and bio-monitoring, the road pollution effects on nearby ecosystems. (A.L.B.)

  15. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-12-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  16. Synthesis report: program ecosystems, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001; Rapport de synthese: programme ecosystemes, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchelecou, A.; Deletraz, G.; Elichegaray, Ch

    2001-04-01

    The ''Ecosystems, Transports, Pollution Program'' ETP Program, has been elaborated to evaluate the road pollution impacts on the mountain ecosystems. Four mountains valleys have been chosen: two in Alps (Chamonix and Maurienne) and two in Pyrenees (Biriatou and Vallee d'Aspe). This Program presents six objectives: the road traffic characterization, the pollutants emission estimation, the pollutants concentrations in the air, the pollutants dispersion according to relief, the relationships between pollutants emissions and bio-monitoring, the road pollution effects on nearby ecosystems. (A.L.B.)

  17. Guided Inquiry Learning Unit on Aquatic Ecosystems for Seventh Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-im, Jongdee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2009-01-01

    Using mini-aquaria experiments, a learning unit on the effects of light period on aquatic ecosystems was developed for 7th grade students. This guided inquiry unit was aimed at helping students understand basic ecological principles involved in relationships among physical, chemical, and biological components in aquatic ecosystems. It involved…

  18. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stief

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal–microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal–microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosys...

  19. Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Krusor, Colin; Mazzillo, Fernanda F M; Conrad, Patricia A; Largier, John L; Mazet, Jonna A K; Silver, Mary W

    2014-11-22

    Gelatinous polymers including extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are fundamental to biophysical processes in aquatic habitats, including mediating aggregation processes and functioning as the matrix of biofilms. Yet insight into the impact of these sticky molecules on the environmental transmission of pathogens in the ocean is limited. We used the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii as a model to evaluate polymer-mediated mechanisms that promote transmission of terrestrially derived pathogens to marine fauna and humans. We show that transparent exopolymer particles, a particulate form of EPS, enhance T. gondii association with marine aggregates, material consumed by organisms otherwise unable to access micrometre-sized particles. Adhesion to EPS biofilms on macroalgae also captures T. gondii from the water, enabling uptake of pathogens by invertebrates that feed on kelp surfaces. We demonstrate the acquisition, concentration and retention of T. gondii by kelp-grazing snails, which can transmit T. gondii to threatened California sea otters. Results highlight novel mechanisms whereby aquatic polymers facilitate incorporation of pathogens into food webs via association with particle aggregates and biofilms. Identifying the critical role of invisible polymers in transmission of pathogens in the ocean represents a fundamental advance in understanding and mitigating the health impacts of coastal habitat pollution with contaminated runoff.

  20. Experimental study and modelization of radium transfer in a simplified aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium transfer has been studied in an experimental aquatic ecosystem composed by four trophic levels. Water and sediment are the two abiotic units from which the other compartments could be contamined. Scenedesmus obliquus represents the primary producer. Daphnia magna, Gammarus pulex and Chironomus sp., the first order consumers; Cyprinius carpio, the second order consumer and Salmo gairdneri, the third order one. Each transfer is described by a mathematical equation, based on a theoretical analysis, which represents concentration evolution of each compartment as a function of time. From the experimental data, we suggest a mathematical model in order to simulate radium contamination of the ecosystem. This model takes into account the following parameters: the contamination mode (chronic or acute pollution), the type of ecosystem concerned by the contamination (pond or river), and the season during which the pollution occurred. Results obtained with the model agree with most of field data on contamination level of fish living in the mining complex environment; particularly, they put the emphasize on the trophic way for the fish radiocontamination

  1. Recent trends in the development of ecological models applied on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, S E

    2002-02-12

    This paper presents an overview of the application of models on aquatic ecosystems. More than 17% of the models published in the focal journal in the field, Ecological Modelling, are aquatic ecosystem models. An increasing number of papers are dealing with the theoretical aspects of modeling--new modeling approaches and techniques, how models can be used to reveal ecosystem properties, and how models can better reflect the properties of ecosystems. This development implies that today we have more types of models. The characteristics, the advantages, and the disadvantages of these model types are presented briefly. The selection criteria for the presented model types are discussed, and the application of these types to models for aquatic ecosystems is reviewed. A recent improvement in model calibration of particular interest for aquatic ecosystems is presented, and the perspectives resulting from this new calibration procedure and from possible hybrids of the presented model types are discussed. PMID:12806024

  2. Recent Trends in the Development of Ecological Models Applied on Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Jorgensen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the application of models on aquatic ecosystems. More than 17% of the models published in the focal journal in the field, Ecological Modelling, are aquatic ecosystem models. An increasing number of papers are dealing with the theoretical aspects of modeling – new modeling approaches and techniques, how models can be used to reveal ecosystem properties, and how models can better reflect the properties of ecosystems. This development implies that today we have more types of models. The characteristics, the advantages, and the disadvantages of these model types are presented briefly. The selection criteria for the presented model types are discussed, and the application of these types to models for aquatic ecosystems is reviewed. A recent improvement in model calibration of particular interest for aquatic ecosystems is presented, and the perspectives resulting from this new calibration procedure and from possible hybrids of the presented model types are discussed.

  3. 76 FR 30938 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (EPA/600/R-09/138F... The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

  4. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals. - Environmental managers should analyze ecosystem services and disservices when developing urban forest management alternatives for mitigating urban pollution.

  5. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement at Mountaintop Mining Sites Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D. Courtney; Lawson, Peter; Morgan, John; Maggard, Randy; Schor, Horst; Powell, Rocky; Kirk, Ed. J.

    2000-01-12

    Welcome to this symposium which is part of the ongoing effort to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding mountaintop mining and valley fills. The EIS is being prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Office of Surface Mining, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the State of West Virginia. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement (AEE) at mountaintop mining sites is one of fourteen technical areas identified for study by the EIS Interagency Steering Committee. Three goals were identified in the AEE Work Plan: 1. Assess mining and reclamation practices to show how mining operations might be carried out in a way that minimizes adverse impacts to streams and other environmental resources and to local communities. Clarify economic and technical constraints and benefits. 2. Help citizens clarify choices by showing whether there are affordable ways to enhance existing mining, reclamation, mitigation processes and/or procedures. 3. Ide identify data needed to improve environmental evaluation and design of mining projects to protect the environment. Today’s symposium was proposed in the AEE Team Work Plans but coordinated planning for the event began September 15, 1999 when representatives from coal industry, environmental groups and government regulators met in Morgantown. The meeting participants worked with a facilitator from the Canaan Valley Institute to outline plans for the symposium. Several teams were formed to carry out the plans we outlined in the meeting.

  6. Aquatic bird disease and mortality as an indicator of changing ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Chmura, Aleksei; Converse, Kathy; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Patel, Nikkita; Lammers, Emily; Daszak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed data from pathologic investigations in the United States, collected by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center between 1971 and 2005, into aquatic bird mortality events. A total of 3619 mortality events was documented for aquatic birds, involving at least 633 708 dead birds from 158 species belonging to 23 families. Environmental causes accounted for the largest proportion of mortality events (1737 or 48%) and dead birds (437 258 or 69%); these numbers increased between 1971 and 2000, with biotoxin mortalities due to botulinum intoxication (Types C and E) being the leading cause of death. Infectious diseases were the second leading cause of mortality events (20%) and dead birds (20%), with both viral diseases, including duck plague (Herpes virus), paramyxovirus of cormorants (Paramyxovirus PMV1) and West Nile virus (Flavivirus), and bacterial diseases, including avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida), chlamydiosis (Chalmydia psittici), and salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.), contributing. Pelagic, coastal marine birds and species that use marine and freshwater habitats were impacted most frequently by environmental causes of death, with biotoxin exposure, primarily botulinum toxin, resulting in mortalities of both coastal and freshwater species. Pelagic birds were impacted most severely by emaciation and starvation, which may reflect increased anthropogenic pressure on the marine habitat from over-fishing, pollution, and other factors. Our study provides important information on broad trends in aquatic bird mortality and highlights how long-term wildlife disease studies can be used to identify anthropogenic threats to wildlife conservation and ecosystem health. In particular, mortality data for the past 30 yr suggest that biotoxins, viral, and bacterial diseases could have impacted >5 million aquatic birds.

  7. Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahu Zhao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  8. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...'s Office of Research and Development. This report investigates the issues and challenges associated... large set of environmental indicators drawn from scientific literature and data, this final report... quality and aquatic ecosystem conditions drawn from numerous scientific literature and datasets...

  9. UV EFFECTS ON MARINE AND AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS. IN: PHOTOBIOLOGY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authors present a review of the literature dealing with UV effects on marine and aquatic ecosystems. Topic headings include Direct Effects, Interactive Effects, Indirect Effects, Response Variability, and The Future.

  10. Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; McIntyre, A.D.; Mills, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    Summary: Pollutants tend to simplify plant and animal communities by causing a progressive loss of species. At the extreme, this leads to erosion and loss of soil fertility. Weedy, broadly adapted species increase. Among animals, carnivorous species and groups are often the first to suffer. This is partly because of their exposure at the top of the food chain, and partly, it appears, because of physiological differences. Species differences in susceptibility are abundant and are often critical. One result is that when one pest is controlled another is likely to flare up. Resistance appears commonly in insects and is known in other fast-breeding forms, including fishes, frogs, and rodents. Resistant individuals can carry toxicant loads that make them dangerous food for other animals. Some groups, including mollusks and annelids, are naturally resistant to many organohalogens and tend to accumulate them. Animals such as birds may carry lipophilic pollutants in large amounts with apparent safety until forced to draw upon their fat. They may then suffer delayed mortality, and no doubt suffer reproductive or behavioral effects at sublethal levels. Lipophilic pollutants in the brain rise when body lipids decrease and fall when body lipids increase. Mutagenesis can be caused by some common pollutants and the mutagenic properties of most chemicals are far too little known. Fortunately, common pesticides are not likely to be strong mutagens. Mutagenicity may be affecting certain long-lived and slow-breeding species in the wild, but most species have enough population turnover to swamp an occasional mutagenic event. Behavioral changes can be caused by relatively low levels of contaminants, but it is often hard to demonstrate them without using high dosages. Reproduction may or may not be affected adversely by low exposures. At certain exposures that are below the toxic levels of a chemical, a biostimulatory effect is to be expected. Food chain accumulations definitely do

  11. Derivation of guideline values for gold (III) ion toxicity limits to protect aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi; Shin, Yu-Jin; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on estimating the toxicity values of various aquatic organisms exposed to gold (III) ion (Au(3+)), and to propose maximum guideline values for Au(3+) toxicity that protect the aquatic ecosystem. A comparative assessment of methods developed in Australia and New Zealand versus the European Community (EC) was conducted. The test species used in this study included two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis), one alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), one euglena (Euglena gracilis), three cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa, and Simocephalus mixtus), and two fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes). Au(3+) induced growth inhibition, mortality, immobilization, and/or developmental malformations in all test species, with responses being concentration-dependent. According to the moderate reliability method of Australia and New Zealand, 0.006 and 0.075 mg/L of guideline values for Au(3+) were obtained by dividing 0.33 and 4.46 mg/L of HC5 and HC50 species sensitivity distributions (SSD) with an FACR (Final Acute to Chronic Ratio) of 59.09. In contrast, the EC method uses an assessment factor (AF), with the 0.0006 mg/L guideline value for Au(3+) being divided with the 48-h EC50 value for 0.60 mg/L (the lowest toxicity value obtained from short term results) by an AF of 1000. The Au(3+) guideline value derived using an AF was more stringent than the SSD. We recommend that more toxicity data using various bioassays are required to develop more accurate ecological risk assessments. More chronic/long-term exposure studies on sensitive endpoints using additional fish species and invertebrates not included in the current dataset will be needed to use other derivation methods (e.g., US EPA and Canadian Type A) or the "High Reliability Method" from Australia/New Zealand. Such research would facilitate the establishment of guideline values for various pollutants that reflect the universal effects of various pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. To

  12. A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

  13. Biological Production in Lakes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Ecological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. A.; Carey, G. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Primary production in aquatic ecosystems is carried out by phytoplankton, microscopic plants…

  14. Turbulence and Fluid Flow: Perspectives. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James R.

    This module is part of a series on Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems. The materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process.…

  15. Spatial Variation of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and Estimated Critical Loads for Aquatic Ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; McMurray, J. A.; Clow, D. W.; Saros, J. E.; Blett, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems at high-elevations in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) are sensitive to the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Current and historic N deposition has impacted aquatic ecosystems in the GYA and N deposition is increasing in many areas. Anticipated changes in atmospheric emissions may further affect these sensitive ecosystems. Understanding the spatial variation in atmospheric N deposition is needed to develop estimates of air pollution critical loads for aquatic ecosystems in complex terrain. For the GYA, high resolution (400 meter) maps were developed for 1993-2014 to identify areas of high loading of mean annual Total N deposition (wet + dry) and wet deposition of inorganic N (nitrate and ammonium). Total N deposition estimates in the GYA range from ≤ 1.4 to 7.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and show greater variability than inorganic N deposition. Spatially explicit estimates of critical loads of N deposition (CLNdep) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems were developed using a geostatistical approach. CLNdep in the GYA ranges from less than 1.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to over 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and variability is controlled by differences in basin characteristics. The lowest CLNdep estimates occurred in high-elevation basins with steep slopes, sparse vegetation, and exposed bedrock, including areas within GYA Wilderness boundaries. These areas often have high inorganic N deposition (>3 kg N ha-1 yr-1), resulting in CLNdep exceedances greater than 1.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The N deposition maps were used to identify CLNdep exceedances for aquatic ecosystems, and to explore scale dependence and boundary issues related to estimating CLNdep. Based on a NO3- threshold of 1.0 μmol L-1, inorganic N deposition exceeds CLNdep in 12% of the GYA, and Total N deposition is in exceedance for 23% of the GYA. These maps can be used to help identify and protect sensitive ecosystems that may be impacted by excess N deposition in the GYA.

  16. Development of scientific tools for monitoring the health of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldararu, Aurelia; Voiculescu, Mirela; Georgescu, Lucian P.

    2010-05-01

    Humanity is faced nowadays with the major problem of water availability and quality which is a conseqquence of growing demand for water as well as the decline of water quality and quantity. It is not an exaggeration to claim that, without effective management of aquatic ecosystems, the future social and economic development of the world will suffer serious constraints or will be placed significantly at risk. Taking into consideration the fact that the world is rapidly changing, current practices of water management must also change. Developed and developing countries will have to adopt the most effective policies for the management of aquatic ecosystems. They will also have to start using the best techniques for water monitoring. The nature of future problems that could arise in aquatic ecosystems must be carefully anticipated and then objectively analysed in the light of the expected changes. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires a holistic knowledge of abiotic and biotic structure and processes that determine the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Ecological indicators are provided to monitor the ecosystem responses to anthropogenic pressures. We will summarize in this presentation ecological indices that can be used for effective and accurate monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. Different contexts where these indices can be used for environmental health monitoring will be also analysed.

  17. Lowering the Barriers to Integrative Aquatic Ecosystem Science: Semantic Provenance, Open Linked Data, and Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Utz, R.; Deelman, E.; Hanson, P. C.; Szekely, P.; Villamizar, S. R.; Knoblock, C.; Guo, Q.; Crichton, D. J.; McCann, M. P.; Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental cyber-observatory (ECO) planning and implementation has been ongoing for more than a decade now, and several major efforts have recently come online or will soon. Some investigators in the relevant research communities will use ECO data, traditionally by developing their own client-side services to acquire data and then manually create custom tools to integrate and analyze it. However, a significant portion of the aquatic ecosystem science community will need more custom services to manage locally collected data. The latter group represents enormous intellectual capacity when one envisions thousands of ecosystems scientists supplementing ECO baseline data by sharing their own locally intensive observational efforts. This poster summarizes the outcomes of the June 2011 Workshop for Aquatic Ecosystem Sustainability (WAES) which focused on the needs of aquatic ecosystem research on inland waters and oceans. Here we advocate new approaches to support scientists to model, integrate, and analyze data based on: 1) a new breed of software tools in which semantic provenance is automatically created and used by the system, 2) the use of open standards based on RDF and Linked Data Principles to facilitate sharing of data and provenance annotations, 3) the use of workflows to represent explicitly all data preparation, integration, and processing steps in a way that is automatically repeatable. Aquatic ecosystems workflow exemplars are provided and discussed in terms of their potential broaden data sharing, analysis and synthesis thereby increasing the impact of aquatic ecosystem research.

  18. Think before you flush! A sustainable aquatic eco-system's relation to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Elaine; Pawloski, Judith

    2013-01-01

    What we do every day at work and in our home lives can make a difference in the quality of our environment. Consider, for example, the flushing of pharmaceuticals into the sewer system can lead to water pollution resulting in a threat to aquatic and human life. In contrast, keeping aquatic life healthy may contribute to human health. Some aquatic-based medications are currently on the market. Others are in various stages of development. In this article the authors argue that, for the benefit of both human and marine life, it is time to implement safer disposal methods for unwanted medications. The authors begin by sharing nursing's guiding principles for environmental health; after which they review research related to pharmaceutical pollution of water resources; describe health care treatments derived from marine life; and discuss suggestions for promoting aquatic health. They conclude that by taking care to preserve aquatic life, we contribute to the quality of our own human lives. PMID:23452193

  19. Environmental Parasitology. Interactions between parasites and pollutants in the aquatic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sures B.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing number of papers showing how parasitism and pollution can interact with each other in aquatic organisms. Among the variety of investigated aspects especially the combined effects of pollution and simultaneous infection on the health of aquatic hosts (molluscs, crustaceans, fish, mammals) is of considerable interest. Effects of pollution on the occurrence and distribution of parasites is another interesting field of “Environmental Parasitology” attr...

  20. Interactions between two invasive alien species, Procambarus clarkii and Dreissena polymorpha, in the aquatic ecosystems of central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lúcia Ramos Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between two invasive alien species, Procambarus clarkii and Dreissena polymorpha, in the aquatic ecosystems of central Italy (DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN ETOLOGIA, ECOLOGIA ANIMALE ED ANTROPOLOGIA)

  1. Technology-Supported Inquiry for Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Eberbach, Catherine; Jordan, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Understanding ecosystems is challenging, but important for becoming environmentally-literate citizens of today's society. People have difficulty considering how different components, mechanisms, and phenomena, both visible and invisible, are interconnected within ecosystems. This research presents both the design and initial testing of an…

  2. Response of shallow aquatic ecosystems to different nutrient loading levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portielje, R.

    1994-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface waters leads to a decline of water quality, which becomes manifest as an impoverishment of the aquatic community. Insight into the effects of eutrophication on the structure and functioning of these communities and knowlegde on underlying interactions is needed to quant

  3. Aquatic Ecosystem Response to Timber Harvesting for the Purpose of Restoring Aspen

    OpenAIRE

    Bobette E Jones; Monika Krupa; Kenneth W Tate

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located ...

  4. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T.N.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Falk-Petersen, S.

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. Preventing, controlling, and managing alien species introduction for the health of aquatic and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, C.I.; Gross, S.K.; Wilkinson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is an emerging global problem. As economic and ecological impacts continue to grow, there will be an increasing need to develop innovative solutions and global partnerships to combat the increasing rate of invasions and their accompanying impacts. Threats to sustainable fisheries in North America associated with alien species come from many global directions and sources and can be deliberate or the unintended consequence of other actions. Decisions about the role of sustainable fisheries in protecting and restoring the health of aquatic ecosystems become even more complex when economic and social factors are considered along with environmental impacts, because many intentionally introduced species also have associated economic and community costs and benefits. Actions designed to prevent or control alien species in an aquatic ecosystem are often complicated by these nonenvironmental factors as well as public perception and opinion. Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed to varying degrees by alien species, including disease organisms. Prevention is the first and best line of defense. Determining likely pathways and effective countermeasures is more cost-effective than either eradication or control. Our ability to quickly identify new species and their associated risk to ecosystems is critical in designing and implementing effective control and management actions. Lack of infrastructure and necessary resources, clear-cut authority for regulation and action, and scientific information about the biology of alien species and effective control techniques are often limiting factors that prevent the needed action to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Karen; Krusor, Colin; Mazzillo, Fernanda F. M.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Largier, John L.; Jonna A K Mazet; Silver, Mary W.

    2014-01-01

    Gelatinous polymers including extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are fundamental to biophysical processes in aquatic habitats, including mediating aggregation processes and functioning as the matrix of biofilms. Yet insight into the impact of these sticky molecules on the environmental transmission of pathogens in the ocean is limited. We used the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii as a model to evaluate polymer-mediated mechanisms that promote transmission of terrestrially derived pa...

  7. Environmental Parasitology. Interactions between parasites and pollutants in the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sures B.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing number of papers showing how parasitism and pollution can interact with each other in aquatic organisms. Among the variety of investigated aspects especially the combined effects of pollution and simultaneous infection on the health of aquatic hosts (molluscs, crustaceans, fish, mammals is of considerable interest. Effects of pollution on the occurrence and distribution of parasites is another interesting field of “Environmental Parasitology” attracting increasing attention. This mini-review presents some promising examples of interdisciplinary studies paying attention to the fact that under natural conditions no organism will only be affected by either parasites or pollution.

  8. Testing a 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach to understanding aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Rudman, Seth M; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A; McKown, Athena D; Sato, Takuya; MacDonald, Andrew M; Heavyside, Julian; Geraldes, Armando; Hart, Edmund M; LeRoy, Carri J; El-Sabaawi, Rana W

    2014-12-01

    A 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach has been proposed as a novel avenue for integrating the consequences of intraspecific genetic variation with the underlying genetic architecture of a species to shed light on the relationships among hierarchies of ecological organization (genes → individuals → communities → ecosystems). However, attempts to identify genes with major effect on the structure of communities and/or ecosystem processes have been limited and a comprehensive test of this approach has yet to emerge. Here, we present an interdisciplinary field study that integrated a common garden containing different genotypes of a dominant, riparian tree, Populus trichocarpa, and aquatic mesocosms to determine how intraspecific variation in leaf litter alters both terrestrial and aquatic communities and ecosystem functioning. Moreover, we incorporate data from extensive trait screening and genome-wide association studies estimating the heritability and genes associated with litter characteristics. We found that tree genotypes varied considerably in the quality and production of leaf litter, which contributed to variation in phytoplankton abundances, as well as nutrient dynamics and light availability in aquatic mesocosms. These 'after-life' effects of litter from different genotypes were comparable to the responses of terrestrial communities associated with the living foliage. We found that multiple litter traits corresponding with aquatic community and ecosystem responses differed in their heritability. Moreover, the underlying genetic architecture of these traits was complex, and many genes contributed only a small proportion to phenotypic variation. Our results provide further evidence that genetic variation is a key component of aquatic-terrestrial linkages, but challenge the ability to predict community or ecosystem responses based on the actions of one or a few genes.

  9. Fire and aquatic ecosystems in forested biomes of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of the literature suggests that physical, chemical, and biological elements of a watershed interact with long-term climate to influence fire regime, and that these factors, in concordance with the postfire vegetation mosaic, combine with local-scale weather to govern the trajectory and magnitude of change following a fire event. Perturbation associated with hydrological processes is probably the primary factor influencing postfire persistence of fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and diatoms in fluvial systems. It is apparent that salmonids have evolved strategies to survive perturbations occurring at the frequency of wildland fires (100a??102 years), but local populations of a species may be more ephemeral. Habitat alteration probably has the greatest impact on individual organisms and local populations that are the least mobile, and reinvasion will be most rapid by aquatic organisms with high mobility. It is becoming increasingly apparent that during the past century fire suppression has altered fire regimes in some vegetation types, and consequently, the probability of large stand-replacing fires has increased in those areas. Current evidence suggests, however, that even in the case of extensive high-severity fires, local extirpation of fishes is patchy, and recolonization is rapid. Lasting detrimental effects on fish populations have been limited to areas where native populations have declined and become increasingly isolated because of anthropogenic activities. A strategy of protecting robust aquatic communities and restoring aquatic habitat structure and life history complexity in degraded areas may be the most effective means for insuring the persistence of native biota where the probability of large-scale fires has increased.

  10. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-02-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala. PMID:7621793

  11. The influence of the physical environment on simulations of complex aquatic ecosystem dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Fenjuan

    or no hydrodynamic representation, in particular for ecosystem models where higher trophic levels, such as fish, are included. On the other hand, physically resolved hydrodynamic models often include none or only simple representations of ecosystem dynamics. To overcome this discrepancy in complexity between...... the ecosystem representation and the physical environment, we implemented PCLake within FABM, a Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models. The framework readily enables dynamic coupling of the ecosystem processed in PCLake with a selection of physical environment representations ranging from 0D to 3D...... hydrodynamics. To test the hypothesis that the physical environment may induce strong influence on ecosystem processes, we applied and compared PCLake applications, with the same standard ecosystem model parameterization, for three different physical environment representations of the same volume of water body...

  12. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore U.S. ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, M.E.; Lambert, K.F.; Blett, T.F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, L.H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, R. A.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Jeffries, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    states and on many tribal lands. High concentrations of mercury in wildlife are also widespread and have multiple adverse effects. ??? Air quality programs, such as those stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, have helped decrease air pollution even as population and energy demand have increased. Yet, they do not adequately protect ecosystems from long-term damage. Moreover they do not address ammonia emissions. ??? A stronger ecosystem basis for air pollutant policies could be established through adoption of science-based thresholds. Existing monitoring programs track vital information needed to measure the response to policies, and could be expanded to include appropriate chemical and biological indicators for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and establishment of a national ecosystem monitoring network for mercury. The development and use of air pollution thresholds for ecosystem protection and management is increasing in the United States, yet threshold approaches remain underutilized. Ecological thresholds for air pollution, such as critical loads for nitrogen and sulfur deposition, are not currently included in the formal regulatory process for emissions controls in the United States, although they are now considered in local management decisions by the National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service. Ecological thresholds offer a scientifically sound approach to protecting and restoring U.S. ecosystems and an important tool for natural resource management and policy. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  13. Challenges of deriving a complete biosphere greenhouse gas balance through integration of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Past research efforts have mostly focused on separately investigating the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHGs) within the limits of different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types. More recently however, it has been recognized that GHG exchanges and budgets are not limited to boundaries of the terrestrial or aquatic biosphere components and instead are often tightly linked amongst the different ecosystem types. Primarily the aquatic production and export of GHGs due to substrate supply or discharge from surrounding terrestrial ecosystems play a major role in regional GHG budgets. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of this connectivity between different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem GHG exchanges is therefore necessary to develop landscape-level GHG budgets and to understand their sensitivity to disturbances of the biosphere. Moreover, the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the most important GHG species has been the primary research objective with regards to obtaining better estimates of the carbon sequestration potential of the biosphere. However, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may offset CO2 sinks and considerably affect the complete GHG balance in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Including their contribution and improved knowledge on the dynamics of these two gas species is therefore essential for complete GHG budget estimates. At present, the integration of terrestrial and aquatic GHG exchanges toward landscape GHG budgets poses numerous challenges. These include the need for a better knowledge of i) the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting terrestrial (forests, peatlands, grasslands, croplands) and aquatic (lake, streams) ecosystems when integrated over a full year, ii) the effect of ecosystem properties (e.g. age and/or development stage, size of water body) on the GHG balance, iii) the impact of management effects (e.g. nitrogen fertilizer application), iv) differences among climate regions and v

  14. Bioassay for aquatic ecosystems review and classification; Rassegna dei principali test di ecotossicologia acquatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanci, Antonella; Rosa, Silvia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    Bioassay play a crucial role in assessing the actual or potential impacts of anthropogenic agents on the natural environment. In this technical report, literature on bioassays for aquatic ecosystems has been reviewed and classified. Problems associated with the choice and application of bioassays are discussed.

  15. Remedial measures against high levels of radioisotopes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annex has been prepared within the framework of the Aquatic Working Group of the co-ordinated Research Programme on Validation of the Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The main objectives of this Annex are: (1) To provide an outline of a broad set of remedial measures and strategies tested and suggested for aquatic systems to speed up the recovery after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. This Report covers case studies from rivers and lakes and includes results from field and laboratory experiments, as well as measures directed at reducing radioisotopes in food by different food preparation procedures in the home. (2) To provide results from selected case studies, focusing on general, strategic results rather than site-specific details. (3) To provide conclusions which specifically address practical matters concerning how to select remedial measures in different situations, how to avoid inefficient measures, and to suggest important areas for future research. (4) To provide an analysis of the concept of lake sensitivity using both empirical and modelled data. One and the same fallout may give rise to very different radionuclide concentrations in water and biota depending on the characteristics of the lake and its catchment

  16. Palladium Nanoparticles: Is There a Risk for Aquatic Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderwald, Simon; Seitz, Frank; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2016-08-01

    Nano-sized palladium (nano-Pd) is used in catalytic converters of automobiles, where it can be released into the environment by abrasion. Although these particles may subsequently be transported into surface water bodies, no data estimating their fate and toxicity in aquatic systems exists. This study characterized the particle size development of nano-Pd (advertised size ~12 nm; hydrodynamic size ~70 nm) in media with variable ionic strength (IS). Additionally, the particles' acute toxicity for daphnids and chironomids was assessed. While nano-Pd agglomerated more quickly with increasing IS, it caused only marginal effects in both test species after 96 h of exposure. After 144 h of exposure, however, an EC50 value of 1.23 mg nano-Pd/L for daphnids was determined indicating effects over the long run. When considering the relatively low environmental concentration of elemental Pd in surface waters (usually ng/L), though, this study suggests only a low aquatic risk in response to nano-Pd. PMID:27107586

  17. Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance To Diagnose Hazardous Chemicals in Multiple Contaminated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Stefanie; Gunold, Roman; Mothes, Sibylle; Paschke, Albrecht; Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-08-18

    Aquatic ecosystems are often contaminated with large numbers of chemicals, which cannot be sufficiently addressed by chemical target analyses. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) enables the identification of toxicants in complex contaminated environmental samples. This study suggests pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as a confirmation tool for EDA to identify contaminants which actually impact on local communities. The effects of three phytotoxic compounds local periphyton communities, cultivated at a reference (R-site) and a polluted site (P-site), were assessed to confirm the findings of a former EDA study on sediments. The sensitivities of R- and P-communities to prometryn, tributyltin (TBT) and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine (PNA) were quantified in short-term toxicity tests and exposure concentrations were determined. Prometryn and PNA concentrations were significantly higher at the P-site, whereas TBT concentrations were in the same range at both sites. Periphyton communities differed in biomass, but algal class composition and diatom diversity were similar. Community tolerance of P-communities was significantly enhanced for prometryn, but not for PNA and TBT, confirming site-specific effects on local periphyton for prometryn only. Thus, PICT enables in situ effect confirmation of phytotoxic compounds at the community level and seems to be suitable to support confirmation and enhance ecological realism of EDA. PMID:26196040

  18. Evaluation of nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems with nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gen-fu; WU Xue-chang; XUAN Xiao-dong; ZHOU Xue-ping

    2006-01-01

    There has always been a great need for simple and accurate bioassays for evaluating nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems. Whereas organic carbon is usually considered to be the limiting nutrient for microbial growth in many aquatic ecosystems,there are, however, many water sources that are limited by phosphorus or nitrogen. A method named "nitrogen fixing bacterial growth potential" (NFBGP) test, which is based on pre-culturing ofautochthonous (target) microorganisms was described. The method was applied to evaluate phosphorus or nitrogen nutrient limitation in lake and sewage water samples using an isolate of the nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azorhizobium sp. WS6. The results corresponded well to those from the traditional algal growth potential (AGP) test and the bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) test, suggesting that the NFBGP test is a useful supplementary method for evaluating the limiting nutrient, especially phosphorus, in an aquatic environment.

  19. Potential effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems of the Great Plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covich, A.P.; Fritz, S.C.; Lamb, P.J.; Marzolf, R.D.; Matthews, W.J.; Poiani, K.A.; Prepas, E.E.; Richman, M.B.; Winter, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Great Plains landscape is less topographically complex than most other regions within North America, but diverse aquatic ecosystems, such as playas, pothole lakes, ox-bow lakes, springs, groundwater aquifers, intermittent and ephemeral streams, as well as large rivers and wetlands, are highly dynamic and responsive to extreme climatic fluctuations. We review the evidence for climatic change that demonstrates the historical importance of extremes in north-south differences in summer temperatures and east-west differences in aridity across four large subregions. These physical driving forces alter density stratification, deoxygenation, decomposition and salinity. Biotic community composition and associated ecosystem processes of productivity and nutrient cycling respond rapidly to these climatically driven dynamics. Ecosystem processes also respond to cultural effects such as dams and diversions of water for irrigation, waste dilution and urban demands for drinking water and industrial uses. Distinguishing climatic from cultural effects in future models of aquatic ecosystem functioning will require more refinement in both climatic and economic forecasting. There is a need, for example, to predict how long-term climatic forecasts (based on both ENSO and global warming simulations) relate to the permanence and productivity of shallow water ecosystems. Aquatic ecologists, hydrologists, climatologists and geographers have much to discuss regarding the synthesis of available data and the design of future interdisciplinary research. ?? 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Biophysical interactions in fluvial ecosystems: effects of submerged aquatic macrophytes on hydro-morphological processes and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Loreta; Davies, Grieg; Grabowski, Robert; van der Wal, Daphne; van de Koppel, Johan; Wharton, Geraldene; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2016-04-01

    Strong mutual interactions occur at the interface between biota and physical processes in biogeomorphic ecosystems, possibly resulting in self-organized spatial patterns. While these interactions and feedbacks have been increasingly studied in a wide range of landscapes previously, they are still poorly understood in lower energy fluvial systems. Consequently, their impact on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems is largely unknown. In this study we investigate the role of aquatic macrophytes as biological engineers of flow and sediment in lowland streams dominated by water crowfoot (Ranunculus spp.). Using field measurements from two annual growth cycles, we demonstrate that seasonally-changing macrophyte cover maintains relative constant flow rates, both within and between vegetation, despite temporal changes in channel flow discharge. By means of a mathematical model representing the interaction between hydrodynamics and vegetation dynamics, we reveal that scale-dependent feedbacks between plant growth and flow redistribution explain the influence of macrophytes on stabilizing flow rates. Our analysis reveals important implications for ecosystem functions. The creation of fast-flowing channels allows an adequate conveyance of water throughout the annual cycle; yet, patches also have a significant influence on sediment dynamics leading to heterogeneous habitats, thereby facilitating other species. As a last step we investigate the consequences on stream ecosystem functioning, by exploring the relationship between changes in macrophyte cover and the provision of different ecosystem functions (e.g. water conveyance, sediment trapping). Our results highlight that self-organization promotes the combination of multiple ecosystem functions through its effects on hydrological and morphological processes within biogeomorphic ecosystems.

  1. Hazard assessment of commonly used agricultural antibiotics on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sujung; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-08-01

    In this study, eleven commonly used antibiotics including sulfonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and beta-lactams were evaluated for their acute and chronic aquatic toxicities using standard test organisms e.g., Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa, and Oryzias latipes. Among the antibiotics tested for acute toxicity, neomycin was most toxic followed by trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and enrofloxacin. Sulfamethazine, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfadimethoxine and sulfathiazole were of intermediate toxicity, while ampicillin and amoxicillin were least toxic to the test organisms. There were no trends in sensitivity among test organisms or among different classes of the antibiotics. Only the beta-lactam class was the least toxic. In chronic toxicity test, neomycin affected reproduction and adult survival of D. magna and M. macrocopa with low mg/l levels exposure. Predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived from the acute and chronic toxicity information gleaned from this study and from literature. When the PNECs were compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs) reported elsewhere for the test compounds, hazard quotients for sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and amoxicillin exceeded unity, which suggests potential ecological implication. Therefore, further studies including monitoring and detailed toxicological studies are required to assess potential ecological risk of these frequently used veterinary antibiotics. PMID:18449638

  2. Phylogenetic signal in diatom ecology: perspectives for aquatic ecosystems biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, François; Rimet, Frédéric; Franc, Alain; Bouchez, Agnés

    2016-04-01

    Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators in rivers. However using diatoms for monitoring programs is costly and time consuming because most of the methodologies necessitate species-level identification. This raises the question of the optimal trade-off between taxonomic resolution and bioassessment quality. Phylogenetic tools may form the bases of new, more efficient approaches for biomonitoring if relationships between ecology and phylogeny can be demonstrated. We estimated the ecological optima of 127 diatom species for 19 environmental parameters using count data from 2119 diatom communities sampled during eight years in eastern France. Using uni- and multivariate analyses, we explored the relationships between freshwater diatom phylogeny and ecology (i.e., the phylogenetic signal). We found a significant phylogenetic signal for many of the ecological optima that were tested, but the strength of the signal varied significantly from one trait to another. Multivariate analysis also showed that the multidimensional ecological niche of diatoms can be strongly related to phylogeny. The presence of clades containing species that exhibit homogeneous ecology suggests that phylogenetic information can be useful for aquatic biomonitoring. This study highlights the presence of significant patterns of ecological optima for freshwater diatoms in relation to their phylogeny. These results suggest the presence of a signal above the species level, which is encouraging for the development of simplified methods for biomonitoring survey. PMID:27411256

  3. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems. PMID:20734618

  4. Modeling an aquatic ecosystem: application of an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping to reduce prediction uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic ecosystem models can potentially be used to understand the influence of stresses on catchment resource quality. Given that catchment responses are functions of natural and anthropogenic stresses reflected in sparse and spatiotemporal biological, physical, and chemical measurements, an ecosystem is difficult to model using statistical or numerical methods. We propose an artificial adaptive systems approach to model ecosystems. First, an unsupervised machine-learning (ML) network is trained using the set of available sparse and disparate data variables. Second, an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping is applied to reduce the number of ecosystem variables to an optimal set. Third, the optimal set of ecosystem variables is used to retrain the ML network. Fourth, a stochastic cross-validation approach is applied to quantify and compare the nonlinear uncertainty in selected predictions of the original and reduced models. Results are presented for aquatic ecosystems (tens of thousands of square kilometers) undergoing landscape change in the USA: Upper Illinois River Basin and Central Colorado Assessment Project Area, and Southland region, NZ.

  5. Diversity and Expression of Bacterial Metacaspases in an Aquatic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; Sundh, John; Dupont, Chris L.; Allen, Andrew E.; McCrow, John P.; Celepli, Narin A.; Bergman, Birgitta; Ininbergs, Karolina; Ekman, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Metacaspases are distant homologs of metazoan caspase proteases, implicated in stress response, and programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria and phytoplankton. While the few previous studies on metacaspases have relied on cultured organisms and sequenced genomes, no studies have focused on metacaspases in a natural setting. We here present data from the first microbial community-wide metacaspase survey; performed by querying metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets from the brackish Baltic Sea, a water body characterized by pronounced environmental gradients and periods of massive cyanobacterial blooms. Metacaspase genes were restricted to ~4% of the bacteria, taxonomically affiliated mainly to Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The gene abundance was significantly higher in larger or particle-associated bacteria (>0.8 μm), and filamentous Cyanobacteria dominated metacaspase gene expression throughout the bloom season. Distinct seasonal expression patterns were detected for the three metacaspase genes in Nodularia spumigena, one of the main bloom-formers. Clustering of normalized gene expression in combination with analyses of genomic and assembly data suggest functional diversification of these genes, and possible roles of the metacaspase genes related to stress responses, i.e., sulfur metabolism in connection to oxidative stress, and nutrient stress induced cellular differentiation. Co-expression of genes encoding metacaspases and nodularin toxin synthesis enzymes was also observed in Nodularia spumigena. The study shows that metacaspases represent an adaptation of potentially high importance for several key organisms in the Baltic Sea, most prominently Cyanobacteria, and open up for further exploration of their physiological roles in microbes and assessment of their ecological impact in aquatic habitats. PMID:27458440

  6. Phosphate oxygen isotopes within aquatic ecosystems: Global data synthesis and future research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ceri L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Surridge, Ben W.J., E-mail: b.surridge@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Gooddy, Daren C. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The oxygen isotope ratio of dissolved inorganic phosphate (δ{sup 18}O{sub p}) represents a novel and potentially powerful stable isotope tracer for biogeochemical research. Analysis of δ{sup 18}O{sub p} may offer new insights into the relative importance of different sources of phosphorus within natural ecosystems. Due to the isotope fractionations that occur alongside the metabolism of phosphorus, δ{sup 18}O{sub p} could also be used to better understand the intracellular and extracellular reaction mechanisms that control phosphorus cycling. In this review focussed on aquatic ecosystems, we examine the theoretical basis to using stable oxygen isotopes within phosphorus research. We consider the methodological challenges involved in accurately determining δ{sup 18}O{sub p}, given aquatic matrices in which potential sources of contaminant oxygen are ubiquitous. Finally, we synthesise the existing global data regarding δ{sup 18}O{sub p} in aquatic ecosystems, concluding by identifying four key areas for future development of δ{sup 18}O{sub p} research. Through this synthesis, we seek to stimulate broader interest in the use of δ{sup 18}O{sub p} to address the significant research and management challenges that continue to surround the stewardship of phosphorus. - Highlights: • Oxygen isotope ratio in dissolved inorganic phosphate a novel stable isotope tracer. • Theoretical basis for application of this tracer in aquatic ecosystems reviewed. • Protocols for determining phosphate oxygen isotope ratio summarised. • Synthesis of global data from marine and freshwater ecosystems reported. • Priorities for future research in this rapidly evolving field identified.

  7. Staunton 1 reclamation demonstration project. Aquatic ecosystems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W. S.

    1981-02-01

    To provide long-term indications of the potential water quality improvements following reclamation efforts at the Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project, macroinvertebrates were collected from three on-site ponds and from the receiving stream (Cahokia Creek) for site drainage. Implications for potential benthic community differences resulting from site runoff were disclosed, but macroinvertebrate diversity throughout Cahokia Creek was limited due to an unstable, sandy substrate. The three ponds sampled were the New Pond, which was created as part of the reclamation activities; the Shed Pond, which and the Old Pond, which, because it was an existing, nonimpacted pond free of site runoff, served as a control. Comparisons of macroinvertebrates from the ponds indicated the potential for the New Pond to develop into a productive ecosystem. Macroinvertebrates in the New Pond were generally species more tolerant of acid mine drainage conditions. However, due to the present limited faunal densities and the undesirable physical and chemical characteristics of the New Pond, the pond should not be stocked with fish at this time.

  8. Optical properties of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems: Applications in ecosystem studies from headwater streams to the deep ocean. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of natural dissolved organic material (DOM) contributes to the better understanding of ecosystem function as the carbon flux between environmental compartments represents an important linkage between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Within freshwater and marine ecosystems, DOM typically represents the largest pool of detrital organic carbon and greatly exceeds the organic carbon present in living biomass. Thus, the sources and fate of DOM are important terms in carbon budgets. DOM can also influence ecosystem function by controlling microbial food webs, act as a means of nutrient transport, buffer pH and influence toxicity and bioavailability of pollutants, among others. DOM composition influences its ‘quality’ and thus its photo- and bio-reactivity, both of which exert a strong control of the diagenetic reworking of this carbon pool. However, the molecular composition of DOM is highly complex and diverse, and its characterization is a serious challenge to analytical chemists. In recent years, several novel analytical approaches to the characterization of DOM have evolved, including those that are highly structure specific and others that provide information on broader molecular characteristics. Whilst the former are usually expensive and time consuming, the latter, often based on optical properties measurements, feature high sample throughput at a reduced cost but at the expense of structural specificity. While both approaches are complementary under ideal conditions, the latter are best suited for studies involving large spatial and temporal scales. The analysis of DOM optical properties, in particular excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), has emerged as a practical tool for the broad characterization of DOM quality. This presentation will provide examples for the application of EEM-PARAFAC in assessing environmental dynamics of DOM on both spatial and temporal scales, and in both

  9. The fate of mercury in Arctic terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Loseto, Lisa L.; MacDonald, Robie W.;

    2012-01-01

    into the Arctic by oceanic, atmospheric and terrestrial pathways. Our focus is on the movement, transformation and bioaccumulation of Hg in aquatic (marine and fresh water) and terrestrial ecosystems. The processes most relevant to biological Hg uptake and the potential risk associated with Hg exposure...... the fate of Hg in most ecosystems, and the role of trophic processes in controlling Hg in higher order animals are also included. Case studies on Eastern Beaufort Sea beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) are presented as examples of the relationship between...

  10. Controlled Environments Enable Adaptive Management in Aquatic Ecosystems Under Altered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are impacted by altered environment conditions resulting from climate, drought, and land use changes. Gaps in the science knowledge base regarding plant community response to these novel and rapid changes limit both science understanding and management of ecosystems. We describe how CE Technologies have enabled the rapid supply of gap-filling science, development of ecosystem simulation models, and remote sensing assessment tools to provide science-informed, adaptive management methods in the impacted aquatic ecosystem of the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The Delta is the hub for California's water, supplying Southern California agriculture and urban communities as well as the San Francisco Bay area. The changes in environmental conditions including temperature, light, and water quality and associated expansion of invasive aquatic plants negatively impact water distribution and ecology of the San Francisco Bay/Delta complex. CE technologies define changes in resource use efficiencies, photosynthetic productivity, evapotranspiration, phenology, reproductive strategies, and spectral reflectance modifications in native and invasive species in response to altered conditions. We will discuss how the CE technologies play an enabling role in filling knowledge gaps regarding plant response to altered environments, parameterization and validation of ecosystem models, development of satellite-based, remote sensing tools, and operational management strategies.

  11. Warming Alters the Size Spectrum and Shifts the Distribution of Biomass in Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Montoya, Jose Maria; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Body size is one of the key determinants of community structure. The relationship between abundance and body size can explain how community biomass is partitioned among the biota of an ecosystem. We used an aquatic mesocosm experiment to determine how warming of ~4?C would affect the body size, biomass and taxonomic structure of planktonic communities. We found that warming increased the steepness of the slope of the community size spectrum, primarily by altering the phyto...

  12. Different modelling tools of aquatic ecosystems : a proposal for a unified approach

    OpenAIRE

    António Manuel Correia Pereira; Pedro Duarte; Alain Norro

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few decades, several modelling tools have been developed for the simulation of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes in aquatic ecosystems. Until late 70#8217;s, coupling hydrodynamic models to biogeochemical models was not common and today, problems linked to the different scales of interest remain. The time scale of hydrodynamic phenomena in coastal zone (minutes to hours) is much lower than that of biogeochemistry (few days). Over the last years, there has been an increas...

  13. EcoCasting: Using NetLogo models of aquatic ecosystems to teach scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, C. K.; Jona, K.

    2010-12-01

    The EcoCasting project from the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP) at Northwestern University has developed a computer model-based curriculum for high school environmental science classes to study complexity in aquatic ecosystems. EcoCasting aims to deliver cutting edge scientific research on bioaccumulation in invaded Great Lakes food webs to high school classes. Scientists and environmental engineers at Northwestern are investigating unusual bioaccumulation patterns in invaded food webs of the Great Lakes. High school students are exploring this authentic data to understand what is causing the anomalies in the data. Students use a series of NetLogo agent-based models of an aquatic ecosystem to study how toxins accumulate in the food web. Using these models, students learn about predator-prey relationships, bioaccumulation, and invasive species. Students are confronted with contradictory data collected by scientists and investigate alternative food web mechanisms at work. By studying the individual variables, students learn common scientific principles. When multiple variables are combined in a unifying model, students learn that the interactions lead to unexpected outcomes. Students learn about the complexity of the ecosystem and gain proficiency interpreting computer models and scientific data collection in this curriculum. Model of aquatic food chain

  14. A global review and evaluation on the derivation and application of sediment quality criteria to protect aquatic ecosystem and humanhealth

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Chun-tat.; 陳俊達.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) serve as scientific benchmarks, or reference points of chemical contaminants levels for evaluating the possibility of occurrence of adverse biological responses in the aquatic environment. SQGs are important because the quality of sediment has significant influences on the health of aquatic organisms, and the use of SQGs is a critical means to protect and manage various aquatic ecosystems. In this study, nine conventional derivation methods are described an...

  15. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  16. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  17. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  18. Sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to climatic and anthropogenic changes: The basin and range, American Southwest and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, N. B.; Chacon, A.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Hostetler, S.W.; Lind, O.T.; Starkweather, P.L.; Wurtsbaugh, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Variability and unpredictability are characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems, hydrological patterns and climate of the largely dryland region that encompasses the Basin and Range, American Southwest and western Mexico. Neither hydrological nor climatological models for the region are sufficiently developed to describe the magnitude or direction of change in response to increased carbon dioxide; thus, an attempt to predict specific responses of aquatic ecosystems is premature. Instead, we focus on the sensitivity of rivers, streams, springs, wetlands, reservoirs, and lakes of the region to potential changes in climate, especially those inducing a change in hydrological patterns such as amount, timing and predictability of stream flow. The major sensitivities of aquatic ecosystems are their permanence and even existence in the face of potential reduced net basin supply of water, stability of geomorphological structure and riparian ecotones with alterations in disturbance regimes, and water quality changes resulting from a modified water balance. In all of these respects, aquatic ecosystems of the region are also sensitive to the extensive modifications imposed by human use of water resources, which underscores the difficulty of separating this type of anthropogenic change from climate change. We advocate a focus in future research on reconstruction and analysis of past climates and associated ecosystem characteristics, long-term studies to discriminate directional change vs. year to year variability (including evidence of aquatic ecosystem responses or sensitivity to extremes), and studies of ecosystems affected by human activity. ?? 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, J.L.M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt

    1985-01-01

    In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier s

  20. A Multidisciplinary Investigation of Aquatic Pollution and How to Minimise It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnoux, A.; Allari, E.; Sassi, M.; Thimonier, J.; Hammond, C.; Clouzot, L.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of humans on aquatic systems is covered in French high schools in the "Premiere" level (ages 16 to 17) by students studying economics and social sciences. We designed experiments to teach critical thinking about water pollution and how citizens can act to minimise it. The experimental session, which lasts three consecutive days, takes…

  1. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  2. THE APPLICATION OF SOME METHODS FOR COMPUTATION THE FLOWS FOR PROTECTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS DOWNSTREAM OF RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TĂNASE ILEANA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the natural flow regimes by different water intakes degrades river ecosystems by erosion, by altering physical habitat and sediment supply rate. Providing a "flow for aquatic ecosystem" implies a flow regime designed to maintain a river in some environmentally acceptable conditions. All components of the natural hydrological regime have ecological significance. However, maintaining the full spectrum of naturally flows which occurring in a river is normally impossible due to water resources development and changes in land use in the catchments. Therefore, the flow protection of aquatic ecosystems should be seen as a compromise between developments within the river basin on the one hand and the maintenance of river ecology on the other. In Romania, providing the flow for the protection of aquatic ecosystems is a very important issue in the complex process of ecological restoration. According to the "Programme of Measures" chapter, presented within the River Basin Management Plans, "for increase of aquatic biodiversity besides the re-naturation of landscape, restoring the natural processes namely an adequate hydrologic regime for the water uses and aquatic species and a functional link between river and floodplain through changes to the water management systems operation is required". The paper shows the results for the application of some methods for computing the flows for protection of aquatic ecosystems downstream of a reservoir.

  3. Mediterranean coastal lagoons in an ecosystem and aquatic resources management context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, A.; Marcos, C.; Pérez-Ruzafa, I. M.

    Aquatic ecosystems, water resources and their management are some of the main problems facing humanity. These problems vary from water scarcity and deteriorating quality for human consumption and use, to floods in areas with torrential rainfall, rising sea levels in coastal zones, the overexploitation of living resources and the loss of ecological quality and biodiversity. Proper water management needs to follow a hierarchical perspective, ranging from the whole planet to individual water bodies. Spatio-temporal scales change at each level, as do driving forces, impacts, and the processes and responses involved. Recently, the European Union adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to establish the basic principles of sustainable water policy in member states, one of the main concerns being the need to consider the vulnerability of coastal aquatic ecosystems and to establish their ecological status. However, from a Mediterranean point of view, the actions of European countries (under the WFD regulations) and non-EU countries need to be coordinated. There are more than 100 coastal lagoons in the Mediterranean. They are habitats with an important ecological role, but also provide essentials goods and services for humans. In the present work, we look at the problems involved in understanding their definition and management. At water body management level, we emphasise that scientific cooperation is necessary to deal with the conceptual and ecological difficulties derived from inter and intra-lagoon variability in hydrology and biological assemblages, inherent factors in the functioning of these complex ecosystems.

  4. Impacts on Tocantins River aquatic ecosystems resulting from the development of the hydropower potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado Damasio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the obvious success of using hydropower plants to supply energy for economic development, they may result in several environmental and social impacts with different levels of severity on the aquatic ecosystems and on the human communities living in the region. The objective of this study was to identify environmental problems and impacts to the aquatic ecosystems in Tocantins river related to the development of its hydropower potential and contribute to the target of balancing of energy generation with biodiversity and genetic flux preservation. The scenario considered the hydropower plants Peixe Angical and São Salvador. The Causal Chain Analysis (CCA was used to identify the environmental impacts and their immediate, sectarian and root causes. The impacts were ranked according to the characterization matrix, having the fish communities as the main indicators. The most relevant impacts were: (i degradation of water resources, (ii loss and changes in habitats, (iii changes in the ecosystems stability, (iv reduction of fish stocks, (v interference with benthic communities and microorganism’s populations, (vi changes in the food-chain and (vii interference with the dispersion of fishes and mammals.

  5. Preservation of natural aquatic ecosystems by application of bottom coal ash based bioreactor for in situ treatment of anthropogenic effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Y.; Nisnevitch, M.; Tal, M.; Cahan, R.; Michael, E.

    2012-12-01

    One consequence of global climate change is recharge decrease at sub tropical and Mediterranean regions to both the surface and the ground fresh water resources. As a general rule, when water source quantity is reduced, the level of salination, as well as chemical and biological pollutants, tends to increase. The situation is more severe whenever the drainage basin is (a) heavily populated from urban, industrial and agricultural areas, (b) has wide areas of thin or non soil cover and (c) has a karstic structure and morphology. These latter conditions are typical to many regions around the Middle East; whereas pollution hazard to Mid Eastern streams is greater than to those in more humid regions owing to their relative small size and poor dilution capacity. The consequence of this ongoing and increasing anthropogenic pollution is endangerment of natural aquatic habitats and due to decrease in fresh water supply availability also to human sustainability. The ecological impact may involve transition of ephemeral (Wadi) streams into intermittent ones with the accompanied biodiversity change or extinction once the pollution is extreme. The impact on indigenous human communities might be as severe owing to drinking water quality decrease and the consequent decrease id quantity as well as damage to dryland farming. In setting of operations applied to the Yarkon Taninim watershed (central Israel) management, a pilot biofilter facility for sustainable preservation and rehabilitation of natural fluvial ecosystems was tested. This biofilter is planned to operate through low impact concept assimilating natural treatment processes occurring during runoff recharge through a porous flow media. The facility is constructed out of several grain sizes of bottom coal ash aggregate, which was found to be a better microbial mats growing stratum, compared to common natural aggregates such as tuff and lime pebbles (and also has an EPA directive for wastewater treatment). The biofilter is

  6. Biogeochemical data from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in a periglacial catchment, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Rydberg, Johan; Tröjbom, Mats; Berglund, Sten; Johansson, Emma; Löfgren, Anders; Saetre, Peter; Nordén, Sara; Sohlenius, Gustav; Andersson, Eva; Petrone, Johannes; Borgiel, Micke; Kautsky, Ulrik; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-09-01

    Global warming is expected to be most pronounced in the Arctic where permafrost thaw and release of old carbon may provide an important feedback mechanism to the climate system. To better understand and predict climate effects and feedbacks on the cycling of elements within and between ecosystems in northern latitude landscapes, a thorough understanding of the processes related to transport and cycling of elements is required. A fundamental requirement to reach a better process understanding is to have access to high-quality empirical data on chemical concentrations and biotic properties for a wide range of ecosystem domains and functional units (abiotic and biotic pools). The aim of this study is therefore to make one of the most extensive field data sets from a periglacial catchment readily available that can be used both to describe present-day periglacial processes and to improve predictions of the future. Here we present the sampling and analytical methods, field and laboratory equipment and the resulting biogeochemical data from a state-of-the-art whole-ecosystem investigation of the terrestrial and aquatic parts of a lake catchment in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland. This data set allows for the calculation of whole-ecosystem mass balance budgets for a long list of elements, including carbon, nutrients and major and trace metals. The data set is freely available and can be downloaded from PANGAEA: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.860961.

  7. Bioindication in natural-like aquatic ecosystems: endocrine disruptors in outdoor microcosms. Status-report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Severin, G.F.

    2002-07-01

    Over the past few decades scientists have shown that the hormone system of a wide range of organisms can be affected by numerous environmental chemicals. Society strongly demands studies about the fate and effects of such endocrine disruptors on the aquatic environment. It has been scientifically accepted that risk assessment studies done in aquatic microcosms can be used to extrapolate the potential impact of the tested compound on natural ecosystems. Realistic exposure situations were simulated and screening methods as well as analytical methods with high accuracy were applied on water and sediment. For the comprehensive risk assessment as many trophic levels as possible have to be investigated. Changes in the population dynamics and the community structure serve as ecotoxicological endpoints. Modelling the concentrations of the chemicals in the different aquatic compartments complements and confirms the analytical diagnostics. A directed design of the analytical procedures according to amount of sample and limits of determination becomes possible. Bridging acute and chronic time scales in effect diagnostics the 'area under the curve' - approach has been followed in combination with multivariate statistics. Haber's rule have been applied to the results about complex effect- and exposure-conditions. In some cases the interpretation of results becomes more easy and clear by this approach. (orig.)

  8. Ecosystem Health of Lake Tamrangabeel, Bongaigaon District, Assam, India with Special Reference to Aquatic Insect Assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Bhagawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ecosystem health of a floodplain lake, Tamrangabeel of Bongaigaon district, Assam, India using aquatic insects as bioindicator. The aquatic community of Tamrangabeel was represented by 37 species belonging to 19 families and 5 orders. Shannon –Wiener diversity index (Shannon Hꞌ values were recorded less than 1 in all the sites of the lake which indicated perturbed condition of the lake. Order Hemiptera was found to be the largest order with highest number of species. Eudominant species recorded in this lake were Micronecta siva (order Hemiptera and Cloeon sp. (order Ephemeroptera. Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP Score, Average Score per taxon (ASPT, and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number-Average Level (SIGNAL Score reported from the study reflected good ecological potential as well as slightly impacted nature of the water body. The values of different environmental variables of water of all the sites of the lake were found conducive for aquatic life. This study provided an early warning of perturbation of the lake which is to be addressed before it is too late.

  9. Characteristics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of two locations in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-01

    According to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (P.L. 97-425), a potential nuclear waste repository site must be chosen with consideration of potential impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This report is a preliminary environmental characterization of two locations in the Texas Panhandle, one in Deaf Smith County and the other in Swisher County, that have been recommended for further study. A description of important natural areas is offered as a basis for comparative studies of the two locations and for the identification and screening of potential repository sites. Information on current land uses, potential habitats, and expected plant and wildlife species is provided to assist field investigators in the collection of baseline data in support of further siting activities. The results of limited field surveys are also included. The report is in two parts. Part I contains a characterization of terrestrial ecological resources based upon limited field surveys aimed at verifying the presence of plant communities and wildlife habitats. It also presents inventories of species with special status, species with recreational and economic importance, and species of ecological value to important or special-status species. Part II presents information on aquatic ecosystems and resources derived primarily from a review of the literature, interviews, and limited field surveys. 21 figures, 18 tables.

  10. Characteristics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of two locations in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (P.L. 97-425), a potential nuclear waste repository site must be chosen with consideration of potential impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This report is a preliminary environmental characterization of two locations in the Texas Panhandle, one in Deaf Smith County and the other in Swisher County, that have been recommended for further study. A description of important natural areas is offered as a basis for comparative studies of the two locations and for the identification and screening of potential repository sites. Information on current land uses, potential habitats, and expected plant and wildlife species is provided to assist field investigators in the collection of baseline data in support of further siting activities. The results of limited field surveys are also included. The report is in two parts. Part I contains a characterization of terrestrial ecological resources based upon limited field surveys aimed at verifying the presence of plant communities and wildlife habitats. It also presents inventories of species with special status, species with recreational and economic importance, and species of ecological value to important or special-status species. Part II presents information on aquatic ecosystems and resources derived primarily from a review of the literature, interviews, and limited field surveys. 21 figures, 18 tables

  11. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, L [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-07-01

    The potential hazards of radionuclide release to humans and the environment is regularly evaluated in safety assessments of SFR, the final repository for radioactive operational waste. SFR handles, since 1988, low and intermediate level nuclear waste from Swedish nuclear power plants, medical care attendance, industries and research laboratories and is located in the bedrock 50 meters under the seabed of Oeregrundsgrepen in the southern Bothnian Sea. This report presents a description of the aquatic ecosystem and a carbon budget for the area above SFR with the aim to include ecosystem dynamics in the present safety assessment of the repository (SAFE). The carbon budget will support SAFE by facilitating evaluations of transport and fate of radionuclides, primarily {sup 14}C, in case of a release from the repository and describe the ecosystem structure and function. Furthermore, {sup 14}C is the dose-dominant radionuclide in the repository which most likely will follow the general carbon flow in the ecosystem if there should be a release. The carbon budget was based on biomass and flow of carbon between thirteen functional groups (including POC and DOC) in the ecosystem above SFR and the results indicates that the organisms are self-sufficient on carbon and that the area exports carbon corresponding to approximately 50% of the annual primary production. The largest organic carbon pool is DOC (one and a half time larger than the total biomass) and the major functional organism groups are the macrophytes (37% of the total biomass), benthic macrofauna (36%), and the microphytes (11%). The soft bottom and phytobenthic communities seem to have important roles in the ecosystem since these communities comprise the main part of the living carbon in the studied area.

  12. Life cycle impacts of topsoil erosion on aquatic ecosystems: case study on Eucalyptus globulus forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Paula; Van de Broek, Marijn; Cláudia Dias, Ana; Ridoutt, Bradley; Arroja, Luís

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of suspended solids (SS), particularly in the clay and silt size fractions, reaching lotic environments and remaining in suspension can be a significant stressors to the biodiversity of these aquatic systems, degrading the water quality and directly affecting the aquatic biota, namely macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. This damage is presently not considered in Life Cycle Assessment studies. This study is devoted to the effects of SS into freshwater systems due to topsoil erosion by water (environmental mechanism), translated into damage to aquatic ecosystem diversity (endpoint impact category), namely to macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. For this, we have developed a framework to conduct an erosion inventory using the WaTEM/SEDEM model and linked this with, a method to derive regional characterisation for endpoint damage on aquatic ecosystem diversity. A case study was performed for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal, with a functional unit of one hectare of land under production forestry management. To demonstrate how this newly SS ecosystem method can help to improve the environmental assessment in forestry, results were compared with the earlier commonly used impact categories from ReCiPe method. The relevance of the impact from SS delivery to freshwater streams is shown, providing a more comprehensive assessment of the SS impact from land use systems on aquatic environments. The SS impacts ranged from 15.5 to 1234.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for macroinvertebrates, and from 5.2 to 411.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for algae and macrophytes. For some stands, SS potential impacts on macroinvertebrates have the same order of magnitude than freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and terrestrial acidification impacts. For algae and macrophytes, most of the stands present SS impacts of the same order of magnitude as terrestrial ecotoxicity, one order of magnitude higher than freshwater

  13. The Impact of Acid Rain on the Aquatic Ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam, Yohannes

    1999-01-01

    In the past environmental management practices have been based on disparate analysis of the impacts of pollutants on selected components of ecosystems. However, holistic analysis of emission reduction strategies is necessary to justify that actions taken to protect the environment would not unduly punish economic growth or vice versa. When environmental management programs are implemented, it would be extremely difficult for the industry to attain the targeted emission reduction in a sing...

  14. Potentiation of aquatic pollution by ethylene glycol with regard to the aquatic angiosperm, Lemna gibba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.A.; Barber, J.T.; Yatsu, L.Y.; Ensley, H.E. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene glycol is usually thought of as a benign component of urban runoff. Thus, its EC50 value, with regard to the vegetative growth of axenically grown Lemna gibba, is relatively high, viz. 164 mM. Ethylene glycol is not metabolized by Lemna but growth is demonstrably stimulated at concentrations below 75 mM. In the presence of ethylene glycol, the fronds of duckweed are dark green, translucent and the growth medium contains gas bubbles of carbon dioxide which result from an enhanced uptake of sucrose from the growth medium and its subsequent respiration. The uptake is a non-specific effect since the uptake of various other compounds, including water, is enhanced when duckweed is grown in the presence of ethylene glycol. The increased uptake of water, sucrose, inorganic ions and organic compounds results from an increased permeability due to the creation of intercellular holes in the aerenchymatous tissues of the ethylene glycol-treated plants. The mechanism by which ethylene glycol causes the holes is unknown but may involve a disruption in lipid metabolism since the hydrophobicity of the fronds is altered and their lipid composition is changed. The significance of this phenomenon is that toxicants, just like innocuous substances, are taken up in increased amounts by treated plants and as a result their toxicities are increased with regard to duckweed as evidenced by a decrease in their effective concentrations, often of more than 3-fold. These results suggest that although ethylene glycol itself may be benign, its presence in polluted waters containing other toxicants may potentiate the effects of those pollutants.

  15. Microbial biotechnology for remediation of aquatic habitats polluted with chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Coşier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium may occur in nine different forms of oxidation ranging from ?II to +VI, with forms II, III and VI as the most commonly encountered. In Cluj county, chromium pollution dates well back in time and has caused important dysfunction to the mechanical-biological wastewater purification station of the city of Cluj (Coşier & Diţă 1996. The purpose of this study was to develop one microbial method able to reduce hexavalent chromium (mobile, permeable to cell membrane, carcinogenic and mutagenic (Ishikawa et al 1994 to the trivalent form (insoluble and an essential element for humans (Song et al 2006. Different sources of chromium-reducing bacteria and many sources of carbon and energy added to the Kvasnikov mineral basal medium (Komori et al 1990 with increasing amount of chromate (200- 1000 mg/l were tested. Two bacterial strains, able to reduce even 1000 mg chromate/l, were isolated in pure culture. For one of these bacterial strains, we determined the optimum conditions for the reduction of Cr (VI.

  16. SPATIAL AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER AND DEEP SEDIMENTS OF FRESH WATER AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of various trace metals present in water and sediment of fresh water aquatic ecosystem during the post monsoon season. The study was extended to identify the trace metal contamination in the water and sediment samples collected along the shores of Lambapur and Peddagattu the tribal villages in India using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPMS. The trace metal contents in water samples were copper- 24.2 to 47.5, chromium- 4.4 to 8.2, cadmium- 0.1 to 0.3, lead- 2.1 to 3.8, Nickel- 5.9 to 9.7, Zinc- 4.6 to 9.7, Manganese- 10.8 to 13.2, Iron- 52.9 to 157.2 (µg L-1 cobalt and arsenic were in BDL and the values were within the limits of Indian drinking water standards (BIS 10500: 1991. The trace metals concentration in the sediment samples ranged from (mg kg-1: Copper- 61.5 to 113.7, chromium- 138.4 to 177.5, cobalt- 33.2 to 42.7, cadmium- 1.0 to 2.1, lead- 57.9 to 103.4, Nickel- 36.1 to 56.6, Zinc- 51.2 to 102.1, Manganese- 610.8 to 1301.7 and Iron- 2.5 to 2.9%. In our study, four reliable indices such as Enrichment factor, Contamination factor, Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index were applied to estimate metal pollution and the results comparison are discussed below. The data generated were used to determine the quality of the sediments based on the enrichment factor, contamination factor and degree of contamination, geochemical index and Pollution Load Index (PLI.

  17. The mysteriously variable half-life of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems: artefact or insight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chris; Fovet, Ophelie; Jones, Tim; Jones, Davey; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes from land to water represent an important loss term in the terrestrial carbon balance, a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, a significant influence on aquatic light, nutrient and energy regimes, and an important concern for drinking water production. Although freshwaters are now recognised as zones of active carbon cycling, rather than passive conduits for carbon transport, evidence regarding the magnitude of, and controls on, DOM cycling in aquatic systems is incomplete and in some cases seemingly contradictory, with DOM 'half-lives' ranging from a few days to many years. Bringing together experimental, isotopic, catchment mass balance and modelling data, we suggest that apparently conflicting results can be reconciled through understanding of differences in: i) the terrestrial sources of DOM within heterogeneous landscapes, and consequent differences in its reactivity and stoichiometry; ii) experimental methodologies (i.e. which reactions are actually being measured), and iii) the extent of prior transformation of DOM upstream of the point of study. We argue that rapid photo-degradation, particularly of peat-derived DOM, is a key process in headwaters, whilst apparently slow DOM turnover in downstream, agriculturally-influenced lakes and rivers can partly be explained by the offsetting effect of in situ DOM production. This production appears to be strongly constrained by nutrient supply, thus linking DOM turnover and composition to the supply of inorganic nutrient inputs from diffuse agricultural pollution, and also providing a possible mechanistic link between aquatic DOM production and terrestrial DOM breakdown via the mineralisation and re-assimilation of organic nutrients. A more complete conceptual understanding of these interlinked processes will provide an improved understanding of the sources and fate of aquatic DOM, its role in the global carbon cycle, and the impact of anthropogenic activities, for example

  18. Assessment of metallic pollution status of surface water and aquatic macrophytes of earthen dams in Ilorin, north-central of Nigeria as indicators of environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement O. Ogunkunle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The functional quality of an aquatic ecosystem is a reflection of the health of the environment. Therefore, the present study evaluates the trace metal contamination (Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn of water and aquatic macrophytes in Asa, Agba, Unilorin and Sobi (Moro earthen dams, north-central Nigeria to evaluate the level of anthropogenic impact on the immediate environment. The concentrations of trace metals in samples of water and available macrophytes from the earthen dams were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Trace metal contamination of surface water in the earthen dams was assessed using metal index (MPI and metal pollution index (HPI. The biological accumulation factor of trace metals in the aquatic macrophytes was extrapolated from trace metal concentrations in the water and macrophyte samples. The results of the MPI revealed gross metal contamination of the surface water by Pb and Cd (>6.0 for both metals in the four earthen dams; while Agba and Sobi dams were slightly contaminated by Ni (MPIs = 1.43 and 1.14 respectively. All the earthen dams were considered safe from Mn contamination (MPI  100, but Asa dam (HPI = 2682.4 was the most contaminated. The biological accumulation factor of Mn in the macrophytes indicated Ceratophyllum demersum, Pycreus lanceolatus and Pistia stratiotes as moderate accumulators of Mn, and can be used as bioindicators in monitoring Mn pollution of aquatic ecosystem. The obtained results in this study showed that the earthen dams are polluted by Pb, Cd and Ni which pose human health risks to the inhabitants through drinking water.

  19. Responses of aquatic ecosystems to environmental changes in Finland and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eWeckström

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concern for the state of global freshwater reservoirs has increased due to deterioration of the water quality during the last decades. This has prompted monitoring and restoration efforts such as the European Water Framework Directive and the national-scale 2nd-investigation and monitoring of the water quality, water volume and biota resources in China. The challenge so far has been the determination of the natural state (reference conditions of freshwater ecosystems. We used the sediment archives of five lakes and one brackish water embayment in Finland and China to assess the impact of selected variables of climatology, hydrology, nutrients, and changes in human population on these ecosystems during the last few centuries. The study sites represent catchment areas with varying land use. Despite the long distance between the sites and their different land-use characteristics, the direction and timing of changes during the last few centuries are well comparable between the high latitudes of Finland and the mid-low latitudes of China. This study reinforces the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to environmental change and underlines the usefulness of the palaeolimnological approach as a tool for determining reference conditions.

  20. INTERPRETATION OF COPPER AND ZINC CONTAMINATION IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A POLLUTED RIVER, SEPANG RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three different aquatic ecosystems(an urban pond,Kelana Jays Pond;a polluted river,Sepang River;and the intertidal and offshore areas of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia)with different sets of ecological backgrounds and human activities were reviewed and assessed for the levels of Cu and Zn contamination with special reference to those found in polluted sediments collected from the Sepang River.The discussion on the contamination levels of Cu and Zn in the aquatic environment of Peninsular Malaysia was based on a comparison of the metal contamination of 4 kinds of aquatic environments.The comparison of 4 different areas was based on①total concentrations of 2 metals;②the concentrations and percentages of the nonresistant(EFLE,acid-reducible and oxidisable-organic)and resistant geochemical fractions;and③correlation coefficients(R-values)based on data of 4 areas separately and a combination of 4 areas.The Sepang River recorded nonresistant fractions of 63.1%for Zn and 55.8%for Cu in addition toslightly lower metal concentrations when compared to those(60%-70%)reported before the shutting down of the piggery activities in that area.These nonresistant metal percentages(55%-63%)indicated that the metal concentrations were still dominated by anthropogenic sources since nonresistant fraction of metals were mostly contributed by anthropogenic sources.The positive results from the four different aquatic environments assessed here provided strong evidence to show that Malaysia's aquatic environment had received anthropogenic Cu and Zn.The present study also showed that thepercentage of the nonresistant fraction and the R-values based on correlation analysis of Cu and Zn could be used as indicators of Cu and Zn pollution in the Malaysian aquatic ecosystem.Based on the present data,the correlation coefficients(R-values)are potential indicators of EFLE Cu and acid-reducible Cu of the sediments.The use of R-values as indicators of metal pollution is suggested and it is

  1. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: Analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; CAI Xue-fen; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level(LEL)and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  2. Introduction to the effects of wildland fire on aquatic ecosystems in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieman, B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Young, M.; Luce, C.

    2003-01-01

    The management of wildfire has long been controversial. The role of fire and fire-related management in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has become an important focus in recent years, but the general debate is not new. In his recent book, Stephen Pyne (2001)describes the political and scientific debate surrounding the creation of the U.S. Forest Service and the emergence of fire suppression as a central tenet of wildland management. Essentially, views in the first decade of the 20th century focused on fire as good or evil: a tool that might benefit other resources or interests (e.g. Indian burning) and mitigate larger more destructive fires, or a threat to the recruitment and productivity of newly designated forest reserves. The “great fires” in the Western USA in 1910 and the associated loss of human life and property largely forged the public and political will to suppress fire on a massive scale.

  3. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: 90Sr - 89-95%, 137Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of 90Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with 137Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with 137Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of 90Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, 137Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of 137Cs and 90Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding decrease of 137Cs concentration, from the end of 1990's there is the gradual

  4. Mapping critical loads of nitrogen deposition for aquatic ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David W; Saros, Jasmine E; Stephens, Verlin C; Campbell, Donald H

    2012-07-01

    Spatially explicit estimates of critical loads of nitrogen (N) deposition (CL(Ndep)) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems were developed for the Rocky Mountains, USA, using a geostatistical approach. The lowest CL(Ndep) estimates (3 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)), resulting in CL(Ndep) exceedances ≥ 1.5 ± 1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). CL(Ndep) and CL(Ndep) exceedances exhibit substantial spatial variability related to basin characteristics and are highly sensitive to the NO(3)(-) threshold at which ecological effects are thought to occur. Based on an NO(3)(-) threshold of 0.5 μmol L(-1), N deposition exceeds CL(Ndep) in 21 ± 8% of the study area; thus, broad areas of the Rocky Mountains may be impacted by excess N deposition, with greatest impacts at high elevations. PMID:22504426

  5. Impacts of lawn-care pesticides on aquatic ecosystems in relation to property value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the potential impacts of lawn-care pesticides on aquatic ecosystems, the macroinvertebrate communities of six streams were assessed using a multimetric approach. Four streams flowed through residential neighborhoods of Peachtree City, GA, USA, with differing mean property values and two reference streams were outside the city limits. A series of correlation analyses were conducted comparing stream rank from water quality and physical stream parameters, habitat assessments, benthic macroinvertebrate metric, pesticide toxicity and metal toxicity data to determine relationships among these parameters. Significant correlations were detected between individual analyses of stream rank for pesticide toxicity, specific conductance, turbidity, temperature and dissolved oxygen with benthic macroinvertebrate metrics. - The macroinvertebrate communities of suburban streams may be influenced by the toxicity of the pesticides present in the water and sediment as well as select water quality parameters

  6. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem affected by sewage, mine and industrial pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wet, L.P.D. de; Schoonbee, H.J.; Pretorius, J.; Bezuidenhout, L.M. (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg (South Africa). Depts. of Zoology and Botany, Research Unit for Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems)

    1990-10-01

    The bio-accumulation of the heavy metals, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem polluted by effluents from sewage works, mines and industries was investigated. Results showed that the different metals can be accumulated by the water fern at concentration levels not necessarily related to their actual concentrations in the aquatic environment, as measured in this case, in the bottom sediments. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Transference kinetics of 60Co in an aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiyue; CAI Zhiqing; GONG Fanghong; SHI Jianjun; WANG Shouxiang

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of transportation,accumulation,disappearance and distribution of 60Co in a simulated aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem was studied by isotope-tracer technique.In the aquatic system,60Co was transported and transformed via depositing,coupling with ions and adsorption.The absorption resulted in the redistribution and accumulation of 60Co in each compartment of the system.Specific activities of 60Co in water started sharply and gently decreased.The sediment accumulated a large amount of 60Co by adsorption and ion exchange.The homwort (Ceralophyllum demersum) could also adsorb a large amount of 60Co in a short time,because of its large specific surface area.Fish (Carassius auratus) and snail (Bellamya purificata) had a poor capacity of adsorbing 60Co.The distribution of 60Co in the fish was mainly in the viscera,and the amount of 60Co in the snail flesh was greater than that in the shell.The amount of 60Co in individual compartment in the system was changed with time.The highest specific activity of 60Co in the bean of the terrestrial system remained in the root nodule.

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Mbaa River and the impact on aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, M N O; Nnodi, P C; Ogo, O A; Adaka, G S; Osuigwe, D I; Njoku, D C

    2015-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of heavy metals have caused ecological damage to aquatic ecosystem. In this study, concentration of heavy metals including zinc, lead, cadmium, iron, and copper were determined in the sediment and water as well as in the muscle, gill, and intestine of two fish species (Pelmatochromis guentheri and Pelmatochromis pulcher) of Mbaa River in Southeastern Nigeria. Samples were collected at three different spots from the river, and the level of heavy metals specified above were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after a modified wet digestion process. The results indicated that sediment had the highest concentration of the heavy metals investigated while water had the lowest concentration. Fish tissues showed appreciable bioaccumulation of these metals as evidenced by a higher concentration profile when compared with that of water. Furthermore, the concentration of these heavy metals in water and their bioconcentration factor in the fish were above the recommended limit by WHO and FEPA, indicating that Mbaa River along Inyishi may not be suitable for drinking nor the fish safe for human consumption. The study also reveals the use of fish as bioindicator of aquatic environment. PMID:26597816

  9. Characterizing the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate sources to aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M.B.; McLaughlin, K.; Kendall, C.; Stringfellow, W.; Rollog, M.; Elsbury, K.; Donald, E.; Paytan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate (δ18Op) in many aquatic ecosystems is not in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water and, therefore, may reflect the source δ18Op. Identification of phosphate sources to water bodies is critical for designing best management practices for phosphate load reduction to control eutrophication. In order for δ18O p to be a useful tool for source tracking, the δ18Op of phosphate sources must be distinguishable from one another; however, the δ18Op of potential sources has not been well characterized. We measured the δ18O p of a variety of known phosphate sources, including fertilizers, semiprocessed phosphorite ore, particulate aerosols, detergents, leachates of vegetation, soil, animal feces, and wastewater treatment plant effluent. We found a considerable range of δ18Op values (from +8.4 to +24.9‰) for the various sources, and statistically significant differences were found between several of the source types. δ18Op measured in three different fresh water systems was generally not in equilibrium with ambient water. Although there is overlap in δ18Op values among the groups of samples, our results indicate that some sources are isotopically distinct and δ18Op can be used for identifying phosphate sources to aquatic systems.

  10. Semipermeable membrane devices in monitoring of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaliunas, D.

    1999-03-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are passive samplers capable of concentrating hydrophobic chemicals from water, sediments, soil and air. They consist of layflat polymeric membrane such as polyethylene containing a thin film of synthetic lipid such as triolein. The transport of hydrophobic chemicals through the membrane into the lipid is governed by the process of passive diffusion. Therefore, SPMDs sample chemicals in a way similar to organisms. This thesis deals with the application of SPMDs in the monitoring of concentrations and effects of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. SPMDs were exposed to various pesticides (organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, amides) in laboratory flow-through experiments to study the uptake kinetics of organic chemicals from water. To compare the uptake of model compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms, the membrane samplers were exposed to chemicals side-by-side with bivalves. Mixtures of chemicals accumulated by SPMDs and mussels were tested in standard toxicity and genotoxicity assays (Microtox, Mutatox, invertebrate toxicity tests, the Ames test, sister chromatid exchange test). These studies showed that the uptake pattern of organic compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms was similar, and the passive samplers accumulated levels of chemicals sufficient for standard bioassays. To further validate the method, SPMDs were deployed in a number of polluted water sources in Lithuania. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical analytical methods were used to identify pollutants sampled (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines) and their effects were evaluated in bioassays. SPMDs proved to be useful tools in monitoring of organic pollutants under the field conditions. Criteria for bioassays to be integrated with the SPMD technique were defined based on the results of these studies. Some important factors in the integration of SPMDs and bioassays (toxicity of SPMD-inherent oleic and sediment

  11. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  12. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  13. 75 FR 51058 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... 12, 2010 (75 FR 18499). By following the link below, reviewers may download the initial data and EPA... Federal Register Notice (75 FR 30393). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on submitting... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

  14. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential impacts of global change. Using a large set of en...

  15. Novel use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy to investigate aquatic carbon cycling from microbial to ecosystem scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, D.T.; Santos, I.S.; Leuven, J.R.F.W.; Oakes, J.M.; Erler, D.V.; Carvalho, M.C.; Eyre, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Development of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) has enabled real-time monitoring of carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane in air. Here we demonstrate that CRDS can be adapted to assess aquatic carbon cycling processes from microbial to ecosystem scales. We first measured in

  16. Studies on transfer, bioaccumulation and disappearance of glyphosate in the aquatic ecosystem by utilizing 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on transfer, bioaccumulation and disappearance of glyphosate in the aquatic environment were conducted with methods of model tests and outdoor trials in the aquatic ecosystem. The result showed that glyphosate transferred rapidly into sediment and hormwort (Ceratopyllum demersum L.) after applied; and then, it was taken up faster and accumulated more by topmouth gudgeon (Psudorasobora parva) 5-10 days after application. The partitioning coefficient (sediment-water) and bioconcentration factors of glyphosate were 8.59, 27.96 and 45.79, respectively, in day 20. The concentration of glyphosate residue in the aquatic ecosystem followed the order of topmouth gudgeon > hormwort > sediment > water. And it was also indicated that glyphosate transferred and disappeared extremely fast in both pond and river after application

  17. Monitoring of the aquatic environment by species accumulator of pollutants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review on the biomonitoring of aquatic environments by animal and plant species accumulators of toxic pollutants ("scavengers". This monitoring is based on the relationship between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment, and not on alterations produced by pollution on the biota. The latter is the basis of other types of biomonitoring, such as those based on the biotic and diversity indices and saprobic scale. The various aspects of monitoring by pollutant accumulators are illustrated; for example, the uptake and loss of pollutants, the "critical organs" and "tissues", the detoxification mechanisms and the most common factors (C.F., BAF, BSAF for establishing a connection between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment. Several examples of this monitoring on heavy metals, radioisotopes and organic micropollutants are reported. The advantages of this monitoring, the characteristics of the species to be used as bioaccumulators and some practical suggestions are listed. A close collaboration between the scientific teams working on the biomonitoring based on accumulator organisms and on the chemical monitoring is recommended from the scientific and economic point of view.

  18. Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in aquatic ecosystems : influence of natural and anthropic organic matter; Biodisponibilite des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les ecosystemes aquatiques: influence de la matiere organique naturelle et anthropique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourlay, C.

    2004-11-01

    Aquatic ecosystems receive micro-pollutants. They also contain organic matter (OM) of natural and anthropogenic origins. The contaminant bioavailability in aquatic media is determined by the interactions between contaminants and OM. This work deals with the influence of organic matter from anthropogenic media on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic pollutants. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been used as model contaminants, since they are widely spread in urban media. In anthropogenic media, some OM may be bio-degraded. Up to now, most researches focused on the interactions between contaminants and humic OM that are mostly non-degradable, using physico-chemical characterizations of OM. On the contrary, in this work, the biodegradability of OM was deliberately taken into account. Indeed, we assume that the contaminant affinity for OM evolves during OM biodegradation, so that pollutants may be released in a bio-available form and then may be bond again by biodegradation sub-products. In laboratory evaluation, PAH bioavailability was assessed through the measurements of the bioaccumulation in Daphnia magna. The influence of organic matter on the bioavailability of PAHs and the evolution of this influence along OM bacterial mineralization were proved, as well as the strong binding efficiency of degradation by-products. A model of observed phenomena was elaborated. These observations about urban and natural OM effect were compared to in situ PAH bioavailability measurements in the river Seine basin. In this case, the bioavailability was estimated using Semi-Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) sampling technique. (author)

  19. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Leach, A.; Adams, M.; Vries, de W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Ecosystem services are being impacted by many human induced stresses, one of them being nitrogen (N) deposition and its interactions with other pollutants

  20. Stable isotope analysis of energy dynamics in aquatic ecosystems suggests trophic shifts following severe wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, A. M.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Luchkow, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire alters landscapes and can have significant impacts on stream ecosystems. The 2003 Lost Creek wildfire was one of the most severe on Alberta's eastern rocky mountain slopes, resulting in elevated sediment production and nutrient (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) export in impacted streams. These resulted in increased algal productivity and macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity, and as a result, fish in watersheds draining wildfire affected catchments were larger than those in the same age class from reference (unburned) watersheds. In the present investigation, stable isotope analysis of C and N was utilized to evaluate ecosystem energy dynamics and describe trophic relationships in those watersheds. Aquatic invertebrates from burned catchments showed enrichment in δ13C and δ15N relative to algae suggesting a reliance on algae (autochthony) as a primary source of energy. Invertebrates from unburned systems were depleted in δ13C relative to algae indicating reliance on allochthonous or terrestrial primary energy sources. Preliminary analysis of δ15N in macroinvertebrates showed slight enrichment in burned catchments suggesting a trophic shift. More comprehensive macroinvertebrate sampling and identification has been conducted; isotopic analysis will provide greater resolution of how specific families within feeding guilds have been affected by wildfire. This will provide more robust insights into how wildfires may impact stream ecology in mountain environments.

  1. Climate regulates alpine lake ice cover phenology and aquatic ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.; Caine, Nel; McKnight, Diane M.; Williams, Mark W.; Hell, Katherina; Miller, Matthew P.; Hart, Sarah J.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2016-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, yet relatively few records are available to characterize shifts in ecosystem structure or their underlying mechanisms. Using a long-term dataset on seven alpine lakes (3126 to 3620 m) in Colorado, USA, we show that ice-off dates have shifted seven days earlier over the past 33 years and that spring weather conditions – especially snowfall – drive yearly variation in ice-off timing. In the most well-studied lake, earlier ice-off associated with increases in water residence times, thermal stratification, ion concentrations, dissolved nitrogen, pH, and chlorophyll-a. Mechanistically, low spring snowfall and warm temperatures reduce summer stream flow (increasing lake residence times) but enhance melting of glacial and permafrost ice (increasing lake solute inputs). The observed links among hydrological, chemical, and biological responses to climate factors highlight the potential for major shifts in the functioning of alpine lakes due to forecasted climate change.

  2. Climate regulates alpine lake ice cover phenology and aquatic ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.; Caine, Nel; McKnight, Diane M.; Williams, Mark W.; Hell, Katherina; Miller, Matthew P.; Hart, Sarah J.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-05-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, yet relatively few records are available to characterize shifts in ecosystem structure or their underlying mechanisms. Using a long-term data set on seven alpine lakes (3126 to 3620 m) in Colorado, USA, we show that ice-off dates have shifted 7 days earlier over the past 33 years and that spring weather conditions—especially snowfall—drive yearly variation in ice-off timing. In the most well studied lake, earlier ice-off associated with increases in water residence times, thermal stratification, ion concentrations, dissolved nitrogen, pH, and chlorophyll a. Mechanistically, low spring snowfall and warm temperatures reduce summer stream flow (increasing lake residence times) but enhance melting of glacial and permafrost ice (increasing lake solute inputs). The observed links among hydrological, chemical, and biological responses to climate factors highlight the potential for major shifts in the functioning of alpine lakes due to forecasted climate change.

  3. Reviews and Syntheses: Effects of permafrost thaw on arctic aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Vonk

    2015-07-01

    enables the delivery of dissolved vs. particulate organic matter, coupled with the composition of that organic matter and the morphology and stratification characteristics of recipient systems will play an important role in determining the balance between the release of organic matter as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4, its burial in sediments, and its loss downstream. The magnitude of thaw impacts on northern aquatic ecosystems is increasing, as is the prevalence of thaw-impacted lakes and streams. There is therefore an urgent need to address the key gaps in understanding in order to predict the full effects of permafrost thaw on aquatic ecosystems throughout the Arctic, and their consequential feedbacks to climate.

  4. Reviews and syntheses: Effects of permafrost thaw on Arctic aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J. E.; Tank, S. E.; Bowden, W. B.; Laurion, I.; Vincent, W. F.; Alekseychik, P.; Amyot, M.; Billet, M. F.; Canário, J.; Cory, R. M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Helbig, M.; Jammet, M.; Karlsson, J.; Larouche, J.; MacMillan, G.; Rautio, M.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Wickland, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    of dissolved vs. particulate organic matter, coupled with the composition of that organic matter and the morphology and stratification characteristics of recipient systems will play an important role in determining the balance between the release of organic matter as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), its burial in sediments, and its loss downstream. The magnitude of thaw impacts on northern aquatic ecosystems is increasing, as is the prevalence of thaw-impacted lakes and streams. There is therefore an urgent need to quantify how permafrost thaw is affecting aquatic ecosystems across diverse Arctic landscapes, and the implications of this change for further climate warming.

  5. Anthropogenic pollutants affect ecosystem services of freshwater sediments. The need for a 'triad plus x' approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbersdorf, Sabine Ulrike; Wieprecht, Silke [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Hollert, Henner; Brinkmann, Markus [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis; Schuettrumpf, Holger [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Manz, Werner [Koblenz-Landau Univ., Koblenz (Germany). Inst. for Integrated Natural Sciences

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Freshwater sediments and their attached microbial communities (biofilms) are essential features of rivers and lakes, providing valuable ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling or self-purification which extend beyond the aquatic environment. Anthropogenic pollutants, whether from the industrial era or as a result of our contemporary lifestyles, can negatively affect these functions with hitherto unknown consequences on ecology, the economy and human health. Thus far, the singular view of the involved disciplines such as ecotoxicology, environmental microbiology, hydrology and geomorphology has prevented a deeper understanding of this emerging issue. Main features: This paper discusses briefly the progressions and the state-of-the-art methods within the disciplines of concern related to contaminated sediments, ranging from ecotoxicological test systems, microbiological/molecular approaches to unravel changes of microbial ecosystems, up to the modelling of sediment transport and sorption/desorption of associated pollutants. The first bilateral research efforts on contaminated sediments include efforts to assess ecotoxicological sediment risk including sediment mobility (i.e. ecotoxicology and engineering), enhance bioremediation potential (i.e. microbiology and ecotoxicology) or to understand biostabilisation processes of sediments by microbial assemblages (i.e. microbiology and engineering). Conclusions and perspectives: In freshwater habitats, acute, chronic and mechanism-specific toxic effects on organisms, shifts in composition, structure and functionality of benthic microbial communities, as well as the obstruction of important ecosystem services by continuously discharged and long-deposited pollutants, should be related to the in situ sediment dynamics. To achieve an improved understanding of the ecology of freshwater sediments and the impairment of their important ecosystem functions by human-derived pollutants, we suggest a 'triad plus x

  6. Sediment composition mediates the invasibility of aquatic ecosystems by a non-native Poaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Botter Fasoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the invasibility of aquatic ecosystems by an exotic species, we used the invasive macrophyte Urochloa arrecta, which has invaded many Neotropical waterbodies and has reduced biodiversity in these habitats. The extensive growth of this macrophyte can be related to its affinity for mud-rich sediments, which occur primarily in secondary river channels and lentic habitats.MethodsTo test this hypothesis, we cultivated U. arrecta in trays with different percentages of mud and we measured the sprout length and biomass of the plants after 75 days.ResultsOur results showed a positive and significant relationship between sediment mud percentage and nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. Both plant length and biomass increased significantly and continuously with increasing mud content, indicating that the growth of this species is not limited even at the highest levels of mud, which is shown to be toxic for other species of macrophytes. Thus, it is probable that sand-rich sites, such as river shores, are less vulnerable to invasion by this species than relatively mud-rich sites, such as lakes.ConclusionsThis finding indicates that relatively mud-rich ecosystems should be prioritised in monitoring programs to prevent invasion by this species. In addition, the slow development of this species in sandy sediments opens a potential window for its management, at least on small spatial scales. However, despite the reduced growth of U. arrecta in sand-rich sediments, this grass is able to grow in several types of sediments, which explains its spread in a variety of habitats in Neotropical freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Oxidation of aquatic pollutants by ferrous–oxalate complexes under dark aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electron transfer from ferrous–oxalate complexes to oxygen occurs in dark conditions. • OH radicals generated by ferrous–oxalate complexes initiate the oxidation process. • Degradation kinetics depends on the speciation of ferrous–oxalate complexes. • Ferrous–oxalate complexes are the most efficient for the degradation of pollutants. - Abstract: This study evaluates the ability of FeII–oxalate complexes for the generation of ·OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe2+ and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe2+ or oxalate. The formation of FeII–oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H2O2 and subsequent production of ·OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H2O2 and ·OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe2+], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [FeII(Ox)22−], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [FeII(Ox)22−] + [FeII(Ox)0]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the FeII–oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and ·OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with ·OH

  8. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  9. Assessing Sources of Stress to Aquatic Ecosystems: Using Biomarkers and Bioindicators to Characterize Exodure-Response Profiles of Anthropogenic Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.

    1999-03-29

    Establishing causal relationships between sources of environmental stressors and aquatic ecosystem health if difficult because of the many biotic and abiotic factors which can influence or modify responses of biological systems to stress, the orders of magnitude involved in extrapolation over both spatial and temporal scales, and compensatory mechanisms such as density-dependent responses that operate in populations. To address the problem of establishing causality between stressors and effects on aquatic systems, a diagnostic approach, based on exposure-response profiles for various anthropogenic activities, was developed to help identify sources of stress responsible for effects on aquatic systems at ecological significant levels of biological organization (individual, population, community). To generate these exposure-effects profiles, biomarkers of exposure were plotted against bioindicators of corresponding effects for several major anthropogenic activities including petrochemical , pulp and paper, domestic sewage, mining operations, land-development activities, and agricultural activities. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental stressors varied depending on the type of anthropogenic activity involved. Bioindicator effects, however, including histopathological lesions, bioenergetic status, individual growth, reproductive impairment, and community-level responses were similar among many of the major anthropogenic activities. This approach is valuable to help identify and diagnose sources of stressors in environments impacted by multiple stressors. By identifying the types and sources of environmental stressors, aquatic ecosystems can be more effectively protected and managed to maintain acceptable levels of environmental quality and ecosystem fitness.

  10. Assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station and evaluation of radiological doses to aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation and maintenance of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS), low level radioactive liquid waste is generated and released to the aquatic ecosystem (Moticher lake). The silt and aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata) samples collected from different locations in Moticher lake were analysed for 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K during 2007-2008. A wide variation in activity levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K in silt and weed samples were observed in aquatic system of KAPS. The activity buildup in the silt is confined to a small area in the Moticher lake. The activity levels were found to be insignificant at 1 km away from discharge point (upstream and downstream). An attempt was made to evaluate the radiological dose to aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata), which was found to be well within the dose limit prescribed by US DOE. The total radiological dose due to the naturally occurring radionuclide (40K) is comparatively higher than that of other reactor released gamma emitting radionuclides. (author)

  11. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution: a major component of environment management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the international experiences mostly of the UK (United Kingdom) and Europe on monitoring aquatic pollution and controlling water pollution which have a long history of the legislation involved. The U.K. control of water pollution and regulatory laws are very effective as in shown by the fact that 96 percent of rivers in England and Wales are suitable for potable supplies with conventional water treatment. Current British legislation is basically contained n the 1951, 1960 and 1974 acts of parliament in the U.K. A common feature of all this environment legislation is the high level of consultation which has taken place between government and all concerned and al those concerned in the development of legislation and drawing up regulations etc. and involved in implementation of them. Similarly considerable discussion takes place with the controlling authorities by dischargers over the detailed implementation of legislation in the U.K. Consequently these harmonious attitudes have been responsible for the effectiveness of the U.K. legislation. In the U.K. control of discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground water is vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground waters in vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges to be made subject to conditions and limitations in the consent/authorisation/approval. The paper critically reviews major aspects of the philosophy of aquatic pollution control and monitoring, as statistics reveal deadly state of liquid effluent contamination water bodies in Pakistan. Without prompt installation of treatment plants we may face a tragedy of catastrophic magnitude. (author)

  12. Land use Controls on Water Quality and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Andean Amazon, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, L. A.; McClain, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    Agro-pastoral systems are replacing many of the tropical forests in the world, and much of this deforestation occurs in watersheds where people's livelihoods rely directly on water and aquatic resources in local streams and rivers. We examined relationships between land use and aquatic ecosystems in 34 catchments exhibiting a gradient of land use disturbance and human settlement in the Andean Amazon of Peru. Our research objectives were to 1) classify and characterize watershed land use and physical properties using remotely sensed data, 2) characterize the physical, biological and chemical conditions of streams 3) examine relationships between land use and water quality parameters at 3 scales: watershed, riparian and reach habitat and 4) translate research findings into management strategies that minimize disturbance and maximize ecosystem services. Primary forest was the dominant cover (68%) across the catchments, and the remaining study area was composed of: mixed forest (11.5%), grassland (10.75%) cropland (9.17%) and bare rock (0.02%). Among watersheds, forest cover ranged from 14% to 100%, mixed forest ranged from 0% to 26%, grassland ranged from 0% to 45% and cropland ranged from 0% to 26%. Physical habitat index scores ranged from 12.80 (very impaired) to 29.50 (reference conditions). Although nitrogen, phosphorous, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, electric conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO), varied across sites, total concentrations remained within acceptable levels. Simpson's diversity and Family Biotic Index (FBI) were calculated for macroinvertebrates collected at each site; Simpson's diversity ranged from 0.24 to 0.95 and FBI ranged from 1.97 (excellent) to 7.49 (fairly poor). Forest cover at the watershed scale was the best explanatory variable and was positively correlated with inorganic phosphate (0.50), DO (0.90) and Simpson's diversity (0.46) and negatively correlated with organic phosphate (- 0.64), DOC (-0.75), water temperature (-0

  13. Biomarkers of toxicological responses in aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus. Variegatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Gooneratne; Drewes C

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oligochaete worms are key, non-target,macroinvertebrates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems.Aquatic and terrestrial pollution has attracted a great deal of public interest in the past 2 decades.

  14. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  15. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  16. Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C M Kyba

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this "ecological light pollution". We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered.

  17. Scaling relationships among drivers of aquatic respiration from the smallest to the largest freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ed K; Schoolmaster, Donald; Amado, A.M; Stets, Edward G.; Lennon, J.T.; Domaine, L.; Cotner, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    To address how various environmental parameters control or constrain planktonic respiration (PR), we used geometric scaling relationships and established biological scaling laws to derive quantitative predictions for the relationships among key drivers of PR. We then used empirical measurements of PR and environmental (soluble reactive phosphate [SRP], carbon [DOC], chlorophyll a [Chl-a)], and temperature) and landscape parameters (lake area [LA] and watershed area [WA]) from a set of 44 lakes that varied in size and trophic status to test our hypotheses. We found that landscape-level processes affected PR through direct effects on DOC and temperature and indirectly via SRP. In accordance with predictions made from known relationships and scaling laws, scale coefficients (the parameter that describes the shape of a relationship between 2 variables) were found to be negative and have an absolute value 1, others small pond catchments to the largest body of freshwater on the planet, Lake Superior, these findings should be applicable to controls of PR for the great majority of temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Extraordinary stability of copper(I)-tetrathiomolybdate complexes: possible implications for aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, George R; Erickson, Britt E

    2011-01-01

    An extraordinary affinity of MoS₄²⁻ for Cu accounts for Mo-induced Cu deficiency in ruminants (molybdenosis) and offers an approach to treating Wilson's disease in humans. Evidence of thiomolybdates in sulfidic natural waters, and possibly even as metastable traces in oxic natural waters, raises the question of how Cu-Mo affinity might affect Cu availability or toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. Stabilities of inorganic Cu-MoS₄²⁻ complexes are characterized and quantified here for the first time. Two remarkably stable Cu(I) dissolved complexes are identified (T = 23°C ± 2°C): Cu₂(HS)₂MoS₄²⁻ and Cu₂S₂MoS₄⁴⁻. In addition, the solubility constant for a precipitate (NH₄CuMoS₄) was measured. Under the extremely reducing conditions in rumen fluids, these complexes will greatly suppress Cu(+) activity, supporting prior conclusions about the mechanism of molybdenosis. In sulfidic natural waters, they help to prevent complete Cu impoverishment, as might otherwise occur by sulfide mineral precipitation. On the other hand, the complexes discovered here are HS⁻-dependent and could not be important in oxic natural waters (with HS⁻ concentrations < 10⁻⁹ M) even if metastable, biogenic MoS₄²⁻ indeed were present as previously conjectured.

  19. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M; Quinn, Laura P; Polder, Anuschka

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT levels reported this century; 13,000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 ng/g wm. Even higher ΣDDT levels at 16,000 ng/g wm were found in House Sparrow eggs (possibly the highest ever recorded for sparrows), with a maximum of 24,400 ng/g wm. Significant eggshell thinning in Cattle Egrets (33% between thickest and thinnest) was associated with increased levels of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. There were indications of unknown use of DDT and lindane. Relative to DDT, PCBs and BFRs levels were quite low. Ordinated data showed that different terrestrial pollutant profiles converged to a homogenised aquatic profile. Converging profiles, high levels of DDT in heron and sparrow eggs, and thinning eggs shells, indicate risk and impacts at release, in the aquatic environment, and in between. If characteristic life-strategies of birds in warm areas (e.g. longer-lived and fewer eggs per clutch) increases the risk compared with similar birds living in colder regions when both experience the same environmental pollutant levels, then malaria control using DDT probably has more significant impacts on biota than previously realised. Therefore, risk assessment and modelling without hard data may miss crucial impacts and risks, as the chemical use patterns and ecologies in Africa and elsewhere may differ from the conditions and assumptions of existing risk assessment and modelling parameters. Consideration of other findings associated with DDT from the same area (intersex in fish and urogental birth defects in baby boys), together with the findings of this study (high

  20. Old river beds under urbanization pressure. Can we protect valuable aquatic ecosystems within the cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Daria; Sikorski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Old river channels are valuable ecosystems in the scale of whole Europe. Protected as Natura 2000 habitats they are characterized by high biodiversity and provide various ecosystem services. River regulation, eutrophication or lack of annual flooding result in an impoverishment and disappearance of these habitats. Moreover they are subjected to severe pressure from uncontrolled expansion of the cities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with urbanization mostly contributing to impoverishment of the vegetation associated with the old channels and to identify landscape characteristics favouring high diversity and naturalness. We were seeking for indices that could be implemented in spatial management for preservation of these ecosystems. Vegetation inventory of 28 lakes, being former river Vistula beds near Warsaw was held. The lakes were located in an urban-rural gradient from the city centre, suburban zone to rural areas. Mapping of vegetation was performed for aquatic vegetation, rushes and vegetation of the shores (321 relevés). Human pressure was assessed on the basis of landscape composition of the lakes neighbourhood, characteristic features of the reservoir and water physio-chemical properties. High diversity and naturalness of the vegetation associated with former Vistula River beds was proved. Effects of the human pressure in the vegetation composition were recognized in high share of alien species and impoverishment of native plants. Composition was dependant on the intensity of human pressure in the neighbourhood and was mostly related to percentage of built-up areas and road density. Selected measures allowed to explain not more than 30% of plants composition variation which implies strong effect of local factors. Vegetation composition of former river beds changed significantly along urban-rural gradient, though the trend could be noted only to the city border. Several protection activities were proposed favouring high

  1. The main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, J.; Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Markantonis, K.; Grigorakou, E.; Vassiliou, E.

    2003-04-01

    The research team of the laboratory of Engineering Geology &Hydrogeology of NTUA and P.P.C. have carried out several research projects since 1990. The conclusions of these projects for the main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas are the following: Human activities : a) Urban and industrial wastes (solid and liquids) are disposed or discharged to the surface or groundwater bodies causing degradation of their quality (case studies of Athens Basin, Lavrio region, Atalanti plain), b) intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers for agriculture, through the process of percolation or leaching causes the deterioration of aquifers and surface water (case studies of Plolemais Basin, Korinth region, Elassona Basin, Atalanti plain, Thrapsana Basin Iraklio), c) current exploitations and old or abandoned mining sites, disturb the aquatic environment and create new hydraulic connections between clean and polluted aquifers or the sea (case studies of Lavrio region, Ptolemais Basin, Megalopoli Basin), d) over-pumping of aquifers mainly for irrigation but also in some cases for dewatering of mines, results in continues drawdown of the groundwater level and intrusion of sea (case studies of Korinth region, Athens basin, Naxos island, Nea Peramos Kavala, Marathon, Argolida Field, Atalanti plain, Achaia region, Stratoni area Chalkidiki, Gouves Iraklio). Geological Environment: a) extensive karstification of limestones that spread up all over the Greek region (33%) causes the intrusion of the sea far into the land (case studies of Lavrio region, Kefalonia island, Hymettus mountain), b) the chemical composition of the geological formations through the process of ion exchange and solubility pollute the groundwater resources (case studies of Vegoritis Basin, Katsika Chalkidiki, Florina region). The proposed measures to face these problems are : - the orthological management of the water resources - the artificial recharge of the aquifers, - proper waste management

  2. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

  3. The environmental costs of mountaintop mining valley fill operations for aquatic ecosystems of the Central Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Palmer, Margaret A

    2011-03-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are recognized as a biodiversity hot spot of global significance, particularly for endemic aquatic salamanders and mussels. The dominant driver of land-cover and land-use change in this region is surface mining, with an ever-increasing proportion occurring as mountaintop mining with valley fill operations (MTVF). In MTVF, seams of coal are exposed using explosives, and the resulting noncoal overburden is pushed into adjacent valleys to facilitate coal extraction. To date, MTVF throughout the Appalachians have converted 1.1 million hectares of forest to surface mines and buried more than 2,000 km of stream channel beneath mining overburden. The impacts of these lost forests and buried streams are propagated throughout the river networks of the region as the resulting sediment and chemical pollutants are transmitted downstream. There is, to date, no evidence to suggest that the extensive chemical and hydrologic alterations of streams by MTVF can be offset or reversed by currently required reclamation and mitigation practices. PMID:21449964

  4. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  5. Amphibians as indicators of changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems following GM crop cultivation: a monitoring guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Böll; Benedikt Schmidt; Michael Veith; Norman Wagner; Dennis Rödder; Cathrin Weinmann; Tom Kirschey; Stefan Loetters

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are a suitable indicator group for monitoring possible negative direct or indirect effects of GMO cultivation at the individual and population level. Direct effects could occur in aquatic ecosystems via uptake of GM pollen or GM detritus by anuran larvae. However, indirect negative effects caused by changes in cultivation practices (changes in pesticide use, for instance) are more likely. The VDI Guideline 4333 aims to ensure comprehensive monitoring of the different life-stages of...

  6. Interactions between nutrients and organic micro-pollutants in shallow freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of nutrients and toxicants in aquatic ecosystems may interact in several ways. Here, we (a) present an overview of reported mechanisms that may play a role in these interactions, and (b) compare these reported mechanisms against the results of a suite of experiments performed with organic mi

  7. Oxidation of aquatic pollutants by ferrous–oxalate complexes under dark aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesang [School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwon, E-mail: jwk@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wonyong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Electron transfer from ferrous–oxalate complexes to oxygen occurs in dark conditions. • OH radicals generated by ferrous–oxalate complexes initiate the oxidation process. • Degradation kinetics depends on the speciation of ferrous–oxalate complexes. • Ferrous–oxalate complexes are the most efficient for the degradation of pollutants. - Abstract: This study evaluates the ability of Fe{sup II}–oxalate complexes for the generation of ·OH through oxygen reduction and the oxidative degradation of aquatic pollutants under dark aerobic conditions (i.e., with oxygen but without light). The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was rapid in the mixture of Fe{sup 2+} and oxalate prepared using ultrapure water, but was absent without either Fe{sup 2+} or oxalate. The formation of Fe{sup II}–oxalate complexes enables two-electron reduction of oxygen to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and subsequent production of ·OH. The significant inhibition of 4-CP degradation in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ·OH scavenger confirms such mechanisms. The degradation experiments with varying [Fe{sup 2+}], [oxalate], and initial pH demonstrated that the degradation rate depends on [Fe{sup II}(Ox){sub 2}{sup 2−}], but the degree of degradation is primarily determined by [Fe{sup II}(Ox){sub 2}{sup 2−}] + [Fe{sup II}(Ox){sup 0}]. Efficient degradation of diverse aquatic pollutants, especially phenolic pollutants, was observed in the Fe{sup II}–oxalate complexes system, wherein the oxidation efficacy was primarily correlated with the reaction rate constant between pollutant and ·OH. The effect of various organic ligands (oxalate, citrate, EDTA, malonate, and acetate) on the degradation kinetics of 4-CP was investigated. The highest efficiency of oxalate for the oxidative degradation is attributed to its high capability to enhance the reducing power and low reactivity with ·OH.

  8. Proteomics to assess the role of phenotypic plasticity in aquatic organisms exposed to pollution and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Gillardin, Virginie; Dorts, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, the unprecedented rates of anthropogenic changes in ecosystems suggest that organisms have to migrate to new distributional ranges or to adapt commensurately quickly to new conditions to avoid becoming extinct. Pollution and global warming are two of the most important threats aquatic organisms will have to face in the near future. If genetic changes in a population in response to natural selection are extensively studied, the role of acclimation through phenotypic plasticity (the property of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to particular environmental conditions) in a species to deal with new environmental conditions remains largely unknown. Proteomics is the extensive study of the protein complement of a genome. It is dynamic and depends on the specific tissue, developmental stage, and environmental conditions. As the final product of gene expression, it is subjected to several regulatory steps from gene transcription to the functional protein. Consequently, there is a discrepancy between the abundance of mRNA and the abundance of the corresponding protein. Moreover, proteomics is closer to physiology and gives a more functional knowledge of the regulation of gene expression than does transcriptomics. The study of protein-expression profiles, however, gives a better portrayal of the cellular phenotype and is considered as a key link between the genotype and the organismal phenotype. Under new environmental conditions, we can observe a shift of the protein-expression pattern defining a new cellular phenotype that can possibly improve the fitness of the organism. It is now necessary to define a proteomic norm of reaction for organisms acclimating to environmental stressors. Its link to fitness will give new insights into how organisms can evolve in a changing environment. The proteomic literature bearing on chronic exposure to pollutants and on acclimation to heat stress in aquatic organisms, as well as potential application of

  9. Industria del camarón: su responsabilidad en la desaparición de los manglares y la contaminación acuática - Industry of Shrimp: its responsibility in the loss of the mangrove ecosystems and the aquatic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Moreno, E.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa industria camaronera representa una importante rama de la producción alimentaria mundial y constituye una elemental fuente de proteínas, empleo e ingresos, siendo la base del sustento de una gran parte de la población del planeta; pero precisamente debido a ello, ha crecido muy aceleradamente, agravándose fundamentalmente en cuanto a la superficie total de explotación, lo que ha provocado un serio desequilibrio entre la explotación por parte del hombre y la naturaleza. En la presente revisión bibliográfica se reflejan las tendencias de crecimiento de la camaronicultura versus la afectación del medioambiente, específicamente las implicaciones relacionadas con la destrucción de los manglares como ecosistemas y la contaminación de las aguas marinas y continentales. En el trabajo semanifiesta que el desarrollo acelerado de esta rama productiva sin laobservación necesaria de las normas de protección del medio ambiente,provoca afectaciones serias y puede conducir a catástrofesmedioambientales si no se respeta el equilibrio que debe existir con la naturaleza.SummaryThe shrimp culture is an important line of the world production of food, an elemental source of protein, employment and incomes. It's the base of the sustenance much parts of the world population; for this cause it grows very fast, increasing the total surface of exploitation which provokes an intense unbalance between the production from the man and the nature. The present bibliographical review shows the tendency of the growth of the shrimp culture versus the environmental affectation, specifically the elements about of the destruction of the mangrove’s ecosystems and the pollution of the coastal and continental waters. This work shows t hat the fast development of this line of production without the observance of theprotection regulations to the environment causes several damages and may leads to environmental catastrophes if we don’t respect the balance with

  10. Pollution Pathways of Pharmaceutical Residues in the Aquatic Environment on the Island of Mallorca, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Bak, Søren Alex;

    2013-01-01

    This work determines the principal environmental pollution pathways of pharmaceuticals on the island of Mallorca (Spain). The evaluation was made on the basis of the quantification of pharmaceutical residues by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in several environmental water samples......, including wastewater-treatment plant effluents, municipal solid waste landfill leachates, groundwater (GW), and marine water. An overall set of 19 pharmaceuticals has been identified in the environment of the 27 human pharmaceuticals investigated in this study. WWTP effluents are the main source...... of discharge of the pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment. The data indicate that reuse of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation (which supplies some 30 % of the total water demand in Mallorca) contributes to the contamination of GW. In addition, leaching from landfills is identified as another...

  11. A Study on the Evaluation Techniques of Pollutant Transport in Aquatic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the numerical modeling has been performed to evaluate the characteristics of hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in aquatic environment such as river, lake, estuary and coastal areas. A EFDC among the lots of codes was selected to analyze the characteristics of code and the applications. A EFDC is a general-purpose modeling package for simulating three-dimensional flow, transport, and biogeochemical processes in surface water systems including rivers, lakes, estuaries, reservoirs, wetlands and coastal regions. The structure of the EFDC model includes four major modules: a hydrodynamic model, a water quality model, a sediment transport model, and a toxic model. This report was described the characteristics of the EFDC model and examples of application in lake, river, estuary and ocean

  12. The influence of ecological processes on the accumulation of persistent organochlorines in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Olof

    1999-09-01

    Several ecological problems influences the fate, transport, and accumulation of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in aquatic ecosystems. In this thesis, I have focused on two processes, namely (i) the food chain bioaccumulation of OCs, and (ii) the trophic status of the aquatic system. To test the biomagnification theory, I investigated PCB concentrations in planktonic food chains in lakes. The concentrations of PCB on a lipid basis did not increase with increasing trophic level. Hence, I could give no support to the theory of biomagnification. Instead, lipid content explained most of the variation in PCB accumulation in these food chains. PCBs were differentially fractionated in the food chains, the relative amount of high molecular weight PCBs increased with increasing trophic level, indicating congener specific differences in either the accumulation or the elimination of PCBs at the different trophic levels. In another study, I investigated the relationship between OC concentrations and trophic level, measured as {delta}{sup 15}N, in a specific predatory fish population. The dry weight OC concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N were related, indicating effects of prey choice on the OC accumulation. However, here also, lipid content explained the major part of the variation in OC concentrations, independent of trophic level (e. g. {delta}{sup 15}N). I investigated the effects of trophic status, measured as Tot-P concentration in water, on the concentrations of OCs in water, planktonic food chains and sediment in lakes. The dry weight concentrations of PCBs in phytoplankton were negatively related to the trophic status of the lakes. However, this relationship was explained by the decreasing lipid content of phytoplankton with lake trophic status. The phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes had lower lipid content than phytoplankton in oligotrophic lakes, possibly due to inter- and intraspecific differences in lipid content due to nutrient stress. The sediment accumulation and

  13. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins and its relationship with the aquatic macroinvertebrate community status

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović, Maja; Julio C. López-Doval; Castro-Català, Núria de; Guasch i Padró, Helena; Petrović, Mira; Muñoz, Isabel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barceló i Cullerés, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins (Llobregat, Ebro, Júcar and Guadalquivir) was performed. The data set included more than 200 emerging and priority compounds measured at 77 sampling sites along four river basins studied. The toxic units (TU) approach was used to assess the risk of individual compounds and the concentration addition model (CA) to assess the site specific risk. Link between chemical pollution and aquatic macroinvertebrate commu...

  14. The developing framework of marine ecotoxicology: Pollutants as a variable in marine ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Marine ecosystems include a subset in which at least some interrelated geochemical, biochemical, physiological, population and community characteristics are changed by pollutants. Moderate contamination is relatively widespread in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, so the subset of ecosystems with at least some processes affected could be relatively large. Pollutant influences have changed and will probably continue to change on time scales of decades. Biological exposures and dose in such ecosystems are species-specific and determined by how the species is exposed to different environmental media and the geochemistry of individual pollutants within those media. Bioaccumulation models offer significant promise for interpreting such exposures. Biological responses to pollutants need to be more directly linked to exposure and dose. At the level of the individual this might be improved by better understanding relationships between tissue concentrations of pollutants and responses to pollutants. Multi-discipline field and laboratory studies combined with advanced understanding of some basic processes have reduced the ambiguities in interpreting a few physiological/organismic responses to pollutants in nature. Recognition of pollutant-induced patterns in population responses could lead to similar advances. A rational framework for ecotoxicology is developing, but its further advance is dependent upon better integration of ecotoxicology with basic marine ecology and biology.

  15. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Pfennig, Sascha; Van den Brink, Paul J; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Ruepert, Clemens; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple plantations. In this study, acute laboratory toxicity tests with organophosphate pesticides ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos were conducted on two Costa Rican species, cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and fish Parachromis dovii. Tests showed that chlorpyrifos was more toxic than ethoprophos to D. ambigua and P. dovii and that D. ambigua was also more sensitive than P. dovii to both pesticides. Additionally, bioassays were performed by exposing D. magna and P. dovii to contaminated water collected from the field. Chemical analyses of field water revealed that fungicides were generally the most frequent pesticide group found, followed by insecticides/nematicides and herbicides. The bioassays and values obtained from the literature confirmed that D. magna was more sensitive to pesticide contamination than P. dovii and that D. ambigua was more sensitive than D. magna, suggesting that the native cladoceran is a more suitable test species than its temperate counterpart. Species sensitivity distributions showed no significant difference in sensitivity between tropical and temperate fish and the arthropod species exposed to chlorpyrifos in this study. Choline esterase activity (ChE) was measured in P. dovii in laboratory tests in order to assess the applicability of this biomarker. ChE inhibition in P. dovii was observed in the laboratory at levels below the LC10 of both ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos, confirming that ChE is an efficient biomarker of exposure. Both indigenous Costa Rican species used in this study were found to be suitable standard tropical test species. Further studies are needed to investigate how protective the safe environmental concentrations, derived from LC50 of native

  16. Ecotoxicological monitoring for the evaluation of environmental recovery of aquatic ecosystems using Poecilia reticulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DaSilva, E.M.; Navarro, M.F.T.; Mota, M.F.; Chastinet, C.B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater contamination has led to a considerable environmental impact on the humic acid-rich lake systems of Jaua and Interiagos (Camagari-BA). This was caused by the seepage of rainwater through a dune, which was used for some time as a dumping ground of a titanium dioxide plant. The pH fall in the water has conducted to a precipitation of the humic acids and the disappearance of the local fish fauna. The plant (TIBRAS S/A) initiated a recovery program in 1992 to seal up the contaminated dune, thus avoiding further contamination of the groundwater. During the last two years, ecotoxicity tests have been carried out with lake water, employing young individual of the guppy (Poecilia reticulate), an endemic species, as a test organism. Results for 1993 indicated and confined the contamination of five water stations from a total of eight sampled nearby. The LT{sub 50} were in some cases lower than 60 min. In the end of 1993, a severe drought caused the total disappearance of the surface water in the whole aquatic ecosystem. In May 1994, the testing series restarted and some considerable changes have been detected: the return of the water color for the whole system, an increase in pH and a considerable decrease of toxicity in two other stations. LT{sub 50} values for five stations were above 96 hours. These results are not yet an indicative that the dune sealing has been carried out properly, but are able to show and follow improvements in the biological quality of water bodies.

  17. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. PMID:26748006

  18. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and point source released radionuclides to an aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report three ecosystem models are described in terms of structure, initial data, and results. All models are dynamic, mass-balanced and describe the transport and fate of elements in an open aquatic ecosystem. The models are based on ecologically sound principles, provide model results with high resolution and transparency, and are constrained by the nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem itself. The processes driving the transport in all the models are both the biological processes such as primary production, consumption, respiration and excretion, and abiotic e.g. water exchange and air-sea exchange. The first model, the CNP-model, describes the distribution and fluxes of carbon and nutrients for the coastal ecosystem off Forsmark. The second model, the C-14 model, is an extension of the CNP-model and describes the transport and distribution of hypothetically released C-14 from the underground repository SFR-1 to the ecosystem above. The third model, the RN-model, is a generic radionuclide flow model that models the transport and distribution of radionuclides other than C-14 hypothetically discharged to the ecosystem. The model also analyses the importance of some radionuclide specific mechanisms for the radionuclide flow. The generic radionuclide model is also based on the CNP-model, but has radionuclide specific mechanisms connected to each compartment

  19. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and point source released radionuclides to an aquatic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, Linda [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology; Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    In this report three ecosystem models are described in terms of structure, initial data, and results. All models are dynamic, mass-balanced and describe the transport and fate of elements in an open aquatic ecosystem. The models are based on ecologically sound principles, provide model results with high resolution and transparency, and are constrained by the nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem itself. The processes driving the transport in all the models are both the biological processes such as primary production, consumption, respiration and excretion, and abiotic e.g. water exchange and air-sea exchange. The first model, the CNP-model, describes the distribution and fluxes of carbon and nutrients for the coastal ecosystem off Forsmark. The second model, the C-14 model, is an extension of the CNP-model and describes the transport and distribution of hypothetically released C-14 from the underground repository SFR-1 to the ecosystem above. The third model, the RN-model, is a generic radionuclide flow model that models the transport and distribution of radionuclides other than C-14 hypothetically discharged to the ecosystem. The model also analyses the importance of some radionuclide specific mechanisms for the radionuclide flow. The generic radionuclide model is also based on the CNP-model, but has radionuclide specific mechanisms connected to each compartment.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ECOSYSTEM AND INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AT THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran, A. Antony

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to investigate the environmental ecosystem in Thoothukudi district. The study area is the small and large scale industrial city of Tamilndu. Chemical industry and power plant and marine fishing affect the ecosystem of the study area. Airborne emissions emitted from various industries are the cause of major concern. These emissions are of two forms such as, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and gaseous emission of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxi...

  1. Mycobacterium ulcerans dynamics in aquatic ecosystems are driven by a complex interplay of abiotic and biotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Guégan, Jean-François; Léger, Lucas; Eyangoh, Sara; Marsollier, Laurent; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions are often embedded within complex host communities and can be influenced by a variety of environmental factors, such as seasonal variations in climate or abiotic conditions in water and soil, which confounds our understanding of the main drivers of many multi-host pathogens. Here, we take advantage of a combination of large environmental data sets on Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), an environmentally persistent microorganism associated to freshwater ecosystems and present in a large variety of aquatic hosts, to characterize abiotic and biotic factors driving the dynamics of this pathogen in two regions of Cameroon. We find that MU dynamics are largely driven by seasonal climatic factors and certain physico-chemical conditions in stagnant and slow-flowing ecosystems, with an important role of pH as limiting factor. Furthermore, water conditions can modify the effect of abundance and diversity of aquatic organisms on MU dynamics, which suggests a different contribution of two MU transmission routes for aquatic hosts (trophic vs environmental transmission) depending on local abiotic factors.

  2. Trophic transfer of mercury and methylmercury in an aquatic ecosystem impacted by municipal sewage effluents in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-01-01

    Gaobeidian Lake, located in Beijing, China, serves as a recipient lake for effluents from a large municipal sewage treatment plant (MSTP). In order to evaluate the effects of discharging MSTP effluent on the mercury contamination of the local aquatic ecosystem, sediment cores, water, plankton, fish, and turtle samples were collected from Gaobeidian Lake for mercury speciation analysis. High concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) were detected in sediment cores (5.24-17.0 microg/g dry weight (dw), average: 10.1 microg/g). The ratio of methylmercury (MeHg) to T-Hg was less than 0.3% in sediments and ranged from 35% to 76% in biota samples. The highest level of T-Hg and MeHg were found in aquatic bryophyte and crucian carp (3673 and 437 ng/g dw, respectively). The relative contents of MeHg were significantly correlated with trophic levels (R2 = 0.5506, p < 0.001), which confirmed that MeHg can be bio-transferred and biomagnified via food chain in this aquatic ecosystem.

  3. Interactions of carbon nanotubes with aqueous/aquatic media containing organic/inorganic contaminants and selected organisms of aquatic ecosystems--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncel, Sławomir; Kyzioł-Komosińska, Joanna; Krzyżewska, Iwona; Czupioł, Justyna

    2015-10-01

    Due to their unique molecular architecture translating into numerous every-day applications, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will be ultimately an increasingly significant environmental contaminant. This work reviews qualitative/quantitative analyses of interactions of various types of CNTs and their chemically modified analogues with aqueous/aquatic media containing organic and inorganic contaminants and selected organisms of aquatic ecosystems. A special emphasis was placed on physicochemical interactions between CNTs as adsorbents of heavy metal cations and aromatic compounds (dyes) with its environmental consequences. The studies revealed CNTs as more powerful adsorbents of aromatic compounds (an order of magnitude higher adsorption capacity) than metal cations. Depending on the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and/or co-contaminants, CNTs may act as Trojan horse while passing through biological membranes (in the absence of NOM coordinating metal ions). Nanotubes, depending on flow conditions and their morphology/surface chemistry, may travel with natural waters or sediment with immobilized PAHs or metals and/or increase cyto- and ecotoxicity of PAHs/metal ions by their release via competitive complexation, or cause synergic ecotoxicity while adsorbing nutrients. Additionally, toxicity of CNTs against exemplary aquatic microorganisms was reviewed. It was found for Daphnia magna that longer exposures to CNTs led to higher ecotoxicity with a prolonged CNTs excretion. SWCNTs were more toxic than MWCNTs, while hydrophilization of CNTs via oxidation or anchoring thereto polar/positively charged polymer chains enhanced stability of nanotubes dispersion in aqueous media. On the other hand, bioavailability of functionalized CNTs was improved leading to more complex both mechanisms of uptake and cytotoxic effects. PMID:26022284

  4. The feasibility of automated online flow cytometry for in-situ monitoring of microbial dynamics in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Domenic Besmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent staining coupled with flow cytometry (FCM is often used for the monitoring, quantification and characterization of bacteria in engineered and environmental aquatic ecosystems including seawater, freshwater, drinking water, wastewater, and industrial bioreactors. However, infrequent grab sampling hampers accurate characterization and subsequent understanding of microbial dynamics in all of these ecosystems. A logic technological progression is high throughput and full automation of the sampling, staining, measurement, and data analysis steps. Here we assess the feasibility and applicability of automated FCM by means of actual data sets produced with prototype instrumentation. As proof-of-concept we demonstrate examples of microbial dynamics in (i flowing tap water from a municipal drinking water supply network and (ii river water from a small creek subject to two rainfall events. In both cases, automated measurements were done at 15-min intervals during 12 to 14 consecutive days, yielding more than 1000 individual data points for each ecosystem. The extensive data sets derived from the automated measurements allowed for the establishment of baseline data for each ecosystem, as well as for the recognition of daily variations and specific events that would most likely be missed (or miss-characterized by infrequent sampling. In addition, the online FCM data from the river water was combined and correlated with online measurements of abiotic parameters, showing considerable potential for a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in aquatic ecosystems. Although several challenges remain, the successful operation of an automated online FCM system and the basic interpretation of the resulting data sets represent a breakthrough towards the eventual establishment of fully automated online microbiological monitoring technologies.

  5. Aquatic ecosystem responses to Holocene climate change and biome development in boreal, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Anson W.; Bezrukova, Elena V.; Leng, Melanie J.; Meaney, Miriam; Nunes, Ana; Piotrowska, Natalia; Self, Angela; Shchetnikov, Alexander; Shilland, Ewan; Tarasov, Pavel; Wang, Luo; White, Dustin

    2012-05-01

    were also significant, but considerably less important. The potential importance of climate and biome development (tundra, steppe, cold deciduous forest and taiga) on different trophic levels (i.e. chironomid and diatom communities) in lake ESM-1 was also assessed using RDA. Climate predictors had a more significant influence on Holocene chironomid assemblages, especially July insolation at 60 °N, estimates of regional precipitation and estimates of northern hemisphere temperature, while only the development of the taiga biome had a significant impact on these primary consumers. Diatom communities also had a small, but significant influence on Holocene chironomid populations, perhaps linked to variation in faunal feeding strategies. In contrast, climatic and biome predictors explained similar amounts of variation in the Holocene diatom assemblage (approximately 20% each), while chironomids themselves as predictors explained just under 7% of diatom variation. Lake acidity was inferred using a diatom inference model. Results suggest that after deglaciation, the lake did not undergo a process of gradual acidification, most likely due to the presence of continuous permafrost and low levels of precipitation, preventing base cations and dissolved organic carbon entering the lake (except for the period between 1.7 and 0.7 ka BP). We conclude that lakes in continental, boreal regions undergo different models of lake ontogeny than oceanic boreal regions. Unlike other regions discussed, climate is a more important driver of ecosystem change than catchment changes. We also demonstrate that the start of the period coincident with the onset of the Little Ice Age resulted in important thresholds crossed in catchment vegetation and aquatic communities.

  6. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D S

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule. PMID:3297665

  7. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed (1) by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and (2) by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule.

  8. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  9. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló Cullerés, Damià; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Water and water-related services are major components of the human wellbeing, and as such are major factors of socio-economic development in Europe; yet freshwater systems are under threat by a variety of stressors (organic and inorganic pollution, geomorphological alterations, land cover change, water abstraction, invasive species and pathogens. Some stressors, such as water scarcity, can be a stressor on its own because of its structural character, and drive the effects of other stressors. The relevance of water scarcity as a stressor is more important in semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, which are characterized by highly variable river flows and the occurrence of low flows. This has resulted in increases in frequency and magnitude of extreme flow events. Furthermore, in other European regions such as eastern Germany, western Poland and England, water demand exceeds water availability and water scarcity has become an important management issue. Water scarcity is most commonly associated with inappropriate water management, with resulting river flow reductions. It has become one of the most important drivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. Conjoint occurrence of a myriad of stressors (chemical, geomorphological, biological) under water scarcity will produce novel and unfamiliar synergies and most likely very pronounced effects. Within this context, GLOBAQUA has assembled a multidisciplinary team of leading scientists in the fields of hydrology, chemistry, ecology, ecotoxicology, economy, sociology, engineering and modeling in order to study the interaction of multiple stressors within the frame of strong pressure on water resources. The aim is to achieve a better understanding how current management practices and policies could be improved by identifying the main drawbacks and alternatives.

  10. SPATIAL AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER AND DEEP SEDIMENTS OF FRESH WATER AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam; Sathesh Kumar Annamalai; Kamesh Viswanathan Baskaran; S. Rajaram; Jha, S. K.; Sreedevi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of various trace metals present in water and sediment of fresh water aquatic ecosystem during the post monsoon season. The study was extended to identify the trace metal contamination in the water and sediment samples collected along the shores of Lambapur and Peddagattu the tribal villages in India using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPMS). The trace metal contents in water samples were copper- 24.2 to 47.5, chrom...

  11. Cloud Coverage Acts as an Amplifier for Ecological Light Pollution in Urban Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Thomas Ruhtz; Jürgen Fischer; Franz Hölker

    2011-01-01

    The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the lumina...

  12. Radioactive pollution in freshwater ecosystems from Macedonia, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of radioactive contamination by artificial radiocesium (Cs-137, Cs-134) as well as the concentrations of natural radioisotopes (K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228) in sediments and aquatic plants were evaluated in selected aquatic biotopes in Macedonia, Greece. Radionuclide analysis was performed in Marinelli beakers by a gamma spectrometry system with an Hp-Ge detector of 20% relative efficiency. Cs-137 concentration activities are higher in sediment than in plant material; in general, roots showed greater Cs-137 concentration than leaves, while stems showed the lowest concentration. Cs-137 is significantly higher at 95% confidence level in the river Axios than in the rivers Strymon and Aliakmon. Leaves, especially young ones, show K-40 activities higher than roots or stems. From the studied watersystems, the river Axios and Prespa Lake are more contaminated from Cs-137 and Cs-134. K-40 activity is significantly higher at the 95% confidence level in the river Axios than in the rivers Aliakmon and Pinios. The K-40 activity is also high, especially in Prespa Lake. High activities of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-40 were found in Polyphytos Lake, presumably as a result of the operation of the coal power plants in this area

  13. Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti E

    2007-01-01

    Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01. The IUFRO RG 7.01 deals with "Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems". Climate change and air pollution are closely linked, although in applied scientific research and even more in political negotiations they have been largely separated. Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have not only common sources, but may also interact...

  14. Relevance of risk predictions derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution with cadmium to aquatic populations and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Criteria to protect aquatic life are intended to protect diverse ecosystems, but in practice are usually developed from compilations of single-species toxicity tests using standard test organisms that were tested in laboratory environments. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) developed from these compilations are extrapolated to set aquatic ecosystem criteria. The protectiveness of the approach was critically reviewed with a chronic SSD for cadmium comprising 27 species within 21 genera. Within the data set, one genus had lower cadmium effects concentrations than the SSD fifth percentile-based criterion, so in theory this genus, the amphipod Hyalella, could be lost or at least allowed some level of harm by this criteria approach. However, population matrix modeling projected only slightly increased extinction risks for a temperate Hyalella population under scenarios similar to the SSD fifth percentile criterion. The criterion value was further compared to cadmium effects concentrations in ecosystem experiments and field studies. Generally, few adverse effects were inferred from ecosystem experiments at concentrations less than the SSD fifth percentile criterion. Exceptions were behavioral impairments in simplified food web studies. No adverse effects were apparent in field studies under conditions that seldom exceeded the criterion. At concentrations greater than the SSD fifth percentile, the magnitudes of adverse effects in the field studies were roughly proportional to the laboratory-based fraction of species with adverse effects in the SSD. Overall, the modeling and field validation comparisons of the chronic criterion values generally supported the relevance and protectiveness of the SSD fifth percentile approach with cadmium. ?? 2009 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ(13)C and δ(15)N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ(15)N (16.31±3.01‰ and 17.86±2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ(15)N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ(13)C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ(15)N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. PMID:27179319

  16. MOSSES AND LICHENS – BIOINDICATORS OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEGU A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparative investigation of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr in mosses and lichens recorded in ten deciduous forests in the Republic of Moldova included in a transnational grid (16x16 km of forest monitoring throughout Europe. The content of heavy metals doesn’t differ significant by depending on the location of studied forest ecosystems. The trends of larger accumulation are observed near the local stationary and mobile sources of pollution. Mosses were confirmed as good indicators of air pollution with heavy metals to forest ecosystems located near sources of pollution and lichens show good bio-indicators particularities for background pollution. The good correlation between the concentrations of moss and lichen were Cr, Cu and Ni, and the low correlation between Pb and Zn, which are considered to be metals which are amenable to long-distance dispersal.

  17. Pollution pathways of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment on the island of Mallorca, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Bak, Søren A; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Maya, Fernando; Forteza, Rafael; Cerdà, Víctor

    2013-07-01

    This work determines the principal environmental pollution pathways of pharmaceuticals on the island of Mallorca (Spain). The evaluation was made on the basis of the quantification of pharmaceutical residues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in several environmental water samples, including wastewater-treatment plant effluents, municipal solid waste landfill leachates, groundwater (GW), and marine water. An overall set of 19 pharmaceuticals has been identified in the environment of the 27 human pharmaceuticals investigated in this study. WWTP effluents are the main source of discharge of the pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment. The data indicate that reuse of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation (which supplies some 30 % of the total water demand in Mallorca) contributes to the contamination of GW. In addition, leaching from landfills is identified as another, but minor, possible source of introduction of pharmaceuticals to GW aquifers. Finally, WWTP effluents ending in the Mediterranean Sea, primarily highly urbanized coastal areas, cause pharmaceutical residues to occur in marine water bodies. PMID:23440447

  18. Cryptosporidium in Bivalves as Indicators of Fecal Pollution in the California Coastal Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Woutrina

    2004-01-01

    information expected to be derived frorn the research.) The California coastal ecosystem is highly impacted by fecal pollution from sewage outfalls, agricultural runoff, and urban stormwater runoff. In the past, water quality monitoring has focused on toxins and bacterial coliform counts. However, this methodology does not address the public health threat of zoonotic protozoal parasites or allow for the identification of pollution sources. Cryptosporidium species are pathoge...

  19. Exploring new Routes for Identifying Phosphorus Species in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems with 31P NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Johan; Persson, Per; Sundman, Annelie; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Giesler, Reiner; Schleucher, Jürgen; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the primary growth-limiting nutrient in some of the world's biomes. Rock phosphate is a non-renewable resource and the major source of agricultural fertilizers. Predictions of P consumption indicate that rock phosphate mining may peak within 35 years, with severe impacts on worldwide food production1. Organic P compounds constitute a major fraction of soil P, but little is known about the dynamics and bioavailability of organic P species. Our aim is to develop new liquid and solid state 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques to identify P-species in water and soils; information required for correlating P speciation with plant and soil processes2, and eventually to improve P use. Soil organic P is frequently extracted using NaOH/EDTA, followed by characterization of the extract by solution 31P-NMR. However, the obtained NMR spectra usually have poor resolution due to line broadening caused by the presence of paramagnetic ions. Therefore, we successfully developed an approach to avoid paramagnetic line broadening by precipitation of metal sulfides. Sulfide precipitation dramatically reduces NMR line widths for soil extracts, without affecting P-composition. The resulting highly improved resolution allowed us to apply for the first time 2D 1H,31P-NMR methods to identify different P monoesters in spectral regions which are extremely crowded in 1D NMR spectra.3 By exploiting 2D 1H-31P NMR spectra of soil extracts we were able to unambiguously identify individual organic P species by combining 31P and 1H chemical shifts and coupling constants. This approach is even suitable for a structural characterization of unknown P-components and for tracing degradation pathways between diesters and monoesters3,4.Currently we apply our approach on boreal4 and tropical soils with focus on Burkina Faso. In addition we also monitor P-species in aqueos ecosystems. For this purpose stream water from the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden5 has been used to

  20. Proceedings of the meeting on computational and experimental studies for modeling of radionuclide migration in complex aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research Group for Environmental Science of JAEA held a meeting on computational and experimental studies for modeling of radionuclide migration in complex aquatic ecosystems during November 16-20 of 2009. The aim was to discuss the relevance of various computational and experimental approaches to that modeling. The meeting was attended by a Swedish researcher, Prof. Dr. Lars Hakanson of Uppsala University. It included a joint talk at the Institute for Environmental Sciences, in addition to a field and facility survey of the JNFL commercial reprocessing plant located in Rokkasho, Aomori. The meeting demonstrated that it is crucial 1) to make a model structure be strictly relevant to the target objectives of a study and 2) to account for inherent fluctuations in target values in nature in a manner of qualitative parameterization. Moreover, it was confirmed that there can be multiple different approaches of modeling (e.g. detailed or simplified) with relevance for the objectives of a study. These discussions should be considered in model integration for complex aquatic ecosystems consisting catchments, rivers, lakes and coastal oceans which can interact with the atmosphere. This report compiles research subjects and lectures presented at the meeting with associated discussions. The 10 of the presented papers indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Traits of fatty acids composition of surface lipids of some aquatic plants under the influence of pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Alexeevs’ka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that some emergent aquatic plants may be used for treatment of waste waters. The plants have specific composition of surface lipids (SL. The SL composition was found to be changed under the influence of water pollutants. These changes concerned the processes of elongation and desaturation of the SL components. The response to contamination was specific for each species.

  2. The Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Pollutant Removal and Formation in Aquatic Environment: From Stormwater to Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Meng-Horng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs), such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons primarily from automobile exhausts and dissolved organic matter (DOM) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. The association between DOM and HOPs as a bound interaction of DOM-HOPs minimizes the bioavailability of free HOPs and their potential health effects. In addition, DOM is also the precursor of disinfection by-products involving the disinfection treatment processes.It is very important to understand the relat...

  3. Organization of vegetation cover of aquatic ecosystems at Borodinskiy opencast coal mine dumps (Kansk forest-steppe, Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Efimov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the results of study of the floristic composition and importance of species of aquatic ecosystems on different types of technogenic surfaces of the Borodino coal mine and assessment of the impact of local factors on the structure and the dynamics of vegetation. The list of plant taxa containing 91 species of higher plants and 3 cha-rophytes. The largest amount of macrophytes species are Elodea canadensis Michx., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. & Schult., Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L., Potamogeton alpinus Balb., P. perfoliatus L., Sparganium emersum Rehm., Spirodela polyrhiza (L. Schleid., Typha latifolia L., Warnstorfia fluitans (Hedw. Loeske, Chara contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., the basis (up to 67.6‒70.9 % of vegetation mosaic of aquatic systems and differentiate its structure post-technogenic landscape. Sorensen index (QS = 0.63‒0.71 and Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs = 0.29‒0.62, p < 0.01 values showed the greatest similarity between the species composition of the aquatic complexes arising on mineral surfaces planned dumps. The low level of similarity (QS = 0.13‒0.45; rs = 0.25‒0.34, p < 0.05 in spe-cies composition is typical fir ponds and wetlands formed around the perimeter of the heaps along the erosion of slopes. Non-parametric analysis of variance showed a statistically significant (p < 0.001 differentiation of the species composition of the variables values of the analyzed environmental factors: the direction of reclamation, type and age of geomorphic surfaces dumps. Aquatic complexes significantly complement and enrich the mosaic of man-made landscape of the Borodino coal mine, the potential of their diversity should be taken into account when developing plans and strategies for reclamation of disturbed areas.

  4. Development of a dynamic model for estimating the food web transfer of chemicals in small aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Erick; Armitage, James M; Cousins, Ian T

    2011-11-15

    A dynamic combined fate and food web model was developed to estimate the food web transfer of chemicals in small aquatic ecosystems (i.e. ponds). A novel feature of the modeling approach is that aquatic macrophytes (submerged aquatic vegetation) were included in the fate model and were also a food item in the food web model. The paper aims to investigate whether macrophytes are effective at mitigating chemical exposure and to compare the modeling approach developed here with previous modeling approaches recommended in the European Union (EU) guideline for risk assessment of pesticides. The model was used to estimate bioaccumulation of three hypothetical chemicals of varying hydrophobicity in a pond food web comprising 11 species. Three different macrophyte biomass densities were simulated in the model experiments to determine the influence of macrophytes on fate and bioaccumulation. Macrophytes were shown to have a significant effect on the fate and food web transfer of highly hydrophobic compounds with log KOW>=5. Modeled peak concentrations in biota were highest for the scenarios with the lowest macrophyte biomass density. The distribution and food web transfer of the hypothetical compound with the lowest hydrophobicity (log KOW=3) was not affected by the inclusion of aquatic macrophytes in the pond environment. For the three different hypothetical chemicals and at all macrophyte biomass densities, the maximum predicted concentrations in the top predator in the food web model were at least one order of magnitude lower than the values estimated using methods suggested in EU guidelines. The EU guideline thus provides a highly conservative estimate of risk. In our opinion, and subject to further model evaluation, a realistic assessment of dynamic food web transfer and risk can be obtained using the model presented here. PMID:21962596

  5. Damaging Economies and Ecosystems: Light Pollution in Logan City

    OpenAIRE

    Nydegger, Rachel K.; Larson, Shane L.

    2013-01-01

    Though the view of city lights is considered a modern beauty, indicative of the strength of the human intellect, it is the cause of an assortment of negative effects. Most street lights emit light radially, sending large portions of the light into the sky, leaving the ground dim. The excess light- light pollution- directed at the atmosphere destroys our ability to view beauty of the night sky and represents a loss of energy and money. Damage is also done to nocturnal and migratory animals as...

  6. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems — Emerging Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems “Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development”, September 1016, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  7. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Swiss agriculture is legally committed to fulfill several, partially conflicting goals such as agricultural production on the one hand and the conservation of natural resources on the other hand. In the context of the research project AProWa ("Agricultural Production and Water"), the relationships between the production aspect and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems is analyzed with a holistic approach. Agricultural production and the protection of water resources have high potential for conflicts: Farmers use ground and surface water to irrigate their fields. On the other hand, drainage systems enable the production on otherwise unfavorably wet soils. These in turn often affect ground water recharge and divert precipitation directly into surface waters, which changes their hydrological regime. Typically, drainage systems also elevate the input of nutrients and pesticides into the water bodies. In general, applied fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary drugs and phytohormones of cultivated plants are introduced into the ground and surface waters through different processes such as drift, leaching, runoff, preferential flow or erosion. They influence the nutrient cycles and ecological health of aquatic systems. The nutrient and pesticide loss processes themselves can be altered by tillage operations and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, the competition for space can lead to additional conflicts between agriculture and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. For example, channelized or otherwise morphologically changed rivers do not have a natural discharge pattern and are often not suitable for the local flora and fauna; but naturally meandering rivers need space that cannot be used for agriculture. In a highly industrialized and densely populated country like Switzerland, all these potential conflicts are of importance. Although it is typically seen as a water-rich country, local and seasonal overexploitation of rivers through water extraction

  8. Diversity and distribution of diapausing aquatic invertebrates in inland wetlands: An ecosystem conservation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    processes determining the biogeography of cosmopolitan species are needed. Further knowledge of these issues should provide invaluable information allowing development of appropriate conservation management policies for inland waters across entire ecosystems, landscapes, and geographic regions....

  9. Spawner-recruit relationships and fish stock carrying capacity in aquatic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.; Bowen, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether relations......Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether...

  10. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  11. Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Belyazid, Salim; Calfapietra, Carlo; de Marco, Alessandra; Fenn, Mark; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; He, Shang; Matyssek, Rainer; Serengil, Yusuf; Wieser, Gerhard; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and peri-urban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O3 modelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O3 are: (xxi) Developing dose-response relationships and

  12. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into quasi

  13. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Sandberg, Johannes (DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into

  14. Effects on parathion on the ecology of a eutrophic aquatic ecosystem: limnocorral experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetitive exposure of a eutrophic fish pond ecosystem, enclosed in limnocorrals, to 30 ppb parathion resulted in elimination of the potentially dominant zooplankton species, Moina micrura. Consequently, the populations of the rotifers Brachionus and Asplanchna markedly increased. Changes in the zooplankton composition and abundance were followed by increased fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton photosynthesis, plankton respiration and community metabolism. Similar responses to parathion treatment were observed in previous studies under fish pond conditions. In the presence of fish the effect of parathion on the ecosystem was generally less pronounced and not uniform. The collapse of the zooplankton community and the rapid changes in limnological conditions in the control (untreated) limnocorrals severely limited the duration of the experiment. The results suggest that under eutrophic conditions, small enclosures may be useful for evaluation of the effect of toxicants on the ecosystem only in short term experiments with short lived chemicals. (author)

  15. Global Trends in Exposure to Light Pollution in Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bennie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in electric light usage across the globe has led to increasing presence of artificial light in natural and semi-natural ecosystems at night. This occurs both due to direct illumination and skyglow - scattered light in the atmosphere. There is increasing concern about the effects of artificial light on biological processes, biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. We combine intercalibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS images of stable night-time lights for the period 1992 to 2012 with a remotely sensed landcover product (GLC2000 to assess recent changes in exposure to artificial light at night in 43 global ecosystem types. We find that Mediterranean-climate ecosystems have experienced the greatest increases in exposure, followed by temperate ecosystems. Boreal, Arctic and montane systems experienced the lowest increases. In tropical and subtropical regions, the greatest increases are in mangroves and subtropical needleleaf and mixed forests, and in arid regions increases are mainly in forest and agricultural areas. The global ecosystems experiencing the greatest increase in exposure to artificial light are already localized and fragmented, and often of particular conservation importance due to high levels of diversity, endemism and rarity. Night time remote sensing can play a key role in identifying the extent to which natural ecosystems are exposed to light pollution.

  16. Sedimentation plan to assess the impact of geothermal activities to the aquatic ecosystem in the Geyers Calistoga KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, R.R.

    1981-05-19

    The prevention of sedimentation or siltation in aquatic ecosystems is always a key environmental issue in the development and operation of power plant units. This report describes a field program which will assess the amount of sedimentation in the streams and tributaties of the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) due to development-related or other site-specific activities. This sediment plan is one part of a four part venture - the others are water quality, benthic invertebrates and fisheries studies - initiated by the California Energy Commission and involving numerous California organizations. Included in this report are the cost breakdowns for each phase, maps and rationale of the sampling sites, the methodology for the laboratory sample processing, and examples of the type of graphic and tabular output expected.

  17. Two prototype tools for assessing good environmental/ecological status (GES) in aquatic ecosystems – DEVOTES and WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present two prototype tools for assessment of GES (good ecological status and good environmental status) in aquatic ecosystems: the DEVOTES biodiversity assessment tool (for the MSFD) and the WATERS ecological status assessment tool (for the WFD). Both tools are multi-metric indicator...... / “waterbodies” in WATERS) resulting in both an overall status for the geographical entity as well as classifications within indicator groups. Both tools are Excel-based and share many similarities. Whilst the WATERS tool performs assessments for a simple “flat” set of waterbodies, the DEVOTES tools allows for......-based tools, which classify ecological/environmental status in two classes (good or not good) and five classes (High, Good, Moderate, Poor or Bad) by comparing observed indicator values with specified status classification boundaries. Assessments are made for geographical entities (“sectors” in DEVOTES...

  18. Determinants of community structure of zooplankton in heavily polluted river ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yiyong; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Weimin; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-02-01

    River ecosystems are among the most affected habitats globally by human activities, such as the release of chemical pollutants. However, it remains largely unknown how and to what extent many communities such as zooplankton are affected by these environmental stressors in river ecosystems. Here, we aim to determine major factors responsible for shaping community structure of zooplankton in heavily polluted river ecosystems. Specially, we use rotifers in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) in North China as a case study to test the hypothesis that species sorting (i.e. species are “filtered” by environmental factors and occur at environmental suitable sites) plays a key role in determining community structure at the basin level. Based on an analysis of 94 sites across the plain region of HRB, we found evidence that both local and regional factors could affect rotifer community structure. Interestingly, further analyses indicated that local factors played a more important role in determining community structure. Thus, our results support the species sorting hypothesis in highly polluted rivers, suggesting that local environmental constraints, such as environmental pollution caused by human activities, can be stronger than dispersal limitation caused by regional factors to shape local community structure of zooplankton at the basin level.

  19. Benthic aquatic ecosystems across the Permian-Triassic transition: record from biogenic structures in fluvial sandstones, central Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. F.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the Permian extinction in communities inhabiting sandy stream bottoms can be evaluated using trace fossils as proxies for body fossils. Permian and Triassic sandstones exposed in the Beardmore and Shackleton Glacier areas (central Transantarctic Mountains) were deposited in sandy braided streams and contain four types of trace fossils (vertical shafts and horizontal, bilobed and chevron traces). These traces were produced by a single type of animal that moved in the top 30 cm of sediment and dominated the benthic community. Evidence for a single producer includes similar size (diameter) of all traces and change within single specimens from one trace type to another. The animal was not affected by the Permian extinction event, as evidenced by its equal abundance within the Permian (Buckley Formation) and Triassic (Fremouw Formation) fluvial sandstones in the Beardmore Glacier area. Based on trace morphology and on domination of modern sandy river ecosystems by insects, the producer most likely was an insect, although its more precise identity is problematic. Although families of insects with modern aquatic burrowers are not known before the Jurassic, these trace fossils may show that these burrowers were present earlier than the insect body-fossil record suggests. Alternatively, archaic insect groups, many of which became extinct at the end-Permian and are known to have been aquatic but not infaunal, may have included some active burrowers that were unscathed by the Permian extinction.

  20. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, puranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, puranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (puranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent.

  1. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, p<0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, p<0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. PMID:26360459

  2. Epiphytic lichens as sentinels for heavy metal pollution at forest ecosystems (central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiphytic lichens were useful as an early warning system for changes in forest ecosystems. - The results of a study using epiphytic lichens (Parmelia caperata) as sentinels for heavy metal deposition at six selected forest ecosystems of central Italy are reported. The woods investigated are characterized by holm oak (Quercus ilex), turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) and represent the typical forest ecosystems of central Italy at low, medium and high elevations, respectively. The results showed that levels of heavy metals in lichens were relatively low and consequently no risk of heavy metal air pollution is expected for the six forest ecosystems investigated. However, for two of them there are indications of a potential risk: the beech forest of Vallombrosa showed signs of contamination by Pb as a consequence of vehicle traffic due to the rather high touristic pressure in the area, and the holm oak forest of Cala Violina showed transboundary pollution by Mn, Cr and Ni originating from the steel industry in Piombino. Epiphytic lichens proved to be very effective as an early warning system to detect signs of a changing environment at forest ecosystems

  3. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS

  4. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS.

  5. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Pfennig, S.; Brink, van den P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple planta

  6. Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

  7. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, P.

    2013-01-01

    on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies reveal that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly...

  8. Removal of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems of a temperate river network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Aiken, G.; Butler, K. D.; Morse, N.; Salisbury, J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface waters play an important role in the global carbon balance. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes are a major transfer of terrestrial carbon to river systems, and the net removal of terrestrial DOC in aquatic systems is poorly constrained. We used a combination of spatially distributed sampling of three DOC fractions, nitrate, and chloride in streams of different size throughout a river network and modeling to quantify the net removal of terrestrial DOC relative to other constituents during a summer base flow period. The approach was applied to the 400 km2 Ipswich River watershed, MA, USA. We found that aquatic reactivity of terrestrial DOC leading to net loss is low, closer to conservative chloride than to reactive nitrogen. Net removal of DOC occurred mainly from the hydrophobic organic acid fraction, while hydrophilic and transphilic acids showed no net change. Model fits were improved using the different DOC fractions than when using bulk DOC, indicating that partitioning of bulk DOC into different fractions is critical for understanding terrestrial DOC removal. These findings suggest that river systems may have only a modest ability to alter the amounts of terrestrial DOC delivered to coastal zones.

  9. Toward the development of generally applicable models of the microbial loop in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C S; Vallino, J J

    1994-09-01

    Simulation modeling has been an integral, albeit ad hoc, component of the field of aquatic microbial ecology for the past two decades. One of the most critical steps in simulation modeling is the initial formulation of a clear set of questions and goals. It is doubtful that a single generic model could be constructed to address adequately all questions of interest concerning the microbial loop because of the tremendous range in time scales that define these questions. Progress in the field of aquatic microbial ecology will benefit from an integrated research program including experimental and modeling approaches. A submodel of bacterial utilization of various qualities of organic matter that we have under construction is presented. This submodel will be a component of a larger model to evaluate the effects of quality and quantity of organic matter and inorganic nutrient inputs on estuarine food web structure and efficiency. The overall model will be general enough in its structure that it should be applicable to a wide range of questions concerning the microbial loop, with time scales ranging from hours to days. PMID:24186460

  10. Methane turnover and methanotrophic communities in arctic aquatic ecosystems of the Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osudar, Roman; Liebner, Susanne; Alawi, Mashal; Yang, Sizhong; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Wagner, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Large amounts of organic carbon are stored in Arctic permafrost environments, and microbial activity can potentially mineralize this carbon into methane, a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, we assessed the methane budget, the bacterial methane oxidation (MOX) and the underlying environmental controls of arctic lake systems, which represent substantial sources of methane. Five lake systems located on Samoylov Island (Lena Delta, Siberia) and the connected river sites were analyzed using radiotracers to estimate the MOX rates, and molecular biology methods to characterize the abundance and the community composition of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). In contrast to the river, the lake systems had high variation in the methane concentrations, the abundance and composition of the MOB communities, and consequently, the MOX rates. The highest methane concentrations and the highest MOX rates were detected in the lake outlets and in a lake complex in a flood plain area. Though, in all aquatic systems, we detected both, Type I and II MOB, in lake systems, we observed a higher diversity including MOB, typical of the soil environments. The inoculation of soil MOB into the aquatic systems, resulting from permafrost thawing, might be an additional factor controlling the MOB community composition and potentially methanotrophic capacity. PMID:27230921

  11. The science and policy of critical loads of pollutant deposition to protect ecosystems in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy J; Jenkins, Jerry

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the potential for adopting a critical load (CL) of air pollutant-deposition approach to inform natural resource protection and management in New York. The CL reflects the quantitative exposure to pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur. Here, we discuss how CLs can be used to protect sensitive ecosystems against the harmful effects of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition and associated soil and water acidification and nutrient enrichment. The CL can be used diagnostically to determine resources at risk and prescriptively to evaluate the effectiveness of regulations and to manage resources.

  12. Balanced nitrogen economy as a flexible strategy on yield stabilizing and quality of aquatic food crops in wetland ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.; M.; Puste; P.; K.; Sarkar; D.; K.; Das

    2005-01-01

    In wetland ecosystem, nitrogen along with other elements and its management is most imperative for the production of so many aquatic food, non-food and beneficial medicinal plants and for the improvement of soil and water characteristics. With great significant importance of INM (integrated nutrient management) as sources, emphasizing on management on nitrogen as a key element and its divergence, a case study was undertaken on such aquatic food crops (starch and protein-rich, most popular and remunerative) in the farmers' field of low-lying randomized block design, where, three important aquatic food crops (water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.), makhana (Eurya/e ferox Salisb.) and water lily (Nymphaea spp.) as major factor and eleven combinations of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients as sub-factor was considered in the experiment. It revealed from the results that the production of fresh kernels or nuts of water chestnut (8.57 t ha-1), matured nut yield of makhana (3.06 t ha-1) and flower stalks of water-lily as vegetables (6.38 t ha-1) including its nutritional quality (starch, protein, sugar and minerals) was remarkably influenced with the application of both organic (neem oilcake @ 0.2 t ha-1) and inorganic sources (NPK @ 30:20:20 kg ha-1 along with spraying of NPK @ 0.5% each over crop canopy at 20 days interval after transplanting) than the other INM combinations applied to the crops. Among the crops, highest WCYE (water chestnut yield equivalence) exhibited in makhana due to its high price of popped-form in the country, which is being exported to other countries at now. Sole application of both (organic and inorganic sources) with lower range did not produce any significant outcome from the study and exhibited lower value for all the crops.Besides production of food crops, INM also greatly influenced the soil and water characterization and it was favourably reflected in this study. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil (textural class, p

  13. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Sandberg, Johannes (DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into

  14. Management of GIS Database and multipurpose customization of computerized models of the contaminated aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of dealing with geographical and environmental data requests by different codes used for the assessment of radionuclide contamination and for the identifying the optimal remedial strategies for recovering the contaminated ecosystems conducted to the developing of an extended GIS database. This connects to the geographical features an Object Oriented database (OODB) comprising: population, land use, soil type and characteristics, hydrological networks (topologically defined, together with hydraulic parameters). Two problems occurred during the process: - The Price/Quality balance of the data: was solved using data source issued by profile research Institutes and the data acquiring with variable scale having higher resolution in the nuclear risk zones; - The choice between Vector and Raster GIS data types: vector files were preferred, because these can be easily grid transformed. GIS applications where used to extract, by SQL, necessary data for different environmental studies made in some projects: EVANET-HYDRA Customisation of RODOS-Hydro for Danube close to Romanian Cernavoda NPP. Customization of MOIRA: A model-based computerized system for management support for restoring radionuclide contaminated aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas. Using a common GIS database offers the possibility of intercomparison of simulated results of different models and codes

  15. Novel use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy to investigate aquatic carbon cycling from microbial to ecosystem scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Damien T; Santos, Isaac R; Leuven, Jasper R F W; Oakes, Joanne M; Erler, Dirk V; Carvalho, Matheus C; Eyre, Bradley D

    2013-11-19

    Development of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) has enabled real-time monitoring of carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane in air. Here we demonstrate that CRDS can be adapted to assess aquatic carbon cycling processes from microbial to ecosystem scales. We first measured in situ isotopologue concentrations of dissolved CO2 ((12)CO2 and (13)CO2) and CH4 ((12)CH4 and (13)CH4) with CRDS via a closed loop gas equilibration device during a survey along an estuary and during a 40 h time series in a mangrove creek (ecosystem scale). A similar system was also connected to an in situ benthic chamber in a seagrass bed (community scale). Finally, a pulse-chase isotope enrichment experiment was conducted by measuring real-time release of (13)CO2 after addition of (13)C enriched phytoplankton to exposed intertidal sediments (microbial scale). Miller-Tans plots revealed complex transformation pathways and distinct isotopic source values of CO2 and CH4. Calculations of δ(13)C-DIC based on CRDS measured δ(13)C-CO2 and published fractionation factors were in excellent agreement with measured δ(13)C-DIC using isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS). The portable CRDS instrumentation used here can obtain real-time, high precision, continuous greenhouse gas data in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine waters with less effort than conventional laboratory-based techniques. PMID:24131451

  16. Biological invasions in the aquatic ecosystems of Europe as a threat to biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Wołczuk, Katarzyna; Mięsikowski, Michał; Jarzynka, Karolina; Wilczyńska, Bogdana

    2011-01-01

    In recent years biological invasions have become a serious ecological and socio-economic problem for many countries. Invasions are promoted by anthropogenic activity which is broadly understood as well as the instability of ecosystems. It carries a number of threats, often difficult to predict. The effects of invasion are long-term and occur on many levels of life. They can very often contribute to the extinction of native species, thus reducing biodiversity. According to the concept of susta...

  17. Responses of Aquatic Ecosystems to Environmental Changes in Finland and China

    OpenAIRE

    Weckström, Jan; Liao, Mengna; Yu, Ge; Amsinck, Susanne; Kauppila, Tommi; Qin, Boqiang; ZHU, GUANGWEI; Sarvala, Jouko; Weckström, Kaarina; Tarvainen, Marjo; Kirkkala, Teija; Nurminen, Leena; VENTELÄ, Anne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    The concern for the state of global freshwater reservoirs has increased due to deterioration of the water quality during the last decades. This has prompted monitoring and restoration efforts such as the European Water Framework Directive and the national-scale 2nd-investigation and monitoring of the water quality, water volume and biota resources in China. The challenge so far has been the determination of the “natural” state (reference conditions) of freshwater ecosystems. We used the sedim...

  18. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  19. 我国水环境农药污染现状及健康影响研究进展%Advances in Research on Pesticide Pollution to the Aquatic Environment and Health Impact in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙肖瑜; 王静; 金永堂

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide played an important role in agriculture. With the increase of pesticides in recent years, they have easily gone into the aquatic environment through some ways such as rain or surface water. The residual pesticide in the water may destroy the aquatic ecosystems,do harm to the aquatic organisms and human health,now more and more attention has been paid to the situation of the pesticide pollution in the aquatic environment. This present paper introduced the type of common pesticide residues in the water in China, it also described the pesticide pollution situation in rivers, groundwater, marine and other water as well as the potential impact of pesticide on the aquatic organisms and human health, in order to provide a basis for China to carry out relative research.%农药在农业生产上做出了极大的贡献,但随着农药使用量的逐年加大,使农药易经雨水冲淋或经地面径流等途径进入水环境.水环境中的残留农药破坏了水生态系统,对水生生物造成严重的危害,从而对人类健康构成威胁.目前,水体农药污染状况逐渐受到了人们的广泛关注.笔者介绍了我国水体中常见的残留农药种类,综述了我国河流、地下水、海洋等不同水体中的农药污染现状以及农药对水生生物与人类健康的影响,为我国开展相关研究提供参考依据.

  20. Effects of municipal wastewater on aquatic ecosystem structure and function in the receiving stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Dominic; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2013-06-01

    During recent years, increasing incidences of summer droughts - likely driven by climate change - reduced the dilution potential of low-order streams for secondary treated wastewater also in temperate Europe. Despite the potential risks to ecosystem integrity, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the effects of different wastewater dilution potentials on ecosystem functions. The present study investigated the implications of secondary treated wastewater released into a third-order stream (Queich, southwest Germany) during a season with low dilution potential (summer; ~90% wastewater) as compared to a season with high dilution potential (winter; ~35% wastewater) in terms of leaf litter decomposition and macroinvertebrate communities. Adverse effects in macroinvertebrate mediated leaf mass loss (~65%), gammarids' feeding rate (~80%), leaf associated fungal biomass (>40%) and shifts in macroinvertebrate community structure were apparent up to 100 and 300 m (partially 500 m) downstream of the wastewater treatment plant effluent during winter and summer, respectively. In addition, a Gammarus fossarum laboratory feeding trial demonstrated the potential of powdered activated carbon to reduce the ecotoxicity of released wastewater. These results urge the development and evaluation of adequate management strategies, e.g. the application of advanced wastewater treatment technologies, to protect the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, which is required by the European Water Framework Directive - also considering decreasing dilution potential of streams as projected by climate change scenarios. PMID:23562693

  1. Heavy metal in water and aquatic organisms from different intertidal ecosystems, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanpour, Shirin; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Lotfi Ashtiyani, Seyede Masoumeh

    2014-09-01

    Intertidal ecosystems are being damaged by anthropogenic activities, particularly in the developing countries. In this study, the load of heavy metals was determined in water, fish, shrimp, and crab collected from four intertidal ecosystems, including coral reef, rocky shore, mangrove forest, and muddy habitat along the Persian Gulf coasts. Generally, the sequence of metal accumulation in the water of coral reef and mangrove forest was Ni > Pb > V > Cd > As > Hg, whereas in muddy habitats and rocky shores, the sequence was Ni > Pb > V > Cd > Hg > As and Ni > V > Pb > As > Hg > Cd, respectively. Water of the coral reef had the highest level of Ni (97.44 μg l(-1)), Pb (3.92 μg l(-1)), V (10.42 μg l(-1)), Cd (3.92 μg l(-1)), As (1.87 μg l(-1)), and Hg (0.74 μg l(-1)). For the most part, the highest concentrations of the studied metals were found in the liver and the gills of Johnius belangerii and the hepatopancreas of Portunus pelagicus and Metapenaus affinis collected from the coral reef ecosystem. PMID:24802589

  2. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Aromolo; Valerio Moretti; Luca Salvati

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Tre...

  3. Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: From Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems and Human Health to Anticarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliane Zanchett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic environments, primarily due to human activities. Eutrophic environments are conducive to the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms that not only affect water quality, but also produce highly toxic metabolites. Poisoning and serious chronic effects in humans, such as cancer, have been described. On the other hand, many cyanobacterial genera have been studied for their toxins with anticancer potential in human cell lines, generating promising results for future research toward controlling human adenocarcinomas. This review presents the knowledge that has evolved on the topic of toxins produced by cyanobacteria, ranging from their negative impacts to their benefits.

  4. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: from impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health to anticarcinogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchett, Giliane; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C

    2013-10-01

    Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic environments, primarily due to human activities. Eutrophic environments are conducive to the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms that not only affect water quality, but also produce highly toxic metabolites. Poisoning and serious chronic effects in humans, such as cancer, have been described. On the other hand, many cyanobacterial genera have been studied for their toxins with anticancer potential in human cell lines, generating promising results for future research toward controlling human adenocarcinomas. This review presents the knowledge that has evolved on the topic of toxins produced by cyanobacteria, ranging from their negative impacts to their benefits. PMID:24152991

  5. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), over 50 radionuclides have been released to the atmosphere and to onsite streams and seepage basins. Now, many of these radionuclides are available to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms for uptake and cycling through the food chain. Knowledge about the uptake and cycling of these radionuclides is now crucial in evaluating waste management and clean-up alternatives for the site. Numerous studies have been conducted at the SRS over the past forty years to study the uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the Savannah River Site environment. In many instances, bioconcentration factors have been calculated to quantify the uptake of a radionuclide by an organism from the surrounding medium (i.e., soil or water). In the past, it has been common practice to use bioconcentration factors from the literature because site-specific data were not readily available. However, because of the variability of bioconcentration factors due to experimental or environmental conditions, site-specific data should be used when available. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive literature search yielded site-specific bioconcentration factors for cesium, strontium, cobalt, plutonium, americium, curium, and tritium. These eight radionuclides have been the primary radionuclides studied at SRS because of their long half lives or because they are major contributors to radiological dose from exposure. For most radionuclides, it was determined that the site-specific bioconcentration factors were higher than those reported in literature. This report also summarizes some conditions that affect radionuclide bioavailability to and bioconcentration by aquatic and terrestrial organisms

  6. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    As a result of operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), over 50 radionuclides have been released to the atmosphere and to onsite streams and seepage basins. Now, many of these radionuclides are available to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms for uptake and cycling through the food chain. Knowledge about the uptake and cycling of these radionuclides is now crucial in evaluating waste management and clean-up alternatives for the site. Numerous studies have been conducted at the SRS over the past forty years to study the uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the Savannah River Site environment. In many instances, bioconcentration factors have been calculated to quantify the uptake of a radionuclide by an organism from the surrounding medium (i.e., soil or water). In the past, it has been common practice to use bioconcentration factors from the literature because site-specific data were not readily available. However, because of the variability of bioconcentration factors due to experimental or environmental conditions, site-specific data should be used when available. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive literature search yielded site-specific bioconcentration factors for cesium, strontium, cobalt, plutonium, americium, curium, and tritium. These eight radionuclides have been the primary radionuclides studied at SRS because of their long half lives or because they are major contributors to radiological dose from exposure. For most radionuclides, it was determined that the site-specific bioconcentration factors were higher than those reported in literature. This report also summarizes some conditions that affect radionuclide bioavailability to and bioconcentration by aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  7. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  8. Mineral and organic pollution in river Sabor (Northeastern Portugal): ecotoxicological effects on freshwater fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Touir, Ahlem

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are final collectors of all kinds of pollution as an outcome of anthropogenic inputs, such us untreated industrial and municipal sewage and agricultural pollutants. There are several aquatic ecosystems that are threatened by mineral and organic pollution. In Northeastern Portugal, near Bragança, different watercourses are suffering negative impacts of human activities. It has been developed several studies in the monitoring of environmental impacts in these river basins, na...

  9. Changing seasonality of Arctic hydrology disrupts key biotic linkages in Arctic aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, L.; MacKenzie, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Fishscape Project

    2011-12-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is an important circumpolar species that provide a model system for understanding the impacts of changing seasonality on arctic ecosystem function. Grayling serve as food for other biota, including lake trout, birds and humans, and act as top-down controls in stream ecosystems. In Arctic tundra streams, grayling spend their summers in streams but are obligated to move back into deep overwintering lakes in the fall. Climatic change that affects the seasonality of river hydrology could have a significant impact on grayling populations: grayling may leave overwintering lakes sooner in the spring and return later in the fall due to a longer open water season, but the migration could be disrupted by drought due to increased variability in discharge. In turn, a shorter overwintering season may impact lake trout dynamics in the lakes, which may rely on the seasonal inputs of stream nutrients in the form of migrating grayling into these oligotrophic lakes. To assess how shifting seasonality of Arctic river hydrology may disrupt key trophic linkages within and between lake and stream components of watersheds on the North Slope of the Brooks Mountain Range, Alaska, we have undertaken new work on grayling and lake trout population and food web dynamics. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags coupled with stream-width antenna units to monitor grayling movement across Arctic tundra watersheds during the summer, and into overwintering habitat in the fall. Results indicate that day length may prime grayling migration readiness, but that flooding events are likely the cue grayling use to initiate migration in to overwintering lakes. Many fish used high discharge events in the stream as an opportunity to move into lakes. Stream and lake derived stable isotopes also indicate that lake trout rely on these seasonally transported inputs of stream nutrients for growth. Thus, changes in the seasonality of river hydrology may have broader

  10. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  11. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. -- Review of sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of key pollutants (contaminants, toxins, ship breaking, overfishing) in marine ecosystems

  12. Structural and functional responses of the oligochaete and aeolosomatid assemblage in lowland streams: a one-way-pollution-modelled ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. López van Oosterom

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the responses of the assemblage of Oligochaeta and Aeolosomatidae to organic pollution; comparing taxonomic richness, diversity, abundance, and diet of the individuals inhabiting two lowland streams with different degrees of anthropic impact (the Rodríguez and the Carnaval belonging to the Río de la Plata basin, Argentina. The physicochemical parameters in the Rodríguez Stream indicated a strong deterioration of the water quality compared to that of the Carnaval. A canonical-correlation analysis indicated that the Tubificinae, Megadrili, Enchytraeidae, and Rhyacodrilinae were more closely associated with the Rodríguez Stream; whereas the Naidinae, Pristininae, and Opystocystidae were more highly represented in the Carnaval. The diversity and taxonomic richness in the Rodríguez Stream exhibited significant differences from those of the Carnaval (P<0.001, but the abundance was not different between the two sites. Schoener’s index revealed the higher degree of dietary overlap of the two streams because all the species analysed consumed a high proportion of detritus, especially the organisms in the Rodríguez. In the Carnaval Stream a higher number of alimentary items were consumed, and mainly by the Naidinae. This difference, probably reflecting the greater availability of this resource at sites impacted by organic pollution, underscores the fundamental role of oligochaetes in the food webs of aquatic ecosystems. The combined use of structural and functional parameters enables a more comprehensive view of how these lotic systems function and as such provides information that will serve to design tools for the management of such temperate environments.

  13. Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Belyazid, Salim; Calfapietra, Carlo; de Marco, Alessandra; Fenn, Mark; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; He, Shang; Matyssek, Rainer; Serengil, Yusuf; Wieser, Gerhard; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and peri-urban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O3 modelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O3 are: (xxi) Developing dose-response relationships and

  14. Widespread occurrence of estrogenic UV-filters in aquatic ecosystems in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.c [University of Applied Sciences (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Zenker, Armin [University of Applied Sciences (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Rapp, Maja [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    We performed a trace analytical study covering nine hormonally active UV-filters by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in river water and biota. Water was analysed at 10 sites above and below wastewater treatment plants in the river Glatt using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Four UV-filters occurred in the following order of decreasing concentrations; benzophenone-4 (BP-4) > benzophenone-3 (BP-3) > 3-(4-methyl)benzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) > 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC). BP-4 ranged from 0.27 to 24.0 mug/POCIS, BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC up to 0.1 mug/POCIS. Wastewater was the most important source. Levels decreased with higher river water flow. No significant in-stream removal occurred. BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC were between 6 and 68 ng/L in river water. EHMC was accumulated in biota. In all 48 macroinvertebrate and fish samples from six rivers lipid-weighted EHMC occurred up to 337 ng/g, and up to 701 ng/g in 5 cormorants, suggesting food-chain accumulation. UV-filters are found to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems. - Several UV-filters from cosmetics and materials protection occur in rivers and EHMC accumulates in biota.

  15. Spatial and temporal controls on Alnus-derived nutrients and stream stoichiometry: Implications for aquatic ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devotta, D.; Fraterrigo, J.; Walsh, P.; Hu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting how nutrient fluxes that cross ecosystem boundaries will respond to future climate change is one of the greatest challenges for ecology in the 21st century. In southwestern (SW) Alaska, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and nitrogen (N)-fixation by alder (Alnus spp.) provide key nutrient subsidies to freshwater systems. The importance of alder-derived nutrients (ADN) to aquatic systems will increase as alder cover expands under climate warming and salmon harvesting reduces marine-derived nutrients. We investigate broad-scale spatial and temporal drivers of ADN and stream N:P in 26 streams in SW Alaska. Alder cover and watershed features were measured using satellite images and topographic maps in ArcGIS. Stream water samples were collected in each spring and summer from 2010-2013 and analyzed for dissolved N and total phosphorus (TP). We obtained annual growing season length (AGSL) and sum of growing degree days (GDD) data from weather stations. Elevation was inversely related to alder cover, stream N, and N:P (ρ=-0.802, -0.65, and -0.71 resp., pADN export. Higher P was associated with lower temperatures, possibly reflecting reduced P demand under low rates of metabolic activity. Structural equation modeling revealed significant causal relationships among elevation, alder cover, and stream N:P across multiple years (r2=0.94, X2=742.8, df=9, pADN fluxes and stream N:P than temporal variation in growing season conditions. Therefore, the aquatic productivity of streams at low elevations that receive large amounts of ADN will be most resilient to climate change.

  16. Pollutant threshold concentration determination in marine ecosystems using an ecological interaction endpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threshold concentrations of pollutants are determined by extrapolating single-species effect data to community-level effects. This assumes the most sensitive endpoint of the life cycle of individuals and the species sensitivity distribution from single-species toxic effect tests, thus, ignoring the ecological interactions. The uncertainties due to this extrapolation can be partially overcome using the equilibrium point of a customized ecosystem. This method incorporates ecological interactions and integrates the effects on growth, survival, and ingestion into a single effect measure, the equilibrium point excursion in the customized ecosystem, in order to describe the toxic effects on plankton. A case study showed that the threshold concentration of copper calculated with the endpoint of the equilibrium point was 10 μg L−1, which is significantly different from the threshold calculated with a single-species endpoint. The endpoint calculated using this method provides a more relevant measure of the ecological impact than any single individual-level endpoint. - Highlights: • Ecotoxicological effect of exposure to copper was tested on a customized ecosystem. • Equilibrium point of biomasses in the customized ecosystem was used as an endpoint. • Exposure–response relationship in a community level was built on equilibrium point. • A threshold concentration incorporating ecological interactions was derived. - The equilibrium biomass incorporating ecological interactions in a customized ecosystem was used as an endpoint to calculate the threshold concentration at a community level

  17. Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoletti E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01. The IUFRO RG 7.01 deals with "Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems". Climate change and air pollution are closely linked, although in applied scientific research and even more in political negotiations they have been largely separated. Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have not only common sources, but may also interact physically and chemically in the atmosphere causing a variety of environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects of numerous climate change and air pollution factors may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects due to an array of various synergistic or antagonistic interactions. The net effect varies for different ecosystem types and geographic regions, and depends on magnitude of climate or air pollution drivers, and types of interactions between them. This paper reviews the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies and avoiding overlaps between two lines of traditional research. This could result in more effective research, monitoring and management as well as better integration of environmental policies.

  18. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M.; Quinn, Laura P.; Polder, Anuschka

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT levels reported this century; 13 000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 n...

  19. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  20. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  1. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  2. Polonium, uranium and plutonium radionuclides in aquatic and land ecosystem of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Boryło, Alicja; Kabat, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of study about distribution, inflow and accumulation of polonium, uranium and plutonium in aquatic and land environment of Poland and the southern Baltic Sea. Radionuclides of (210)Po, (234)U and (238)U as well as (239+240)Pu and (241)Pu are strongly accumulated in Baltic organisms and plants and transferred through the trophic chain. The values of bioconcentration factor (BCF) in Baltic plants and animals are higher for polonium and plutonium in comparison with uranium. The principal source of radionuclides in the southern Baltic Sea is their inflow with rivers. Total annual runoff of polonium, uranium and plutonium from the Vistula and the Odra as well as the Pomeranian rivers were calculated at 95 GBq of (210)Po, 750 GBq of (234+238)U and 160 MBq of (238+239+240)Pu. Seasonal and spatial variability of (210)Po, (238)U and (239+240)Pu levels in the Vistula and the Odra drainage basins were assessed by application of neural-network based classification, especially cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing maps (SOM). The result for the Vistula river indicated correlation between polonium and plutonium as well as polonium and uranium. In the Odra drainage basin, the biggest differences were observed in the case of (238)U. To assess if there are statistically significant differences in mean concentration values of (210)Po, (238)U and (239+240)Pu for the Vistula and the Odra rivers drainage basins were obtained by used of the non-parametric tests. Comparing to the Vistula catchment area, statistically differences concentration of (210)Po and (239+240)Pu in all year was observed for river samples collected on the Odra drainage basin.

  3. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal cos

  4. The incredible lightness of being methane-fuelled: stable isotopes reveal alternative energy pathways in aquatic ecosystems and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGrey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have known about the processes of methanogenesis and methanotrophy for over 100 years, since the days of Winogradsky, yet their contributions to the carbon cycle were deemed to be of negligible importance for the majority of that period. It is only in the last two decades that methane has been appreciated for its role in the global carbon cycle, and stable isotopes have come to the forefront as tools for identifying and tracking the fate of methane-derived carbon within food webs, especially within aquatic ecosystems. While it is not surprising that chemosynthetic processes dominate and contribute almost 100% to the biomass of organisms residing within extreme habitats like deep ocean hydrothermal vents and seeps, way below the reach of photosynthetically active radiation, it is perhaps counterintuitive to find reliance upon methane-derived carbon in shallow, well-lit, well-oxygenated streams. Yet, apparently, methane-derived carbon contributes to varying degrees across the spectrum from point sources to extremely diffuse sources. Certainly a good proportion of the evidence for methane-derived carbon contributing to freshwater food webs comes from somewhere in the middle of that spectrum; from studies of seasonally stratifying lakes (mono- or dimictic wherein, there is a defined gradient or boundary at which anoxic meet oxic conditions and consequently allows for close coupling of methanogenesis and methanotrophy. However, even seemingly well-mixed (polymictic lakes have a contribution of methane-derived carbon contributing to the benthic biomass, despite an almost continual supply of photosynthetic carbon being delivered from the surface.Aside from the fundamental importance of identifying the carbon sources fuelling biomass production, stable isotopes have been integral in the tool box of palaeolimnologists seeking to identify how contributions from methane have waxed and waned over time. Here, we synthesise the current state of knowledge

  5. Biomonitoring Climate Change and Pollution in Marine Ecosystems: A Review on Aulacomya ater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Caza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedentarism and wide global distribution of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis have made it a useful bioindicator to assess changes in the health status of the marine ecosystem in response to pollution and other environmental stresses. Effective biomonitoring of an ecosystem requires, however, that multiple biomarkers be used to obtain an accurate measure of the cumulative effects of different sources of environmental stress. Here, we provide a first integrated review of the biological, economical, and geographical characteristics of another species of mussels, the ribbed mussel Aulacomya ater. We discuss the use of Aulacomya ater as a complementary biomonitor to the blue mussel to assess the impact of pollutants and climate change. Recent findings have indeed shown that Mytilus edulis and Aulacomya ater have distinctive anatomy and physiology and respond differently to environmental stress. Monitoring of mixed beds containing blue and ribbed mussels may thus represent a unique opportunity to study the effect of environmental stress on the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, most notably in the Southern hemisphere, which is particularly sensitive to climate change and where both species often cohabitate in the same intertidal zones.

  6. Impacts of acid emissions from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, on selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Roderic A.; Burke, Kelly J.

    1990-07-01

    Emissions of acidic gases and thermal waters from Nevado del Ruiz volcano have recently increased in concert with the November 13, 1985 eruption. This study examines the downwind and downstream effects of these emissions on alpine ecosystems high on the slopes of the volcano (4100 m) and on coffee plantations at lower elevations ( 30 km). Samples of bulk deposition, rain, soils, soil solutions, and streams were collected over a six-month period (January-July, 1987) to examine the impacts of this volcanogenic acidity. Bulk deposition falling on the higher slopes of the volcano is usually acidified; however, deposition reaching the distal coffee plantations seldom is acidic. The sources of the acids are hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide in the plume of the volcano. Although sulfur dioxide is by far the more abundant gas, hydrogen chloride is most responsible for acidification of rain falling on the slopes of the volcano. With distance from the vent, the chloride/sulfate ratio drops exponentially. The only major influence on regional precipitation chemistry in addition to the volcano appears to be land-use-related activities around the coffee plantations. Deposition on these areas is enriched by an order of magnitude in nitrate and base cations, compared to all other stations. Throughfall chemistry in the coffee plantations shows a dramatic response to occasional acid-rain events. A base-leaching process on coffee plant leaves is triggered by acid rain. For each equivalent of hydrogen ion in rain on the leaf surface, over 23 equivalents of potassium ion are leached from the leaf. In spite of this dramatic response by the vegetation, the plantation soils appear relatively unaffected by acidic deposition. In contrast, the alpine soils on the volcano exhibit low pHs, high sulfate and chloride concentrations in soil solutions, and high extractable sulfate concentrations. All of these factors indicate that these soils have undergone significant acid loading. While the

  7. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  8. Assessment of the Occurrence and Risks of Emerging Organic Pollutants (EOPs) in Ikpa River Basin Freshwater Ecosystem, Niger Delta-Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Edu; Offiong, Nnanake-Abasi; Kang, Suil; Yang, Paul; Essien, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The levels of some emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) including endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products were quantified in surface water of a freshwater ecosystem, the Ikpa River Basin, Nigeria using liquid chromatography/high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, leachates and storm water samples collected from nearby dumpsites were also analysed to assess the effect on water quality. Seventeen compounds were detected at the nanogramme-per-litre levels and the ecological risks of selected compounds assessed based on predicted no-effect concentrations derived from comparison of toxicity data recorded for green algae, fish and invertebrate with the maximum measured environmental concentrations, to obtain risk quotients. Some of the compounds showed some level of widespread occurrence or persistence. Also, bisphenol A, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, triclocarban and triclosan were the most important EOPs detected in the study area that may pose detrimental effects to the aquatic organisms based on the outcome of the risk assessment. PMID:26341253

  9. Impact of photochemical processing of DOC on the bacterioplankton respiratory quotient in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesson, Lina; Ström, Lena; Berggren, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Many studies assume a respiratory quotient (RQ = molar ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed) close to 1 when calculating bacterioplankton respiration. However, evidence suggests that RQ depends on the chemical composition of the respired substrate pool that may be altered by photochemical production of oxygen-rich substrates, resulting in elevated RQs. Here we conducted a novel study of the impact of photochemical processing of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on RQ. We monitored the bacterial RQ in bioassays of both ultraviolet light irradiated and nonirradiated humic lake water, using optic gas-pressure sensors. In the experimentally irradiated samples the average RQ value was significantly higher (3.4-3.5 [±0.4 standard error (SE)]) than that in the dark controls (1.3 [±0.1 SE]). Our results show that the RQ is systematically higher than 1 when the bacterial metabolism in large part is based on photoproducts. By assuming an RQ of 1, bacterioplankton respiration in freshwater ecosystems may be greatly underestimated.

  10. Amphibians as indicators of changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems following GM crop cultivation: a monitoring guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Böll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are a suitable indicator group for monitoring possible negative direct or indirect effects of GMO cultivation at the individual and population level. Direct effects could occur in aquatic ecosystems via uptake of GM pollen or GM detritus by anuran larvae. However, indirect negative effects caused by changes in cultivation practices (changes in pesticide use, for instance are more likely. The VDI Guideline 4333 aims to ensure comprehensive monitoring of the different life-stages of anuran species that are common in agricultural landscapes of Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The guideline includes a novel approach to tadpole monitoring. To assess immediate effects, tadpole, metamorph and adult deformation rates are compared with naturally occurring deformation rates. Adult population size, adult body condition and juvenile emergence are monitored over multiple years to assess long-term effects of GM crop cultivation on population viability. At each study site, monitoring has to be carried out at multiple amphibian breeding sites which differ in their exposure to GM crop cultivation. All monitoring data have to be stored in a central database for future meta-analyses. This will ultimately allow for generalized statements about the impact of GM crop cultivation on amphibians. Although specifically designed for GM crops, VDI Guideline 4333 may also serve as a model for studying the effects of a wider range of stressors on amphibian populations in agriculture and forestry.

  11. 75 FR 30393 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... aquatic life benchmark for conductivity. Conductivity is a measurement of the salt content of water. The... Coalfields and a Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams AGENCY...'' (EPA/600/R-09/138A) and (2) ``A Field-based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in...

  12. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  13. 上海乡土水生植物资源及其在水生态恢复与水景观建设中的应用潜力%SURVEY OF NATIVE AQUATIC VASCULAR PLANTS AND ITS POTENTIAL APPLICATION FOR RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS IN SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婕; 张净; 达良俊

    2011-01-01

    水生植物作为水生生态系统的主体,对发挥水生生态系统的自维持、自循环功能有重要作用.研究通过相关资料的查阅,建立上海地区乡土水生植物名录,并对其科属组成、区系特征、生活型、生长型等进行统计分析.结果表明上海地区乡土水生植物共计35科83属160种(含变种),单属科、单种属的比例较高,均达65%以上;植物区系组成丰富、成分复杂,以热带成分占优势,达64.6%;生活型以挺水植物为主,沉水植物次之,浮水植物最少;生长型类型丰富,以草本型、禾草型居多,20种生长型可进一步归为表征相似生态学特征和功能地位的6个生长型组.在水生态恢复与水景观建设中,仅有68.8%的景观水体有水生植物应用,且应用种类在2种以下的占79.2%.乡土水生植物应用不足,一半以上为观赏性强的外来物种,应用频率较高的为挺水植物,对具有良好净化效果的沉水植物重视不够.因此,在水生态恢复与水景观建设中,建议加强乡土水生植物资源的繁育栽培,在充分利用乡土水生植物资源配置群落的基础上,根据水质的富营养及基底状况,通过不同生长型组水生植物的应用,构建“沉水-浮水-挺水”植物群落复合体,并通过“近自然型”护岸的营造,形成“水生-湿生”复合生态系统.运用植被工程学的原理和方法,采用“生态浮岛”、“生态沉岛”等技术营造水生植被,将强人工化的水景观建成具生命的水生生态系统.%With the rapid economical development, more and more degraded aquatic ecosystems can not be restored by themselves after they were polluted seriously. Aquatic vascular plant especially the native species, as an important component, play a significant role for implication of self-sustainable and self-circulation in aquatic ecosystems. Reconstruction and restoration of aquatic plants and vegetations is vital to construct the artificial

  14. Isotope tracing of throughflow, residency and runoff to lakes for regional assessment of critical acid loadings to aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mining, forestry and hydroelectric development are placing increasing stress on aquatic ecosystems of the Boreal Forest of Canada, particularly within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of northeastern Alberta (near Ft. McMurray). Evaluation of the sensitivity of various aquatic ecosystems to such disturbances requires an improved understanding of the basic processes that control ecosystem health including water balance, biogeochemical interactions between lakes and their watersheds, acid sensitivity, and potential future modifications to these conditions under changing climate. One of the more pressing issues in Oil Sands development is the capacity of soils and water to buffer acidic emissions and deposition associated with mining and upgrading of bitumen. Current operations emit up to one tonne of SOX and NOx per thousand barrels of oil produced. Many new projects are improving on these emission rates, however, improvements are at considerable cost and future projections are still as much as 600 tonnes of SOX and NOx per day from operations near Ft. McMurray. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions are oxidized in the atmosphere producing sulfate and nitrate anions, reducing the pH of atmospheric moisture and producing acid rain that is deposited on soils and vegetation. Positively charged cations are subsequently mobilized from the soil matrix and leach to surface waters with the deposited nitrate and sulfate reducing the buffering capacity of soils. While most of Alberta's soils have a large cation reserve and capacity to buffer acid deposition, a significant proportion of the landscape in the Ft. McMurray area contains soils with poor buffering capacity, which is expected to enhance the sensitivity of surface waters to acid deposition. The ability of surface waters to buffer acidic deposition is currently being evaluated using a steady state acid-loading model, the Henriksen model, although future efforts also include dynamic modelling. The Henriksen model for

  15. MOSSES AND LICHENS – BIOINDICATORS OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    BEGU A.; BRAŞOVEANU V.; LIOGCHI NINA; BREGA V.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a comparative investigation of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr) in mosses and lichens recorded in ten deciduous forests in the Republic of Moldova included in a transnational grid (16x16 km) of forest monitoring throughout Europe. The content of heavy metals doesn’t differ significant by depending on the location of studied forest ecosystems. The trends of larger accumulation are observed near the local stationary and mobile sources of pollution. Mosses were c...

  16. Modelling indicators of water security, water pollution and aquatic biodiversity in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Egon; Williams, Richard; Keller, Virginie; Voss, Anja; Tattari, Sirkka

    2012-01-01

    The GWAVA (Global Water AVailability Assessment) model for indicating human water security has been extended with a newly developed module for calculating pollutant concentrations. This module is first described and then illustrated by being used to model nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter concentrations. The module uses solely input variables that are likely to be available for future scenarios, making it possible to apply the module to such scenarios. The module first calculates pollut...

  17. Multispecies toxicity test for silver nanoparticles to derive hazardous concentration based on species sensitivity distribution for the protection of aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin Il; Cui, Rongxue; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Shin Woong; Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-06-01

    With increasing concerns about the release of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the environment and the risks they pose to ecological and human health, a number of studies of AgNP toxicity to aquatic organisms have been conducted. USEPA and EU JRC have published risk assessment reports for AgNPs. However, most previous studies have focused on the adverse effects of AgNPs on individual species. Hazardous concentration (HC) of AgNPs for protection of aquatic ecosystems that are based on species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) have not yet been derived because sufficient data have not been available. In this study, we conducted multispecies toxicity tests, including acute assays using eight species from five different taxonomic groups (bacteria, algae, flagellates, crustaceans and fish) and chronic assays using six species from four different taxonomic groups (algae, flagellates, crustaceans and fish). Using the results of these assays, we used a SSD approach to derive an AgNP aquatic HC5 (Hazard concentrations at the 5% species) of 0.614 μg/L. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a proposed HC of AgNPs for the protection of aquatic ecosystems that is based on SSDs and uses chronic toxicity data. PMID:26634622

  18. The use of enclosed plankton communities in aquatic ecotoxicology : fate effects of mercury, cadmium and selected aromatic organics in a marine model ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, J.

    1982-01-01

    Most investigations in ecotoxicology are carried out in the laboratory. Although laboratory experiments are indispensable and yield useful information, it is difficult if not impossible to extrapolate results of short-term laboratory tests currently in use to real field situations. The need in aquatic ecotoxicology for experiments with complex systems, more closely approximating natural conditions, led to the use of large, flexible plastic bags, isolating part of the ecosystem, and suspended ...

  19. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Hydrologic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change on Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems in the Mobile Bay, AL Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Judd, C.; Woodruff, D.; Ellis, J. T.; Quattrochi, D.; Swann, R.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Mobile Bay, AL estuary, are subject to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including climate change. Climate changes have a direct effect on the discharge of rivers that drain into Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal water bodies. The outflows change water quality (temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations) in the shallow aquatic areas and affect ecosystem functioning. Mobile Bay is a vital ecosystem that provides habitat for many species of fauna and flora. Historically, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and seagrasses were found in this area of the northern Gulf of Mexico; however the extent of vegetation has significantly decreased over the last 60 years. The objectives of this research are to determine: how climate changes affect runoff and water quality in the estuary and how these changes will affect habitat suitability for SAV and seagrasses. Our approach is to use watershed and hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the impact of climate change on shallow water aquatic ecosystems in Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal areas. Remotely sensed Landsat data were used for current land cover land use (LCLU) model input and the data provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the future changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise were used to create the climate scenarios for the 2025 and 2050 model simulations. Project results are being shared with Gulf coast stakeholders through the Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas to benefit coastal policy and climate change adaptation strategies.

  20. Towards Sustaining Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems: Forecasting Watershed Risks to Current and Future Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Newburn, D.; Opperman, J. J.; Brooks, C.; Merenlender, A.

    2005-05-01

    development in a watershed significantly reduced the odds of observing low embeddedness. Our 2010 forecasts highlight the sensitivity of watersheds to small changes in exurban growth. In previously unimpaired watersheds, small increases in future exurban growth resulted in cumulative impacts on substrate quality not predicted by models lacking this land use type. Because most previous analyses have characterized land use at a resolution that cannot capture exurban development, these results suggest that many such models may be missing an important type of development that can adversely impacting aquatic ecosystems. We suggest that parcel level data may be the fundamental unit for land use change analysis because it represents the economic decision unit for land owners and resolves issues of geographical scale and boundary issues that have long hampered progress in ecological forecasting.

  1. A Screening-Level Approach for Comparing Risks Affecting Aquatic Ecosystem Services over Socio-Environmental Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Conde, D.; Villamizar, S. R.; Reid, B.; Escobar, J.; Rusak, J.; Hoyos, N.; Scordo, F.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; Velez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing risks to aquatic ecosystems services (ES) is challenging and time-consuming, and effective strategies for prioritizing more detailed assessment efforts are needed. We propose a screening-level risk analysis (SRA) approach that scales ES risk using socioeconomic and environmental indices to capture anthropic and climatic pressures, as well as the capacity for institutional responses to those pressures. The method considers ES within a watershed context, and uses expert input to prioritize key services and the associated pressures that threaten them. The SRA approach focuses on estimating ES risk affect factors, which are the sum of the intensity factors for all hazards or pressures affecting the ES. We estimate the pressure intensity factors in a novel manner, basing them on the nation's (i) human development (proxied by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, IHDI), (ii) environmental regulatory and monitoring state (Environmental Performance Index, EPI) and (iii) the current level of water stress in the watershed (baseline water stress, BWS). Anthropic intensity factors for future conditions are derived from the baseline values based on the nation's 10-year trend in IHDI and EPI; ES risks in nations with stronger records of change are rewarded more/penalized less in estimates for good/poor future management scenarios. Future climatic intensity factors are tied to water stress estimates based on two general circulation model (GCM) outcomes. We demonstrate the method for an international array of six sites representing a wide range of socio-environmental settings. The outcomes illustrate novel consequences of the scaling scheme. Risk affect factors may be greater in a highly developed region under intense climatic pressure, or in less well-developed regions due to human factors (e.g., poor environmental records). As a screening-level tool, the SRA approach offers considerable promise for ES risk comparisons among watersheds and regions so that

  2. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  3. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics. -- Highlights: ► Fish farm effluent discharge had moderate effects on stream water quality. ► Impacts on the benthic invertebrate community occurred at one stream. ► Whole-stream nitrate uptake showed no consistent impact pattern. ► Effluents caused considerable increases in stream ecosystem metabolism. ► Compliance with best management practices is important for small fish farms. -- Moderate water pollution by small fish farms caused considerable eutrophication responses in tropical headwater streams

  4. Concentrations, Deposition, and Effects of Nitrogenous Pollutants in Selected California Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+ from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3– resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95% of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3, drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  5. Working group 7: Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the environmental impact of nuclear power plants. The effects of ionizing radiations, of the thermal and chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems as well as on terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated. After a general survey of such effects and their interaction, practical conclusions in regard to determined areas such as Meuse-Escaut marine and the coast have been drawn. The contamination effects of food chains have been evaluted under deliberately pessimistic conditions with regard to the choice of the radionuclide as well as of concentration factors. Following the biodegradation conditions of the surface waters, criteria for the quality of the aquatic ecosystems have been established. Finally, attention has been paid on certain factors affecting the site selection especially within the frame of the nature conservation. The effects of cooling towers have been also considered. (G.C.)

  6. Abundance of sewage-pollution indicator and human pathogenic bacteria in a tropical estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagvenkar, G.S.; Ramaiah, N.

    ; food poisoning), Streptococcus spp (meningitis and skin infections) and aeromonads (septicaemic conditions) in aquatic ecosystems may prove useful in public health management. From a comparative assessment of distribution and abundance of pollution...

  7. Cell-based sensor system using L6 cells for broad band continuous pollutant monitoring in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, Rebekka; Bohrn, Ulrich; Fleischer, Maximilian; Stütz, Evamaria

    2012-01-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources represents a continuously emerging problem in global environmental protection. Novel techniques for real-time monitoring of water quality, capable of the detection of unanticipated toxic and bioactive substances, are urgently needed. In this study, the applicability of a cell-based sensor system using selected eukaryotic cell lines for the detection of aquatic pollutants is shown. Readout parameters of the cells were the acidification (metabolism), oxygen consumption (respiration) and impedance (morphology) of the cells. A variety of potential cytotoxic classes of substances (heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, neurotoxins, waste water) was tested with monolayers of L6 cells (rat myoblasts). The cytotoxicity or cellular effects induced by inorganic ions (Ni(2+) and Cu(2+)) can be detected with the metabolic parameters acidification and respiration down to 0.5 mg/L, whereas the detection limit for other substances like nicotine and acetaminophen are rather high, in the range of 0.1 mg/L and 100 mg/L. In a close to application model a real waste water sample shows detectable signals, indicating the existence of cytotoxic substances. The results support the paradigm change from single substance detection to the monitoring of overall toxicity. PMID:22737014

  8. Cell-Based Sensor System Using L6 Cells for Broad Band Continuous Pollutant Monitoring in Aquatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evamaria Stütz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of drinking water sources represents a continuously emerging problem in global environmental protection. Novel techniques for real-time monitoring of water quality, capable of the detection of unanticipated toxic and bioactive substances, are urgently needed. In this study, the applicability of a cell-based sensor system using selected eukaryotic cell lines for the detection of aquatic pollutants is shown. Readout parameters of the cells were the acidification (metabolism, oxygen consumption (respiration and impedance (morphology of the cells. A variety of potential cytotoxic classes of substances (heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, neurotoxins, waste water was tested with monolayers of L6 cells (rat myoblasts. The cytotoxicity or cellular effects induced by inorganic ions (Ni2+ and Cu2+ can be detected with the metabolic parameters acidification and respiration down to 0.5 mg/L, whereas the detection limit for other substances like nicotine and acetaminophen are rather high, in the range of 0.1 mg/L and 100 mg/L. In a close to application model a real waste water sample shows detectable signals, indicating the existence of cytotoxic substances. The results support the paradigm change from single substance detection to the monitoring of overall toxicity.

  9. Stormwater pollution in suburban ecosystems: the role of residential rooftop connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Stormwater pollution has been recognized as a major concern of urban sustainability. Understanding interactions between urban landcover and stormwater pollution can be advanced through the development of spatially explicit ecohydrology models that simulate fine-scale residential stormwater management; this requires high-resolution LIDAR and landcover data, as well as field observation at the household scale. The objective of my research is to improve understanding of how parcel-scale heterogeneity of impervious and previous surfaces effect stormwater volume. In support of this objective, I present results from work to: (1) perform field observation of existing patterns of residential rooftop connectivity to nearby impervious surfaces; (2) modify the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) to explicitly represent non-topographic surface flow routing of rooftops; and (3) develop RHESSys models for urban-suburban headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). I use these models to simulate stormwater volume resulting from both baseline residential rooftop impervious connectivity and for disconnection scenarios (e.g. roof drainage to lawn v. engineered rain garden, upslope v. riparian). This research will help to improve representation of fine-scale surface flow features in urban ecohydrology modeling while informing policy decisions over how best to implement parcel-scale retrofits in existing neighborhoods to reduce stormwater pollution at the watershed scale.

  10. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered.

  11. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. PMID:20036449

  12. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  13. Analysis of biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in the aquatic food web of the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Watanabe, Michio X; Okuda, Noboru; Omori, Koji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2008-05-01

    The present study elucidated the biomagnification profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through a tropical aquatic food web of Vietnam based on trophic characterization using stable nitrogen analysis. Various biological samples collected from the main stream of the Mekong Delta were provided for the analysis for both POPs, and stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios. Of the POPs analyzed, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 0.058 to 12 ng/g wet weight, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at 0.017-8.9 ng/g, chlordane compounds (CHLs) at 0.0043-0.76 ng/g, tris-4-chlorophenyl methane (TCPMe) at N.D.-0.26 ng/g, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) at N.D.-0.20 ng/g and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) at 0.0021-0.096 ng/g. Significant positive increases of concentrations in DDTs, CHLs, and TCPMe against the stable nitrogen ratio (delta(15)N) were detected, while, concentrations of HCHs and HCB showed no significant increase. The slopes of the regression equations between the log-transformed concentrations of these POPs and delta(15)N were used as indices of biomagnification. The slopes of the POPs for which positive biomagnification was detected ranged from 0.149 to 0.177 on a wet weight basis. The slopes of DDTs and CHLs were less than those reported for a marine food web of the Arctic Ocean, indicating that less biomagnification had occurred in the tropical food web. Of the isomers of CHLs, unlike the studies of the Arctic Ocean, oxychlordane did not undergo significant biomagnification through the food web of the Mekong Delta. This difference is considered to be due to a lack of marine mammals, which might metabolize cis- and trans-chlordane to oxychlordane, in the Mekong Delta ecosystem. The biomagnification profile of TCPMe is reported for the first time in the present study. PMID:18313720

  14. Development of a fluorescent transgenic zebrafish biosensor for sensing aquatic heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nilambari; Gireesh-Babu, P; Sabnis, Supriya; Rasal, Kiran; Murthy, Renuka; Zaidi, S G S; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2016-10-01

    We report a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) designed to respond to heavy metals using a metal-responsive promoter linked to a fluorescent reporter gene (DsRed2). The metallothionein MT-Ia1 promoter containing metal-responsive elements was derived from the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis. The promoter is known to be induced by a broad spectrum of heavy metals. The promoter-reporter cassette cloned into the Tol2 transposon vector was microinjected into zebrafish embryos that were then reared to maturity. A transgene integration rate of 28 % was observed. The confirmed transgenics were mated with wild-type counterparts, and pools of F1 embryos were exposed to sub-lethal doses of Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+). The red fluorescence response of zebrafish embryos was observed 8 h post- exposure to these sub-lethal doses of heavy metals using a fluorescence microscope. Reporter expression estimated by real-time PCR revealed eightfold, sixfold and twofold increase on exposure to highest concentrations of Hg(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+), while Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) had no effect. This biosensor could be a first-level screening method for confirming aquatic heavy metal bio-toxicity to eukaryotes. PMID:27120052

  15. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Emeline Valton; Christian Amblard; François Desmolles; Bruno Combourieu; Frédérique Penault-Llorca; Mahchid Bamdad

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers ...

  16. Assessment of recent sediment influence in an urban polluted subantarctic coastal ecosystem. Beagle Channel (Southern Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M N; Torres, A I; Amin, O; Esteves, J L

    2011-01-01

    In this study, baseline information about the environmental status of Ushuaia (UB) and Golondrina (GB) bays is presented. Surface and bottom seawater and freshwater discharged from land were evaluated. Multivariate analysis identified different water quality zones within the bays, two of them located next to the north and northwest coastlines of UB, where the majority of human activities are developed. Porosity, total organic matter, biochemical components, ammonium, and phytopigments were determined in sediment samples from each quality zone. Benthic fluxes of nutrients and dissolved oxygen were assessed in situ using opaque chambers. In northwest zone of UB, carbon equivalents of proteins and carbohydrates in surficial sediments were the same order as in hypertrophic ecosystems, whereas ammonium and phosphate released from sediment greatly exceeded the allochthonous sources. Management of municipal wastewater is required to remediate this chronic pollution. PMID:21071043

  17. Dynamic release process of pollutants during suspended sediment transport in aquatic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红伟; 王道增; 程鹏达

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants release is highly consistent with suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in water column, especially during re-suspension and transport events. The present research focuses on pollutant dynamic release from re-suspended sediment, especially the vertical distribution relationship between them. The sediment erosion experiments on a series of uniform flow are conducted in a circulate flume. Reactive tracer (phosphorus) is used as the contaminant in fine-grained sediments to identify the release characteristic length and time. Experimental results show that the flow condition near-bed depends on the sediment surface roughness. The region with high turbulent intensities corresponds to a high concentration sediment layer. In addition, the SSC decreases with the distance, water depth, and particle grain size. The sediment in a smaller grain size takes much more time to reach equilibrium concentration. Total phosphorus (TP) concentration changes along the water depth as SSC in the initial re-suspension stage, appearing in two obvi-ous concentration regimes: the upper low-concentration layer and the high-concentration near-bottom layer. This layered phenomenon remains for about 3 hours until SSC distri-bution tends to be uniform. Longitudinal desorption plays an important role in long-way transport to reduce the amount of suspended sediment in water column.

  18. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  19. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from $9.45 to $21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species-the 'iconization' of species in two of the three surveys-had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be $10 to $25 per species or $10 to $20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk. PMID:27294723

  20. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated aquatic ecosystems: the project MOIRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems

  1. Distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants in sediment from creek ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Mahesh; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Pandit, Gauri Girish

    2016-09-01

    In order to study the distribution and ecotoxicological concerns of persistent organic pollutants, grab sediment samples were collected from different locations across Thane creek, India. Analyses of samples were carried out using gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-mass spectrometry techniques. In organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), DDD (1-chloro-4-(2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl) benzene) and α, β, and γ conformer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 9 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners were analyzed in surface sediment samples. Concentrations of these pollutants in grab sediment samples may indicate their current use and impact on marine ecosystem. Average concentrations of total DDT (including DDD and DDE), HCH, and Σ9PCBs were found to be 4.9, 12.5, and 2.9 µg kg(-1)(dry weight) respectively. High concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were found at discharge locations in creek compared to other locations. Location-wise distribution of OCPs and PCBs indicates their high concentrations at the waste water receiving point. Data were compared for ecotoxicological impacts based on the levels specified in the sediment quality standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. γ-HCH was found to have maximum potential to induce ecotoxicological impacts. PMID:27229303

  2. Fate of four pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems : Investigating the role of UV- light and animal assimilation as dissipation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund Nord, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment are of concern due to its possible negative consequences for non-target species. Pharmaceuticals can be found in many parts of the environment and especially in the effluent from sewage treatment plants where pharmaceuticals can be found in significant quantities. Therefore it is important to acquire knowledge of the fate of these pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In this study two experimental ponds, one was covered by a tarp to avoid degr...

  3. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on ecosystem services in interaction with other nutrients, air pollutants and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Goodale, C.; Erisman, J.W.; Hettelingh, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition affects many ecosystem services, ranging from: (i) provisioning services such as timber/wood fuel production, (ii) regulating services such as carbon sequestration and pollutant filtering leading to the provision of clean air and water, (iii) supporting services such as nutri

  4. Predicting Watershed Ecosystems Through Targeted Local Land Use Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Langpap, Christian; Hascic, Ivan; Wu, Junjie

    2006-01-01

    Land-use change is arguably the most pervasive socioeconomic force driving the change and degradation of watershed ecosystems. This paper combines an econometric model of land use choice with three models of watershed health indicators (conventional water pollution, toxic water pollution, and the number of aquatic species at risk) to examine the effects of land use policies on watershed ecosystems through their effect on land use choice. The analysis is conducted using parcel-level data from ...

  5. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Tellez

    Full Text Available Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment.

  6. Removal of Dissolved Pollutants from Highway Stormwater with Low-cost Adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, Martin Georg

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall and snowmelt generate large quantities of storm water from urban surfaces and highways. This stormwater contains pollutants such as suspended particles, heavy metals, organic chemicals and even pathogenic bacteria. The pollutants in highway runoff are often persistent and may contaminate fresh water resources and bio-accumulate in aquatic organisms. Therefore, polluted stormwater has been identified as one of the serious threats to aquatic ecosystems, and low cost onsite-treatment is...

  7. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M

    2009-01-01

    The coastal environment of the Yucatan Peninsula (SE, Mexico) includes a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from mangroves to coral reefs, resulting in a heterogeneous landscape. Specifically, the marine system is characterized by environmental differences which respond to regional and local forcing functions such as marine currents and groundwater discharges (GD). Such functional characteristics were used here to define four subregions across the Yucatan coast and diagnose the health status of this coastal marine ecosystem. To achieve this goal, we conducted an analysis and integration of water quality variables, an eutrophic assessment, evaluated changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and analyzed the community structure and distribution of harmful phytoplankton. The first step was to determine the reference values for each subregion based on data previously collected from 2002 to 2006 along the coast of Yucatan, 200m offshore. The trophic index (TRIX) and Canadian index for aquatic life (CCMEWQI) were used to diagnose each subregion and then the ASSETS approach was conducted for Dzilam and Progreso, sampling localities on each end of the health status continuum (those with the best and worst conditions). Overall, results indicated that the marine coastal ecosystem of Yucatan is in good condition; however, differences were observed between subregions that can be attributed to local forcing functions and human impacts. Specifically, the central region (zone HZII, Progreso-Telchac) showed symptoms of initial eutrophication due to nutrient inputs from human activities. The eastern region (zone HZ III, Dzilam-Las Bocas) showed a meso-eutrophic condition linked to natural groundwater discharges, while the other two subregions western (zone HZI Celestun-Palmar) and caribbean (zone HZ IV Ria Lagartos-El Cuyo) exhibited symptoms of oligo-mesotrophic condition. These findings may be considered baseline information for coastal ecosystem monitoring programs in

  8. Sticking to (first) principles: quantum molecular dynamics and Bayesian probabilistic methods to simulate aquatic pollutant absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trerayapiwat, Kasidet; Ricke, Nathan; Cohen, Peter; Poblete, Alex; Rudel, Holly; Eustis, Soren N

    2016-08-10

    This work explores the relationship between theoretically predicted excitation energies and experimental molar absorption spectra as they pertain to environmental aquatic photochemistry. An overview of pertinent Quantum Chemical descriptions of sunlight-driven electronic transitions in organic pollutants is presented. Second, a combined molecular dynamics (MD), time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) analysis of the ultraviolet to visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of six model organic compounds is presented alongside accurate experimental data. The functional relationship between the experimentally observed molar absorption spectrum and the discrete quantum transitions is examined. A rigorous comparison of the accuracy of the theoretical transition energies (ΔES0→Sn) and oscillator strength (fS0→Sn) is afforded by the probabilistic convolution and deconvolution procedure described. This method of deconvolution of experimental spectra using a Gaussian Mixture Model combined with Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to determine the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) as well as the number of observed singlet to singlet transition energy state distributions. This procedure allows a direct comparison of the one-electron (quantum) transitions that are the result of quantum chemical calculations and the ensemble of non-adiabatic quantum states that produce the macroscopic effect of a molar absorption spectrum. Poor agreement between the vertical excitation energies produced from TD-DFT calculations with five different functionals (CAM-B3LYP, PBE0, M06-2X, BP86, and LC-BLYP) suggest a failure of the theory to capture the low energy, environmentally important, electronic transitions in our model organic pollutants. However, the method of explicit-solvation of the organic solute using the quantum Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) in a density functional molecular dynamics trajectory simulation shows promise as a robust model of the hydrated organic

  9. Characterization of organic matter in aquatic systems under strong urban pressure: Sources, physico-chemical properties and interactions with organic pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Soares-Derome, Caroline; Bressy, Adèle; Varrault, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    13th WWW YES, Arcueil, France – 3 – 7 June 2013 - Invited conference International audience Many organic pollutants are toxic for the aquatic biota but their fate in urban systems is still little studied, especially regarding Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) effect on their distribution. Strong interactions with DOM play a key role in the speciation, bioavailability and toxicity of micropollutants. Understanding of the interaction processes, their dependence on local conditions and their ...

  10. Synergistic effects of heavy metal pollutants on senescence in submerged aquatic plants. [Potamogeton pectinatus L. , Vallisneria spiralis L. , Hydrialla Verticillata (L. f. ) Royle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, S.; Choudhuri, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of many combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants, viz., mercuric chloride, lead acetate, cadmium chloride and cupric sulphate, on the senescence of isolated mature leaves of submerged aquatic plants, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Vallisneria spiralis L., and Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metal pollutants caused senescence in all three species by decreasing chlorophyll, DNA, RNA, protein and dry wt, and increasing free amino acid, tissue permeability, the activities of protease and RNase, and the ratio of acid to alkaline pyrophosphatase activity over control values. The effects were highest in Potamogeton and lowest in Hydrilla. The degree of senescence in the three submerged plants by combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants is much higher due to synergism than that by individual heavy metal pollutants.

  11. Science for Managing Riverine Ecosystems: Actions for the USGS Identified in the Workshop "Analysis of Flow and Habitat for Instream Aquatic Communities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Hamilton, David B.; Petersen, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state agencies need improved scientific analysis to support riverine ecosystem management. The ability of the USGS to integrate geologic, hydrologic, chemical, geographic, and biological data into new tools and models provides unparalleled opportunities to translate the best riverine science into useful approaches and usable information to address issues faced by river managers. In addition to this capability to provide integrated science, the USGS has a long history of providing long-term and nationwide information about natural resources. The USGS is now in a position to advance its ability to provide the scientific support for the management of riverine ecosystems. To address this need, the USGS held a listening session in Fort Collins, Colorado in April 2006. Goals of the workshop were to: 1) learn about the key resource issues facing DOI, other Federal, and state resource management agencies; 2) discuss new approaches and information needs for addressing these issues; and 3) outline a strategy for the USGS role in supporting riverine ecosystem management. Workshop discussions focused on key components of a USGS strategy: Communications, Synthesis, and Research. The workshop identified 3 priority actions the USGS can initiate now to advance its capabilities to support integrated science for resource managers in partner government agencies and non-governmental organizations: 1) Synthesize the existing science of riverine ecosystem processes to produce broadly applicable conceptual models, 2) Enhance selected ongoing instream flow projects with complementary interdisciplinary studies, and 3) Design a long-term, watershed-scale research program that will substantively reinvent riverine ecosystem science. In addition, topical discussion groups on hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic habitat and populations, and socio-economic analysis and negotiation identified eleven important complementary actions required to advance the state of the science and to

  12. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  13. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as environmental risk factors in remote high-altitude ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and their transformation products, are the most investigated organic environmental contaminants within the past five decades. Organochlorines have been found in virtually all environmental compartments on the globe. Severe environmental implications have been shown to be associated with the presence of the POP group of contaminants in the environment. However, in the late 1990s, Canadian scientists first pinpointed the implication of POPs for high-altitude environments in a comprehensive way (Blais et al., 1998, Nature 395, 585-588). Under certain meteorological and geographic conditions, high-altitude environments can serve as "cold condensers" for atmospheric POP loadings. Subsequent investigations in high-altitude environments in Asia, Europe, and North and South America have confirmed suspicions that high-altitude mountainous regions have the potential to serve as focus regions for POPs and even for nonpersistent, medium-lived contaminants, such as "currently used pesticides", due to cold condensation and deposition in high altitudes. Although the presence and the altitude-dependent increase of POP levels in mountainous regions are confirmed by many international studies, the ecotoxicological consequences still remain largely unknown. At present, only a few studies have been published describing the biological effects in high-altitude environments due to increased POP exposure. Therefore, in this early stage of the international research effort on the ecotoxicological risk evaluation of persistent contaminants in high-altitude, pristine ecosystems, the present review intends to summarize the current state of research on POPs in high-altitude environments and draw preliminary conclusions on possible consequences of the presence of POPs in mountainous ecosystems based on currently available information from alpine and related Arctic environments. PMID:16399161

  14. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  15. Origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in polluted ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of heavy metals result in pollution of the soil, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and this pollution is a potential threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. Biesbosch National Park (the Netherlands) is exposed to chronic and diffuse pollution of heavy metals. The park is the flo

  16. Effects of the global changes on the aquatic ecosystems in West Europe - role of the plankton communities; Effets des changements globaux sur les ecosystemes aquatiques d'Europe Occidentale - role des communautes planctoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souissi, S. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Ecosystem COmplexity REsearch Group, Station Marine de Wimereux, CNRS - FRE 2816 ELICO, 62 - Wimereux (France)

    2007-07-01

    Examination of long-term records of aquatic ecosystems has provided useful information to find out their major driving forces. Understanding the impact of climate change on these ecosystems, the management of their resources and the extrapolation between sites are the main scopes of actual and emerging studies. Such goals can be achieved by inter-site and inter-ecosystem comparisons. This approach was undertaken during our project which has the originality to tackle with marine and freshwater ecosystems. It allowed us to compile and validate several multi-decadal time series of planktonic and other physical driving forces at local and regional scales. Then, the same methodology based on the analysis of the variability of climate indices and biological data across several spatial scales was used. The different ecosystems analyzed here showed clear response to the North Atlantic climate variability. Although the local differences abrupt changes in community composition occurred in all ecosystems in the middle of the years 80. During this period there was also a major shift in climatic conditions during winter and early spring, suggesting an impact of climatic factors. Phenological changes were also observed in plankton communities in all sites. The consequences of the modifications of plankton dynamics on higher trophic levels were also showed. Fluctuations in plankton have resulted in long-term changes in cod recruitment in the North Sea (bottom-up control). On the other hand, both climate change and the improvement of trophic status in Geneva Lake favored the outbreak of whitefish during the years 90. Lower larval mortality and better recruitment are supposed to be linked to faster growth associated with warmer temperatures and better food conditions induced by better temporal overlap between larvae hatching and zooplankton development. (author)

  17. Current progress on immunotoxicity of POPs in the aquatic ecosystem%水生生态系统中 POPs 的免疫毒理学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李风铃; 江艳华; 姚琳; 王联珠; 翟毓秀

    2014-01-01

    持久性有机污染物( POPs)不仅具有“三致”效应(致癌、致畸、致突变)和遗传毒性,而且对内分泌系统、神经系统、免疫系统等具有毒害作用。再加上自身具有难降解、易蓄积、可长距离运输等特点,给水生生态系统以及人类带来极大危害。结合当前的研究趋势,围绕水生生物中持久性有机污染物的免疫毒性进行了介绍,同时回顾了近年来该类污染物的污染状况及各方面毒性效应,并对目前该领域中存在的问题及下一步需要关注的热点进行了讨论和总结。%POPs have been identified not only carcinogenic , mutagenic , teratogenic and genotoxic , but also toxic to endocrine system , nervous system and immune system etc .In addition , POPs also have been observed to persist , bioaccumulate and be capable of large transportation in the environment , and done a lot of harm to aquatic ecosystem or human .In this paper , the study of immunotoxicity of POPs in aquatic organisms was introduced in details .In addition , a review of pollution and toxicity in many respects of POPs was stat-ed, and existing problems and the focus of development in this field were pointed out .

  18. Discharge Alterations of the Mures River, Romania under Ensembles of Future Climate Projections and Sequential Threats to Aquatic Ecosystem by the End of the Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Lobanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the potential alterations in the hydrological regime attributed to projected climate change in one of the largest rivers in the Carpathian Area, the Mures River, and to estimate associated threats to riverine ecosystem. The eco-hydrological model, Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM, was applied on the Mures River basin, calibrated and validated against records at a gauging station in Alba-Julia town. A set of nine future projections for climatic parameters under one emissions scenario A1B over the period 1971–2100 were fed into the SWIM model. To provide functional link between hydrological regimes and riverine ecosystems, each of the nine simulated discharge time series were introduced into the IHA (Indicators of Hydrological Alterations tool. Triggered changes in hydrological patterns of the Mures River were assessed at the basin and sub-basin scales. The obtained results present a strong agreement through all nine climate projections; suggesting an increase in the discharge of Mures River for the winter season; a decrease in summer and prolongation of the low flow periods by the end of the century. Anticipated changes would pose threats to aquatic ecosystems; altering normal life-cycles; and depleting natural habitats of species.

  19. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  20. Evaluating efficacy of a ballast water filtration system for reducing spread of aquatic species in freshwater ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briski, Elizabeta; Linley, R. D.; Adams, J.; Bailey, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions by non-indigenous species are considered a leading threat to biodiversity, with prevention being a key management strategy. Consequently, numerous commercial ballast water treatment systems have been, or are being, developed to prevent future aquatic invasions. However, most treatment systems are being designed for the many vessels undertaking long transoceanic voyages in marine waters rather than the relatively few vessels operating on short voyages in freshwater, such a...

  1. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  2. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, D. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology RAS (Russian Federation); Erenturk, S. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)

    2014-07-01

    Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated that high levels of ionizing radiation can result in impacts on plants and animals, however little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure on biodiversity or other population and ecosystem level effects. The issue of ecological impact has been addressed after the Fukushima accident, which has raised questions about the impacts of radioactivity not only on human health, but also on wildlife. The overall aim of the EANOR project (2012-2015) is to assess the impacts of chronic exposure to enhanced radioactivity and chemical pollutants by studying the diversity of plant and soil invertebrate populations at two field sites. The first is a radium contaminated site in the Vodny area of the Komi Republic, Russia. Between 1931 and 1956, this was the main location of Soviet radium production. Wastes from the industry caused contamination of the environment, leading to high levels of radionuclides, heavy metals and rare-earth elements in the surroundings. The prolonged exposure of the ecosystem, combined with relatively low human activities, makes the site an excellent field laboratory for investigating the long-term effects of pollution. The second site is metal mining (Fe, Au, Ag, Mn, Mo, Cu, Pb and Zn) and industrial area on the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, having elevated levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides for many decades. Eastern Black Sea Region is a mountainous area covered with dense forests, where numerous rivers and torrents flow through gorges and is characterized by heavy rainfall, humid summers, and mild winters. Based on these conditions, the region is rich in biological diversity. Joint field expeditions have been carried out in 2012 and 2013 with the objective of documenting levels of radionuclides and other chemical contaminants in soils and organisms, and assessing plant and soil invertebrate biodiversity. Measurement of a range of biomarkers, including soil meta

  3. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated that high levels of ionizing radiation can result in impacts on plants and animals, however little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure on biodiversity or other population and ecosystem level effects. The issue of ecological impact has been addressed after the Fukushima accident, which has raised questions about the impacts of radioactivity not only on human health, but also on wildlife. The overall aim of the EANOR project (2012-2015) is to assess the impacts of chronic exposure to enhanced radioactivity and chemical pollutants by studying the diversity of plant and soil invertebrate populations at two field sites. The first is a radium contaminated site in the Vodny area of the Komi Republic, Russia. Between 1931 and 1956, this was the main location of Soviet radium production. Wastes from the industry caused contamination of the environment, leading to high levels of radionuclides, heavy metals and rare-earth elements in the surroundings. The prolonged exposure of the ecosystem, combined with relatively low human activities, makes the site an excellent field laboratory for investigating the long-term effects of pollution. The second site is metal mining (Fe, Au, Ag, Mn, Mo, Cu, Pb and Zn) and industrial area on the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, having elevated levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides for many decades. Eastern Black Sea Region is a mountainous area covered with dense forests, where numerous rivers and torrents flow through gorges and is characterized by heavy rainfall, humid summers, and mild winters. Based on these conditions, the region is rich in biological diversity. Joint field expeditions have been carried out in 2012 and 2013 with the objective of documenting levels of radionuclides and other chemical contaminants in soils and organisms, and assessing plant and soil invertebrate biodiversity. Measurement of a range of biomarkers, including soil meta

  4. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were 1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF 1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants.

  5. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were 1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF 1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants. PMID:27306449

  6. Results 2005 of the surveillance of the artificial radioactivity levels of aquatic ecosystems in the basin of Seine-Normandy. Riviere 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Set up in 2004 by the A.C.R.O. the citizens network of radioecological surveillance, information and evaluation (R.I.V.I.E.R.E.) aims at making a follow-up of the radioactive contamination of the aquatic ecosystems on the scale of the Seine-Normandy pond: from Nogent-on-Seine to La Hague and from the Mont-Saint-Michel to the Treport. The peculiarity of this network, which also makes its strength is to associate strictly all those who wish to appropriate the knowledge of the radioactivity levels around to them. With R.I.V.I.E.R.E., the citizen is at the same moment an author and an actor of the surveillance of his environment as his information. An approach defended by the A.C.R.O. since about 20 years and which has no equivalent anywhere else. This project has four main objectives: to know the levels and the tendencies of the present radioactivity in the main aquatic ecosystems of the Seine-Normandy widened pond, and so feed a data base including more than 3000 analysis (limited to the gamma radioactivity and to the tritium); to allow the citizens who put a lot to appropriate the knowledge and the indispensable references to understand the radioactivity of their environment; to establish a support in the public information about the radioactivity in environment; to supply data to the national network of measures of the radioactivity in environment, network established by decree recently and in charge of the evaluation of the public exposure. (N.C.)

  7. Biomonitoring of Pollution by Microalgae Community in Aquatic System with Special Reference to Water Quality of River Kolong, Nagaon, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Banti Buragohain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With growing urbanization and industrialization India faces the challenge of providing clean and safe drinking water. In the name of economic growth most rivers and streams are turning into sewers. Pollution effect is equally damaging both biotic and abiotic components. Microalgae play an interesting role in forecasting changing environment. Pollution in aquatic environment like changing pH; addition of oil, heavy metals; increase of organic matter and chemical fertilizers can be traced by studying algal community. Abundant growth of particular algae, drastic change in species diversity and depletion of long inhabitant algal flora indicates the pollution in a very initial stage. In the present study, attempt has been made to point out some indicator algae of Kolong River which is getting polluted day by day and in placed among the 71 most polluted stretch of river in the country. In our investigation, we have found microalgae mainly from groups Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Desmidiaceae which can be identified as indicator species in biomonitoring purpose.

  8. Effect of Water Quality on the Distribution of Aquatic Entomofauna of Great Kwa River, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oku, E. E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects are very significant as indicators of water quality. The study was carried out between January and August, 2013 for both seasons. Sampling of aquatic insects of Great Kwa River was done with sampling nets in three stations: Unical Female Hostel, Unical Staff quarters and Obufa Esuk Beach. A total of 261.0 aquatic insects were collected with Unical Female Hostel accounting for the highest abundance. Unical Staff quarters had the highest Ephemenoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT richness. The result of the study shows that the aquatic ecosystem health of the Great Kwa River varied significantly (P<0.05 along the course of flow with some areas slightly and moderately polluted while others are in useable conditions. The Diptera obtained during the study, are pollution tolerant species. They were more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season suggesting that the level of pollution was higher during the wet season.

  9. Changes of Heavy Metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Su Kwon; Mi-Jung Bae; Young-Seuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Tr...

  10. Testing the stress-gradient hypothesis with aquatic detritivorous invertebrates : insights for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research

    OpenAIRE

    Fugère, V.; Andino, P.; Espinosa, R; Anthelme, Fabien; D. Jacobsen; Dangles, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    1. The stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) states that environmental stress modulates species interactions, causing a shift from negative interactions to net positive interactions with increasing stress. 2. Potentially, this modulation of species interactions could in turn influence biodiversity-ecosystem function (B-EF) relationships along stress gradients. Although the SGH has been extensively discussed in plant community ecology in the past two decades, it has received little attention from a...

  11. Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Robert M.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    We illustrate the importance of subsurface refuges for conservation of aquatic fauna with our studies of karstic wetlands in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Managers have proposed that water levels there should not fall more than 46 cm below ground level for more than 90 days annually. In four areas, 84% of solution holes were less than 46 cm deep and holes deeper than lm were rare (communities early in the dry season, but that structure emerged as drying progressed. Native cyprinodontiforms were abundant in shallow solution holes that dry annually under current management, while predatory species (often non-native) tended to dominate deeper holes. Water quality was correlated with hole volume and with composition of late dry-season fish communities. Tremendous losses of fish biomass occurred when water levels fell below 46 cm from ground surface. Most native taxa were unlikely to survive in the deep refuges that held predatory non-native taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the sorption behaviour of some radionuclides releases to the aquatic ecosystem of the north western coast of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a final report of the investigations of IAEA Research Contract No. 4640/RB concerning the studies of sorption behaviour of 60Co and 134Cs as an eventual release to the aquatic systems of the north western coast of Egypt (three site stations). The first stage of the study areas deals with surveying the area and concentrating on physico-chemical characteristic studies (mineralogical, chemical, biological analyses and sampling). More details were found about the effect of Ph, caution concentration, presence or absence of competing ions, Mg++, as carrier. The current values (or sorption distribution coefficients) were traced. All sorption experiments were implemented with the sea load sediment materials using a batch technique. The work has been undertaken in the area of a planned nuclear power plant on the north-west shore of the Mediterranean Sea. 4 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs

  13. Invertebrate community responses to pollutants in mediterranean basins : insights from ecotoxicological approaches = Respostes de la comunitat d'invertebrats als contaminants en conques mediterrànies: aproximacions ecotoxicològiques

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Català, Núria de

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic systems are under pressure from multiple stressors that affect the structure, the functioning, and the health of species, communities and ecosystems. One of the main human pressures affecting the Earth’s ecosystems is chemical pollution. Large-scale chemical production has led to the release of these compounds from agricultural, industrial, and municipal waste, into riverine, transitional, and marine waters. These pollutants can cause harmful effects on aquatic species and communitie...

  14. Chromatium species: an emerging bioindicator of crude oil pollution of tidal mud flats in the Niger Delta mangrove ecosystem, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, J P; Antai, S P

    2009-06-01

    Establishing microbiological indices for the monitoring of environmental decay by crude oil pollution in the Niger Delta region has been a major concern of our current researches. Chromatium species, a purple, Gram positive pleomorphic, motile, microaerophlic sulfur bacterium offers a good potential for use in the assessment of the short term effects of oil pollution of tidal mud flats in the Niger Delta mangrove ecosystem. Its response to the November 22, 2003 spillage at the Qua Iboe Estuary and the adjoining Cross River Estuary was investigated. Our results have revealed that the sulphur bacterium is easily identified and widely distributed in the epipellic sediment of the mangrove ecosystem but very sensitive to hydrocarbon pollution. The bacterium was readily detected in the tidal mud flats containing as much as 2.0 mg kg(-1) but not detected in sediment with THC level of 3.65 mg kg(-1) and above. It is thus, suggestive that the threshold and lethal limits of effect of hydrocarbons against the sulfur bacterium lies between 2.04 and 3.65 mg kg(-1). These imply that in any case of crude oil pollution that Chromatium is not detected during monitoring the THC levels of the sediment may have been raised to a level close to or above 3.65 mg kg(-1). Statistical analysis of the relationship between THC level and density of Chromatium in sediment revealed a significant (p 0.05) relationship (r = -0.41) recorded for the Cross River mangrove ecosystem which served as the control. The result indicates that oil pollution affect the homeostatic status of Chromatium in tidal mud flats despite its even distribution (R2 = 71.4%). The finding though not definitive may contribute to the hierarchical process of oil pollution assessment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. However, its effective utilization will require not only the development of a selective medium for enumeration and isolation of the bacterium but also the establishment of a defined dose-response relationship

  15. Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Final report, June 1975-October 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J. Jr.; Cherry, D.S.

    1980-09-30

    The ten Research Areas reported included: (1) the development of functional indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on Aufwuchs communities, (2) relationship of protozoan colonization rates to the eutrophication process, (3) testing of methods to determine the functioning of zooplankton communities subjected to entrainment stress, (4) the use of the first steps of detritus processing (microbial decomposition) as a technique for assessing pollutional stress on aquatic communities in a river system, (5) relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rate to the eutrophication process, (6) extension of present early colonization studies to the simultaneous evaluation of natural environmental parameters and power plant effluents and application of the early colonization approach to microbial communities in streams of the New River drainage, (7) testing of single species-community responses of protozoans from selected heavy metals, (8) the effects of selected power plant pollutants on grazer utilization of Aufwuchs, (9) investigation of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation mechanisms of the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) populations in field artificial streams and laboratory microcosms with reference to physical chemistry and diet alterations, and (10) investigation of the homeostatic regulation in bluegill sunfish following acute hypothermal shock and to other power plant related effluents.

  16. Radionuclide Transport and Uptake in Coastal Aquatic Ecosystems: A Comparison of a 3D Dynamic Model and a Compartment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe [Ecological and Environmental Dept., DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark)], E-mail: aer@dhigroup.com; Konovalenko, Lena; Bradshaw, Clare [The Dept. of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden); Aquilonius, Karin [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    In safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories, understanding radionuclide fate in ecosystems is necessary to determine the impacts of potential releases. Here, the reliability of two mechanistic models (the compartmental K-model and the 3D dynamic D-model) in describing the fate of radionuclides released into a Baltic Sea bay is tested. Both are based on ecosystem models that simulate the cycling of organic matter (carbon). Radionuclide transfer is linked to adsorption and flows of carbon in food chains. Accumulation of Th-230, Cs-135, and Ni-59 in biological compartments was comparable between the models and site measurements despite differences in temporal resolution, biological state variables, and partition coefficients. Both models provided confidence limits for their modeled concentration ratios, an improvement over models that only estimate means. The D-model enables estimates at high spatio-temporal resolution. The K-model, being coarser but faster, allows estimates centuries ahead. Future developments could integrate the two models to take advantage of their respective strengths.

  17. Radionuclide transport and uptake in coastal aquatic ecosystems - a comparison of a 3D dynamic model and a compartment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences Stockholm University (Sweden); Erichsen, A.C.; Moehlenberg, F. [Ecological and Environmental Department DHI (Sweden); Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    In safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories, understanding the fate of radionuclides in ecosystems is necessary. Here, two mechanistic models (K- and D- model) describing the fate of radionuclides released into a Baltic Sea bay were compared. Both are based on ecosystem models that simulate the cycling of organic matter. Parallel to adsorption, transfer of radionuclides is linked to flows of organic matter (carbon) in food chains. Despite differences in temporal resolution, biological state variables and partition coefficients, the accumulation of Th-230, Cs-135 and Ni-59 in biological compartments was comparable between the models and with site measurements. Both models provided confidence limits for their modeled concentration ratios, an improvement over models that only estimate mean values. The D-model enables estimates at high spatio-temporal resolution. The K-model being coarser but faster, allows estimates centuries ahead. Future developments could integrate the two models to take full advantage of their respective strengths. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.

  19. UTILIZATION OF Limnocharis flava, AN INVASIVE AQUATIC WEED FROM KUTTANAD WETLAND ECOSYSTEM, KERALA, INDIA AS A POTENTIAL FEEDSTOCK FOR LIVESTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SMITHA CHANDRAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, nutritive value and trace element profiles of Limnocharis flava, an emergent aquatic weed during its different growth stages was determined to evaluate as possible cattle feed. Samples were analyzed at three progressive morphological stages of the plant, pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering. The moisture content, dry matter (DM, ash content, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE and mineral constituents like sodium (Na+ potassium (K+, calcium (Ca2+, phosphorous (P and trace elements like iron (Fe2+, copper (Cu2+, manganese (Mn2+, zinc (Zn2+, lead (Pb2+, chromium (Cr2+ nickel (Ni+ and cadmium (Cd+ contents were analyzed. The moisture content, organic matter (OM, acid detergent fiber content increased during maturation, while CP and EE were found decreased with increased growth stage. Only slight fluctuations occurred in Calcium, Potassium, Phosphorous and Sodium contents. The highest values for crude protein, fiber content, NFE and EE were observed at the flowering stage. These plant posses several characteristics which makes it a nutritious feed suitable for domestic livestock, and is recommended to use L.flava, particularly at the flowering stage of growth.

  20. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  1. Service Function Analysis and Value Evaluation of Aquatic Ecosystem in Yinchuan%银川市水生态系统服务功能价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美玲; 马鹏燕

    2011-01-01

    地处西北干旱半干旱区的银川市,有限的水资源能否支撑经济社会可持续发展,已成为亟需解决的问题.为了对银川市水生态系统的服务价值进行有效评估,笔者以相关统计文献为基础,从水资源的生态、生产和生活功能出发,采用影子价格法、替代成本法、旅行费用法、恢复费用法等方法,对银川市水生态系统服务价值进行了评价.结果表明:(1)自2003年到2008年,由于城市工业用水、生活用水量的逐年增大,城市淡水供应价值逐年上升.今后,随着银川市工业化、城市化的发展,其人口规模和经济规模都必将急剧扩大,城市用水中的工业用水和生活用水将继续加速上升.(2)城市淡水供应价值和休闲娱乐价值占GDP的比重均呈逐年下降的趋势.表明银川市水生态系统的服务价值严重滞后于经济的发展,在城市GDP增长中的贡献越来越小.%The city of Yinchuan that located in the northwest of arid and semiarid zones, whether limited water resources can support sustainable economic and social development has become urgent problem. In order to have an effective assessment about the value of aquatic ecosystem, based on the relevant statistical literature, and using shadow price method, replacement cost method, travel cost method and recovery fees and other methods, the author evaluated the value of aquatic ecosystem service of Yinchuan. The results showed that: (1) from 2003 to 2008, as urban industrial water, living water consumption increased every year, the value of urban water supply increased year by year. In the future, with the development of industrialization and urbanization, the population scale and economic scale would expand rapidly, the amount of industrial water and domestic water would continue to be accelerated. (2) The proportion of urban water supply and recreational value of the GDP appeared a declining trend. This showed that the value of aquatic ecosystem

  2. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  3. Global Trends in Exposure to Light Pollution in Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Bennie; Duffy, James P.; Davies, Thomas W; Maria Eugenia Correa-Cano; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in electric light usage across the globe has led to increasing presence of artificial light in natural and semi-natural ecosystems at night. This occurs both due to direct illumination and skyglow - scattered light in the atmosphere. There is increasing concern about the effects of artificial light on biological processes, biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. We combine intercalibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS...

  4. Biochemical responses of filamentous algae in different aquatic ecosystems in South East Turkey and associated water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Soysal, Çiğdem; Gültekin, Emine; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, any study about biochemical response of filamentous algae in the complex freshwater ecosystems has not been found in the literature. This study was designed to explore biochemical response of filamentous algae in different water bodies from May 2013 to October 2014, using multivariate approach in the South East of Turkey. Environmental variables were measured in situ: water temperature, oxygen concentration, saturation, conductivity, salinity, pH, redox potential, and total dissolved solid. Chemical variables of aqueous samples and biochemical compounds of filamentous algae were also measured. It was found that geographic position and anthropogenic activities had strong effect on physico-chemical variables of water bodies. Variation in environmental conditions caused change in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species, also indicated by FTIR analysis. Biochemical responses not only changed from species to species, but also varied for the same species at different sampling time and sampling stations. Multivariate analyses showed that heavy metals, nutrients, and water hardness were found as the important variables governing the temporal and spatial succession and biochemical compounds. Nutrients, especially nitrate, could stimulate pigment and total protein production, whereas high metal content had adverse effects. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, total thiol groups, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and metal bioaccumulation by filamentous algae could be closely related with heavy metals in the ecosystems. Significant increase in MDA, H2O2, total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, and proline productions by filamentous algae and chlorosis phenomenon seemed to be an important strategy for alleviating environmental factors-induced oxidative stress as biomarkers. PMID:27508982

  5. Threats and stressors to the health of the ecosystems of Lakes Mead and Mohave: Chapter 6 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Wong, Wai Hing; Patiño, Reynaldo; Turner, Kent; Palmer, Craig J.; Roefer, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem impacts from visitor activities or natural environmental change are important concerns in all units of the National Park system. Possible impacts to aquatic ecosystems at Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) are of particular concern because of the designation of Lakes Mead and Mohave as critical habitat for the federally listed endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), the significance of the sport fishery, and the regional importance of its habitats to more than 90 documented species of waterbirds. Potential threats to shoreline habitats are of concern not only for their ecosystem values but also for maintaining the recreational setting. Many areas adjacent to the shorelines of Lakes Mead and Mohave are designated wilderness areas. For purposes of this document, stressors are any chemical, biological, or physical agent that has a detrimental effect on aquatic ecosystems at the organism, population, or community level. Human-made stressors at Lakes Mead and Mohave include direct effects of recreation on the lakes, like boating and fishing, as well as indirect effects of activities away from the lakes, such as growing population and increasing urbanization. Common natural environmental stressors include extended changes in climate (precipitation or temperature), or the erosion, transport, and loading of chemical constituents in rocks and sediments to aquatic environments. Human activity also can exacerbate natural stressors in a variety of ways.

  6. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa C Van Dijk; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and...

  7. Distribution of mercury in several environmental compartments in an aquatic ecosystem impacted by gold mining in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, Jose; Benitez, Luis Norberto; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús

    2008-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) used in gold amalgamation is a major source of contamination in developing countries. Water, sediments, plankton, fish, and human samples from Grande Marsh, a Hg-polluted marsh located in the south of Bolívar, municipality of Montecristo, Colombia, were collected during both the rainy and the dry seasons (2003-2006), at three different sampling sites, and analyzed for total Hg (T-Hg) content. Water, sediment, seston, phytoplankton, and zooplankton T-Hg concentrations were 0.33 +/- 0.03 microg/L, 0.71 +/- 0.03, 1.20 +/- 0.06, 0.52 +/- 0.03, and 0.94 +/- 0.05 microg/g dry weight (wt), respectively. T-Hg levels in these compartments were highly pair-correlated (p Prochilodus magdalenae (0.157 +/- 0.01 microg/g fresh wt). In those fish species where seasonal comparisons were possible, specimens captured during the dry season had greater T-Hg levels in muscle. Although the T-Hg mean level for all fish samples (0.407 +/- 0.360 microg/g fresh wt) did not exceed the recommended limit ingestion level, risk assessment based on the hazard index suggested that a fish intake of 0.12 kg per day (a small carnivorous specimen) could increase the potential health effects related to Hg exposure in the local human population, whose hair T-Hg median value was 4.7 microg/g, and presented a low but significant correlation with fish consumption (r = 0.250, p = 0.016). In short, Hg pollution from gold mining around Grande Marsh has permeated the food web, and currently levels in fish represent a serious concern for human health. PMID:18250950

  8. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN ABIOTIC COMPONENT OF ECOSYSTEM OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Bilyk, Tetiana; Padalka, Anastasiia; Shilo, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of abiotic component in theVyrlytsa Lake. Was determined the amount of movable form of heavy metals in the water and bottomsediments by the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anthropogenic pollution of the lake is connectedwith discharges of waste waters from enterprises that situated in the industrial zone.Keywords: abiotic component, heavy metals, migration, mobile form.

  9. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution

  10. Climate and hydrological changes in the northeastern United States: recent trends and implications for forested and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Richardson, Andrew D.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    We review twentieth century and projected twenty-first century changes in climatic and hydrologic conditions in the northeastern United States and the implications of these changes for forest ecosystems. Climate warming and increases in precipitation and associated changes in snow and hydrologic regimes have been observed over the last century, with the most pronounced changes occurring since 1970. Trends in specific climatic and hydrologic variables differ in their responses spatially (e.g., coastal vs. inland) and temporally (e.g., spring vs. summer). Trends can differ depending on the period of record analyzed, hinting at the role of decadal-scale climatic variation that is superimposed over the longer-term trend. Model predictions indicate that continued increases in temperature and precipitation across the northeastern United States can be expected over the next century. Ongoing increases in growing season length (earlier spring and later autumn) will most likely increase evapotranspiration and frequency of drought. In turn, an increase in the frequency of drought will likely increase the risk of fire and negatively impact forest productivity, maple syrup production, and the intensity of autumn foliage coloration. Climate and hydrologic changes could have profound effects on forest structure, composition, and ecological functioning in response to the changes discussed here and as described in related articles in this issue of the Journal.

  11. AIR POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM “RACOVĂŢII DE SUD”

    OpenAIRE

    FASOLA REGINA

    2014-01-01

    In this paper was established anthropogenic impact of acid oxides (NOx and SO2) and the accumulation of heavy metals in the environmental components of the ecosystem „Racovăţii de Sud”. The current state of the ecosystem was estimated based on data information using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and dynamic information on emissions for the period 1990 to 2010, for the Republic of Moldova. According to the scale gradations of heavy metals in the soils of the Republic of M...

  12. Integrated research approach to the evaluation of the danger of airborne pollutants to forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F.; Smidt, S. [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The protection of the Alpine area, which, between Vienna and Nice, provides a home to thirteen million people, should be given highest priority not only because of the (commercial and other) benefits that the area offers and that are sometimes over-exploited for tourism, but also because the Alpine area is one of the largest coherent ecoregions of Europe and a Noah`s ark for endangered species and ecosystems. The present report focuses on two aspects of the dangers to forest ecosystems: on the threats caused by the input of ozone and nitrogen. (author)

  13. Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 microm), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p < 0.01). Likewise, significant positive correlation was recorded with metals concentration in plants and lake ambient, which further indicated the potential of aforesaid set of wetland macrophytes for pollution monitoring. PMID:18998227

  14. Recording of ecological half-lives of 90Sr and 137Cs in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this project, the long-term behaviour of 90Sr and 137Cs in foods, feeds and a variety of environmental was analysed. The long-term behaviour is quantified by means of the ecological half-life which integrates all processes that cause a decrease of activity in a given medium as leaching, fixation and erosion. The following results were achieved: - For plant and animal food products, the ecological half-lives are in the range of 4 to 6 and 10 to 20 years for cesium and strontium respectively. The ecological half-lives for the period 1965 to 1985 are slightly shorter than those derived from monitoring measurements performed after 1987, due to the ongoing deposition in the post weapons' fallout period. - According to the German radioecological model that is applied during licensing of nuclear installations to assess radiation exposures to the general due to planned releases, the ecological half-lives for plant food products are 26 and 13 a for cesium and strontium respectively. In radioecological model that is used within the decision support system RODOS, the ecological half-lives are 8 years for Cesium and 14 years for strontium, which agrees well with the finding of this study. - For roe deer, deer, wild boar and forest plants (including mushrooms), under Middle European conditions, the ecological half-lives are about 12 years for cesium. However, in Ukraine, the cesium levels in forest products are much more persistent; in some cases the decrease of activity is only caused by the radioactive decay. - The variability of the long-term behaviour of 137Cs and 90Sr in freshwater ecosystems is much more pronounced than for terrestrial systems. It depends strongly on the sitespecific characteristics. The observed ecological half-lives for 137Cs and 90Sr cover a wide range from several days to several years. - The data to derive ecological half-lives of cesium in soil is relatively poor. For the upper soil layer of 0-10 cm, ecological half-lives were derived ranging

  15. Modelling of tidal hydrodynamics for a tropical ecosystem with implications for pollutant dispersion (Cohin Estuary, Southwest India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Kizhakkepat Kalathil; Reddy, Guddemmari Sidha; Revichandran, Chenicherry; Srinivas, Kotamarpi; Vijayan, Panachikkal Ramakrishnan; Thottam, Tony Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Tidal circulation in the Cochin Estuary, a moderately polluted estuary along the southwest coast of India, was studied using a 2D hydrodynamic model. The predicted tides and currents showed very good agreement with measured tides. Particle trajectories and residual currents computed from the model have been used to classify the study region into three zones: northern estuary, central estuary, and southern estuary. The central estuary is dynamic, whereas the other two zones are relatively weak. An amplification of measured tides in the south estuary during March indicates the presence of standing waves caused by the hydraulic barrier at Thanneermukkom. Model results suggest that the northern and southern zones are sensitive to environmental pollution. The present level of pollution in the northern estuary is due to the direct release of industrial effluents into the river Periyar, which can be minimized if they are brought down to central estuary for disposal. The concept of different zones in the estuary will be useful to planners in protecting the vulnerable regions of this productive ecosystem from human interventions.

  16. Three dimensional thermal pollution models. Volume 2: Rigid-lid models. [waste heat discharge from power plants and effects on ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.

    1978-01-01

    Three versions of rigid lid programs are presented: one for near field simulation; the second for far field unstratified situations; and the third for stratified basins, far field simulation. The near field simulates thermal plume areas, and the far field version simulates larger receiving aquatic ecosystems. Since these versions have many common subroutines, a unified testing is provided, with main programs for the three possible conditions listed.

  17. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  18. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  19. Using High-Resolution Models to Predict the Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in the Crown of the Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Muhlfeld, C.; Marshall, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate trends and projections have prompted interest in assessing the thermal sensitivity of aquatic species. How species will adapt and respond to these changes is uncertain, however, climatic and hydrologic changes may shift species habitat distributions and physiological functions both spatially and temporally. This is particularly true for salmonids (e.g., trout, char, and salmon), which are cold-water species strongly influenced by changes in temperature, flow, and physical habitat conditions. Therefore, understanding how habitats are likely to change and how species may respond to changes in climatic conditions is critical for developing conservation and management strategies. The purpose of this study is to develop a high-resolution stream temperature model for the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE) to simulate potential climate change impacts on thermal regimes throughout the riverscape. A spatially explicit statistical regression model is coupled with high-resolution climate data such as air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, baseflow and surface runoff. This empirically based model is used to predict daily stream temperatures under historic, current and forecasted climate conditions. The model is parameterized with empirical stream temperature data, which has been gathered from agencies across the region. The current database of empirical stream temperature data consists of over 800 sites throughout the CCE, which provide time series data to the model application. The biological integration and application of this model is on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations within the CCE. The model will be used to assess species vulnerabilities caused by spatial and temporal changes in stream temperature and hydrology. By evaluating the magnitude, timing and duration of climatic changes on the riverscape, we can more accurately assess potential vulnerabilities of critical life history traits, such as growth potential, spawning migrations

  20. Tackling pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from land-based sources by an integrated ecosystem approach and the use of the combined international and European legal regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Antoinette Hildering; Andrea M. Keessen; Helena F.M.W. van Rijswick

    2009-01-01

    The successful protection of marine and freshwater areas and ecosystems, including specially protected areas, is highly dependent on the effectiveness of an integrated approach to prevent and combat land-based pollution. Several legal regimes have been developed to regulate and solve this kind of pollution on the international level as well as on the European level. Therefore, this integrated approach requires coherence between European and international legal regimes and between the regulati...

  1. Caffeine as an environmental indicator for assessing urban aquatic ecosystems Cafeína como indicador ambiental prospectivo para avaliar ecossistemas aquáticos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of caffeine and the extent of its influence as compared to other traditional water quality parameters (microbiological and physico-chemical in order to characterize it as an efficient indicator of anthropic pollution of urban aquatic environments. Caffeine is an ingredient in a variety of beverages (coffee, tea, and caffeinated soft drinks and numerous food products (chocolate, pastries, and dairy desserts. Although the human body metabolizes this stimulant efficiently, between 0.5 and 10.0% is excreted, mostly in the urine. Analysis of water samples from the Leopoldina Basin and Guanabara Bay revealed a significant difference between areas not commonly affected by nutrient enrichment or sewage inputs and areas chronically influenced by sewage discharges and elevated eutrophication. Monitoring caffeine will be fundamental in stressed urban aquatic environments where frequent accidental ruptures of sewer lines and discharges of untreated effluents impede effective water quality evaluation with traditional indicators.Este estudo visou avaliar a co-ocorrência de cafeína e a extensão de sua influência frente a outros parâmetros tradicionais de qualidade de água (microbiológicos e físico-químicos, de modo a caracterizá-la como um eficiente indicador de poluição de origem antrópica em ambientes aquáticos urbanos. Cafeína é um componente de uma variedade de bebidas (café, chá e bebidas cafeinadas e de numerosos produtos alimentícios (chocolate, massas e sobremesas. Embora o corpo humano seja eficiente na metabolização deste estimulante, entre 0,5-10,0% são excretados, principalmente na urina. A análise de amostras da Bacia Hidrográfica da Leopoldina e Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, revelou uma significante diferença entre áreas não comumente afetadas por enriquecimento de nutrientes ou esgoto, contra áreas cronicamente influenciadas por descargas de esgoto e

  2. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dürr; R. Jaffe

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  3. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem.

  4. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem. PMID:25817311

  5. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties and dynamics in different polluted Norway spruce forest ecosystems in the Fichtelgebirge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present investigation is to assess the dissolved organic matter (DOM) control in terms of studying DOC budgets and chemical composition in three differently polluted Norway spruce ecosystems in the Fichtelgebirge. The nearly healthy Wuelfersreuth site is characterized by moderate deposition of atmospheric inputs and also by moderate soil acidification. The Oberwarmensteinach site receives higher inputs of H, S and N, thus the stand is more damaged and soil acidification is more developed than at the Wuelfersreuth site. The Hohe Matzen site is differentiated from the Oberwarmensteinach site by very high N immissions (32 kg N ha-1 yr-1), which result in a severe damage of the stand and in a pronounced soil acidification down to greater depths. (orig.)

  6. Variability of rRNA operon copy number and growth rate dynamics of Bacillus isolated from an extremely oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Valdivia-Anistro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ribosomal RNA (rrn operon is a key suite of genes related to the production of protein synthesis machinery and thus to bacterial growth physiology. Experimental evidence has suggested an intrinsic relationship between the number of copies of this operon and environmental resource availability, especially the availability of phosphorus (P, because bacteria that live in oligotrophic ecosystems usually have few rrn operons and a slow growth rate. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB is a complex aquatic ecosystem that contains an unusually high microbial diversity that is able to persist under highly oligotrophic conditions. These environmental conditions impose a variety of strong selective pressures that shape the genome dynamics of their inhabitants. The genus Bacillus is one of the most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in the CCB and usually possesses a relatively large number of rrn operon copies (6-15 copies. The main goal of this study was to analyze the variation in the number of rrn operon copies of Bacillus in the CCB and to assess their growth-related properties as well as their stoichiometric balance (N and P content. We defined 18 phylogenetic groups within the Bacilli clade and documented a range of from six to 14 copies of the rrn operon. The growth dynamic of these Bacilli was heterogeneous and did not show a direct relation to the number of operon copies. Physiologically, our results were not consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis, since the copies of the rrn operon were decoupled from growth rate. However, we speculate that the diversity of the growth properties of these Bacilli as well as the low P content of their cells in an ample range of rrn copy number is an adaptive response to oligotrophy of the CCB and could represent an ecological mechanism that allows these taxa to coexist. These findings increase the knowledge of the variability in the number of copies of the rrn operon in the genus Bacillus and give insights

  7. Determination of technogenic radionuclides prevalence and the most polluted zones in the ecosystem of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regular measurements of 1989 - 1993 indicate show that radioecological situation in lake Drukshiai is not stable. Ignalina NPP generated radionuclides together with the debalance water are thrown into the warm water throw-out zone where industrial - rain and domestic wastewater gets too. Getting off radionuclides into the lake partly depends on the wash-out of the radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere. In the cooler of Ignalina NPP - lake Drukshiai, secondary long-living source of radionuclide pollution, i.e. bottom sediments, forms. The system, accumulating radionuclides and other pollutants of anthropogenic origin, is conservative, as well as cleans hardly and Chernobyl radionuclides are already accumulated in lake's deep-parts. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs

  8. Chemical fluxes in time through forest ecosystems in the UK - Soil response to pollution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term trend analysis of bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution elemental fluxes from 12 years monitoring at 10 ICP Level II forest sites in the UK reveal coherent national chemical trends indicating recovery from sulphur deposition and acidification. Soil solution pH increased and sulphate and aluminium decreased at most sites. Trends in nitrogen were variable and dependant on its form. Dissolved organic nitrogen increased in bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution at most sites. Nitrate in soil solution declined at sites receiving high nitrogen deposition. Increase in soil dissolved organic carbon was detected - a response to pollution recovery, changes in soil temperature and/or increased microbial activity. An increase of sodium and chloride was evident - a possible result of more frequent storm events at exposed sites. The intensive and integrated nature of monitoring enables the relationships between climate/pollutant exposure and chemical/biological response in forestry to be explored. - Forest soils are recovering from acid and sulphur pollution in the UK, but soil responses to nitrogen deposition and climatic changes are still uncertain.

  9. Ecosystem Effects from Nutrient and Pesticide Pollutants: Catchment Care as a Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Bowmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural chemicals include fertilisers (nitrogen and phosphorus and biocides (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. Environmental impacts in surface waters include algal blooms and disruption to ecological function. Strategies for protection of rivers from eutrophication include improved agricultural land management, conservation farming methods, recycling or retention of drainage and runoff water, and use of buffer strips and riparian vegetation for filtration. Reduction in pesticide use has been achieved by improved application technologies, precision farming, adoption of organic farming, and use of biological control methods. Australian river health audits show widespread deterioration, and protection using the “Polluter Pays Principle” is attractive. However, who should pay for environmental assessment, for adoption of new technologies or change in land use, and how will this be determined? Unfortunately, as demonstrated in two case studies on algal blooms and cotton pesticides, the links between pollutant source and environmental impact remain poorly understood, and the complexity of assessing environmental benefit of agricultural changes makes sheeting home the costs of pollution sources difficult. Alternatives to imposition of penalties include catchment-based targets and guidelines, benchmarking, and adoption of best management practice with an emphasis on incentives and encouragement. Many strategies for risk reduction in agricultural cropping systems are available for inclusion in a “Catchment Care” approach.

  10. Effects of chitosan on growth of an aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) in polluted waters with different chemical oxygen demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-jin; NIAN Yue-gang; JIN Xiang-can; YAN Chang-zhou; LIU Jin; Jiang Gao-ming

    2007-01-01

    Effects of chitosan on a submersed plant, Hydrilla verticillata, were investigated. Results indicated that H. verticillata could prevent ultrastructure phytotoxicities and oxidativereaction from polluted water with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in H. verticillata treated with 0.1% chitosan in wastewater increased with high COD (980 mg/L) and decreased with low COD (63 mg/L), respectively. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the stroma and grana of chloroplast basically remained normal. However, plant cells from the control experiment (untreated with chitosan) were vacuolated and the cell interval increased. The relict of protoplast moved to the center, with cells tending to disjoint. Our findings indicate that wastewater with high COD concentration can cause a substantial damage to submersed plant, nevertheless, chitosan probably could alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidization and ultrastructure phytotoxicities, and protect plant cells from stress of high COD concentration polluted water.

  11. Responses of aquatic organisms to metal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, Maarten de [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: maarten.dejonge@ua.ac.be; Vijver, Bart van de [Department of Bryophytes and Thallophytes, National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Domein van Bouchout, 1860 Meise (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-12-15

    The role of macroinvertebrates and diatoms as indicator for metal pollution was investigated by assessing both biota along a metal gradient in the Belgian river the Dommel. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were sampled in summer and winter and physical-chemical characteristics of the water were measured at four different sample periods and related to sediment characteristics. Although metal concentrations, except cadmium, in the water nowhere exceeded water quality standards, high metal concentrations were measured in the sediment, indicating historical contamination of the Dommel. At the sites that were situated downstream of the pollution source, high levels of conductivity and chloride were measured in the water. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated pH, phosphate and zinc as the significant environmental variables explaining each respectively 7.7%, 11.6% and 22.6% of the macroinvertebrate community composition. Two clusters could be separated, with Gammarus pulex, Leptocerus interruptus, Baetis rhodani and Cloeon dipterum associated with low zinc concentrations and Tubificidae, Asellus aquaticus, Erpobdella sp. and Chironomus thummi-plumosus associated with higher zinc concentrations. Ammonium (10.6%), conductivity (16.5%), chloride (11.4%) and zinc (5.9%) turned out to be significant variables explaining the diatom community structure. Based on physical-chemical differences and species composition, three different groups could be separated. With this Tabellaria flocculosa and Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens were associated with low metal concentrations, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia palea with elevated concentrations and Eolimna minima and Sellaphora seminulum with high zinc concentrations. In conclusion, the diatom community best reflected the metal gradient. With regard to water quality indices, those based on macroinvertebrates best followed the metal pollution gradient and were most strongly correlated with physical-chemical variables of water and

  12. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah; Suzan A. Sayed

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2), agricultural runoff (Site 4) and oils and detergents factory (Site 3) on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), ascorbic acid (Asc A), lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl) content, soluble sugars (SS), soluble proteins (SP) and total free amino acids (TAA) of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinoc...

  13. Responses of aquatic organisms to metal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of macroinvertebrates and diatoms as indicator for metal pollution was investigated by assessing both biota along a metal gradient in the Belgian river the Dommel. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were sampled in summer and winter and physical-chemical characteristics of the water were measured at four different sample periods and related to sediment characteristics. Although metal concentrations, except cadmium, in the water nowhere exceeded water quality standards, high metal concentrations were measured in the sediment, indicating historical contamination of the Dommel. At the sites that were situated downstream of the pollution source, high levels of conductivity and chloride were measured in the water. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated pH, phosphate and zinc as the significant environmental variables explaining each respectively 7.7%, 11.6% and 22.6% of the macroinvertebrate community composition. Two clusters could be separated, with Gammarus pulex, Leptocerus interruptus, Baetis rhodani and Cloeon dipterum associated with low zinc concentrations and Tubificidae, Asellus aquaticus, Erpobdella sp. and Chironomus thummi-plumosus associated with higher zinc concentrations. Ammonium (10.6%), conductivity (16.5%), chloride (11.4%) and zinc (5.9%) turned out to be significant variables explaining the diatom community structure. Based on physical-chemical differences and species composition, three different groups could be separated. With this Tabellaria flocculosa and Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens were associated with low metal concentrations, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia palea with elevated concentrations and Eolimna minima and Sellaphora seminulum with high zinc concentrations. In conclusion, the diatom community best reflected the metal gradient. With regard to water quality indices, those based on macroinvertebrates best followed the metal pollution gradient and were most strongly correlated with physical-chemical variables of water and

  14. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo dos Santos; Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves; Gücker, Björn

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics.

  15. [Measuring water ecological carrying capacity with the ecosystem-service-based ecological footprint (ESEF) method: Theory, models and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-jun; Min, Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; Fuller, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Integrated watershed management based on aquatic ecosystems has been increasingly acknowledged. Such a change in the philosophy of water environment management requires recognizing the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems for human society from a more general perspective. The concept of the water ecological carrying capacity is therefore put forward, which considers both water resources and water environment, connects socio-economic development to aquatic ecosystems and provides strong support for integrated watershed management. In this paper, the authors proposed an ESEF-based measure of water ecological carrying capacity and constructed ESEF-based models of water ecological footprint and capacity, aiming to evaluate water ecological carrying capacity with footprint methods. A regional model of Taihu Lake Basin was constructed and applied to evaluate the water ecological carrying capacity in Changzhou City which located in the upper reaches of the basin. Results showed that human demand for water ecosystem services in this city had exceeded the supply capacity of local aquatic ecosystems and the significant gap between demand and supply had jeopardized the sustainability of local aquatic ecosystems. Considering aqua-product provision, water supply and pollutant absorption in an integrated way, the scale of population and economy aquatic ecosystems in Changzhou could bear only 54% of the current status.

  16. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) model: applicability for investigating the immunosuppressive effects of the aquatic pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, E A; Li, Y; Zelikoff, J T

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that BaP is a carcinogen, mammalian immunosuppressant, and ubiquitous aquatic pollutant, knowledge regarding the effects of BaP on the immune system of fish is still lacking. To begin to fill this gap, studies were conducted in medaka to examine the effects and mechanisms by which BaP exposure might alter host immunocompetence. Fish, exposed by IP injection of BaP (2-600 microg/g BW), were examined after 48 h for effects upon immune function and CYP1A expression/activity. Benzo[a]pyrene, at a concentration below that which increased levels of CYPIA expression/activity (2 microg BaP/g BW) suppressed lymphocyte proliferation. Concentrations of BaP at 20 and 200 microg/g BW. suppressed antibody-forming cell (AFC) numbers, superoxide production, and host resistance against bacteria. In contrast, exposure to the low affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), neither induced CYP1A expression nor altered immune function. Given the lack of immunosuppressive effects produced by BeP, and the fact that exposure to the AhR antagonist (and CYP1A inhibitor) alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) ameliorated the suppressive effects of BaP upon AFC numbers, the AhR pathway (including CYP1A-mediated production of reactive BaP metabolites) appears important in mediating BaP-induced immunotoxicity in fish, as in mammals. In the past, the medaka has proven a successful model for assessing carcinogenic agents. These studies have demonstrated its utility for also determining the immunosuppressive effects of an important aquatic contaminant.

  17. 6th Annual Report 1997. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (IC P IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. This report presents results from assessment activities carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and collaborating institutes during the programme year 1996/97 including (1) a summary of the present monitoring activities and the content of the ICP IM database as well as a description of the development of a GIS database, (2) comparison and assessment of the use of steady-state techniques vs. dynamic modelling for the calculation of critical loads, (3) results from a trend analysis of ICP IM data on bulk and throughfall deposition ant runoff water chemistry, (4) demonstration of the use of ICP IM data for advanced hydrological modelling (SVAT model). (orig.) 10 refs.

  18. Anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), particularly PAHs and LABs, in Malaysian sediments: Application of aquatic environment for identifying anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Najat; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Halimoon, Normala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Magam, Sami M; Kannan, Narayanan; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Ali, Masni Mohd; Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed

    2016-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were used as anthropogenic markers of organic chemical pollution of sediments in the Selangor River, Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted on sediment samples from the beginning of the estuary to the upstream river during dry and rainy seasons. The concentrations of ƩPAHs and ƩLABs ranged from 203 to 964 and from 23 to 113 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. In particular, the Selangor River was found to have higher sedimentary levels of PAHs and LABs during the wet season than in the dry season, which was primarily associated with the intensity of domestic wastewater discharge and high amounts of urban runoff washing the pollutants from the surrounding area. The concentrations of the toxic contaminants were determined according to the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The PAH levels in the Selangor River did not exceed the SQGs, for example, the effects range low (ERL) value, indicating that they cannot exert adverse biological effects.

  19. Aquatic sediments pollution estimate using the metal fractionation, secondary phase enrichment factor calculation, and used statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Popović, Aleksandar; Anđelković, Ivan; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    The sequential extraction procedure of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was applied for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, and V in the Serbian river sediments. The aim of this paper was to describe a new approach in detection of anthropogenic elements in sediments, related to the Serbian river courses in order to assess their metal contamination. For sediment pollution evaluation, the risk assessment code (RAC) and the secondary phase enrichment factor (KSPEF) were used. Metal fractionation showed more easily mobilized forms predominant for copper, zinc, cadmium, manganese, and lead, which can be one of the indicators for anthropogenic source input. Chromium, nickel, iron, and vanadium found in the residual fraction indicate these metals may be an indicator for natural sources input. Based on RAC classification, results of sediments show no risk (Cr and V), low risk (Ni, Pb, and Fe), medium risk (Cu), high risk (Cd and Zn), and very high risk (Mn). The mean values of KSPEF were Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb > Fe > Cr > V, decreasing scale of no to moderately severe enrichment. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly Cd, Cu, and Zn. Research has shown the importance of KSPEF in quantifying degree of metal enrichment in sediments using results of sequential extraction. With the application of this factor, which is not frequently used in the scientific literature, the results obtained with sequential extraction can be used not only for assessment of mobility but also to quantify the metal pollution. PMID:26385383

  20. Review of the Foreign and Domestic Research Progress in the Mercury in the Aquatic Ecosystem%关于水生生态系统中汞的国内外研究进展评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武岳; 林清

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了国内外对于水生生态系统中汞的生物地球化学循环研究的各项进展,从汞对水生动植物的毒性、汞的迁移转化、甲基汞的形成以及甲基汞对食物链及人体健康的影响等几方面进行评述。%This paper introduces the foreign and domestic research progress in the biogeochemical cycle of the mercury in the aquatic ecosystem, and makes a comprehensive review of mercury′s toxicity to aquatic macrophyte, mercury′s migration and transformation, the formation of methyl, and methyl′s impacts on the food chain and human health.

  1. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  2. Linking Water Quality and Quantity in Environmental Flow Assessment in Deteriorated Ecosystems: A Food Web View

    OpenAIRE

    He Chen; Lekuan Ma; Wei Guo; Ying Yang; Tong Guo; Cheng Feng

    2013-01-01

    Most rivers worldwide are highly regulated by anthropogenic activities through flow regulation and water pollution. Environmental flow regulation is used to reduce the effects of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. Formulating flow alteration-ecological response relationships is a key factor in environmental flow assessment. Traditional environmental flow models are characterized by natural relationships between flow regimes and ecosystem factors. However, food webs are often alte...

  3. 水生植物对水体重金属污染的监测和生态修复%Biomonitoring and Ecological Restoring Heavy Metal Polluted Water by Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠峰; 王良桂

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic plants have excellent ability in biomonitoring and ecological restoring heavy metal polluted water. Bryophytes are excellent biomonitors of heavy metal pollution, so they can be used to monitor and evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of the studied water. Moreover, four life forms of aquatic plants (including emergent, free-drifting, floating-leaved and submergent) all have certain accumulation capacity on heavy metals, so they are appropriate materials for ecological restoring of heavy metal polluted water. Using aquatic plants to treat heavy metal polluted water is a simple and low cost method, and won't bring secondary pollution. This phytoremediation method can not only restore heavy metal pollution, but also prettify the environment and bring direct and indirect economic benefits.%水生植物对水体重金属污染具有良好的监测和生态修复功能.苔藓植物是重金属污染良好的生物监测器,可用于水体重金属污染状况的监测和评价.同时,4种生活型的水生植物(挺水、浮叶、漂浮和沉水植物)对重金属都有一定的富集能力,对重金属污染水体有生态修复作用.利用水生植物对水体进行生态修复具有简便易行、成本较低、不易形成二次污染的优势,在修复水体重金属污染的同时还可以美化环境,并可产生直接或间接的经济效益.

  4. The Analysis and Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution of the Main Aquatic Products in Xinyang%信阳市主要水产品重金属污染现状分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴坤杰

    2016-01-01

    测定了信阳市主要水产品Pb、Hg、Cd、As和Cr的含量,并根据单因子污染指数评价法对信阳市主要水产品的品质进行质量安全评价。结果表明,8种信阳市主要水产品的所有样品中均检出Pb和Cr,但均未检出Cd和Hg。在鲤鱼、鲫鱼、克氏原螯虾、鳙鱼和白鲢中检出As,检出率分别为60%、40%、40%、60%和40%。单因子污染指数评价法表明,8种信阳市主要水产品均受到不同程度的Pb污染,鲫鱼、白鲢和鳙鱼受到了轻度的As污染。%This paper has measured the concentration of heavy metal( Hg、Cd、Pb、As、Cr) in the main aquatic products in Xinyang and used the single factor pollution index to assess the quality and safety of the main aquatic products in Xinyang. The results showed that all samples of the main aquatic products in Xinyang were detected by Pb and Cr, but no Cd and Hg. As was detected in Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Procambarus clarkia, Aristechthys nobilis and Hypophtyalmichthys molitrix, the detection rate respectively was 60%、40%、40%、60% and 40%. The Assessment by the single factor pollution index showed that all the main aquatic products in Xinyang were moderatly or badly polluted by Pb. Carassius auratus, Hypophtyalmichthys molitrix and Aristechthys nobilis were mildly polluted by As.

  5. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health. PMID:26386206

  6. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Niemiec

    2015-11-01

    was observed in Cystoseira barbata than in Ulva rigida. The value of copper bioaccumulation coefficient (BC ranged from 181 to 1201, whereas cadmium from 181 to 5256. The contents of the analysed metals, both in biotic and abiotic elements of the studied ecosystems point to anthropogenic enrichment and the results obtained for Sevastopolska, Galubaja and Kozacha bays indicate a hazardous, excessive bioaccumulation of copper and cadmium and to potential threat to the life of aquatic organisms and seafood consumers.

  8. Determining the effect of polluted mine water on the ecosystem health of a karstic cave environment in the Witwatersrand Basin / Gerhard Cornelis du Preez

    OpenAIRE

    Du Preez, Gerhard Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    The Wonderfontein Cave is located within the Witwatersrand Basin (Gauteng province, South Africa) and is associated with the river banks of the Wonderfontein Spruit. This cave system has for many years been subjected to the influx of polluted mine water. Since subterranean environments remain poorly studied, it is unknown what the effect of this might be on the associated ecosystem. Furthermore, water that enters the Wonderfontein Cave poses a severe health threat as it drains ...

  9. Retracted: Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    Retraction: 'Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems' by Michael R. Wierda, Katherine F. Leith, Teryl G. Grubb, James G. Sikarskie, David A. Best, and William Bowerman The above article from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, published online on 10 February 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, G.A. Burton, Jr., SETAC and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed since the authors determined that some of the plasma samples run at Clemson University had failed quality assurance/quality control and were retested. The concentrations have since been corrected and validated. Reference Wierda MR, Leith KF, Grubb TG, Sikarskie JG, Best DA, Bowerman W. 2015. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems. Environ ToxicolChem doi:10.1002/etc.2859.

  10. Development and field validation of a multimedia exposure assessment model for waste load allocation in aquatic ecosystems: Application to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in the Fraser River Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobas, F.A.P.; Pasternak, J.P.; Lien, K.; Duncan, R.K. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). School of Resource and Environmental Management

    1998-08-15

    Knowledge of the relationship between contaminant emissions and ambient concentrations is crucial in achieving environmental quality objectives. This paper reports the development and field validation of EcoFate, a time dependent multimedia mass balance simulation model of the environmental distribution food-chain accumulation of organic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of the model is to present a methodology for deriving maximum daily-loading estimates in accordance with environmental quality objectives for a variety of aquatic ecosystems impacted by emissions from one or several point or nonpoint sources. The application of the model to multiple, time-varying pulp and paper mill discharges of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in the Fraser-Thompson River system from 1988 to 1995 is demonstrated. The ability of the model to predict chemical concentrations in various environmental media and organisms resulting from chemical emissions is tested against field data collected over a 7 year period. The results include (1) a comparison of observed and predicted concentrations, (2) an assessment of uncertainty, and (3) a test of the model`s temporal response to changes in contaminant loadings. The application of the model for the derivation of maximum daily loadings for multiple point sources in watersheds is illustrated.

  11. Retracted: Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    Retraction: 'Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems' by Michael R. Wierda, Katherine F. Leith, Teryl G. Grubb, James G. Sikarskie, David A. Best, and William Bowerman The above article from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, published online on 10 February 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, G.A. Burton, Jr., SETAC and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed since the authors determined that some of the plasma samples run at Clemson University had failed quality assurance/quality control and were retested. The concentrations have since been corrected and validated. Reference Wierda MR, Leith KF, Grubb TG, Sikarskie JG, Best DA, Bowerman W. 2015. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems. Environ ToxicolChem doi:10.1002/etc.2859. PMID:25677528

  12. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Jelte; Notten, Martje J M; Aerts, Rien; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Hobbelen, Peter H F; Hamers, Timo H M

    2008-12-01

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded. PMID:18707753

  13. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Notten, Martje J.M.; Aerts, Rien [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Hobbelen, Peter H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo H.M. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.

  14. Evaluation of an hPXR reporter gene assay for the detection of aquatic emerging pollutants: screening of chemicals and application to water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creusot, Nicolas; Kinani, Said; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Ait-Aissa, Selim [Unite Ecotoxicologie, INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Balaguer, Patrick [IRCM-UM1-CRLC Val d' Aurelle, INSERM U896, Montpellier (France); Tapie, Nathalie; LeMenach, Karyn; Budzinski, Helene [ISM/LPTC-UMR 5255 CNRS Universite Bordeaux 1, Talence (France)

    2010-01-15

    Many environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. Among these receptors, the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is well described as a xenobiotic sensor to various classes of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and steroids. To assess the potential use of PXR as a sensor for aquatic emerging pollutants, we employed an in vitro reporter gene assay (HG5LN-hPXR cells) to screen a panel of environmental chemicals and to assess PXR-active chemicals in (waste) water samples. Of the 57 compounds tested, 37 were active in the bioassay and 10 were identified as new PXR agonists: triazin pesticides (promethryn, terbuthryn, terbutylazine), pharmaceuticals (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, clonazepam, medazepam) and non co-planar polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs; PCB101, 138, 180). Furthermore, we detected potent PXR activity in two types of water samples: passive polar organic compounds integrative sampler (POCIS) extracts from a river moderately impacted by agricultural and urban inputs and three effluents from sewage treatment works (STW). Fractionation of POCIS samples showed the highest PXR activity in the less polar fraction, while in the effluents, PXR activity was mainly associated with the dissolved water phase. Chemical analyses quantified several PXR-active substances (i.e., alkylphenols, hormones, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PCBs, bisphenol A) in POCIS fractions and effluent extracts. However, mass-balance calculations showed that the analyzed compounds explained only 0.03% and 1.4% of biological activity measured in POCIS and STW samples, respectively. In effluents, bisphenol A and 4-tert-octylphenol were identified as main contributors of instrumentally derived PXR activities. Finally, the PXR bioassay provided complementary information as compared to estrogenic, androgenic, and dioxin-like activity measured in these samples. This study shows the usefulness of HG5LN-hPXR cells to detect PXR-active compounds in water samples

  15. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  16. The use of enclosed plankton communities in aquatic ecotoxicology : fate effects of mercury, cadmium and selected aromatic organics in a marine model ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1982-01-01

    Most investigations in ecotoxicology are carried out in the laboratory. Although laboratory experiments are indispensable and yield useful information, it is difficult if not impossible to extrapolate results of short-term laboratory tests currently in use to real field situations. The need in aquat

  17. Biotransformation and accumulation of selenium inside organisms in an engineered aquatic ecosystem designed for bioremediation of Se from agriculture drainage water and brine shrimp production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive selenium (Se) in soils and waters present in the westside of central California was determined to be responsible for ecotoxicities observed in water fowl frequenting large bodies of water, i.e., evaporation ponds. In order to monitor the fate and potentially design an aquatic Se remediatio...

  18. Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of both point and non-point sources of pollution on coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay were studied at three levels of biological organization; the...

  19. Can mussels be used as sentinel organisms for characterization of pollution in urban water systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization strongly impacts aquatic ecosystems by decreasing water quality and altering water cycles. Today, much effort is put towards the restoration and conservation of urban waterbodies to enhance ecosystem service provision, leading to liveable and sustainable cities. To enable a sustainable management of waterbodies, the quantification of the temporal and spatial variability of pollution levels and biogeochemical processes is essential. Stable isotopes have widely be...

  20. Application of Microorganisms in the Degradation of Polluted Chemicals in Aquatic Environments%微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕; 蔡俊鹏

    2008-01-01

    Every year, waters on earth receive large quantities of wastewater from industry, agriculture, fish and poultry raising, and municipal sewage treatment plants. Consequently, the aquatic environment on the earth is under a serious challenge from a very large quantity of pollutants such as antibiotics, insecticides, herbicides, hydrocarbons, etc., contained in the domestic wastewater, industrial and agricultural waste water and illegal effluents. In particular, with the development of intensive aquiculture and poultry, the effluent pollution has recently become more and more serious with more attentions. Furthermore more and more chemical pollutants discharged into aquatic environment have been detected with the advancement of analytical techniques. These chemicals can cause toxic effects on water habitats after discharged into aquatic environment. However, microorganisms have many key functions in pollution control. In this review, applications of microorganism in the degradation of chemicals in aquatic environments are reviewed. It was concluded that most applications of microorganisms degrading chemicals focused on aquaculture waters, whereas other aquatic systems (such as river, lake, sea, coastal waters) have been scarcely studied.%每年有大量来自工业、农业、养殖业和城市污水处理厂的废水被排入到水环境中,因此,地球上的水环境面临大量来自生活废水、工农业废水、非法排放的废水及其它废水的污染物质(如抗生素、杀虫剂,除草剂、烃等)的严重挑战,特别是近年来随着集约化养殖的发展,废水污染问题日益突出,并且随着分析手段的进步,能够检测到被排入水环境中的化学污染物质也越来越多,这些化学污染物对水环境中的生物产生有害影响.但是,微生物在污染控制上具有许多重要的作用.因此,本文对微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用进行了评论.结果表明微生物主要是应用

  1. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography

  2. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  3. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  4. Effects of physical and biogeochemical processes on aquatic ecosystems at the groundwater-surface water interface: An evaluation of a sulfate-impacted wild rice stream in Minnesota (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G. H. C.; Yourd, A. R.; Myrbo, A.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Significant uncertainty and variability in physical and biogeochemical processes at the groundwater-surface water interface complicate how surface water chemistry affects aquatic ecosystems. Questions surrounding a unique 10 mg/L sulfate standard for wild rice (Zizania sp.) waters in Minnesota are driving research to clarify conditions controlling the geochemistry of shallow sediment porewater in stream- and lake-beds. This issue raises the need and opportunity to carry out in-depth, process-based analysis into how water fluxes and coupled C, S, and Fe redox cycles interact to impact aquatic plants. Our study builds on a recent state-wide field campaign that showed that accumulation of porewater sulfide from sulfate reduction impairs wild rice, an annual grass that grows in shallow lakes and streams in the Great Lakes region of North America. Negative porewater sulfide correlations with organic C and Fe quantities also indicated that lower redox rates and greater mineral precipitation attenuate sulfide. Here, we focus on a stream in northern Minnesota that receives high sulfate loading from iron mining activity yet maintains wild rice stands. In addition to organic C and Fe effects, we evaluate the degree to which streambed hydrology, and in particular groundwater contributions, accounts for the active biogeochemistry. We collect field measurements, spanning the surrounding groundwater system to the stream, to constrain a reactive-transport model. Observations from seepage meters, temperature probes, and monitoring wells delineate upward flow that may lessen surface water impacts below the stream. Geochemical analyses of groundwater, porewater, and surface water samples and of sediment extractions reveal distinctions among the different domains and stream banks, which appear to jointly control conditions in the streambed. A model based on field conditions can be used to evaluate the relative the importance and the spatiotemporal scales of diverse flux and

  5. Evaluation of Aquatic Ecosystem Service Value of the Rivers and Reservoirs Connection Project in Ji′nan City%济南市河库连通工程水生态系统服务价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解文静; 茅樵; 曹升乐

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic ecosystem service value of the rivers and reservoirs connection project in Ji′nan City was divided into four parts:providing product function,regulating function,cultural function and life support function. The direct market value method,shadow engineering method,replacement cost method,carbon tax method and assets value method were used to evaluate the aquatic ecosystem service value of the rivers and reservoirs connection project in Ji′nan City. The results show that the rivers and reservoirs system of ecological service value in Ji′nan City is diverse and of great value,especially remarkable in the living environment,the function of leisure tourism and the function of water supply. This conclusion conforms to the actual situation of Ji′nan City,and the evaluation results are reasonable.%将济南市河库连通工程河库水系生态系统服务功能分为提供产品功能、调节功能、文化功能和生命支持功能4类,采用直接市场评价法、影子价格法、替代费用法、碳税法、费用支出法等方法评估了该工程的生态服务价值。结果表明:济南市河库系统生态服务价值多样,且价值巨大,尤其是发挥人居环境功能、休闲旅游功能、水供给功能的价值,评估结果符合济南市实际情况。

  6. A review of the effects on aquatic ecosystems of acid iron waste from the production of titanium dioxide by the sulphate process

    OpenAIRE

    Knutzen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Damaging effects of acid iron waste to biota have been demonstrated in the vicinity of coastal and estuarine outfalls. The toxic properties have been confirmed in laboratory studies with algae, invertebrates and fish. So far it appears that the toxicity is associated with either decreased pH (below pH 6.0-7.0) and/or iron concentrations above at least 0.5-1 mg Fe/l. However, due to the complex nature of the waste and its fate in the aquatic environment causal relations are difficult to assess...

  7. Multiproxy evidence for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses during the 8.2 ka cold event as recorded at Højby Sø, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Rasmussen, Peter; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna;

    2010-01-01

    A sediment succession from Højby Sø, a lake in eastern Denmark, covering the time period 9400–7400 cal yr BP was studied using high-resolution geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, pollen, macrofossil, diatom, and algal pigment analysis to investigate responses of the terrestrial and aquatic.......2 ka cold event as registered in the Greenland ice cores. At Højby Sø, the climate anomaly appears to have started 200–250 yr earlier than the 8.2 ka cold event as the lake proxy data provide strong evidence for a precipitation-induced distinct increase in catchment soil erosion beginning around 8500...

  8. The Climate Space Concept: Analysis of the Steady State Heat Energy Budget of Animals. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Several modules in the thermodynamic series considered the application of the First Law to…

  9. A Comparative Study of Distribution of Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Pomacea insularum Collected from Polluted and Unpolluted Sites of the Freshwater Ecosystem in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Franklin Berandah Edward; Bin Huan Pang

    2009-01-01

    The snails (Pomacea insularum) were collected from polluted and unpolluted sites at Juru River and the Universiti Putra Malaysia Lake, respectively. Besides the shells, the soft tissues of snails were dissected into 6 different parts: intestine, operculum, foot, pennial sac, lung sac and the remainder. They were analyzed for the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe. The present study found 6 interesting points. First, all the metal levels found in the different parts of P. insularum collected from Juru River were significantly (p0.05) between the different sizes (small sizes: 30.5-33.2 mm; large sizes: 37.7-40.4 mm) of P. insularum. The first 5 points supported the use of different soft tissues of P. insularum as biomonitoring organs of heavy metal pollution in the freshwater ecosystem in Malaysia although further validation is required.

  10. Stress responses investigated; application of zinc and heat to Terrestrial Model Ecosystems from heavy metal polluted grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kools, S.A.E.; Berg, M.P.; Boivin, M.E.Y.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Straalen, van N.M.; Kuenen, F.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that soils with a deprived biodiversity due to metal pollution are less stable than non-polluted soils, containing a more diverse community. For this, soils were sampled from specific grasslands in the Netherlands that contain elevated heavy metal concentrations (Cu,

  11. Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Annual progress report, June 1, 1976--June 1, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J. Jr.; Benfield, E.F.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.; Dickson, K.L.; Hendricks, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    The overall objectives of this joint research effort were to devise and evaluate biological methods for determining the functional response of aquatic organisms to perturbations. Structural and functional aspects of autotrophic and heterotrophic attached microbial communities were studied in lotic systems with emphasis on carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The uptake of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur under controlled and field situations was investigated along with biomass, ATP and chlorophyll measurement. Relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rates to the eutrophication process were investigated. Protozoan invasion and extinction rates (utilizing artificial substrates) were measured under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions in numerous lakes and reservoirs. Behavioral responses of zooplankton subjected to cooling water entrainment were examined. Zooplankton were subjected to various conditions that would be encountered during entrainment in order that the responses of the organisms might be ascertained. Detritus processing by macroinvertebrates was studied as a pollutional stress assessment technique.

  12. ACCUMULATION LEVEL AND POLLUTION STATE OF ZINC (Zn) WITHIN MANGROVE FOREST SEDIMENT AND WATER OF DEMAK COASTAL REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Endah Dwi Hastuti

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential heavy metal for plant growth, but could be lethal for some aquatic organisms. While its accumulation in mangrove ecosystem increased along with the increasing input to the river runoff. This research aimed to observe the concentration of Zn in mangrove sediment and water within mangrove ecosystem in Demak coastal area and its pollution state. This research was conducted through observation involving 4 sampling stations and 3 sampling transects at each station. Data coll...

  13. Pollution of soils and ecosystems by a permanent toxic organochlorine pesticide: chlordecone—numerical simulation of allophane nanoclay microstructure and calculation of its transport properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pest control technology was introduced into the tropics without considering the specificity of their ecosystems and the risk of pollution was underestimated. Some volcanic soils (andosols contain nanoclay (allophane with a unique structure and porous properties compared to crystalline clays. Andosols are characterized by large pore volume and pore size distribution, a high specific surface area, and a fractal structure. These soils are more polluted than the other kinds of tropical soils but release less pollutants (chlordecone to water and plants. The literature shows that the allophane microstructure favors accumulation and sequestration of chlordecone, an organochlorine pesticide, in andosols.We used a numerical model to simulate the structure of allophane aggregates. The algorithm is based on a cluster-cluster aggregation model. From the simulated data, we derived the structural features, pore volume and tortuosity, and its transport properties, hydraulic conductivity and diffusion. We show that transport properties decrease because of the presence of allophane. We propose that low hydraulic conductivity and diffusion are important parameters to explain the high concentrations and trapping of pollutants in andosols.

  14. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  15. Multivariate and Phylogenetic Analyses Assessing the Response of Bacterial Mat Communities from an Ancient Oligotrophic Aquatic Ecosystem to Different Scenarios of Long-Term Environmental Disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Pajares; Valeria Souza; Luis E. Eguiarte

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term envir...

  16. Modelling of tidal hydrodynamics for a tropical ecosystem with implications for pollutant dispersion (Cochin Estuary, Southwest India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Reddy, G.S.; Revichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    Tidal circulation in the Cochin Estuary, a moderately polluted estuary along the southwest coast of India, was studied using a 2D hydrodynamic model. The predicted tides and currents showed very good agreement with measured tides. Particle...

  17. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  18. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L Johansen

    Full Text Available Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.. Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m, mid-slope (6 m and deep-slope (9 m depth of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz, emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  19. Evaluating the risk to aquatic ecosystems posed by leachate from tire shred fill in roads using toxicity tests, toxicity identification evaluations, and groundwater modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Patrick J; Warmerdam, John M; Ogle, Scott; Humphrey, Dana N; Patenaude, Stacey M

    2006-02-01

    The risk to adjacent aquatic systems posed by leachates from scrap tires used in engineering applications has not been characterized adequately. Toxicity testing, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), and groundwater modeling were used to determine the circumstances under which tire shreds could be used as roadbed fill with negligible risk to aquatic organisms in adjacent water bodies. Elevated levels of iron, manganese, and several other chemicals were found in tire shred leachates. However, chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) showed no adverse effects caused by leachates collected from tire shreds installed above the water table. Exposure to leachates collected from tire shreds installed below the water table resulted in significant reductions to both survival and reproduction in C. dubia. The TIE results indicated that exposure to soluble metals (likely ferrous iron primarily) and the formation of iron hydroxide precipitates on this invertebrate species likely were the causes of the observed effects. The available chemistry data show that iron concentrations in the affected groundwater decreased substantially within a short distance (0.61 m) downgradient of tire shred fill. Based on geochemical modeling, the use of tire shreds in applications below the water table is appropriate in settings where dissolved oxygen is greater than 2.0 mg/L, pH is greater than 5.8, and a downgradient buffer of approximately 3.0 m exists between the fill and the surface water. For settings with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations or lower pH, results of groundwater modeling indicate that a greater buffer distance (approximately 11 m) is needed to dilute the leachate to nontoxic levels under various soil and groundwater conditions solely through advection and dispersion processes. PMID:16519300

  20. 稻田生态系统中镉污染及环境风险管理%Cadmium Pollution and Its Environmental Risk Management in Rice Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文恩; 陈世宝; 唐杰伟

    2014-01-01

    稻田生态系统是一个由土壤-水稻构成的人工生态系统,该系统中的镉(Cd)由于受土壤淹水、频繁农业活动及被水稻富集等影响,在土壤-水稻系统中具有很强的迁移转化特性,对人体健康具有高度危害性。围绕稻田系统中Cd的主要来源、生物和地球化学特性、Cd在稻田系统中的迁移转化特性及其影响因素(如土壤pH、稻田氧化-还原反应、土壤有机质、土壤质地及共存离子等)和稻田Cd污染综合防治措施等进行论述,并从源头控制、过程阻断及末端治理工程管理等层次对稻田Cd污染的综合防治研究进行了展望,以期为我国水稻Cd污染防治提供参考。%Cadmium(Cd)pollution in rice ecosystem has caused extensive public concerns over human health. This paper provides an overview of the recent studies on Cd sources, biogeochemical processes regulating Cd bioavailability to organisms, and Cd transfer and trans-formation and their major influencing factors(i.e. soil pH, oxidation-reduction reaction, organic matter content, soil texture and coexisting ions etc)in rice ecosystem worldwide. The risk management of Cd in rice ecosystem, including toxicity thresholds of cadmium-containing pollutant inputs, ways to block Cd transfer in rice food train and remediation of polluted paddy fields etc, was also discussed. This would pro-vide fundamental information for preventing soil cadmium pollution and protecting human health.

  1. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  2. Influence of ozone pollution and climate variability on net primary productivity and carbon storage in China's grassland ecosystems from 1961 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our simulations with the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) indicate that the combined effect of ozone, climate, carbon dioxide and land use have caused China's grasslands to act as a weak carbon sink during 1961-2000. This combined effect on national grassland net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon storage was small, but changes in annual NPP and total carbon storage across China's grasslands showed substantial spatial variation, with the maximum total carbon uptake reduction of more than 400 g m-2 in some places of northeastern China. The grasslands in the central northeastern China were more sensitive and vulnerable to elevated ozone pollution than other regions. The combined effect excluding ozone could potentially lead to an increase of 14 Tg C in annual NPP and 0.11 Pg C in total carbon storage for the same time period. This implies that improvement in air quality could significantly increase productivity and carbon storage in China's grassland ecosystems. - Net primary productivity and carbon storage across China's grassland in the late half of the 20th century have been assessed by using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model

  3. Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Annual progress report, June 1, 1975--February 28, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J. Jr.; Benfield, E.F.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.; Dickson, K.L.; Hendricks, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective of this joint research effort was to devise and evaluate biological methods for determining the functional response of aquatic organisms to perturbations. The research effort fell into four general categories: structural and functional aspects of autotrophic and heterotrophic attached microbial communities in lotic systems with emphasis on carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. The uptake of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur under controlled and field situations was investigated along with biomass, ATP, and chlorophyll measurement. Relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rates to the eutrophication process. Protozoan invasion and extinction rates (utilizing artificial substrates) were measured under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions in numerous lakes and reservoirs. Behavioral responses of zooplankton subjected to cooling water entrainment. Zooplankton were subjected to various conditions that would be encountered during entrainment in order that the responses of the organisms might be ascertained. Detritus processing by macroinvertebrates as a pollutional stress assessment technique. Exposed measured units of detrital material to pollutional stress through time and compared their rates of processing to processing rates of similar units that were not exposed to the stress. (auth)

  4. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  5. Report on the studies into the aquatic environment of the Hungarian Danube section with regard to pollution by nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the average and maximum values of radioactive pollution in the Danube water observed in 1975 and 1976 in the vicinity of the upstream and downstream national boundaries and at Budapest are given. The importance of studies on thermal pollution under specific conditions is pointed out. (author)

  6. Progresses on the InteraCtion between Selenium and MerCury in an AquatiC ECosystem%水生生态系统中汞-硒相互作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南雪娇; 余晓平; 郭金玲; 郭亚飞; 邓天龙

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury is the most toxic form among mercury compounds in the aquatic ecosystem,and poses health risks to organisms through the food chain. The effective control of methylation processes of mercury is an active research field in environmental chemistry and toxicology. Selenium(Se)has a significant suppression effect on the methylation processes of mercury(Hg). Therefore,it will be beneficial to the prevention and control of mercury contamination to clarify the speciation characteristic of mercury and the interaction mechanisms between mercury and selenium in the aquatic ecosystem. Mercury toxicity is closely associated with the levels of selenium in organisms,the interaction between Hg and Se are mainly embodied in the formation of insoluble compounds to contribute mercury demethylation or methylmercury directly ruled out by inhibition of biological a selenium related enzyme,which inhibits the toxic effect of mercury. In this paper,the speciation and distribution characteristics of mercury and selenium in the aquatic ecosystem and their interaction mechanisms were reviewed. Meanwhile,the reasonable addition of selenium compounds into water will be an effective way to inhibit the methylation processes of mercury in organisms. The development direction for the studies of interaction mechanisms between mercury and selenium and its physical effects in organisms were also reviewed.%甲基汞是汞存在于水生生态系统(水体、沉积物和水生生物)毒性最强的形态,并通过食物链的传递对生物体产生危害,因此有效控制汞的甲基化过程是汞环境化学和毒理学研究的重要课题.生物体内硒对汞的甲基化过程有明显的抑制作用,明确汞和硒在水生生态系统的形态特征以及汞 - 硒相互作用机制,有助于解决汞污染问题.汞在生物体内的毒性与生物体内硒含量紧密相关,汞与硒相之间的相互作用主要表现在生成不溶的化合物促使汞去甲基化或受生物

  7. Advances on Toxicological Mechanism of AhR Pathway and Early Biomonitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)in Aquatic Animals%持久性有机污染物对水生动物芳香烃受体通道的毒理机制及其早期监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海龙; 张林宝; 廖春阳; 韦双双; 郑继平; 薛钦昭

    2010-01-01

    过去30年,随着工农业的不断发展,由持久性有机污染物(POPs)导致的癌症患者不断增加.目前POPs已广泛存在于水生态系统中,对水生动物的生长发育、种群繁衍、群落结构等产生重要影响.虽然POPs对水生动物的毒理机制非常复杂,但研究表明其毒理机制主要通过芳香烃受体通道(AhR pathway)来进行调控.为全面理解水生动物AhR通道中每一个基因在毒理调控过程中的作用,论文从水生动物芳香烃通道的角度详细阐述了POPs的毒理机制,同时对水生动物中POPs的早期监测进行了讨论,最后提出了未来POPs毒理机制研究的发展方向.%With the development of industry and agriculture, the case of cancer is incresing gradually in the last thirty years. Considerable part of the cases are caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs)and some of them belong to the environmental endocrine disruptors. POPs are ubiquitous in the environment, especiUy in the aquatic ecosystem which has aroused the extensive attention of the world. The mechanism of POPs toxicology is very complicated, but it is mainly mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)pathway in aquatic animals. The overall goal of this review paper is to highlight the toxicological mechanism of AhR pathway that may contribute to a more holistic understanding of each AhR pathway gene behavior in the toxicological process, as well as the early biomonitoring methods of POPs in aquatic animals. Finally, we propose some perspectives for future toxicological mechhanism research of interest.

  8. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@magnet.fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States); Gu, Binhe [South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL 33406 (United States); Lee, Ming-Kuo [Department of Geology and Geography, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36839 (United States); Jiang, Shijun, E-mail: sjiang@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Hydrobiology/Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Xu, Yingfeng [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades – a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (> 600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  9. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades – a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (> 600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  10. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.L.B. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: veerle.jaspers@ua.ac.be; Covaci, A. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, S. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, T. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, M. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Schepens, P. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2006-01-15

    Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000 {mu}g/g lipid weight). PBDEs could be determined in most samples at lower concentrations than PCBs (up to 64 {mu}g/g lipid in sparrowhawk liver). Sparrowhawks had the highest levels of hexachlorobenzene, DDTs and PBDEs. In contrast, kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) had relatively low levels of most measured organochlorines. BDE 47 was the most abundant congener in heron (Ardea cinerea) and grebe (Podiceps cristatus), while BDE 47, 99 and 153 were equally important in the terrestrial species. BDE 183 and BDE 209 were only measured in the terrestrial birds. These results indicate that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than aquatic species. - Aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds show different accumulation profiles of PBDEs.

  11. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Gu, Binhe; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Jiang, Shijun; Xu, Yingfeng

    2014-07-15

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades - a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (>600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  12. Development of criteria for an ecotoxicological examination procedure by differentially high integrated parts of aquatic model ecosystems and mathematical models. Final report. Erarbeitung von oekosystemaren Bewertungsstrategien zur Beurteilung der Umweltgefaehrlichkeit von Chemikalien mit Hilfe von unterschiedlich hoch integrierten aquatischen Modelloekosystemausschnitten und mathematischen Modellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Weihenstephan (Germany). Inst. fuer Landespflege und Botanik); Zieris, F.J. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Weihenstephan (Germany). Inst. fuer Landespflege und Botanik); Lay, J.P. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenoekologie); Weiss, K. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundhe

    1994-02-28

    It is difficult to assess the risks of environmental toxicants, especially when they have to be extrapolated from laboratory datas. Therefore efforts are made to determine the potential hazards of chemicals with the help of artificial ecosystems or parts of them. These kinds of test systems are similar to the structure and function of natural ecosystems and therefore allow to make representative extrapolations to real nature. As a disadvantage they are expensive and not yet standardized. To be accepted for the risk assessment of chemicals it was attempted to standardize artificial aquatic ecosystems in this project. It was tried to minimize the costs of the testing procedures by using a mathematical model simulating artificial littoral ecosystems. With increasing complexity of the system a better description of expected effects caused by a substance in environment can be given. With the help of outdoor ecosystems the threshold concentration of a chemical could be determined that is not likely to affect an aquatic ecosystem. Further we succeeded in providing a prototype modeling the effects in the microcosms used in our experiments. This model is able to approximately describe the behavior of macrophytes, algae, and secondary consumers in uncontaminated and contaminated systems (with the test chemical atrazine). (orig.)

  13. Integral assessment of pollution in the Suquía River (Córdoba, Argentina) as a contribution to lotic ecosystem restoration programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, C; Abril, A; Amé, M V; Argüello, G A; Carreras, H A; Chiappero, M S; Hued, A C; Wannaz, E; Galanti, L N; Monferrán, M V; González, C M; Solís, V M

    2011-11-01

    The Suquía River lower-middle basin (Córdoba, Argentina) is subject to a strong anthropic impact because it receives pollutants from different sources (industries, wastewaters, heavy traffic, agricultural land use, etc.) We have assessed the degree of watershed degradation of Suquía River lower-middle sections through the analysis of different ecosystem compartments (air, water, riparian soil, sediments and biota), in order to provide useful data to be considered in future river restoration programs. Four study sites were selected along the river (La Calera city, Córdoba city, Corazón de María village and Río Primero city) which were sampled during the low- and high-water flow periods. We analyzed: a) chemical and physical characteristics of water, sediments, and riparian soil; b) heavy metal content of water and sediments, and c) semi-volatile organic compounds in air. Besides, pollutant bioindicators such as fish assemblages, lichens (Usnea amblyoclada), vascular plants (Tradescantia pallida), and microorganisms (fecal coliform and Escherichia coli) were used to further assess the status of the river. All analyzed ecological compartments were affected by water pollution, particularly, fish assemblages, sediments and riparian soils by heavy metal and coliform bacteria. Moreover, we detected a possible contribution of sulfur and a high pollutant content in air that merit further research about other air-water exchanges. Accordingly, we strongly suggest that an action to restore or remediate the anthropic effect on the Suquía River be extended to all possible compartments along the river. PMID:21925711

  14. Assessing the grass Schizachyrium gracile for capacity to ecologically restore the polluted soils of ecosystems in a bauxite mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned bauxite mines in the tropical forest of the Dominican Republics only biosphere reserve are leaving behind extensive areas and landfills, whose negative impacts need restoring because of the ecological interest of the sites they occupy. Given that any realistic recovery program should be based on knowledge of the ecological succession, in this report we present the results derived from the study of two populations of a pioneer species of these ecosystems. (Author)

  15. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  16. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Mathematical modeling of pollutant and radionuclide transformation in aquatic ecosystems results of elaboration and verification for the chain of industrial reservoirs on the Techa River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.B.; Mokrov, Y.G.; Glagolenko, Y.V.; Drozhko, E.G. [Mayak, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Khodakovsky, I.L.; Leonov, A.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The modern radioecological situation around the oldest radiochemical plant, Mayak, in South Ural (Russia) is indicated by the storage of 300 million to tons of low level radioactive waste in the Techa`s reservoir chain (TRC). Future approaches for TRC restoration may be evaluated using corresponding mathematical models. The mathematical modeling complex, KASKAD, was developed at Mayak and is intended for reservoir radioecological state forecasting and alternative remediation approaches evaluation. The paper describes this model.

  18. Mathematical modeling of pollutant and radionuclide transformation in aquatic ecosystems results of elaboration and verification for the chain of industrial reservoirs on the Techa River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern radioecological situation around the oldest radiochemical plant, Mayak, in South Ural (Russia) is indicated by the storage of 300 million to tons of low level radioactive waste in the Techa's reservoir chain (TRC). Future approaches for TRC restoration may be evaluated using corresponding mathematical models. The mathematical modeling complex, KASKAD, was developed at Mayak and is intended for reservoir radioecological state forecasting and alternative remediation approaches evaluation. The paper describes this model

  19. MODELKEY: Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Brack, W; Deckere, de, E.A.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Gils, van, Dennis Paulus Maria

    2005-01-01

    Background Triggered by the requirement of Water Framework Directive for a good ecological status for European river systems till 2015 and by still existing lacks in tools for cause identification of insufficient ecological status MODELKEY (http://www.modelkey.org), an Integrated Project with 26 partners from 14 European countries, was started in 2005. MODELKEY is the acronym for 'Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosyste...

  20. MODELKEY: Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Brack, W; Bakker, J.; De Deckere, E.; Deerenberg, C.; Van Gils, J.A.G.; Hein, M; Jurajda, P.; Kooijman, B.; Lamoree, M; LEK S.; López de Alda, M.J.; Marcomini, A.; Muñoz, I.(Departamento of Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile); Rattei, S.; Segner, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Triggered by the requirement of Water Framework Directive for a good ecological status for European river systems till 2015 and by still existing lacks in tools for cause identification of insufficient ecological status MODELKEY (http://www.modelkey.org), an Integrated Project with 26 partners from 14 European countries, was started in 2005. MODELKEY is the acronym for 'Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosyst...

  1. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Roe, Amy S; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Pittman, H Tyler; Fuentes, Latice; Simon, Kendall L; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is an extensively researched tertiary predator. Studies have delineated information about its life history and the influences of various stressors on its reproduction. Due to the bald eagle's position at the top of the food web, it is susceptible to biomagnification of xenobiotics. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality implemented a program in 1999 to monitor persistent chemicals including polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate spatial and temporal trends of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in nestling bald eagles of Michigan. The authors' study found that concentrations of PCBs and DDE were higher in Great Lakes areas with Lakes Michigan and Lake Huron having the highest concentrations of DDE and Lake Erie having the highest concentrations of PCBs. Temporally (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) the present study found declines in PCB and DDE concentrations with a few exceptions. Continued monitoring of Michigan bald eagle populations is suggested for a couple of reasons. First, nestling blood contaminant levels are an appropriate method to monitor ecosystem contaminant levels. Second, from 1999 to 2008 PCB and DDE concentrations for 30% and 40%, respectively, of the nestling eagles sampled were above the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for bald eagles. Lastly, with the continued development and deployment of new chemistries a continuous long term monitoring program is an invaluable resource. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1995-2002. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27442160

  2. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Roe, Amy S; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Pittman, H Tyler; Fuentes, Latice; Simon, Kendall L; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is an extensively researched tertiary predator. Studies have delineated information about its life history and the influences of various stressors on its reproduction. Due to the bald eagle's position at the top of the food web, it is susceptible to biomagnification of xenobiotics. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality implemented a program in 1999 to monitor persistent chemicals including polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate spatial and temporal trends of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in nestling bald eagles of Michigan. The authors' study found that concentrations of PCBs and DDE were higher in Great Lakes areas with Lakes Michigan and Lake Huron having the highest concentrations of DDE and Lake Erie having the highest concentrations of PCBs. Temporally (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) the present study found declines in PCB and DDE concentrations with a few exceptions. Continued monitoring of Michigan bald eagle populations is suggested for a couple of reasons. First, nestling blood contaminant levels are an appropriate method to monitor ecosystem contaminant levels. Second, from 1999 to 2008 PCB and DDE concentrations for 30% and 40%, respectively, of the nestling eagles sampled were above the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for bald eagles. Lastly, with the continued development and deployment of new chemistries a continuous long term monitoring program is an invaluable resource. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1995-2002. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Commentary on effects of anthropogenic and natural organic chemicals on development, swimming behavior, and reproduction of Daphnia, a key member of aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, S I; Hanazato, T

    1995-05-01

    Because of their trophodynamic role, small invertebrates are often critical components of ecosystems. An especially important group of freshwater invertebrates is the water fleas of the genus Daphnia. These animals are often the dominant herbivores in lakes and ponds. They play a key role in determining water clarity (by grazing on algae) and they are an important part of the diet of fish. Natural chemical signals (kairomones) produced by predators affect the development, life history strategy, and behavior of zooplankton. Laboratory studies of anthropogenic chemicals that have biological activity (xenobiotics), such as the insecticide carbaryl, have demonstrated effects of concentrations in the 1 to 5 ppb range on Daphnia development, growth rate, and swimming behavior in our laboratory experiments. Low concentrations of carbaryl inhibit growth and reproduction and delay maturation, whereas survivorship was not effected. These sublethal exposures to carbaryl reduced Daphnia population growth rate (productivity) by about 15% (at 5 ppb), enough to have significant ecological effects on the rest of the lake community. The insecticide carbaryl showed synergistic interactions with natural chemicals associated with predators (kairomones) that modify Daphnia development and life history characteristic. In addition, there were complex synergisms between carbaryl, the predator odors, and oxygen concentration (low oxygen concentration can be either a natural environmental stress or an anthropogenic stress). Daphnia produce males facultatively, usually in late fall; at other times, reproduction is asexual.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7556027

  4. Application of potassium chloride to a Chernobyl-contaminated lake. Modelling the dynamics of radiocaesium in an aquatic ecosystem and decontamination of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study tests a whole-lake experiment to reduce the bioaccumulation of radiocaesium (137Cs) in fish in lakes contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. In many lakes in the Chernobyl contaminated areas, radiocaesium activity concentrations in fish are still significantly higher (up to 100 times in some species) than acceptable limits for human consumption. Estimates of the long-term rate of decline of 137Cs in fish in these regions, in the absence of countermeasures, show that radioactivity in fish in some lakes may remain above acceptable consumption limits for a further 50-100 years from the present date. In February 1998 we applied 15 t of potassium chloride to Lake Svyatoe, Kostiukovichy. The addition of potassium chloride fertilizer to the lake resulted in a decrease in activity concentration of 137Cs to approximately 40% of pre-countermeasure values in a number of different fish species. In contrast to Lake Svyatoe, 137Cs activity concentrations in fish from four control lakes showed no systematic decrease over the study period. Simplified models for transfers of 137Cs in lakes successfully 'blind' predicted the changes in 137Cs in water and fish resulting from this major alteration of the potassium concentration of the lake. The experiment represents the first test of a predictive model for the dynamics of radiocaesium in response to a major perturbation in potassium (its major competitor ion) in a whole lake ecosystem

  5. The role of storm flows in concentration of pesticides associated with particulate and dissolved fractions as a threat to aquatic ecosystems - Case study: the agricultural watershed of Save river (Southwest of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the fluxes of pesticides was carried out for a year, ending in March 2009, in the Save catchment, in the vicinity of Toulouse. The hydrograph separation technique was used to evaluate the respective contribution of stormflow and baseflow in transport of 12 pesticide molecules. Transport of over 59% of pesticides and their controlling factors such as total suspended matter (TSM, particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC occurred during storm periods. Hysteresis patterns could be observed in the concentration-discharge relationships only for some molecules between rising and falling periods of the storm hydrograph. Clockwise hysteresis was noticed for low to moderately soluble pesticide molecules and for particulate fractions, which explains the role of surface runoff in pesticide displacement. In contrast, anticlockwise hysteresis was registered for soluble molecules and dissolved fractions, explaining the role of subsurface flows and soil leaching processes. The important role of TSM, POC and DOC in pesticide transport was clearly established. We also came to the conclusion that the role of stormy periods in pesticide movement and their controlling factors worked as a threat to aquatic ecosystems. And there was a positive relation between riverine TSM, POC, DOC and pesticides according to pesticide properties.

  6. Community structure characteristics and health assessment of aquatic ecosystem in Weihe Basin, China%渭河流域水生态系统群落结构特征及其健康评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗学; 武玮; 殷旭旺

    2016-01-01

    The community structures of periphytic algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish in the main streams and tributaries of the Weihe Basin were investigated based on aquatic ecological sampling and survey results from 77 sampling sites. An index of biotic integrity ( IBI) was used to evaluate the biological integrity of the three organism groups. The results show that the health assessment results of the Weihe Basin differ with different organism groups, due to their particular responses to environmental disturbance. It was found that the assessment results based on macroinvertebrates were the best, followed by those based on periphytic algae, and the results based on fish were the worst. Generally, the health status of the aquatic ecosystem in the Weihe Basin was poor due to the high level of human disturbance. Throughout the basin, there was a tendency for the health status upstream to be better than that downstream. The main environmental variables that influence the integrity of fish, macroinvertebrates, and periphytic algae in the Weihe Basin were different from one another. Comprehensive investigation of community structure of different organism groups in the Weihe Basin will provide important scientific support for future aquatic ecosystem restoration.%以渭河流域为对象,基于77个点位的水生态采样和调查结果,分析了该流域干支流着生藻类、大型底栖动物和鱼类3种生物类群群落结构特征,采用生物完整性指数评价了渭河流域鱼类、大型底栖动物和着生藻类的完整性,并对3种生物类群进行评价分析与比较。结果表明:基于3种生物类群的水生态系统健康评价结果存在一定差异,主要是由于3种生物类群对环境变化的响应各有不同,其中大型底栖动物的评价结果最好,其次为着生藻类,鱼类健康评价结果最差。综合来看,渭河流域水生态系统健康状况较差,受人类活动影响明显,大体表现为从

  7. Ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution - Ecological risk assessment for the biota on regional radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyeva, G.V.; Synzynys, B.I.; Shoshina, R.R.; Mirzeabasov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Ecology, Studgorodok,1, 249040 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Now the methods of ecological regulation of a radiation factor from risk assessment are developed poorly. The paper attempts to assess and forecast the terrestrial ecosystem conditions under chronic ionizing radiation by calculating the critical loads. The paper is aimed at developing a methodology to assess the ecological risk for a terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution in a biotope of a regional radioactive waste storage. Objects and Methods: Biotope monitoring of a radioactive waste storage makes clear that the radioecological situation in this territory is stipulated by technogenic {sup 90}Sr found in soil, ground water and biota. Terrestrial mollusks of a shrubby Snail type (Bradybaena fruticum) were chosen as reference species due to their activity to accumulate {sup 90}Sr in shells and the number of colony-forming soil units (CFU) as reference indices. The number of CFU was determined by inoculation of solid medium. Soil and mollusk samples have been collected at most representative sites identified in the previous studies. To assess {sup 90}Sr content in the samples collected, radiochemical separation was used with further radionuclide activity measurements by a 'BETA-01C' scintillation beta-ray spectrometer according to a standard procedure of {sup 90}Sr content assessment from beta-radiation of its daughter radionuclide {sup 90}Y. Ecological risk was calculated from analyzed critical loads using a 'dose-effect' dependence. Statistical data processing was realized with Excell 2007 and R software programs [R Development Core Team, 2010]. The software R was also used for GIS creation. Results and Discussion: A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment

  8. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. AN ECOSYSTEM MODEL OF FISHERIES AND NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet; Vestergaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

      Economic models of fishery largely ignore the linkages to lower trophic levels. In particular, environmental data and other bottom-up information is widely disregarded. Nor are changes in physical environment (bottom-up) alongside both exogenous and endogenous environmental effects included in...... the general ecosystem models. The objectives of this paper are modeling the impacts of nutrient enrichment on fisheries; particularly the impacts on consumer stocks and the fisheries based on these stocks are presented. We consider an aquatic ecosystem with four components: producers (autotrophs......), consumers (herbivores, carnivores), nonliving matter and pollution sources. The interactions between nutrients-producers, producers- consumers are assumed following the Holling type II functional response. Pollution sources cause excess nutrients which linked to increase primary productivity, hypoxia and...

  10. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  11. Multivariate and phylogenetic analyses assessing the response of bacterial mat communities from an ancient oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem to different scenarios of long-term environmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x) mesocosm experiment: a) Control; b) Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c) 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d) UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f) UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months) and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8%) and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%) were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin) had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus), which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp) through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data, can

  12. Multivariate and phylogenetic analyses assessing the response of bacterial mat communities from an ancient oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem to different scenarios of long-term environmental disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pajares

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x mesocosm experiment: a Control; b Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8% and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5% were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus, which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular

  13. [Ecosystem service and economic valuation in the upper reaches of Xin' an River, Anhui, China for mitigating phosphorus nonpoint source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Wu, Nan; Fang, Xiang-long; Gao, Ji-xi; Zhou, Xiao-tie; Feng, Chao-yang

    2015-04-01

    A model of phosphorus purification in a watershed was established based on the export coefficient and purification index of phosphorus in different types of land cover. The model was employed to simulate the economic value of the ecosystem service with the expected water quality standard and marginal cost of pollutant purification of the upper reaches of Xin' an River of Anhui, China. The results revealed that from 2000 to 2010, some farmland outside the Tunxi, Jixi, Shexian, Yixian and Xiuning was converted to built-up land. The total amount of phosphorus exported to the upper Xin' an River decreased a little, and the main source of phosphorus pollution was farmland and built-up land. More than half of the exported phosphorus was efficiently purified by different types of land cover via flow accumulation. The pattern of purification and export of highly concentrated phosphorus showed the same trend which occurred in the northern part of the watershed including the Yangzhi River, Fengle River and Hengjiang River. Forestland and grassland did not efficiently purify phosphorus in the watershed owing to the irrational distribution of existing land cover. The total service value was 3.80 and 3.31 million Yuan in 2000 and 2010, respectively. PMID:26259471

  14. [Ecosystem service and economic valuation in the upper reaches of Xin' an River, Anhui, China for mitigating phosphorus nonpoint source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Wu, Nan; Fang, Xiang-long; Gao, Ji-xi; Zhou, Xiao-tie; Feng, Chao-yang

    2015-04-01

    A model of phosphorus purification in a watershed was established based on the export coefficient and purification index of phosphorus in different types of land cover. The model was employed to simulate the economic value of the ecosystem service with the expected water quality standard and marginal cost of pollutant purification of the upper reaches of Xin' an River of Anhui, China. The results revealed that from 2000 to 2010, some farmland outside the Tunxi, Jixi, Shexian, Yixian and Xiuning was converted to built-up land. The total amount of phosphorus exported to the upper Xin' an River decreased a little, and the main source of phosphorus pollution was farmland and built-up land. More than half of the exported phosphorus was efficiently purified by different types of land cover via flow accumulation. The pattern of purification and export of highly concentrated phosphorus showed the same trend which occurred in the northern part of the watershed including the Yangzhi River, Fengle River and Hengjiang River. Forestland and grassland did not efficiently purify phosphorus in the watershed owing to the irrational distribution of existing land cover. The total service value was 3.80 and 3.31 million Yuan in 2000 and 2010, respectively.

  15. Community responses of intertidal soft-bottom macrozoobenthos to oil pollution in a tropical mangrove ecosystem, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbey, Nenibarini; Uyi, Hanson

    2014-05-15

    Preliminary impact assessment of two large oil spill incidents at Bodo Creek, in the Niger Delta, was undertaken, focusing on intertidal macrozoobenthos. Post-spill number of species and abundance were measured against recent pre-spill baseline data from the same study area. Results show that surface and infauna communities suffered severe reduction in abundance and number of species reduced by 81% after the spills, with two of the resampled sites having no taxa at all. Capitella capitata populations increased several-fold over pre-spill numbers. The impact of the oil spills is discussed in relation to local livelihoods and ecosystem integrity. The Niger Delta endemic lucinid, Keletistes rhizoecus, is proposed as a potential bioindicator for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination in Niger Delta estuaries.

  16. Pollutant deposition in forest ecosystems and characteristics of chemical properties of soils in the environs of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of investigations of the chemistry of precipitation water and soil water in 1991-1992 on research plots in the nearer and farther environs of the building site of the Temelin nuclear power plant (about 25 km north of Ceske Budejovice). Research plots lie in spruce and beech stands. When the installations on research plots were built (1990 and 1991), soil samples were taken to determine the supply of biogenic elements in humus and soil. The objective of the program was to determine the current level of element deposition in forest ecosystems, dynamics of soil elements and chemistry; the program is a part of more extensive research into forest environment and stand condition. The research of investigation provide data for a forecast of the effect of the projected operation of the nuclear power plant on forest environment, basic factor of growth and stabilization and for fulfilment of their functions. They can be a basis for evaluation of the rate of changes in forest ecosystems after the nuclear power plant has been launched into operation. The results of research are currently applied to supply data to the network of plots with monitoring of pollutant loads in the forest ecosystem in Southern Bohemia. Two research plots in spruce stand (Hnevkovice and Strouha) and a plot in beech stand (Vsetec) were laid out at a distance of several kilometers from the built-up premises of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The soils on these plots are medium deep brown forest soils (Cambisol) with a large amount of mother rock skeleton (biotitic paragneiss). Moder is a soil humus form in the spruce and beech stands. To monitor pollutant deposition in the forest ecosystems and their effect of the soil properties Vojirov plots were laid out which lie in spruce stand and in a mixed stand of beech and spruce in the Jindrichuv Hradec forest district, near the frontier with Austria. Humus podzols with moder and mor forms were developed on eolian sand between

  17. 长春南湖水生生态系统的能流特征%Energy Flow Characteristics of the Nanhu Lake Aquatic Ecosystem in Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房岩; 韩德复; 刘倩; 孙刚

    2011-01-01

    Based on authors' energy ecology studies on the Nanhu Lake waterbody of Changchun for many years,the energy flow was analyzed on ecosystem level.The total sun radiation striking on the lake surface is 4 969 635.4 kJ·m-2·a-1.The energy fixed by plant photosynthesis is 30 244 kJ·m-2·a-1,which is 0.6% of the total sun radiation.15% of the net primary production is assimilated by herbivores.In the 2 391 kJ·m-2·a-1 of energy assimilated by herbivores,1 467 kJ·m-2·a-1 is respired,445 kJ·m-2·a-1 is assimilated by carnivores,and 479 kJ·m-2·a-1 is decomposed or unused.The total production of carnivores is 445 kJ·m-2·a-1,in which 270 kJ·m-2·a-1 is respired,and 175 kJ·m-2·a-1 is decomposed or unused.Compared with Lake Cedar Bog and Silver Springs,herbivores' efficiency utilizing primary producers is the lowest in the Nanhu Lake(15.0%),showing the important feature of a eutrophicated lake.The part decomposed or unused in the Nanhu Lake should be quantitatively studied to further reveal the intensity and direction of some energy flows.%在作者多年对长春南湖水体进行能量生态学研究的基础上,从生态系统水平进行了能流分析。到达南湖湖面的太阳总辐射为4 969 635.4kJ.m-2.a-1,植物光合作用固定了30 244kJ.m-2.a-1的能量,其效率相当于入射太阳总辐射的0.6%。净初级生产力的15%被植食动物同化。植食动物同化的2 391kJ.m-2.a-1能量,用于呼吸1 467kJ.m-2.a-1,被食肉动物同化445kJ.m-2.a-1,被分解或未利用479kJ.m-2.a-1。食肉动物的总生产力为445kJ.m-2.a-1,呼吸消耗270kJ.m-2.a-1,被分解或未利用175kJ.m-2.a-1。与Cedar Bog湖、银泉(Silver Springs)相比,南湖植食动物对初级生产者的利用效率最低(15.0%),反映了富营养化湖泊的重要特点。应定量研究南湖中被分解和未被利用的部分,进一步揭示某些能流过程的强度与方向。

  18. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  19. Accumulation and fluxes of mercury in terrestrial and aquatic food chains with special reference to Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is known for its biomagnification especially in aquatic food chains and for its toxic effects on different organisms including man. In Finland mercury has formerly been used in industry and agriculture and in addition many anthropogenic activities may increase the mercury levels in ecosystems. Phenyl mercury was widely used as slimicide in the pulp and paper industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In the chlor-alkali industry metallic mercury was used as catalyst at three plants. The most toxic form of mercury, methyl mercury, may be formed in soils, water, sediments and organisms. Many factors, including microbial activity, temperature, oxygen status etc., affect the methylation rate. In the lake ecosystem bioaccumulation of methyl mercury is very strong. In early 1980s there was a restriction of fishing concerning approximately 4000 km2 of lakes and sea areas because of mercury pollution. In aquatic systems we still find elevated concentrations near former emission sources. Long-range atmospheric transport and mechanical operations like ditching and water regulation may cause increased levels of mercury in the aquatic ecosystems. In the Finnish agriculture organic mercury compounds were used for seed dressing until 1992. Although the amounts used were substantial the concentrations in agricultural soils have remained rather low. In terrestrial food chains bioaccumulation is normally weak with low or moderate concentration at all ecosystem levels. Due to a weak uptake through roots terrestrial, vascular plants normally contain only small amounts of mercury. There is a bidirectional exchange of mercury between vegetation and atmosphere. Contrary to vascular plants, there is a very wide range of concentrations in fungi. Mercury may pose a threat to human health especially when accumulated in aquatic food chains.

  20. AQUATOX coupled foodweb model for ecosystem risk assessment of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in lake ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AQUATOX model considers the direct toxic effects of chemicals and their indirect effects through foodwebs. For this study, the AQUATOX model was applied to evaluating the ecological risk of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a highly anthropogenically disturbed lake-Baiyangdian Lake. Calibration and validation results indicated that the model can adequately describe the dynamics of 18 biological populations. Sensitivity analysis results suggested that the model is highly sensitive to temperature limitation. PBDEs risk estimate results demonstrate that estimated risk for natural ecosystems cannot be fully explained by single species toxicity data alone. The AQUATOX model could provide a good basis in ascertaining ecological protection levels of “chemicals of concern” for aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, AQUATOX can potentially be used to provide necessary information corresponding to early warning and rapid forecasting of pollutant transport and fate in the management of chemicals that put aquatic ecosystems at risk. - Highlights: • AQUATOX model incorporates direct toxic effects and indirect ecological effects. • Ecological risk of PBDEs was assessed by the AQUATOX model. • The model could help determine ecological threshold of “chemicals of concern”. - Capsule abstract: Application of the AQUATOX model to assess the direct and indirect ecological risk of PBDEs

  1. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen; Metreveli, George; Baumann, Thomas; Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Nießner, Reinhard; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the DFG is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Thus, INTERNANO provides a scientific basis to assess and predict the environmental impact of EINP release into the environment.

  2. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  3. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  4. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow 90Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by 90Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil 90Sr distribution up to the depth of 2–3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0–5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m2, for the 5–10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m2, for the 10–15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m2. It is found that 90Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess 90Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. - Highlights: • The area of radioactive pollution with groundwater inflow 90Sr decreases with depth. • The accumulation of 90Sr proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier. • The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. • Change of volumetric activity of 90Sr in surface and underground waters showed a good correlation with rainfall

  5. 2009-2011年广州市番禺区水产品污染状况分析%Monitoring of the pollution of aquatic products in Panyu, Guangzhou in 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东明; 吴利楠; 麦洁梅; 张琪; 杨福荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the exteni of pollution of aquatic products in Panyu Guangzhou and to provide the basic food safety supervision. Methods Aquatic products (e.g. freshwater fish, marine fish, shrimps, crabs, shellfish, chilled ready to eat aquatic products and other aquatic products) from different markets, meat and vegetable markets and catering units of Panyu Guangzhou, were randomly collected for the detection of heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, pathogens, liver fluke and other projects. Results All aquatic products had a high cadmium level, and 5.2% of the samples exceeded the limit. The average cadmium content of shrimps/crabs was 0.516 mg/kg, the highest content was 14.300 mg/kg; and the percentage of shellfish, marine fish and freshwater fish exceeding the limit was 4.5% , 3.7% and 2.5%, respectively. 99.5% of the samples had the lead content below the limit. The levels of mercury and arsenic were not exceeding the limit. Part of the aquatic products were found to have a high level of tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline, and the percentage of samples exceeding the limit for these antibiotics was ranged from 8.3% to 14.3%. The levels of BHC and DDT in all samples were below the limit. 98.1% of the samples had the content of formaldehyde below the limit. Among the 222 samples, 18.5% had Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP). The percentage of shrimps/crabs and shellfish with Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 41.7% and 33.3%, respectively. There was a significant different in the degree of contamination with Vibrio parahaemolyticus in freshwater fish, marine fish, shrimps/crabs and shellfish (P0.05). Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae was not detected. Pathogens and liver fluke were not found in the ready to eat raw aquatic products. Conclusion There was a serious cadmium contamination of aquatic products. The level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was high in the aquatic products in Panyu district. The abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture and by the food

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the distribution of heavy metals among the components of freshwater ecosystems. Findings. The review of the works of many scientists showed that heavy metals are widespread in the biotic and abiotic components of freshwater ecosystems. The article highlights the distribution of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments, natural food base, fish organs and tissues. It has been shown that as a result of global pollution of the ecosystem, the majority of Ukrainian rivers belong to polluted and very polluted. Of special interest are the studies of the distribution of heavy metals in phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos because these components occupy a certain position in fish food chain. The presence of heavy metals in the natural food base showed that, on one hand, it could accumulate heavy metals in large amounts in such a way cleaning the water; and on the other hand, the heavy metals could migrate in the food web and contaminate fish. Ones of objects, which should be given attention when assessing toxicologic pollution, are aquatic plants, in particular phytoplankton. Studies showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in plants occurred first of all by their adsorption on the cellular wall. It explains the maximum adsorption of heavy metals by plants immediately after introduction of heavy metals into their culture. Fish as a rule occupy in the food web of water bodies one of the last places. They actively move in the aquatic environment and accumulating heavy metals at the same time they provide the most integrated and precise estimate of environmental pollution. By analyzing the distribution of heavy metals in fish organs and tissues, depending on their ability to accumulate them, it can be noted that the accumulation is the most intensive in such organs as gills, liver, and kidneys. Usually, their lowest content is observed in muscles that is important for human life because they are the main

  7. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  8. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. PMID:26282752

  9. Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, Andreas;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...

  10. Invasion and predation in aquatic ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judith S. WEIS

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews biological invasions in which predation (or its absence) plays a major role in the success of the invader.Examples are described in which the invader out-competes native species for the same food,and cases in which the invader consumes valued native species.In many instances,better predator avoidance by the invasive species or the absence of predators in the new habitat contributes to the success of the invaders; in other cases native or introduced predators appear to be able to keep the invasive species in check.A relatively new management approach in the US is the idea of adding another trophic level-to have humans act as the predators and consume the invasive species.This approach is being utilized in Florida and throughout the Caribbean against the lionfish,but could be extended to other fishes,as well as to various invasive crustaceans and mollusks.This idea is controversial,and current regulations prohibiting the possession of individuals of the invasive species (e.g.,mitten crabs or snakefish) would preclude the development of a fishery for them [Current Zoology 57 (5):613-624,2011].

  11. Planning aquatic ecosystem restoration monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program (EEIRP). The EEIRP is sponsored by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The objectives of this work are to (1) identify relevant approaches and features for environmental investment measures to be applied throughout the project life; (2) develop methods to access the effectiveness of the approach or feature for providing the intended environmental output; (3) develop and provide guidance for formulating environmental projects; and (4) provide guidance for formulating and identifying relevant cost components of alternate restoration plans.

  12. Interactions between plant traits and sediment characteristics influencing species establishment and scale-dependent feedbacks in salt marsh ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, C.; Bouma, T.J.; Zhang, L.Q.; Temmerman, S.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of ecosystem engineering and biogeomorphic processes in shaping many aquatic and semi-aquatic landscapes is increasingly acknowledged. Ecosystem engineering and biogeomorphic landscape formation involves two critical processes: (1) species establishment, and (2) scale-dependent feedba

  13. Retrospective stable isotope analysis reveals ecosystem responses to river regulation over the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas F; Krabbenhoft, Trevor I; Collyer, Michael L; Krabbenhoft, Corey A; Edwards, Melanie S; Sharp, Zachary D

    2015-12-01

    Disruption of natural flow regimes, nutrient pollution, and other consequences of human population growth and development have impacted most major rivers of the world. Alarming losses of aquatic biodiversity coincide with human-caused river alteration, but effects of biotic homogenization on aquatic ecosystem processes are not as well documented. This is because unaltered systems for comparison are scarce, and some ecosystem-wide effects may take decades to manifest. We evaluated aquatic ecosystem responses to extensive river- floodplain engineering and nutrient addition in the Rio Grande of southwestern North America as revealed by changes in trophic structure of, and resource availability to, the fish community. Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA) was conducted on museum-preserved fishes collected over a 70-year period of intensive river management and exponential human population growth. Trophic complexity and resource heterogeneity for fish consumers (measured as "isotopic niche breadth") decreased following sediment deprivation and channelization, and these effects persist into the present. Increased nutrient inputs led to δ15N enrichment in the entire fish community at all affected sites, and a shift to autochthonous sources of carbon at the most proximal site downstream of wastewater release, probably via bottom-up transfer. Overall, retrospective SIA of apex consumers suggests radical change and functional impairment of a floodplain river ecosystem already marked by significant biodiversity loss.

  14. 应用Abraham方程研究有机污染物对七种水生生物的毒性∗%Study on the toxicity of organic pollutants to seven aquatic organisms based on Abraham model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 王晓红; 闻洋; 赵元慧

    2015-01-01

    The toxicities of 141 organic pollutants to seven aquatic organisms ( Vibrio fischeri, River bacteria, Scenedesmus obliguue, Daphnia magna, Cyprinuscarpio, Pimephalespromelas, Poeciliareticulata) were analyzed. A linear relationship between the toxicity data of non⁃polar or polar narcotics and hydrophobicity (lgKow) was established for the seven species, respectively. This relationship was interpretated based on the theoretical consideration. Meanwhile, quantitative structure⁃activity relationship ( QSAR) studies were performed between the toxicities of seven aquatic organisms and Abraham descriptors. The mechanisms of action to seven species were analyzed theoretically based on Abraham descriptors and model coefficients. The principal component analysis carried out on the regression coefficients of Abraham models shows that there are interspecies similarities and differences between the species. In the same time, the interspecies correlation of organic pollutants to seven aquatic organisms was analyzed. The results show that there are good interspecies corrections between fish species, marine bacterium and fish or daphnia magna and fish. It is suggested that some compounds shared the same toxic mechanism of action between the species. However , poor interspecies relationships found between toxicities to algae and daphnia magna or fish suggested that compounds have different toxic mechanism of action between these species.%通过研究141种对7种水生生物(发光菌、江水细菌、绿藻、大型溞、鲤鱼、黑头呆鱼,古比鱼)的毒性,建立了非极性麻醉型和极性麻醉型有机物的毒性与辛醇/水分配系数的对数lgKow的相关性,并对该相关性进行了理论解释。同时,建立了Abraham参数与7种水生生物毒性的预测模型,根据Abraham参数和预测模型的系数,对有机污染物与生物毒性作用机理进行了理论分析。在此基础上,对Abraham毒性模型回归系数进行主

  15. 水生植物对污染水体修复的研究进展%Development in Research of Aquatic Phytoremediation for Polluted Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温闪闪; 刘芳

    2014-01-01

    水生植物净化修复是一项绿色环保的生态工程技术,能有效地净化富营养化及受污染水体,而且不带来二次污染,有利于重建和恢复水生生态环境,其技术投资和维护成本低,操作相对简单。该文阐述了水生植物修复水体的净化机理以及水体富营养化的消除、重金属的去除、石油化工类及生活类污水的降解、水生植物耐盐性等相关研究成果;介绍了净化塘、人工湿地、生态浮床技术和根际过滤技术在工程实践中的应用;强调了水生植物在净化应用中需关注的技术问题;最后提出了一些可行方法和建议,展望了这种净化技术的发展前景。%Phytoremediation is a bioremediation technology,which can degrade or eliminate contaminants from eutrophic water or polluted water without the secondary pollution. It is the least harmful method because it uses natural occurring organisms to preserve the environment in a more natural state. The cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes and the operation is simple. Purification mechanism and effect of hydrophyte phytoremediation were reviewed. Purification pond,artificial wetland, ecological floating bed technology and rhizofiltration technology applied in engineering cases were introduced. The key points of hydrophyte phytoremediation were emphasized. The feasible methods and suggestions were put forward and prospected.

  16. Gammarus spp. in aquatic ecotoxicology and water quality assessment: toward integrated multilevel tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Kienle, Cornelia; Gerhardt, Almut

    2010-01-01

    The amphipod genus Gammarus is widespread and is structurally and functionally important in epigean freshwaters of the Northern Hemisphere. Its presence is crucial, because macroinvertebrate feeding is a major rate-limiting step in the processing of stream detrius. In addition, Gammarus interacts with multiple trophic levels bu functioning as prey, predator, herbivore, detritivore, and shredder. Such a broad span of ecosystem participation underlines the importance of Gammarus to pollutants and other disturbances may render it a valuable indicator for ecosystem health. This review summarizes the vast number of studies conducted with Gammarus spp. for evaluating aquatic ecotoxicology endpoints and examines the suitability of this native invertabrate species for the assessment of stream ecosystem health in the Northern Hemisphere. Numerous papers have been published on how pollutants affect gammarind behavior (i.e., mating, predator avoidance), reproduction, development, feeding activity, population structure, as well as the consequences of pollution on host-parasite, predator-prey, or native-invasive species interactions. Some biochemical and molecular biomarkers have already been established, such as the measurement of vitellogenin-like proteins, metallothioneins, alkali-labile phosphates (in proteins), and lipogenic enzyme activities for assessing endocrine distribution and detoxification mechanisms.

  17. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined