WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic ecosystems pollution

  1. Metallic Pollution of Aquatic Ecosystems: Water of OumerRbiariver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Asfers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study comes after a series of studies evaluating the quality of OumEr-Rbia river(1-4, the choice of this ecosystem is determined by the socioeconomic importance of this river and the high pollutant caused by the agglomeration and industrial units distributed through the banks and tributaries. Their rejects in the watercourses of OumEr-Rbia can modify the quality of the water and prevent the development of socioeconomic activities. In our study we have focused to evaluate the contamination degree by toxic metals Zn, Co,Cr, Al by the mesure of their amount in different stations in two companions. The result show that the stations S4, S8 and S9 of OumEr-Rbiariver are contaminated by cobalt, then, in the S4, the manganese amount exceeds the Moroccan standard values in this metal intended for the irrigation. However, the measure of Cr Zn and Al show that are favorable for the irrigation

  2. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, Cecilia

    1999-04-01

    The load of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered high in the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea spans over 12 latitudes and the regional differences in climate affect the behavior of POPs. Therefore spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of POPs in air and precipitation within this area has been investigated at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990-1993. In addition, the deposition of gaseous and particulate associated POPs to the Baltic Sea is estimated from empirical data. This atmospheric input of POPs is compared with the input from rivers. Additionally, data from Ross Island, Antarctica and Lake Kariba, Zimbabve, Africa is presented, and all results are discussed and explained using the `global fractionation hypothesis` as a framework. In the Baltic Sea, concentration of individual POPs in air were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient air temperature and location. A latitudinal gradient, with higher levels in the south was found for PCBs and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners in air increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentration increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic, or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites. The concentrations of individual congeners in precipitation were found to be influenced by atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, ambient temperature, precipitation volume and

  3. Heavy metal pollution characteristics of surface sediments in different aquatic ecosystems in eastern China: a comprehensive understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Tang

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems in eastern China are suffering threats from heavy metal pollution because of rapid economic development and urbanization. Heavy metals in surface sediments were determined in five different aquatic ecosystems (river, reservoir, estuary, lake, and wetland ecosystems. The average Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.716, 118, 37.3, 32.7, 56.6, and 204 mg/kg, respectively, and the higher concentrations were mainly found in sediment samples from river ecosystems. Cd was the most anthropogenically enriched pollutant, followed by Zn and Pb, indicated by enrichment factors >1.5. According to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, potential ecological risk indices, and risk assessment codes, all five types of aquatic ecosystems were found to be polluted with heavy metals, and the most polluted ecosystems were mainly rivers. Cd was the most serious pollutant in all five aquatic ecosystems, and it was mainly found in the exchangeable fraction (about 30% of the total Cd concentration, on average. The results indicate that heavy metal contamination, especially of Cd, in aquatic ecosystems in eastern China should be taken into account in the development of management strategies for protecting the aquatic environment.

  4. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  5. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavymetal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. Heavymetal contamination in aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of industrial effluents may pose a serious threat to human health. Alkaline precipitation, ion exchange columns, electrochemical removal, filtration, and membrane technologies are the currently available technologies for heavy metal removal. These conventional technologies are not economical and may produce adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Phytoremediation of metals is a cost-effective "green" technology based on the use of specially selected metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals from soils and water. Wetland plants are important tools for heavy metal removal. The Ramsar convention, one of the earlier modern global conservation treaties, was adopted at Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 and became effective in 1975. This convention emphasized the wise use of wetlands and their resources. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. The extensive rhizosphere of wetland plants provides an enriched culture zone for the microbes involved in degradation. The wetland sediment zone provides reducing conditions that are conducive to the metal removal pathway. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavymetal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some

  6. Bibliography of selected references on the effects of coal mine pollutants on aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, T F; Daniels, L K; Olsen, R D; Johnson, D O

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains more than 1400 references dealing with field and laboratory research on potential toxicities and disturbances known or postulated to be caused by pollutants found in coal mine effluents. The first of the three sections into which the bibliography is divided contains a select list of published bibliographies and literature reviews. In the second section are references on mine drainage studies, general references on environmental pollutants, and references dealing with two or more specific parameters. The third section includes references for 40 parameters under individual parameter headings. The multi parameter references in the second section are therefore also listed in the third section under individual headings. An author index is also provided.

  7. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  8. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  9. An integrated approach to model the biomagnification of organic pollutants in aquatic food webs of the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir ecosystem using adapted pollution scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Starke, Björn; Ottermanns, Richard; Rings, Ursula; Floehr, Tilman; Hollert, Henner; Hou, Junli; Li, Bo; Wu, Ling Ling; Yuan, Xingzhong; Strauch, Katrin; Wei, Hu; Norra, Stefan; Holbach, Andreas; Westrich, Bernhard; Schäffer, Andreas; Roß-Nickoll, Martina

    2013-10-01

    The impounding of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) at the Yangtze River caused large flooding of urban, industrial, and agricultural areas, and profound land use changes took place. Consequently, substantial amounts of organic and inorganic pollutants were released into the reservoir. Additionally, contaminants and nutrients are entering the reservoir by drift, drainage, and runoff from adjacent agricultural areas as well as from sewage of industry, aquacultures, and households. The main aim of the presented research project is a deeper understanding of the processes that determines the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of organic pollutants, i.e., mainly pesticides, in aquatic food webs under the newly developing conditions of the TGR. The project is part of the Yangtze-Hydro environmental program, financed by the German Ministry of Education and Science. In order to test combinations of environmental factors like nutrients and pollution, we use an integrated modeling approach to study the potential accumulation and biomagnification. We describe the integrative modeling approach and the consecutive adaption of the AQUATOX model, used as modeling framework for ecological risk assessment. As a starting point, pre-calibrated simulations were adapted to Yangtze-specific conditions (regionalization). Two exemplary food webs were developed by a thorough review of the pertinent literature. The first typical for the flowing conditions of the original Yangtze River and the Daning River near the city of Wushan, and the second for the stagnant reservoir characteristics of the aforementioned region that is marked by an intermediate between lake and large river communities of aquatic organisms. In close cooperation with German and Chinese partners of the Yangtze-Hydro Research Association, other site-specific parameters were estimated. The MINIBAT project contributed to the calibration of physicochemical and bathymetric parameters, and the TRANSMIC project delivered

  10. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  11. Effects of metal pollution on sediments in a highly saline aquatic ecosystem: case of the Moknine continental Sebkha (eastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Ahmed; Kawachi, Atsushi; Bougi, Mohamed Seddik Mahmoud; Dhia, Hamed Ben; Isoda, Hiroko; Tsujimura, Maki; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Potential contamination of the sediments in the Sebkha of Moknine (Tunisia) ecosystem was assessed by means of enrichment factors (EFs) estimated against reference sediment located ≈70 km away from the Sebkha. The use of EFs is recommended as a reliable method for heavy metal contamination assessment, provided that (1) element contents are corrected following a careful normalization procedure, and (2) the reference sediment is unaffected by anthropogenic alterations. The degree of contamination was assessed by the modified contamination degree approach. The obtained results indicated that surface sediments were enriched up to 22.9, 13.2, 5.46 and 3.19 times with Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn, respectively. Lower enrichment factors for Ni and Co suggested that anthropogenic sources were less important for these metals. The modified degree of contamination showed that the sediments in the Sebkha of Moknine have suffered significant systematic heavy metal contamination following catchment urbanization and industrialization .

  12. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  13. Constructed wetlands to reduce metal pollution from industrial catchments in aquatic Mediterranean ecosystems: a review to overcome obstacles and suggest potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Philippe, Anna; Masotti, Véronique; Höhener, Patrick; Boudenne, Jean-Luc; Viglione, Julien; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-03-01

    In the Mediterranean area, surface waters often have low discharge or renewal rates, hence metal contamination from industrialised catchments can have a high negative impact on the physico-chemical and biological water quality. In a context of climate and anthropological changes, it is necessary to provide an integrative approach for the prevention and control of metal pollution, in order to limit its impact on water resources, biodiversity, trophic network and human health. For this purpose, introduction of constructed wetlands (CWs) between natural aquatic ecosystems and industrialised zones or catchments is a promising strategy for eco-remediation. Analysis of the literature has shown that further research must be done to improve CW design, selection and management of wetland plant species and catchment organisation, in order to ensure the effectiveness of CWs in Mediterranean environments. Firstly, the parameters of basin design that have the greatest influence on metal removal processes must be identified, in order to better focus rhizospheric processes on specific purification objectives. We have summarised in a single diagram the relationships between the design parameters of a CW basin and the physico-chemical and biological processes of metal removal, on the basis of 21 mutually consistent papers. Secondly, in order to optimise the selection and distribution of helophytes in CWs, it is necessary to identify criteria of choice for the plant species that will best fit the remediation objectives and environmental and economic constraints. We have analysed the factors determining plant metal uptake efficiency in CWs on the basis of a qualitative meta-analysis of 13 studies with a view to determine whether the part played by metal uptake by plants is relevant in comparison with the other removal processes. Thirdly, we analysed the parameters to consider for establishing suitable management strategies for CWs and how they affect the whole CW design process

  14. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  15. Aquatic pollution increases use of terrestrial prey subsidies by stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pomeranz, Justin F.; Todd, Andrew S.; Walters, David M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Stream food webs are connected with their riparian zones through cross-ecosystem movements of energy and nutrients. The use and impact of terrestrial subsidies on aquatic consumers is determined in part by in situ biomass of aquatic prey. Thus, stressors such as aquatic pollutants that greatly reduce aquatic secondary production could increase the need for and reliance of stream consumers on terrestrial resource subsidies.

  16. Effects of micro- and nanoplastics on aquatic ecosystems: Current research trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-17

    Contamination by bulk plastics and plastic debris is currently the one of the most serious environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, small-scale plastic debris such as microplastics and nanoplastics has become leading contributors to the pollution of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Studies are investigating the impacts of micro-and nanoplastics on aquatic organisms and ecosystems worldwide. This review covers 83 studies that investigated the distribution of microplastics and the ecotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems. The studies indicated that micro-sized plastics and plastic debris were distributed at various concentrations in aquatic ecosystems around the world. They had various effects on the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and mortality of aquatic animals. We discuss these studies in detail and suggest directions for future research.

  17. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based......" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes...

  18. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality m...

  19. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  20. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.;

    2012-01-01

    aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv......Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... a literature survey, we document the growing importance of numerical aquatic ecosystem models while also noting the difficulties, up until now, of the aquatic scientific community to make significant advances in these models during the past two decades. Through a common forum for aquatic ecosystem modellers we...

  1. Assessment of pollution with aquatic bryophytes in Maritsa River (Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecheva, Gana; Yurukova, Lilyana; Ganeva, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Bryophyte species composition and 26 common physico-chemical and inorganic chemical parameters were assessed at 23 selected sites in the Maritsa River (BG) over a 4-year period. Principal components analyses (PCA) of both bryophytes and water variables distinguished different locations in the ecosystem. The data imply that the content of elements measured in bryophytes represents river contamination, while species compositional patterns reflect hydromorphology and general degradation. This study for the first time combined aquatic bryophyte occurrence, the bioaccumulation of 17 macro-and microelements in 17 species, and 26 water factors by principal components analysis (PCA) in an assessment of river pollution.

  2. Risk Assessment Considerations for Veterinary Medicines in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a critical evaluation of prospective and retrospective risk assessment approaches for veterinary medicines in aquatic ecosystems and provides recommendations for possible alternative approaches for hazard characterization.

  3. Development of resource shed delineation in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical fo...

  4. Toxicity assessment of boron (B) by Lemna minor L. and Lemna gibba L. and their possible use as model plants for ecological risk assessment of aquatic ecosystems with boron pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Nurcan; Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun

    2016-08-01

    As many of the metalloid-based pollutants, the boron (B) toxicity issues have aroused more and more global attentions, especially concerning drinking water sources which flow through boron-rich areas. Therefore, feasible and innovative approaches are required in order to assess B toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the toxic effects of B on Lemna minor L. and Lemna gibba L. were investigated using various endpoints including number of fronds, growth rates, dry biomass and antioxidants enzymatic activities. Lemna species were exposed to B concentrations of 2 (control), 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg L(-1) for a test period of 7 days. The results demonstrated that plant growth was significantly reduced when the B concentration reached 16 mg L(-1). Furthermore, our results also concluded that among the antioxidative enzymes, SOD, APX and GPX can serve as important biomarkers for B-rich environment. The present results suggested that L. minor and L. gibba are very useful model plants for phytoremediation of low-B contaminated wastewater and they are also suitable options for B biomonitoring due to high phototoxic sensitivity against B. In this respect, the scientific insight of the present study is to fill the gaps in the research about the use of L. minor and L. gibba in ecotoxicological research associated with B toxicity.

  5. An automated platform for phytoplankton ecology and aquatic ecosystem monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomati, F.; Jokela, J.; Simona, M.; Veronesi, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    High quality monitoring data are vital for tracking and understanding the causes of ecosystem change. We present a potentially powerful approach for phytoplankton and aquatic ecosystem monitoring, based on integration of scanning flow-cytometry for the characterization and counting of algal cells wi

  6. Ecotoxicological Studies on Egyptian Aquatic Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameeh A. Mansour

    2004-01-01

    @@ Within the framework of a national research project, Egyptianaquatic ecosystems represented by Lakes of Qarun and Wadi El-Rayan,aswell as other related ecosystems, were subjected to certain toxicologicalstudies.

  7. Interfaces in aquatic ecosystems: Implications for transport and impact of anthropogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knulst, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mechanisms that govern transport, accumulation and toxicity of persistent pollutants at interfaces in aquatic ecosystems were the foci of this thesis. Specific attention was paid to humic substances, their occurrence, composition, and role in exchange processes across interfaces. It was concluded that: The composition of humic substances in aquatic surface microlayers is different from that of the subsurface water and terrestrial humic matter. Levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic surface microlayer reflect the DOC levels in the subsurface water. While the levels and enrichment of DOC in the microlayer generally show small variations, the levels and enrichment of particulate organic carbon (POC) vary to a great extent. Similarities exist between aquatic surface films, artificial semi-permeable and biological membranes regarding their structure and functioning. Acidification and liming of freshwater ecosystems affect DOC:POC ratio and humic composition of the surface film, thus influencing the partitioning of pollutants across aquatic interfaces. Properties of lake catchment areas extensively govern DOC:POC ratio both in the surface film and subsurface water. Increased UV-B irradiation changes the DOC:POC ratio in the surface film and thus affect transfer of matter across the interface. Transport of lipophilic, persistent organic pollutants across semi-permeable membranes is influenced by the solutes organic composition. 106 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  8. Algal Bloom in Aquatic Ecosystems-an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghorbani; S.A. Mirbagheri; A. H. Hasani; S. M. Monavari; J.Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Algae play an important role in all aquatic ecosystems by providing all living organisms of water bodies with preliminary nutrients and energy required. However, abnormal and excessive algal growth so-called algal bloom would be detrimental as much. Given the importance of algae in aquatic environment as well as their sensitivity to environmental changes, algal measurements are of key components of water quality monitoring programs. The algal blooms could include a variety of adverse impacts...

  9. Production of EPA and DHA in aquatic ecosystems and their transfer to the land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N

    2013-12-01

    Most omnivorous animals, including humans, have to some degree relied on physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from food. Only some taxa of microalgae, rather than higher plants can synthesize de novo high amounts of EPA and DHA. Once synthesized by microalgae, PUFA are transferred through trophic chain to organisms of higher levels. Thus, aquatic ecosystems play the unique role in the Biosphere as the principal source of EPA and DHA for most omnivorous animals, including inhabitants of terrestrial ecosystems. PUFA are transferred from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems through riparian predators, drift of carrion and seaweeds, emergence of amphibiotic insects, and water birds. The essential PUFA are transferred through trophic chains with about twice higher efficiency than bulk carbon. Thereby, PUFA are accumulated, rather than diluted in biomass of organisms of higher trophic levels, e.g., in fish. Mankind is faced with a severe deficiency of EPA and DHA in diet. Although additional sources of PUFA supply for humans, such as aquaculture, biotechnology of microorganisms and transgenic terrestrial oil-seed producing plants are developed, natural fish production of aquatic ecosystems will remain one of the main sources of EPA and DHA for humans. Aquatic ecosystems have to be protected from anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, pollution and warming, which reduce PUFA production.

  10. A model for an aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Han Li; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-06-01

    An ecosystem made of nutrients, plants, detritus and dissolved oxygen is presented. Its equilibria are established. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the coexistence equilibrium are derived and its feasibility is discussed in every detail.

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentès, Sophie; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Monperrus, Mathilde; André, Jean-Marc; Davail, Stéphane; Legeay, Alexia

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs.

  12. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  13. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor... of Availability. SUMMARY: EPA is releasing a final report entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water...

  14. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor.... SUMMARY: EPA is announcing the release of the draft report titled, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the...

  15. Liver histopathology of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus as a biomarker of aquatic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, J C; Cochrane, M J; Wagenaar, G M

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on a comparative perspective of liver histopathological data of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus. The data was collected from a spectrum of relatively un-impacted and isolated, to polluted, eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. Results were compared between regional areas, by combining data from freshwater systems which has a similar pollution status and/or is located within the same geographical region. Measurements included necropsy observations, semi-quantitative liver histopathology (Liver Index), and selected biometrical indices. The aim was to establish whether the results of these measurements would differ between, and/or reflect the pollution status of, the different freshwater aquatic ecosystems. The histopathological analysis showed a higher prevalence of toxicopathic non-neoplastic, and pre-neoplastic alterations in C. gariepinus from the polluted sites. We also found a significant difference between the Liver Index, hepatosomatic index, and condition factor values of fish inhabiting impoundments known to be polluted, compared to the same species from the selected reference sites. Fish from polluted sites also had more macroscopic liver abnormalities. The results suggest that the liver histopathology of this bio-indicator fish species could be a useful biomarker of freshwater aquatic pollution.

  16. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  17. Characterization factors for thermal pollution in freshwater aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Pfister, Stephan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Pelletier, Gregory J; Koehler, Annette

    2010-12-15

    To date the impact of thermal emissions has not been addressed in life cycle assessment despite the narrow thermal tolerance of most aquatic species. A method to derive characterization factors for the impact of cooling water discharges on aquatic ecosystems was developed which uses space and time explicit integration of fate and effects of water temperature changes. The fate factor is calculated with a 1-dimensional steady-state model and reflects the residence time of heat emissions in the river. The effect factor specifies the loss of species diversity per unit of temperature increase and is based on a species sensitivity distribution of temperature tolerance intervals for various aquatic species. As an example, time explicit characterization factors were calculated for the cooling water discharge of a nuclear power plant in Switzerland, quantifying the impact on aquatic ecosystems of the rivers Aare and Rhine. The relative importance of the impact of these cooling water discharges was compared with other impacts in life cycle assessment. We found that thermal emissions are relevant for aquatic ecosystems compared to other stressors, such as chemicals and nutrients. For the case of nuclear electricity investigated, thermal emissions contribute between 3% and over 90% to Ecosystem Quality damage.

  18. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    alteration). Considering the strong trophic links that characterize aquatic ecosystems, this framework is relevant to anticipate the far-reaching consequences of biological invasions on the structure and functionality of aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested.

  20. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  1. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  2. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  3. An automated platform for phytoplankton ecology and aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Jokela, Jukka; Simona, Marco; Veronesi, Mauro; Ibelings, Bas W

    2011-11-15

    High quality monitoring data are vital for tracking and understanding the causes of ecosystem change. We present a potentially powerful approach for phytoplankton and aquatic ecosystem monitoring, based on integration of scanning flow-cytometry for the characterization and counting of algal cells with multiparametric vertical water profiling. This approach affords high-frequency data on phytoplankton abundance, functional traits and diversity, coupled with the characterization of environmental conditions for growth over the vertical structure of a deep water body. Data from a pilot study revealed effects of an environmental disturbance event on the phytoplankton community in Lake Lugano (Switzerland), characterized by a reduction in cytometry-based functional diversity and by a period of cyanobacterial dominance. These changes were missed by traditional limnological methods, employed in parallel to high-frequency monitoring. Modeling of phytoplankton functional diversity revealed the importance of integrated spatiotemporal data, including circadian time-lags and variability over the water column, to understand the drivers of diversity and dynamic processes. The approach described represents progress toward an automated and trait-based analysis of phytoplankton natural communities. Streamlining of high-frequency measurements may represent a resource for understanding, modeling and managing aquatic ecosystems under impact of environmental change, yielding insight into processes governing phytoplankton community resistance and resilience.

  4. Methodological tests of a heterotrophy index for aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Antonio

    Full Text Available Experiments in glucose mineralization were carried out to investigate the effects caused by natural forcing functions on both the decomposition rates and heterotrophy capacity of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the methodology used could show connections between mineralization rates measured in both laboratory and field work with those measured in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples from Infernão lagoon (21º35'S and 47º51'W were collected, filtered, enriched with glucose, and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The glucose concentration variation, dissolved oxygen (DO consumption, pH, electric conductivity, and total CO2 amount in the water were determined for sixteen days. In the period with intense oxygen consumption there was also an evident glucose demand and the dissolved oxygen consumption rate was approximately the same as that for glucose mineralization. The process in the aerobic chambers was 2.2 times faster than that in the anaerobic chambers. An initial acidification of the water samples, probably due to microbial carbonic acid liberation, was noted. A rise in pH values was also observed at the end of the process. The electric conductivity was low for both aerobic and anaerobic chambers, indicating a probable ion uptake by microbial organisms due to the presence of carbon sources. The glucose content variations corresponded to both CO2 formation and dissolved oxygen consumption. It was estimated that 19.4% of the initial glucose content turned into CO2 and the remaining 80.6% into humic compounds and microbial biomass. This experiment showed that glucose can be used as a substrate indicating the heterotrophy of a given aquatic ecosystem.

  5. Methodological tests of a heterotrophy index for aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, R M; Bianchini Júnior, I

    2003-08-01

    Experiments in glucose mineralization were carried out to investigate the effects caused by natural forcing functions on both the decomposition rates and heterotrophy capacity of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the methodology used could show connections between mineralization rates measured in both laboratory and field work with those measured in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples from Infernão lagoon (21 degrees 35'S and 47 degrees 51'W) were collected, filtered, enriched with glucose, and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The glucose concentration variation, dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption, pH, electric conductivity, and total CO2 amount in the water were determined for sixteen days. In the period with intense oxygen consumption there was also an evident glucose demand and the dissolved oxygen consumption rate was approximately the same as that for glucose mineralization. The process in the aerobic chambers was 2.2 times faster than that in the anaerobic chambers. An initial acidification of the water samples, probably due to microbial carbonic acid liberation, was noted. A rise in pH values was also observed at the end of the process. The electric conductivity was low for both aerobic and anaerobic chambers, indicating a probable ion uptake by microbial organisms due to the presence of carbon sources. The glucose content variations corresponded to both CO2 formation and dissolved oxygen consumption. It was estimated that 19.4% of the initial glucose content turned into CO2 and the remaining 80.6% into humic compounds and microbial biomass. This experiment showed that glucose can be used as a substrate indicating the heterotrophy of a given aquatic ecosystem.

  6. 75 FR 18499 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields'' (EPA/600/R-09/138A) and (2... Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields'' and ``A Field-based Aquatic...

  7. Synthesis report: program ecosystems, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001; Rapport de synthese: programme ecosystemes, transport, pollutions, 1998 - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchelecou, A.; Deletraz, G.; Elichegaray, Ch

    2001-04-01

    The ''Ecosystems, Transports, Pollution Program'' ETP Program, has been elaborated to evaluate the road pollution impacts on the mountain ecosystems. Four mountains valleys have been chosen: two in Alps (Chamonix and Maurienne) and two in Pyrenees (Biriatou and Vallee d'Aspe). This Program presents six objectives: the road traffic characterization, the pollutants emission estimation, the pollutants concentrations in the air, the pollutants dispersion according to relief, the relationships between pollutants emissions and bio-monitoring, the road pollution effects on nearby ecosystems. (A.L.B.)

  8. Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Guy; Gessner, Mark O; Giller, Paul S; Gulis, Vladislav; Hladyz, Sally; Lecerf, Antoine; Malmqvist, Björn; McKie, Brendan G; Tiegs, Scott D; Cariss, Helen; Dobson, Mike; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A S; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Lacoursière, Jean O; Nistorescu, Marius; Pozo, Jesús; Risnoveanu, Geta; Schindler, Markus; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Vought, Lena B-M; Chauvet, Eric

    2012-06-15

    Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process--leaf-litter breakdown--in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  10. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  11. Environmental behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyuan; Tan, Yuyun; Korte, F.

    1991-03-01

    LAS degradation rate in Donghu Lake water under aerobic was much faster than under anaerobic condition. The half life of LAS in aerobic and anaerobic environment was 3.2 days and 57 days, respectively. The degradation rate at 25 27°C was approximately 20 times higher than that at 1.5 3.5 °C. In a laboratory model aquatic ecosystem, two stages of bioconcentration in fish, daphnia and snail were observed. The first stage, on second day exposure, resulted from accumulation of intact LAS, and the second stage, on 16th day exposure, was due to metabolites. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of LAS was extremely low in the muscle of hybrid carp (0.64), but rather high (2485) in the gall bladder.

  12. Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Krusor, Colin; Mazzillo, Fernanda F M; Conrad, Patricia A; Largier, John L; Mazet, Jonna A K; Silver, Mary W

    2014-11-22

    Gelatinous polymers including extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are fundamental to biophysical processes in aquatic habitats, including mediating aggregation processes and functioning as the matrix of biofilms. Yet insight into the impact of these sticky molecules on the environmental transmission of pathogens in the ocean is limited. We used the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii as a model to evaluate polymer-mediated mechanisms that promote transmission of terrestrially derived pathogens to marine fauna and humans. We show that transparent exopolymer particles, a particulate form of EPS, enhance T. gondii association with marine aggregates, material consumed by organisms otherwise unable to access micrometre-sized particles. Adhesion to EPS biofilms on macroalgae also captures T. gondii from the water, enabling uptake of pathogens by invertebrates that feed on kelp surfaces. We demonstrate the acquisition, concentration and retention of T. gondii by kelp-grazing snails, which can transmit T. gondii to threatened California sea otters. Results highlight novel mechanisms whereby aquatic polymers facilitate incorporation of pathogens into food webs via association with particle aggregates and biofilms. Identifying the critical role of invisible polymers in transmission of pathogens in the ocean represents a fundamental advance in understanding and mitigating the health impacts of coastal habitat pollution with contaminated runoff.

  13. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, P.

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal......-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen...... that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen....

  14. Spatial variation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and critical loads for aquatic ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L; McMurray, J A; Clow, D W; Saros, J E; Blett, T; Gurdak, J J

    2017-04-01

    Current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has impacted aquatic ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). Understanding the spatial variation in total atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) of N is needed to estimate air pollution deposition critical loads for sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is particularly important for areas that have an increasing contribution of ammonia dry deposition to total N (TN), such as the GYA. High resolution geostatistical models and maps of TN deposition (wet + dry) were developed using a variety of techniques including ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, to evaluate spatial variability and identify areas of elevated loading of pollutants for the GYA. TN deposition estimates in the GYA range from <1.4 to 7.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and show greater variability than wet inorganic N deposition. Critical loads of TN deposition (CLTNdep) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems range from less than 1.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) to over 4.0 ± 1.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and variability is controlled by differences in basin characteristics. The lowest CLTNdep estimates occurred in high elevation basins within GYA Wilderness boundaries. TN deposition maps were used to identify critical load exceedances for aquatic ecosystems. Estimated CLTNdep exceedances for the GYA range from 17% to 48% depending on the surface water nitrate (NO3(-)) threshold. Based on a NO3(-) threshold of 1.0 μmol L(-1), TN deposition exceeds CLTNdep in approximately 30% of the GYA. These predictive models and maps can be used to help identify and protect sensitive ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition.

  15. 75 FR 39934 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian...) ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian.... ADDRESSES: The draft reports, ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems...

  16. 75 FR 51058 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields.... ADDRESSES: The draft reports, ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems...

  17. 75 FR 30393 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields.... ADDRESSES: The draft reports, ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems...

  18. 76 FR 30938 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (EPA/600/R-09/138F... The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

  19. 水体生态系统对不同浓度水平苯酚污染的急性毒性响应%Response of aquatic ecosystem to phenol pollution at different concentration levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建英; 丁腾达; 梁璐怡; 王凤平; 陈瑾

    2012-01-01

    The effect of phenol on aquatic ecosystem was investigated by combining field monitoring and laboratory studies.Photobacterium phosphoreum,Scenedesmus quadricauda,Brachydanio rerio were selected in this study to explore the ecological response of producers,consumers and decomposers in the aquatic ecosystem to different concentrations of phenol stress.The results showed that toxic effects of phenol on luminescent bacteria,algae and fish were found,but there was no good linear relationship between inhibition rate of S.quadricauda and phenol concentration.Relationship of phenol concentration with the relative luminous efficiency of luminous bacteria indicated that the toxicity effect occurred at phenol concentrations higher than 0.2 mg·L-1.The toxic effect of phenol on S.quadricauda may be mainly due to the destruction of the dark reaction in photosynthesis.High concentration phenol promoted the growth,probably because phenol may be regarded as a carbon source for S.quadricauda.The weight loss,increased mortality,shortness of breath,swimming speed increase of zebra fish and deterioration of water quality were found after treatment of phenol concentration higher than 15 mg·L-1.The accumulated concentration of phenol in fish at 100 mg·L-1 exposure concentration was high,which could cause serious threat to human health through food chain.%针对浙江某地苯酚泄漏事件,结合实地监测和实验室研究,探索苯酚的水体污染化学行为对水体生态系统的影响和急性毒性效应.本研究选取水生生态系统中明亮发光杆菌T3、优势藻四尾栅藻Scenedesmus quadricauda以及模式鱼斑马鱼Brachydanio rerio为研究对象,探索水体中生产者、消费者及分解者等整个生态系统对不同苯酚浓度胁迫下的生态响应.结果表明,水生生物对苯酚污染浓度的生态响应差异显著,虽然苯酚对发光细菌、四尾栅藻及鱼体都具有一定的毒性影响,但四尾栅藻抑制率与苯酚浓度之

  20. Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; McIntyre, A.D.; Mills, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    Summary: Pollutants tend to simplify plant and animal communities by causing a progressive loss of species. At the extreme, this leads to erosion and loss of soil fertility. Weedy, broadly adapted species increase. Among animals, carnivorous species and groups are often the first to suffer. This is partly because of their exposure at the top of the food chain, and partly, it appears, because of physiological differences. Species differences in susceptibility are abundant and are often critical. One result is that when one pest is controlled another is likely to flare up. Resistance appears commonly in insects and is known in other fast-breeding forms, including fishes, frogs, and rodents. Resistant individuals can carry toxicant loads that make them dangerous food for other animals. Some groups, including mollusks and annelids, are naturally resistant to many organohalogens and tend to accumulate them. Animals such as birds may carry lipophilic pollutants in large amounts with apparent safety until forced to draw upon their fat. They may then suffer delayed mortality, and no doubt suffer reproductive or behavioral effects at sublethal levels. Lipophilic pollutants in the brain rise when body lipids decrease and fall when body lipids increase. Mutagenesis can be caused by some common pollutants and the mutagenic properties of most chemicals are far too little known. Fortunately, common pesticides are not likely to be strong mutagens. Mutagenicity may be affecting certain long-lived and slow-breeding species in the wild, but most species have enough population turnover to swamp an occasional mutagenic event. Behavioral changes can be caused by relatively low levels of contaminants, but it is often hard to demonstrate them without using high dosages. Reproduction may or may not be affected adversely by low exposures. At certain exposures that are below the toxic levels of a chemical, a biostimulatory effect is to be expected. Food chain accumulations definitely do

  1. Scaling for Robust Assessment and Predictions of Aquatic Ecosystem Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, O.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation demonstrates the development and applications of a unique scaling technique for robust assessment and predictions of aquatic ecosystem health. We developed scaling-based, robust empirical and semi-empirical models for standardizing grab samples of stream dissolved oxygen (DO) and for predicting (hindcasting and forecasting) stream DO time-series. A reference clock-time, single observation from the diurnal cycle is used as the scaling parameter to collapse hourly DO time-series of different days into a single diurnal curve, which is parameterized by developing an extended stochastic harmonic analysis (ESHA). The scaling technique was previously applied to develop an algorithm for converting grab samples of stream DO collected at any time of the day to a reference clock time. The research is extended to develop an algorithm for simulating the diurnal DO cycles at different stream sites from their corresponding single reference observations of the day. The scaling concept was tested for spatio-temporal robustness with hourly DO data for eight streams representing five distinct Level III Ecoregions of Minnesota. Estimated model parameters demonstrated notable robustness in time and space. Scaling is often used to develop robust modeling and application tools in many physical engineering disciplines. Presented research exemplifies utilization of the scaling concept in Ecological Engineering applications.

  2. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement at Mountaintop Mining Sites Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D. Courtney; Lawson, Peter; Morgan, John; Maggard, Randy; Schor, Horst; Powell, Rocky; Kirk, Ed. J.

    2000-01-12

    Welcome to this symposium which is part of the ongoing effort to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding mountaintop mining and valley fills. The EIS is being prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Office of Surface Mining, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the State of West Virginia. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement (AEE) at mountaintop mining sites is one of fourteen technical areas identified for study by the EIS Interagency Steering Committee. Three goals were identified in the AEE Work Plan: 1. Assess mining and reclamation practices to show how mining operations might be carried out in a way that minimizes adverse impacts to streams and other environmental resources and to local communities. Clarify economic and technical constraints and benefits. 2. Help citizens clarify choices by showing whether there are affordable ways to enhance existing mining, reclamation, mitigation processes and/or procedures. 3. Ide identify data needed to improve environmental evaluation and design of mining projects to protect the environment. Today’s symposium was proposed in the AEE Team Work Plans but coordinated planning for the event began September 15, 1999 when representatives from coal industry, environmental groups and government regulators met in Morgantown. The meeting participants worked with a facilitator from the Canaan Valley Institute to outline plans for the symposium. Several teams were formed to carry out the plans we outlined in the meeting.

  3. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Francisco J; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals.

  4. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  5. [Application of microfluidics in aquatic environmental pollution analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Wei, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Guo-Xia

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a new type of chip technology, microfluidics, has received global attention for its rapid analysis speed, low reagent consumption, small size and simple operation, etc. Based on a micro-channel network and supported by a Micro-Electro-Mechanic System (MEMS), this technology integrates all the functions of a laboratory into one small piece of chip, which is called "lab on the chip". This paper presented a brief introduction about microfluidics and its representative developments. Future prospects in the aspects of instrument miniaturization, system integration, chip materials, and detection techniques, as well as the implementation of microfluidics in aquatic environmental pollutant analysis were thoroughly discussed. Some problems faced now were put forward. With the rapid progress in the microfluidics, a universal low-cost microchip capable of high speed multi-channel detection and integrated with many kinds of detection methods would be the research focus in the future.

  6. The role of aquatic ecosystems as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Elisabet; Variatza, Eleni; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Although antibiotic resistance has become a major threat to human health worldwide, this phenomenon has been largely overlooked in studies in environmental settings. Aquatic environments may provide an ideal setting for the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, because they are frequently impacted by anthropogenic activities. This review focuses primarily on the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the aquatic environment, with a special emphasis on the role of antibiotic resistance genes.

  7. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T.N.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Falk-Petersen, S.

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Technology-Supported Inquiry for Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Eberbach, Catherine; Jordan, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Understanding ecosystems is challenging, but important for becoming environmentally-literate citizens of today's society. People have difficulty considering how different components, mechanisms, and phenomena, both visible and invisible, are interconnected within ecosystems. This research presents both the design and initial testing of an…

  9. Response of shallow aquatic ecosystems to different nutrient loading levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portielje, R.

    1994-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface waters leads to a decline of water quality, which becomes manifest as an impoverishment of the aquatic community. Insight into the effects of eutrophication on the structure and functioning of these communities and knowlegde on underlying interactions is needed to quant

  10. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore U.S. ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, M.E.; Lambert, K.F.; Blett, T.F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, L.H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, R. A.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Jeffries, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    states and on many tribal lands. High concentrations of mercury in wildlife are also widespread and have multiple adverse effects. ??? Air quality programs, such as those stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, have helped decrease air pollution even as population and energy demand have increased. Yet, they do not adequately protect ecosystems from long-term damage. Moreover they do not address ammonia emissions. ??? A stronger ecosystem basis for air pollutant policies could be established through adoption of science-based thresholds. Existing monitoring programs track vital information needed to measure the response to policies, and could be expanded to include appropriate chemical and biological indicators for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and establishment of a national ecosystem monitoring network for mercury. The development and use of air pollution thresholds for ecosystem protection and management is increasing in the United States, yet threshold approaches remain underutilized. Ecological thresholds for air pollution, such as critical loads for nitrogen and sulfur deposition, are not currently included in the formal regulatory process for emissions controls in the United States, although they are now considered in local management decisions by the National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service. Ecological thresholds offer a scientifically sound approach to protecting and restoring U.S. ecosystems and an important tool for natural resource management and policy. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  11. Environmental Parasitology. Interactions between parasites and pollutants in the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sures B.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing number of papers showing how parasitism and pollution can interact with each other in aquatic organisms. Among the variety of investigated aspects especially the combined effects of pollution and simultaneous infection on the health of aquatic hosts (molluscs, crustaceans, fish, mammals is of considerable interest. Effects of pollution on the occurrence and distribution of parasites is another interesting field of “Environmental Parasitology” attracting increasing attention. This mini-review presents some promising examples of interdisciplinary studies paying attention to the fact that under natural conditions no organism will only be affected by either parasites or pollution.

  12. Impact of external forces on cyanophage-host interactions in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Sabah A A; Limoges, Richard G

    2013-10-01

    Cyanobacterial (algal) blooms have by convention been attributed to the excessive level of nutrients from pollution and runoff, which promotes the rapid growth and multiplication of cyanobacteria or algae. The cyanophage (virus) is the natural predator of cyanobacteria (the host). The aim of this review is to unveil certain pressures that disrupt cyanophage-host interactions and the formation of cyanobacterial blooms. This review focuses principally on the impact of greenhouse gases, ozone depletion, solar ultraviolet radiation (SUR) and the role of recently discovered virophages, which coexist with and in turn are the natural predator of phages. The key findings are that the increase in SUR, the mutation of cyanophages and cyanobacteria, along with changing nutrient levels, have combined with virophages to impede cyanophage-host interactions and the resultant viral infection and killing of the cyanobacterial cell, which is a necessary step in controlling cyanobacterial blooms. Consider this a 'call to action' for researchers interested in corrective action aimed at evolving aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Testing a 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach to understanding aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Rudman, Seth M; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A; McKown, Athena D; Sato, Takuya; MacDonald, Andrew M; Heavyside, Julian; Geraldes, Armando; Hart, Edmund M; LeRoy, Carri J; El-Sabaawi, Rana W

    2014-12-01

    A 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach has been proposed as a novel avenue for integrating the consequences of intraspecific genetic variation with the underlying genetic architecture of a species to shed light on the relationships among hierarchies of ecological organization (genes → individuals → communities → ecosystems). However, attempts to identify genes with major effect on the structure of communities and/or ecosystem processes have been limited and a comprehensive test of this approach has yet to emerge. Here, we present an interdisciplinary field study that integrated a common garden containing different genotypes of a dominant, riparian tree, Populus trichocarpa, and aquatic mesocosms to determine how intraspecific variation in leaf litter alters both terrestrial and aquatic communities and ecosystem functioning. Moreover, we incorporate data from extensive trait screening and genome-wide association studies estimating the heritability and genes associated with litter characteristics. We found that tree genotypes varied considerably in the quality and production of leaf litter, which contributed to variation in phytoplankton abundances, as well as nutrient dynamics and light availability in aquatic mesocosms. These 'after-life' effects of litter from different genotypes were comparable to the responses of terrestrial communities associated with the living foliage. We found that multiple litter traits corresponding with aquatic community and ecosystem responses differed in their heritability. Moreover, the underlying genetic architecture of these traits was complex, and many genes contributed only a small proportion to phenotypic variation. Our results provide further evidence that genetic variation is a key component of aquatic-terrestrial linkages, but challenge the ability to predict community or ecosystem responses based on the actions of one or a few genes.

  14. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of heavy metal pollution of water in DTD canal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Slobodanka P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to establish the presence or absence of chemical contamination of water and the littoral zone (banks of Danube-Tisza-Danube (DTD canal system. The investigation covered the canal section from Bezdan to Prigrevica. By analyzing the chemical composition of dominant aquatic species in four locations of the section, we defined the species with the highest capacity to accumulate nutrients and heavy metals. Concentrations of P and K as well as of a beneficial element Na in the tissues of the analyzed macrophytes were both species- and site-dependent. The highest accumulation was registered for Ceratophyllum demersum while the species Elodea canadensis showed increased P and K accumulation values in the location Sombor. The lowest concentrations of almost all heavy metals were recorded near Sombor, indicating that this section suffered the lowest chemical pollution. Highest concentrations of all of the analyzed heavy metals were recorded in the tissue of Ceratophyllum demersum from the location Prigrevica, possibly due to the influx of polluted drainage waters from surrounding agricultural areas as well as industrial wastewaters. The obtained results showed that the enforcement of biomonitoring and analyses of other parameters indicative of ecosystem conditions might be useful for improved protection of areas experiencing a strong human impact.

  15. Fire and aquatic ecosystems in forested biomes of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of the literature suggests that physical, chemical, and biological elements of a watershed interact with long-term climate to influence fire regime, and that these factors, in concordance with the postfire vegetation mosaic, combine with local-scale weather to govern the trajectory and magnitude of change following a fire event. Perturbation associated with hydrological processes is probably the primary factor influencing postfire persistence of fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and diatoms in fluvial systems. It is apparent that salmonids have evolved strategies to survive perturbations occurring at the frequency of wildland fires (100a??102 years), but local populations of a species may be more ephemeral. Habitat alteration probably has the greatest impact on individual organisms and local populations that are the least mobile, and reinvasion will be most rapid by aquatic organisms with high mobility. It is becoming increasingly apparent that during the past century fire suppression has altered fire regimes in some vegetation types, and consequently, the probability of large stand-replacing fires has increased in those areas. Current evidence suggests, however, that even in the case of extensive high-severity fires, local extirpation of fishes is patchy, and recolonization is rapid. Lasting detrimental effects on fish populations have been limited to areas where native populations have declined and become increasingly isolated because of anthropogenic activities. A strategy of protecting robust aquatic communities and restoring aquatic habitat structure and life history complexity in degraded areas may be the most effective means for insuring the persistence of native biota where the probability of large-scale fires has increased.

  16. Challenges of deriving a complete biosphere greenhouse gas balance through integration of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Past research efforts have mostly focused on separately investigating the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHGs) within the limits of different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types. More recently however, it has been recognized that GHG exchanges and budgets are not limited to boundaries of the terrestrial or aquatic biosphere components and instead are often tightly linked amongst the different ecosystem types. Primarily the aquatic production and export of GHGs due to substrate supply or discharge from surrounding terrestrial ecosystems play a major role in regional GHG budgets. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of this connectivity between different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem GHG exchanges is therefore necessary to develop landscape-level GHG budgets and to understand their sensitivity to disturbances of the biosphere. Moreover, the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) as the most important GHG species has been the primary research objective with regards to obtaining better estimates of the carbon sequestration potential of the biosphere. However, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may offset CO2 sinks and considerably affect the complete GHG balance in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Including their contribution and improved knowledge on the dynamics of these two gas species is therefore essential for complete GHG budget estimates. At present, the integration of terrestrial and aquatic GHG exchanges toward landscape GHG budgets poses numerous challenges. These include the need for a better knowledge of i) the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting terrestrial (forests, peatlands, grasslands, croplands) and aquatic (lake, streams) ecosystems when integrated over a full year, ii) the effect of ecosystem properties (e.g. age and/or development stage, size of water body) on the GHG balance, iii) the impact of management effects (e.g. nitrogen fertilizer application), iv) differences among climate regions and v

  17. Bioassay for aquatic ecosystems review and classification; Rassegna dei principali test di ecotossicologia acquatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanci, Antonella; Rosa, Silvia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    Bioassay play a crucial role in assessing the actual or potential impacts of anthropogenic agents on the natural environment. In this technical report, literature on bioassays for aquatic ecosystems has been reviewed and classified. Problems associated with the choice and application of bioassays are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems with nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gen-fu; WU Xue-chang; XUAN Xiao-dong; ZHOU Xue-ping

    2006-01-01

    There has always been a great need for simple and accurate bioassays for evaluating nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems. Whereas organic carbon is usually considered to be the limiting nutrient for microbial growth in many aquatic ecosystems,there are, however, many water sources that are limited by phosphorus or nitrogen. A method named "nitrogen fixing bacterial growth potential" (NFBGP) test, which is based on pre-culturing ofautochthonous (target) microorganisms was described. The method was applied to evaluate phosphorus or nitrogen nutrient limitation in lake and sewage water samples using an isolate of the nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azorhizobium sp. WS6. The results corresponded well to those from the traditional algal growth potential (AGP) test and the bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) test, suggesting that the NFBGP test is a useful supplementary method for evaluating the limiting nutrient, especially phosphorus, in an aquatic environment.

  19. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in the Olifants River Basin, South Africa: Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through a subtropical aquatic food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Vera; Newmark, Nadine; D'Hollander, Wendy; Covaci, Adrian; Vlok, Wynand; Wepener, Victor; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Jooste, Antoinette; Teuchies, Johannes; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2017-02-14

    This study investigates the trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs and PFASs) in the subtropical aquatic ecosystem of the Olifants River Basin (South Africa) by means of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). Relative trophic levels were determined by stable isotope analysis. POP levels in surface water, sediment and biota were low. Only ∑DDTs levels in fish muscle (contaminants through the food web. TMFs were >1, indicating biomagnification of all detected POPs. Calculated TMFs for PCBs were comparable to TMF values reported from the tropical Congo River basin and lower than TMFs from temperate and arctic regions. For p,p'-DDT, a higher TMF value was observed for the subtropical Olifants River during the winter low flow season than for the tropical Congo river. TMFs of DDTs from the present study were unexpectedly higher than TMFs from temperate and arctic aquatic food webs. The fish species in the aquatic ecosystem of the Olifants River can be consumed with a low risk for POP contamination.

  1. Fire effects on aquatic ecosystems: an assessment of the current state of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca J. Bixby,; Scott D. Cooper,; Gresswell, Bob; Lee E. Brown,; Clifford N. Dahm,; Kathleen A. Dwire,

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a prevalent feature of many landscapes and has numerous and complex effects on geological, hydrological, ecological, and economic systems. In some regions, the frequency and intensity of wildfire have increased in recent years and are projected to escalate with predicted climatic and landuse changes. In addition, prescribed burns continue to be used in many parts of the world to clear vegetation for development projects, encourage desired vegetation, and reduce fuel loads. Given the prevalence of fire on the landscape, authors of papers in this special series examine the complexities of fire as a disturbance shaping freshwater ecosystems and highlight the state of the science. These papers cover key aspects of fire effects that range from vegetation loss and recovery in watersheds to effects on hydrology and water quality with consequences for communities (from algae to fish), food webs, and ecosystem processes (e.g., organic matter subsidies, nutrient cycling) across a range of scales. The results presented in this special series of articles expand our knowledge of fire effects in different biomes, water bodies, and geographic regions, encompassing aquatic population, community, and ecosystem responses. In this overview, we summarize each paper and emphasize its contributions to knowledge on fire ecology and freshwater ecosystems. This overview concludes with a list of 7 research foci that are needed to further our knowledge of fire effects on aquatic ecosystems, including research on: 1) additional biomes and geographic regions; 2) additional habitats, including wetlands and lacustrine ecosystems; 3) different fire severities, sizes, and spatial configurations; and 4) additional response variables (e.g., ecosystem processes) 5) over long (>5 y) time scales 6) with more rigorous study designs and data analyses, and 7) consideration of the effects of fire management practices and policies on aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Modeling an aquatic ecosystem: application of an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping to reduce prediction uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic ecosystem models can potentially be used to understand the influence of stresses on catchment resource quality. Given that catchment responses are functions of natural and anthropogenic stresses reflected in sparse and spatiotemporal biological, physical, and chemical measurements, an ecosystem is difficult to model using statistical or numerical methods. We propose an artificial adaptive systems approach to model ecosystems. First, an unsupervised machine-learning (ML) network is trained using the set of available sparse and disparate data variables. Second, an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping is applied to reduce the number of ecosystem variables to an optimal set. Third, the optimal set of ecosystem variables is used to retrain the ML network. Fourth, a stochastic cross-validation approach is applied to quantify and compare the nonlinear uncertainty in selected predictions of the original and reduced models. Results are presented for aquatic ecosystems (tens of thousands of square kilometers) undergoing landscape change in the USA: Upper Illinois River Basin and Central Colorado Assessment Project Area, and Southland region, NZ.

  3. Phosphate oxygen isotopes within aquatic ecosystems: Global data synthesis and future research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ceri L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Surridge, Ben W.J., E-mail: b.surridge@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Gooddy, Daren C. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The oxygen isotope ratio of dissolved inorganic phosphate (δ{sup 18}O{sub p}) represents a novel and potentially powerful stable isotope tracer for biogeochemical research. Analysis of δ{sup 18}O{sub p} may offer new insights into the relative importance of different sources of phosphorus within natural ecosystems. Due to the isotope fractionations that occur alongside the metabolism of phosphorus, δ{sup 18}O{sub p} could also be used to better understand the intracellular and extracellular reaction mechanisms that control phosphorus cycling. In this review focussed on aquatic ecosystems, we examine the theoretical basis to using stable oxygen isotopes within phosphorus research. We consider the methodological challenges involved in accurately determining δ{sup 18}O{sub p}, given aquatic matrices in which potential sources of contaminant oxygen are ubiquitous. Finally, we synthesise the existing global data regarding δ{sup 18}O{sub p} in aquatic ecosystems, concluding by identifying four key areas for future development of δ{sup 18}O{sub p} research. Through this synthesis, we seek to stimulate broader interest in the use of δ{sup 18}O{sub p} to address the significant research and management challenges that continue to surround the stewardship of phosphorus. - Highlights: • Oxygen isotope ratio in dissolved inorganic phosphate a novel stable isotope tracer. • Theoretical basis for application of this tracer in aquatic ecosystems reviewed. • Protocols for determining phosphate oxygen isotope ratio summarised. • Synthesis of global data from marine and freshwater ecosystems reported. • Priorities for future research in this rapidly evolving field identified.

  4. Drought sensitivity predicts habitat size sensitivity in an aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2015-07-01

    Species and trophic richness often increase with habitat size. Although many ecological processes have been evoked to explain both patterns, the environmental stress associated with small habitats has rarely been considered. We propose that larger habitats may be species rich simply because their environmental conditions are within the fundamental niche of more species; larger habitats may also have more trophic levels if traits of predators render them vulnerable to environmental stress. We test this hypothesis using the aquatic insect larvae in water-filled bromeliads. In bromeliads, the probability of desiccation is greatest in small plants. For the 10 most common bromeliad insect taxa, we ask whether differences in drought tolerance and regional abundances between taxa predict community and trophic composition over a gradient of bromeliad size. First, we used bromeliad survey data to calculate the mean habitat size of occurrence of each taxon. Comparing the observed mean habitat size of occurrence to that expected from random species assembly based on differences in their regional abundances allowed us to obtain habitat size sensitivity indices (as Z scores) for the various insect taxa. Second, we obtained drought sensitivity indices by subjecting individual insects to drought and measuring the effects on relative growth rates in a mesocosm experiment. We found that drought sensitivity strongly, predicts habitat size sensitivity in bromeliad insects. However, an increase in trophic richness with habitat size could not be explained by an increased sensitivity of predators to drought, but rather by sampling effects, as predators were rare compared to lower trophic levels. This finding suggests that physiological tolerance to environmental stress can be relevant in explaining the universal increase in species with habitat size.

  5. Optical properties of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems: Applications in ecosystem studies from headwater streams to the deep ocean. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of natural dissolved organic material (DOM) contributes to the better understanding of ecosystem function as the carbon flux between environmental compartments represents an important linkage between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Within freshwater and marine ecosystems, DOM typically represents the largest pool of detrital organic carbon and greatly exceeds the organic carbon present in living biomass. Thus, the sources and fate of DOM are important terms in carbon budgets. DOM can also influence ecosystem function by controlling microbial food webs, act as a means of nutrient transport, buffer pH and influence toxicity and bioavailability of pollutants, among others. DOM composition influences its ‘quality’ and thus its photo- and bio-reactivity, both of which exert a strong control of the diagenetic reworking of this carbon pool. However, the molecular composition of DOM is highly complex and diverse, and its characterization is a serious challenge to analytical chemists. In recent years, several novel analytical approaches to the characterization of DOM have evolved, including those that are highly structure specific and others that provide information on broader molecular characteristics. Whilst the former are usually expensive and time consuming, the latter, often based on optical properties measurements, feature high sample throughput at a reduced cost but at the expense of structural specificity. While both approaches are complementary under ideal conditions, the latter are best suited for studies involving large spatial and temporal scales. The analysis of DOM optical properties, in particular excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), has emerged as a practical tool for the broad characterization of DOM quality. This presentation will provide examples for the application of EEM-PARAFAC in assessing environmental dynamics of DOM on both spatial and temporal scales, and in both

  6. Staunton 1 reclamation demonstration project. Aquatic ecosystems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W. S.

    1981-02-01

    To provide long-term indications of the potential water quality improvements following reclamation efforts at the Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project, macroinvertebrates were collected from three on-site ponds and from the receiving stream (Cahokia Creek) for site drainage. Implications for potential benthic community differences resulting from site runoff were disclosed, but macroinvertebrate diversity throughout Cahokia Creek was limited due to an unstable, sandy substrate. The three ponds sampled were the New Pond, which was created as part of the reclamation activities; the Shed Pond, which and the Old Pond, which, because it was an existing, nonimpacted pond free of site runoff, served as a control. Comparisons of macroinvertebrates from the ponds indicated the potential for the New Pond to develop into a productive ecosystem. Macroinvertebrates in the New Pond were generally species more tolerant of acid mine drainage conditions. However, due to the present limited faunal densities and the undesirable physical and chemical characteristics of the New Pond, the pond should not be stocked with fish at this time.

  7. Controlled Environments Enable Adaptive Management in Aquatic Ecosystems Under Altered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are impacted by altered environment conditions resulting from climate, drought, and land use changes. Gaps in the science knowledge base regarding plant community response to these novel and rapid changes limit both science understanding and management of ecosystems. We describe how CE Technologies have enabled the rapid supply of gap-filling science, development of ecosystem simulation models, and remote sensing assessment tools to provide science-informed, adaptive management methods in the impacted aquatic ecosystem of the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The Delta is the hub for California's water, supplying Southern California agriculture and urban communities as well as the San Francisco Bay area. The changes in environmental conditions including temperature, light, and water quality and associated expansion of invasive aquatic plants negatively impact water distribution and ecology of the San Francisco Bay/Delta complex. CE technologies define changes in resource use efficiencies, photosynthetic productivity, evapotranspiration, phenology, reproductive strategies, and spectral reflectance modifications in native and invasive species in response to altered conditions. We will discuss how the CE technologies play an enabling role in filling knowledge gaps regarding plant response to altered environments, parameterization and validation of ecosystem models, development of satellite-based, remote sensing tools, and operational management strategies.

  8. EcoCasting: Using NetLogo models of aquatic ecosystems to teach scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, C. K.; Jona, K.

    2010-12-01

    The EcoCasting project from the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP) at Northwestern University has developed a computer model-based curriculum for high school environmental science classes to study complexity in aquatic ecosystems. EcoCasting aims to deliver cutting edge scientific research on bioaccumulation in invaded Great Lakes food webs to high school classes. Scientists and environmental engineers at Northwestern are investigating unusual bioaccumulation patterns in invaded food webs of the Great Lakes. High school students are exploring this authentic data to understand what is causing the anomalies in the data. Students use a series of NetLogo agent-based models of an aquatic ecosystem to study how toxins accumulate in the food web. Using these models, students learn about predator-prey relationships, bioaccumulation, and invasive species. Students are confronted with contradictory data collected by scientists and investigate alternative food web mechanisms at work. By studying the individual variables, students learn common scientific principles. When multiple variables are combined in a unifying model, students learn that the interactions lead to unexpected outcomes. Students learn about the complexity of the ecosystem and gain proficiency interpreting computer models and scientific data collection in this curriculum. Model of aquatic food chain

  9. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Aquatic Ecosystems and Global Change: The Challenges of conducting Multi-Stressor Global Change Vulnerability Assessments. This report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and ...

  10. Field flume reveals aquatic vegetation's role in sediment and particulate phosphorus transport in a shallow aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Nowacki, Daniel J.; McPhillips, Lauren E.

    2011-03-01

    Flow interactions with aquatic vegetation and effects on sediment transport and nutrient redistribution are uncertain in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Here we quantified sediment transport in the Everglades by progressively increasing flow velocity in a field flume constructed around undisturbed bed sediment and emergent macrophytes. Suspended sediment 100 μm became dominant at higher velocity steps after a threshold shear stress for bed floc entrainment was exceeded. Shedding of vortices that had formed downstream of plant stems also occurred on that velocity step which promoted additional sediment detachment from epiphyton. Modeling determined that the potentially entrainable sediment reservoir, 46 g m - 2 , was similar to the reservoir of epiphyton (66 g m - 2 ) but smaller than the reservoir of flocculent bed sediment (330 g m - 2 ). All suspended sediment was enriched in phosphorus (by approximately twenty times) compared with bulk sediment on the bed surface and on plant stems, indicating that the most easily entrainable sediment is also the most nutrient rich (and likely the most biologically active).

  11. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  12. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  13. Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, J.L.M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt

    1985-01-01

    In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier s

  14. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria - case study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-11-02

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years' period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems' conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results.

  15. Aquatic ecosystems in Central Colorado are influenced by mineral forming processes and historical mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.S.; Church, S.E.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Fey, D. L.; Wanty, R.B.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.; Klein, T.L.; deWitt, E.H.; Rockwell, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Stream water and sediment toxicity to aquatic insects were quantified from central Colorado catchments to distinguish the effect of geologic processes which result in high background metals concentrations from historical mining. Our sampling design targeted small catchments underlain by rocks of a single lithology, which allowed the development of biological and geochemical baselines without the complication of multiple rock types exposed in the catchment. By accounting for geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish between the environmental effects caused by mining and the weathering of different mineralized areas. Elevated metal concentrations in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments. Impairment of aquatic communities also occurred in unmined catchments influenced by hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration style, deposit type, and mining were important determinants of water and sediment quality and aquatic community structure. Weathering of unmined porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences resulted in water (median toxic unit (TU) = 108) and sediment quality (TU = 1.9) that exceeded concentrations thought to be safe for aquatic ecosystems (TU = 1). Metalsensitive aquatic insects were virtually absent from streams draining catchments with porphyry Cu-Mo occurrences (1.1 individuals/0.1 m2 ). However, water and sediment quality (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively) and presence of metalsensitive aquatic insects (204 individuals/0.1 m2 ) for unmined polymetallic vein occurrences were indistinguishable from that for unmined and unaltered streams (TU = 0.1, 0.5 water and sediment, respectively; 201 individuals/0.1 m2 ). In catchments with mined quartz-sericite-pyrite altered polymetallic vein deposits, water (TU = 8.4) and sediment quality (TU = 3.1) were degraded and more toxic to aquatic insects (36 individuals/0.1 m2 ) than water (TU = 0.4) and sediment quality (TU = 1.7) from mined propylitically altered

  16. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution.

  17. Impacts on Tocantins River aquatic ecosystems resulting from the development of the hydropower potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado Damasio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the obvious success of using hydropower plants to supply energy for economic development, they may result in several environmental and social impacts with different levels of severity on the aquatic ecosystems and on the human communities living in the region. The objective of this study was to identify environmental problems and impacts to the aquatic ecosystems in Tocantins river related to the development of its hydropower potential and contribute to the target of balancing of energy generation with biodiversity and genetic flux preservation. The scenario considered the hydropower plants Peixe Angical and São Salvador. The Causal Chain Analysis (CCA was used to identify the environmental impacts and their immediate, sectarian and root causes. The impacts were ranked according to the characterization matrix, having the fish communities as the main indicators. The most relevant impacts were: (i degradation of water resources, (ii loss and changes in habitats, (iii changes in the ecosystems stability, (iv reduction of fish stocks, (v interference with benthic communities and microorganism’s populations, (vi changes in the food-chain and (vii interference with the dispersion of fishes and mammals.

  18. An explicit GIS-based river basin framework for aquatic ecosystem conservation in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venticinque, Eduardo; Forsberg, Bruce; Barthem, Ronaldo; Petry, Paulo; Hess, Laura; Mercado, Armando; Cañas, Carlos; Montoya, Mariana; Durigan, Carlos; Goulding, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Despite large-scale infrastructure development, deforestation, mining and petroleum exploration in the Amazon Basin, relatively little attention has been paid to the management scale required for the protection of wetlands, fisheries and other aspects of aquatic ecosystems. This is due, in part, to the enormous size, multinational composition and interconnected nature of the Amazon River system, as well as to the absence of an adequate spatial model for integrating data across the entire Amazon Basin. In this data article we present a spatially uniform multi-scale GIS framework that was developed especially for the analysis, management and monitoring of various aspects of aquatic systems in the Amazon Basin. The Amazon GIS-Based River Basin Framework is accessible as an ESRI geodatabase at doi:10.5063/F1BG2KX8.

  19. Towards Deriving Renewable Energy from Aquatic Macrophytes Polluting Water Bodies in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badmus Abdurrahman Adeleye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to derive methane rich biogas from biomass of harvested water hyacinth polluting water bodies in selected rivers of the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Field visits were undertaken on selected rivers in the Niger Delta region in which aquatic macrophytes were collected and inventorized. Also different types of aquatic macrophytes were surveyed. Control by harvesting macrophytes and deriving energy (methane-rich biogas from biomass of one (water hyacinth was successfully carried out in this study. An initial test was conducted to evaluate methane rich biogas production from water hyacinth collected from the wild. After a successful production of combustible biogas, laboratory experiments aimed at generating biogas from harvested biomass of aquatic mycrophyte (water hyacinth cultivated under eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions were undertaken in the laboratory. The result of the study showed highest biogas yield of 22 L over a 40 day retention time for water hyacinth raised under eutrophic conditions. Biogas yield for water hyacinth raised under oligotrophic conditions recorded the highest yield of 53L over an 11 day retention time. The conversion of the biomass of harvested aquatic macrophyte (water hyacinth from the Niger Delta into renewable energy, that is combustible biogas, demonstrated an inevitable option for the control and management of environmental pollution associated with aquatic macrophytes and their usability for poverty alleviation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  20. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  1. Adaptive management of large aquatic ecosystem recovery programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Ronald; St Clair, Tom; Burns, Rebecca; Anderson, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive management (AM) is being employed in a number of programs in the United States to guide actions to restore aquatic ecosystems because these programs are both expensive and are faced with significant uncertainties. Many of these uncertainties are associated with prioritizing when, where, and what kind of actions are needed to meet the objectives of enhancing ecosystem services and recovering threatened and endangered species. We interviewed nine large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration programs across the United States to document the lessons learned from implementing AM. In addition, we recorded information on ecological drivers (e.g., endangered fish species) for the program, and inferred how these drivers reflected more generic ecosystem services. Ecosystem services (e.g., genetic diversity, cultural heritage), albeit not explicit drivers, were either important to the recovery or enhancement of the drivers, or were additional benefits associated with actions to recover or enhance the program drivers. Implementing programs using AM lessons learned has apparently helped achieve better results regarding enhancing ecosystem services and restoring target species populations. The interviews yielded several recommendations. The science and AM program must be integrated into how the overall restoration program operates in order to gain understanding and support, and effectively inform management decision-making. Governance and decision-making varied based on its particular circumstances. Open communication within and among agency and stakeholder groups and extensive vetting lead up to decisions. It was important to have an internal agency staff member to implement the AM plan, and a clear designation of roles and responsibilities, and long-term commitment of other involved parties. The most important management questions and information needs must be identified up front. It was imperative to clearly identify, link and continually reinforce the essential

  2. Nutritional composition of aquatic species in Laotian rice field ecosystems : possible impact of reduced biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhasan, Mulia

    2008-01-01

    The population density of Laos PDR has increased from 15 persons per square km in 1985 to 19 persons in 1995 and to 24 persons in 2005. This has threatened food security, which in Laos PDR is generally synonymous with rice availability. Rice production in Laos rose by 70 percent from 1990 to 2004. Evidence from Vietnam, Malaysia and Central Thailand has shown that the rise of rice production steadily decreases the population of aquatic animals in rice field ecosystems, as a result of higher a...

  3. Microbial biotechnology for remediation of aquatic habitats polluted with chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Coşier; I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2008-01-01

    Chromium may occur in nine different forms of oxidation ranging from ?II to +VI, with forms II, III and VI as the most commonly encountered. In Cluj county, chromium pollution dates well back in time and has caused important dysfunction to the mechanical-biological wastewater purification station of the city of Cluj (Coşier & Diţă 1996). The purpose of this study was to develop one microbial method able to reduce hexavalent chromium (mobile, permeable to cell membrane, carcinogenic and mutage...

  4. Global meta-analysis of native and nonindigenous trophic traits in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Ella; García-Berthou, Emili; Srean, Pao; Rius, Marc

    2016-10-26

    Ecologists have recently devoted their attention to the study of species traits and their role in the establishment and spread of nonindigenous species (NIS). However, research efforts have mostly focused on studies of terrestrial taxa, with lesser attention being dedicated to aquatic species. Aquatic habitats comprise of interconnected waterways, as well as exclusive introduction vectors that allow unparalleled artificial transport of species and their propagules. Consequently, species traits that commonly facilitate biological invasions in terrestrial systems may not be as represented in aquatic environments. We provide a global meta-analysis of studies conducted in both marine and freshwater habitats. We selected studies that conducted experiments with native and NIS under common environmental conditions to allow detailed comparisons among species traits. In addition, we explored whether different factors such as species relatedness, functional feeding groups, latitude, climate, and experimental conditions could be linked to predictive traits. Our results show that species with traits that enhance consumption and growth have a substantially increased probability of establishing and spreading when entering novel ecosystems. Moreover, traits associated with predatory avoidance were more prevalent in NIS and therefore favour invasive species in aquatic habitats. When we analysed NIS interacting with taxonomically distinctive native taxa, we found that consumption and growth were particularly important traits. This suggests that particular attention should be paid to newly introduced species for which there are no close relatives in the local biota. Finally, we found a bias towards studies conducted in temperate regions, and thus, more studies in other climatic regions are needed. We conclude that studies aiming at predicting future range shifts should consider trophic traits of aquatic NIS as these traits are indicative of multiple interacting mechanisms involved

  5. Preservation of natural aquatic ecosystems by application of bottom coal ash based bioreactor for in situ treatment of anthropogenic effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Y.; Nisnevitch, M.; Tal, M.; Cahan, R.; Michael, E.

    2012-12-01

    One consequence of global climate change is recharge decrease at sub tropical and Mediterranean regions to both the surface and the ground fresh water resources. As a general rule, when water source quantity is reduced, the level of salination, as well as chemical and biological pollutants, tends to increase. The situation is more severe whenever the drainage basin is (a) heavily populated from urban, industrial and agricultural areas, (b) has wide areas of thin or non soil cover and (c) has a karstic structure and morphology. These latter conditions are typical to many regions around the Middle East; whereas pollution hazard to Mid Eastern streams is greater than to those in more humid regions owing to their relative small size and poor dilution capacity. The consequence of this ongoing and increasing anthropogenic pollution is endangerment of natural aquatic habitats and due to decrease in fresh water supply availability also to human sustainability. The ecological impact may involve transition of ephemeral (Wadi) streams into intermittent ones with the accompanied biodiversity change or extinction once the pollution is extreme. The impact on indigenous human communities might be as severe owing to drinking water quality decrease and the consequent decrease id quantity as well as damage to dryland farming. In setting of operations applied to the Yarkon Taninim watershed (central Israel) management, a pilot biofilter facility for sustainable preservation and rehabilitation of natural fluvial ecosystems was tested. This biofilter is planned to operate through low impact concept assimilating natural treatment processes occurring during runoff recharge through a porous flow media. The facility is constructed out of several grain sizes of bottom coal ash aggregate, which was found to be a better microbial mats growing stratum, compared to common natural aggregates such as tuff and lime pebbles (and also has an EPA directive for wastewater treatment). The biofilter is

  6. Adaptive genetic variation mediates bottom-up and top-down control in an aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Seth M.; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stier, Adrian; Sato, Takuya; Heavyside, Julian; El-Sabaawi, Rana W.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Research in eco-evolutionary dynamics and community genetics has demonstrated that variation within a species can have strong impacts on associated communities and ecosystem processes. Yet, these studies have centred around individual focal species and at single trophic levels, ignoring the role of phenotypic variation in multiple taxa within an ecosystem. Given the ubiquitous nature of local adaptation, and thus intraspecific variation, we sought to understand how combinations of intraspecific variation in multiple species within an ecosystem impacts its ecology. Using two species that co-occur and demonstrate adaptation to their natal environments, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we investigated the effects of intraspecific phenotypic variation on both top-down and bottom-up forces using a large-scale aquatic mesocosm experiment. Black cottonwood genotypes exhibit genetic variation in their productivity and consequently their leaf litter subsidies to the aquatic system, which mediates the strength of top-down effects from stickleback on prey abundances. Abundances of four common invertebrate prey species and available phosphorous, the most critically limiting nutrient in freshwater systems, are dictated by the interaction between genetic variation in cottonwood productivity and stickleback morphology. These interactive effects fit with ecological theory on the relationship between productivity and top-down control and are comparable in strength to the effects of predator addition. Our results illustrate that intraspecific variation, which can evolve rapidly, is an under-appreciated driver of community structure and ecosystem function, demonstrating that a multi-trophic perspective is essential to understanding the role of evolution in structuring ecological patterns. PMID:26203004

  7. Survey of Methods to Assess the Toxicological Impact of Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites on Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    fluorescence, is directly related to increased toxic effect. Therefore, the inhibition index can be used as a bioindicator of the health of the algal...1988). This bioassay uses starlings as bioindicators of toxicological effects by establishing a quadrat of nest boxes to create a gradient of exposure...single species populations in benthos of mesocosms and coastal ecosystems." In: Concepts in Marine Pollution Measurements. H.H. White (Ed.), Maryland Sea

  8. Biogeochemical data from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in a periglacial catchment, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Rydberg, Johan; Tröjbom, Mats; Berglund, Sten; Johansson, Emma; Löfgren, Anders; Saetre, Peter; Nordén, Sara; Sohlenius, Gustav; Andersson, Eva; Petrone, Johannes; Borgiel, Micke; Kautsky, Ulrik; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-09-01

    Global warming is expected to be most pronounced in the Arctic where permafrost thaw and release of old carbon may provide an important feedback mechanism to the climate system. To better understand and predict climate effects and feedbacks on the cycling of elements within and between ecosystems in northern latitude landscapes, a thorough understanding of the processes related to transport and cycling of elements is required. A fundamental requirement to reach a better process understanding is to have access to high-quality empirical data on chemical concentrations and biotic properties for a wide range of ecosystem domains and functional units (abiotic and biotic pools). The aim of this study is therefore to make one of the most extensive field data sets from a periglacial catchment readily available that can be used both to describe present-day periglacial processes and to improve predictions of the future. Here we present the sampling and analytical methods, field and laboratory equipment and the resulting biogeochemical data from a state-of-the-art whole-ecosystem investigation of the terrestrial and aquatic parts of a lake catchment in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland. This data set allows for the calculation of whole-ecosystem mass balance budgets for a long list of elements, including carbon, nutrients and major and trace metals. The data set is freely available and can be downloaded from PANGAEA: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.860961.

  9. Export of aquatic productivity, including highly unsaturated fatty acids, to terrestrial ecosystems via Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga N; Haritonov, Anatoly Y; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Anzhelika A; Gladyshev, Michail I

    2017-03-01

    Based on 31-year field study of the abundance and biomass of 18 species of odonates in the Barabinsk Forest-Steppe (Western Siberia, Russia), we quantified the contribution of odonates to the export of aquatic productivity to surrounding terrestrial landscape. Emergence varied from 0.8 to 4.9g of wet biomass per m(2) of land area per year. Average export of organic carbon was estimated to be 0.30g·m(-2)·year(-1), which is comparable with the average production of herbivorous terrestrial insects in temperate grasslands. Moreover, in contrast to terrestrial insects, emerging odonates contained high quantities of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), which are known to be essential for many terrestrial animals, especially for birds. The export of EPA+DHA by odonates was found to be 1.92-11.76mg·m(-2)·year(-1), which is equal to an average general estimation of the export of HUFA by emerging aquatic insects. Therefore, odonates appeared to be a quantitatively and qualitatively important conduit of aquatic productivity to forest-steppe ecosystem.

  10. Interaction between resource identity and bacterial community composition regulates bacterial respiration in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. F. Pires

    Full Text Available Abstract Resource identity and composition structure bacterial community, which in turn determines the magnitude of bacterial processes and ecological services. However, the complex interaction between resource identity and bacterial community composition (BCC has been poorly understood so far. Using aquatic microcosms, we tested whether and how resource identity interacts with BCC in regulating bacterial respiration and bacterial functional diversity. Different aquatic macrophyte leachates were used as different carbon resources while BCC was manipulated through successional changes of bacterial populations in batch cultures. We observed that the same BCC treatment respired differently on each carbon resource; these resources also supported different amounts of bacterial functional diversity. There was no clear linear pattern of bacterial respiration in relation to time succession of bacterial communities in all leachates, i.e. differences on bacterial respiration between different BCC were rather idiosyncratic. Resource identity regulated the magnitude of respiration of each BCC, e.g. Ultricularia foliosa leachate sustained the greatest bacterial functional diversity and lowest rates of bacterial respiration in all BCC. We conclude that both resource identity and the BCC interact affecting the pattern and the magnitude of bacterial respiration in aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Bioindication in natural-like aquatic ecosystems: endocrine disruptors in outdoor microcosms. Status-report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Severin, G.F.

    2002-07-01

    Over the past few decades scientists have shown that the hormone system of a wide range of organisms can be affected by numerous environmental chemicals. Society strongly demands studies about the fate and effects of such endocrine disruptors on the aquatic environment. It has been scientifically accepted that risk assessment studies done in aquatic microcosms can be used to extrapolate the potential impact of the tested compound on natural ecosystems. Realistic exposure situations were simulated and screening methods as well as analytical methods with high accuracy were applied on water and sediment. For the comprehensive risk assessment as many trophic levels as possible have to be investigated. Changes in the population dynamics and the community structure serve as ecotoxicological endpoints. Modelling the concentrations of the chemicals in the different aquatic compartments complements and confirms the analytical diagnostics. A directed design of the analytical procedures according to amount of sample and limits of determination becomes possible. Bridging acute and chronic time scales in effect diagnostics the 'area under the curve' - approach has been followed in combination with multivariate statistics. Haber's rule have been applied to the results about complex effect- and exposure-conditions. In some cases the interpretation of results becomes more easy and clear by this approach. (orig.)

  12. The basis for ecotoxicological concern in aquatic ecosystems contaminated by historical mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, James G; Suchanek, Thomas H

    2008-12-01

    The Coast Range of California is one of five global regions that dominated historical production of mercury (Hg) until declining demand led to the economic collapse of the Hg-mining industry in the United States. Calcines, waste rock, and contaminated alluvium from inactive mine sites can release Hg (including methylmercury, MeHg) to the environment for decades to centuries after mining has ceased. Soils, water, and sediment near mines often contain high concentrations of total Hg (TotHg), and an understanding of the biogeochemical transformations, transport, and bioaccumulation of this toxic metal is needed to assess effects of these contaminated environments on humans and wildlife. We briefly review the environmental behavior and effects of Hg, providing a prelude to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue. Clear Lake is a northern California lake contaminated by wastes from the abandoned Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site. The primary toxicological problem with Hg in aquatic ecosystems is biotic exposure to MeHg, a highly toxic compound that readily bioaccumulates. Processes that affect the abundance of MeHg (including methylation and demethylation) strongly affect its concentration in all trophic levels of aquatic food webs. MeHg can biomagnify to high concentrations in aquatic food webs, and consumption of fish is the primary pathway for human exposure. Fish consumption advisories have been issued for many North American waters, including Clear Lake and other mine-impacted waters in California, as a means of decreasing MeHg exposure. Concerns about MeHg exposure in humans focus largely on developmental neurotoxicity to the fetus and children. Aquatic food webs are also an important pathway for MeHg exposure of wildlife, which can accumulate high, sometimes harmful, concentrations. In birds, wild mammals, and humans, MeHg readily passes to the developing egg, embryo, or fetus, life stages that are much more

  13. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, L [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-07-01

    The potential hazards of radionuclide release to humans and the environment is regularly evaluated in safety assessments of SFR, the final repository for radioactive operational waste. SFR handles, since 1988, low and intermediate level nuclear waste from Swedish nuclear power plants, medical care attendance, industries and research laboratories and is located in the bedrock 50 meters under the seabed of Oeregrundsgrepen in the southern Bothnian Sea. This report presents a description of the aquatic ecosystem and a carbon budget for the area above SFR with the aim to include ecosystem dynamics in the present safety assessment of the repository (SAFE). The carbon budget will support SAFE by facilitating evaluations of transport and fate of radionuclides, primarily {sup 14}C, in case of a release from the repository and describe the ecosystem structure and function. Furthermore, {sup 14}C is the dose-dominant radionuclide in the repository which most likely will follow the general carbon flow in the ecosystem if there should be a release. The carbon budget was based on biomass and flow of carbon between thirteen functional groups (including POC and DOC) in the ecosystem above SFR and the results indicates that the organisms are self-sufficient on carbon and that the area exports carbon corresponding to approximately 50% of the annual primary production. The largest organic carbon pool is DOC (one and a half time larger than the total biomass) and the major functional organism groups are the macrophytes (37% of the total biomass), benthic macrofauna (36%), and the microphytes (11%). The soft bottom and phytobenthic communities seem to have important roles in the ecosystem since these communities comprise the main part of the living carbon in the studied area.

  14. SPATIAL AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE SURFACE WATER AND DEEP SEDIMENTS OF FRESH WATER AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of various trace metals present in water and sediment of fresh water aquatic ecosystem during the post monsoon season. The study was extended to identify the trace metal contamination in the water and sediment samples collected along the shores of Lambapur and Peddagattu the tribal villages in India using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPMS. The trace metal contents in water samples were copper- 24.2 to 47.5, chromium- 4.4 to 8.2, cadmium- 0.1 to 0.3, lead- 2.1 to 3.8, Nickel- 5.9 to 9.7, Zinc- 4.6 to 9.7, Manganese- 10.8 to 13.2, Iron- 52.9 to 157.2 (µg L-1 cobalt and arsenic were in BDL and the values were within the limits of Indian drinking water standards (BIS 10500: 1991. The trace metals concentration in the sediment samples ranged from (mg kg-1: Copper- 61.5 to 113.7, chromium- 138.4 to 177.5, cobalt- 33.2 to 42.7, cadmium- 1.0 to 2.1, lead- 57.9 to 103.4, Nickel- 36.1 to 56.6, Zinc- 51.2 to 102.1, Manganese- 610.8 to 1301.7 and Iron- 2.5 to 2.9%. In our study, four reliable indices such as Enrichment factor, Contamination factor, Geoaccumulation Index and Pollution Load Index were applied to estimate metal pollution and the results comparison are discussed below. The data generated were used to determine the quality of the sediments based on the enrichment factor, contamination factor and degree of contamination, geochemical index and Pollution Load Index (PLI.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of temperature on the population dynamics and ecosystem functioning of aquatic microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-11-01

    1. While much is known about the direct effect that temperature can have on aquatic communities, less is known about its indirect effect via the temperature dependence of viscosity and temperature-dependent trophic interactions. 2. We manipulated the temperature (5-20 °C) and the viscosity (equivalent to 5-20 °C) of water in laboratory-based bacteria-protist communities. Communities contained food chains with one, two or three trophic levels. Responses measured were population dynamics (consumer carrying capacity and growth rate, average species population density, and the coefficient of variation of population density through time) and ecosystem function (decomposition). 3. Temperature, viscosity and food chain length produced significant responses in population dynamics. Temperature-dependent viscosity had a significant effect on the carrying capacity and growth rates of consumers, as well as the average density of the top predator. Overall, indirect effects of temperature via changes in viscosity were subtle in comparison to the indirect effect of temperature via trophic interactions. 4. Our results highlight the importance of direct and indirect effects of temperature, mediated through trophic interactions and physical changes in the environment, both for population dynamics and ecosystem processes. Future mechanistic modelling of effects of environmental change on species will benefit from distinguishing the different mechanisms of the overall effect of temperature.

  16. Microbial biotechnology for remediation of aquatic habitats polluted with chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Coşier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium may occur in nine different forms of oxidation ranging from ?II to +VI, with forms II, III and VI as the most commonly encountered. In Cluj county, chromium pollution dates well back in time and has caused important dysfunction to the mechanical-biological wastewater purification station of the city of Cluj (Coşier & Diţă 1996. The purpose of this study was to develop one microbial method able to reduce hexavalent chromium (mobile, permeable to cell membrane, carcinogenic and mutagenic (Ishikawa et al 1994 to the trivalent form (insoluble and an essential element for humans (Song et al 2006. Different sources of chromium-reducing bacteria and many sources of carbon and energy added to the Kvasnikov mineral basal medium (Komori et al 1990 with increasing amount of chromate (200- 1000 mg/l were tested. Two bacterial strains, able to reduce even 1000 mg chromate/l, were isolated in pure culture. For one of these bacterial strains, we determined the optimum conditions for the reduction of Cr (VI.

  17. Benefits of riparian forest for the aquatic ecosystem assessed at a large geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Looy K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claimed benefits of riparian forest cover for the aquatic ecosystem include purification, thermal control, organic matter input and habitat provision, which may improve physicochemical and biotic quality. However, these beneficial effects might be flawed by multiple stressor conditions of intensive agriculture and urbanization in upstream catchments. We examined the relationship between riparian forest cover and physicochemical quality and biotic integrity indices in extensive large scale datasets. Measurements of hydromorphological conditions and riparian forest cover across different buffer widths for 59 × 103 river stretches covering 230 × 103 km of the French river network were coupled with data for physicochemical and biotic variables taken from the national monitoring network. General linear and quantile regression techniques were used to determine responses of physicochemical variables and biological integrity indices for macroinvertebrates and fish to riparian forest cover in selections of intermediate stress for 2nd to 4th order streams. Significant responses to forest cover were found for the nutrient variables and biological indices. According to these responses a 60% riparian forest cover in the 10 m buffer corresponds to good status boundaries for physicochemical and biotic elements. For the 30 m buffer, the observed response suggests that riparian forest coverage of at least 45% corresponds with good ecological status in the aquatic ecosystem. The observed consistent responses indicate significant potential for improving the quality of the aquatic environment by restoring riparian forest. The effects are more substantial in single-stressor environments but remain significant in multi-stressor environments.

  18. Assessment of metallic pollution status of surface water and aquatic macrophytes of earthen dams in Ilorin, north-central of Nigeria as indicators of environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement O. Ogunkunle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The functional quality of an aquatic ecosystem is a reflection of the health of the environment. Therefore, the present study evaluates the trace metal contamination (Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn of water and aquatic macrophytes in Asa, Agba, Unilorin and Sobi (Moro earthen dams, north-central Nigeria to evaluate the level of anthropogenic impact on the immediate environment. The concentrations of trace metals in samples of water and available macrophytes from the earthen dams were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Trace metal contamination of surface water in the earthen dams was assessed using metal index (MPI and metal pollution index (HPI. The biological accumulation factor of trace metals in the aquatic macrophytes was extrapolated from trace metal concentrations in the water and macrophyte samples. The results of the MPI revealed gross metal contamination of the surface water by Pb and Cd (>6.0 for both metals in the four earthen dams; while Agba and Sobi dams were slightly contaminated by Ni (MPIs = 1.43 and 1.14 respectively. All the earthen dams were considered safe from Mn contamination (MPI  100, but Asa dam (HPI = 2682.4 was the most contaminated. The biological accumulation factor of Mn in the macrophytes indicated Ceratophyllum demersum, Pycreus lanceolatus and Pistia stratiotes as moderate accumulators of Mn, and can be used as bioindicators in monitoring Mn pollution of aquatic ecosystem. The obtained results in this study showed that the earthen dams are polluted by Pb, Cd and Ni which pose human health risks to the inhabitants through drinking water.

  19. Diets of aquatic birds reflect changes in the Lake Huron ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Craig E.; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Idrissi, Abode; Arts, Michael T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have affected the Lake Huron ecosystem, in part, through alterations in the structure and function of its food webs. Insights into the nature of food web change and its ecological ramifications can be obtained through the monitoring of high trophic level predators such as aquatic birds. Often, food web change involves alterations in the relative abundance of constituent species and/or the introduction of new species (exotic invaders). Diet composition of aquatic birds is influenced, in part, by relative prey availability and therefore is a sensitive measure of food web structure. Using bird diet data to make inferences regarding food web change requires consistent measures of diet composition through time. This can be accomplished by measuring stable chemical and/or biochemical “ecological tracers” in archived avian samples. Such tracers provide insights into pathways of energy and nutrient transfer. In this study, we examine the utility of two groups of naturally-occurring intrinsic tracers (stable isotopes and fatty acids) to provide such information in a predatory seabird, the herring gull (Larus argentatus). Retrospective stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of archived herring gull eggs identified declines in gull trophic position and shifts in food sources in Lake Huron over the last 25 years and changes in gull diet composition were inferred from egg fatty acid patterns. These independent groups of ecological tracers provided corroborating evidence of dietary change in this high trophic level predator. Gull dietary shifts were related to declines in prey fish abundance which suggests large-scale alterations to the Lake Huron ecosystem. Dietary shifts in herring gulls may be contributing to reductions in resources available for egg formation. Further research is required to evaluate how changes in resource availability may affect population sustainability in herring gulls and other waterbird species. Long-term biological monitoring

  20. INTERPRETATION OF COPPER AND ZINC CONTAMINATION IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO A POLLUTED RIVER, SEPANG RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three different aquatic ecosystems(an urban pond,Kelana Jays Pond;a polluted river,Sepang River;and the intertidal and offshore areas of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia)with different sets of ecological backgrounds and human activities were reviewed and assessed for the levels of Cu and Zn contamination with special reference to those found in polluted sediments collected from the Sepang River.The discussion on the contamination levels of Cu and Zn in the aquatic environment of Peninsular Malaysia was based on a comparison of the metal contamination of 4 kinds of aquatic environments.The comparison of 4 different areas was based on①total concentrations of 2 metals;②the concentrations and percentages of the nonresistant(EFLE,acid-reducible and oxidisable-organic)and resistant geochemical fractions;and③correlation coefficients(R-values)based on data of 4 areas separately and a combination of 4 areas.The Sepang River recorded nonresistant fractions of 63.1%for Zn and 55.8%for Cu in addition toslightly lower metal concentrations when compared to those(60%-70%)reported before the shutting down of the piggery activities in that area.These nonresistant metal percentages(55%-63%)indicated that the metal concentrations were still dominated by anthropogenic sources since nonresistant fraction of metals were mostly contributed by anthropogenic sources.The positive results from the four different aquatic environments assessed here provided strong evidence to show that Malaysia's aquatic environment had received anthropogenic Cu and Zn.The present study also showed that thepercentage of the nonresistant fraction and the R-values based on correlation analysis of Cu and Zn could be used as indicators of Cu and Zn pollution in the Malaysian aquatic ecosystem.Based on the present data,the correlation coefficients(R-values)are potential indicators of EFLE Cu and acid-reducible Cu of the sediments.The use of R-values as indicators of metal pollution is suggested and it is

  1. The mysteriously variable half-life of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems: artefact or insight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chris; Fovet, Ophelie; Jones, Tim; Jones, Davey; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes from land to water represent an important loss term in the terrestrial carbon balance, a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, a significant influence on aquatic light, nutrient and energy regimes, and an important concern for drinking water production. Although freshwaters are now recognised as zones of active carbon cycling, rather than passive conduits for carbon transport, evidence regarding the magnitude of, and controls on, DOM cycling in aquatic systems is incomplete and in some cases seemingly contradictory, with DOM 'half-lives' ranging from a few days to many years. Bringing together experimental, isotopic, catchment mass balance and modelling data, we suggest that apparently conflicting results can be reconciled through understanding of differences in: i) the terrestrial sources of DOM within heterogeneous landscapes, and consequent differences in its reactivity and stoichiometry; ii) experimental methodologies (i.e. which reactions are actually being measured), and iii) the extent of prior transformation of DOM upstream of the point of study. We argue that rapid photo-degradation, particularly of peat-derived DOM, is a key process in headwaters, whilst apparently slow DOM turnover in downstream, agriculturally-influenced lakes and rivers can partly be explained by the offsetting effect of in situ DOM production. This production appears to be strongly constrained by nutrient supply, thus linking DOM turnover and composition to the supply of inorganic nutrient inputs from diffuse agricultural pollution, and also providing a possible mechanistic link between aquatic DOM production and terrestrial DOM breakdown via the mineralisation and re-assimilation of organic nutrients. A more complete conceptual understanding of these interlinked processes will provide an improved understanding of the sources and fate of aquatic DOM, its role in the global carbon cycle, and the impact of anthropogenic activities, for example

  2. Aquatic pollution-induced immunotoxicity in wildlife species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, R W; Hodson, P V; Faisal, M; Ross, P S; Grasman, K A; Zelikoff, J

    1997-05-01

    The potential for chemicals to adversely affect human immunologic health has traditionally been evaluated in rodents, under laboratory conditions. These laboratory studies have generated valuable hazard identification and immunotoxicologic mechanism data; however, genetically diverse populations exposed in the wild may better reflect both human exposure conditions and may provide insight into potential immunotoxic effects in humans. In addition, comparative studies of species occupying reference and impacted sites provide important information on the effects of environmental pollution on the immunologic health of wildlife populations. In this symposium overview, Peter Hodson describes physiological changes in fish collected above or below the outflows of paper mills discharging effluent from the bleaching process (BKME). Effects attributable to BKME were identified, as were physiological changes attributable to other environmental factors. In this context, he discussed the problems of identifying true cause and effect relationships in field studies. Mohamed Faisal described changes in immune function of fish collected from areas with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination. His studies identified a contaminant-related decreases in the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to bind to and kill tumor cell line targets, as well as changes in lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens. Altered proliferative responses of fish from the contaminated site were partially reversed by maintaining fish in water from the reference site. Peter Ross described studies in which harbor seals were fed herring obtained from relatively clean (Atlantic Ocean) and contaminated (Baltic Sea) waters. Decreased natural killer cell activity and lymphoproliferative responses to T and B cell mitogens, as well as depressed antibody and delayed hypersensitivity responses to injected antigens, were identified in seals fed contaminated herring. In laboratory studies, it was

  3. Cross-ecosystem fluxes: Export of polyunsaturated fatty acids from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems via emerging insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik; Kowarik, Carmen; Straile, Dietmar

    2017-01-15

    Cross-ecosystem fluxes can crucially influence the productivity of adjacent habitats. Emerging aquatic insects represent one important pathway through which freshwater-derived organic matter can enter terrestrial food webs. Aquatic insects may be of superior food quality for terrestrial consumers because they contain high concentrations of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We quantified the export of PUFA via emerging insects from a midsize, mesotrophic lake. Insects were collected using emergence traps installed above different water depths and subjected to fatty acid analyses. Insect emergence from different depth zones and seasonal mean fatty acid concentrations in different insect groups were used to estimate PUFA fluxes. In total, 80.5mg PUFA m(-2)yr(-1) were exported, of which 32.8mgm(-2)yr(-1) were eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 7.8mgm(-2)yr(-1) were arachidonic acid (ARA), and 2.6mgm(-2)yr(-1) were docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). While Chironomidae contributed most to insect biomass and total PUFA export, Chaoborus flavicans contributed most to the export of EPA, ARA, and especially DHA. The export of total insect biomass from one square meter declined with depth and the timing at which 50% of total insect biomass emerged was correlated with the water depths over which the traps were installed, suggesting that insect-mediated PUFA fluxes are strongly affected by lake morphometry. Applying a conceptual model developed to assess insect deposition rates on land to our insect-mediated PUFA export data revealed an average total PUFA deposition rate of 150mgm(-2)yr(-1) within 100m inland from the shore. We propose that PUFA export can be reliably estimated using taxon-specific information on emergent insect biomass and seasonal mean body PUFA concentrations of adult insects provided here. Our data indicate that insect-mediated PUFA fluxes from lakes are substantial, implying that freshwater-derived PUFA can crucially influence food web processes in adjacent

  4. Responses of aquatic ecosystems to environmental changes in Finland and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eWeckström

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concern for the state of global freshwater reservoirs has increased due to deterioration of the water quality during the last decades. This has prompted monitoring and restoration efforts such as the European Water Framework Directive and the national-scale 2nd-investigation and monitoring of the water quality, water volume and biota resources in China. The challenge so far has been the determination of the natural state (reference conditions of freshwater ecosystems. We used the sediment archives of five lakes and one brackish water embayment in Finland and China to assess the impact of selected variables of climatology, hydrology, nutrients, and changes in human population on these ecosystems during the last few centuries. The study sites represent catchment areas with varying land use. Despite the long distance between the sites and their different land-use characteristics, the direction and timing of changes during the last few centuries are well comparable between the high latitudes of Finland and the mid-low latitudes of China. This study reinforces the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to environmental change and underlines the usefulness of the palaeolimnological approach as a tool for determining reference conditions.

  5. [Aquatic ecosystem modelling approach: temperature and water quality models applied to Oualidia and Nador lagoons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, J Lakhdar; Orbi, A; Hilmi, K; Zidane, F; Moncef, M

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an aquatic ecosystem and apply it on Moroccan lagoon systems. This model will keep us abreast of the yearly development of the main parameters that characterize these ecosystems while integrating all the data that have so far been acquired. Within this framework, a simulation model of the thermal system and a model of the water quality have been elaborated. These models, which have been simulated on the lagoon of Oualidia (North of Morocco) and validated on the lagoon of Nador (North West Mediterranean), permit to foresee the cycles of temperature of the surface and the parameters of the water quality (dissolved oxygen and biomass phytoplankton) by using meteorological information, specific features and in situ measurements in the studied sites. The elaborated model, called Zero-Dimensional, simulates the average conduct of the site during the time of variable states that are representatives of the studied ecosystem. This model will provide answers for the studied phenomena and is a work tool adequate for numerical simplicity.

  6. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Leach, A.; Adams, M.; Vries, de W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Ecosystem services are being impacted by many human induced stresses, one of them being nitrogen (N) deposition and its interactions with other pollutants

  7. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: Analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; CAI Xue-fen; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level(LEL)and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  8. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-zhong; Cai, Xue-fen; Wang, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level (LEL) and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  9. Anthropogenic pollutants affect ecosystem services of freshwater sediments. The need for a 'triad plus x' approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbersdorf, Sabine Ulrike; Wieprecht, Silke [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Hollert, Henner; Brinkmann, Markus [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis; Schuettrumpf, Holger [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Manz, Werner [Koblenz-Landau Univ., Koblenz (Germany). Inst. for Integrated Natural Sciences

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Freshwater sediments and their attached microbial communities (biofilms) are essential features of rivers and lakes, providing valuable ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling or self-purification which extend beyond the aquatic environment. Anthropogenic pollutants, whether from the industrial era or as a result of our contemporary lifestyles, can negatively affect these functions with hitherto unknown consequences on ecology, the economy and human health. Thus far, the singular view of the involved disciplines such as ecotoxicology, environmental microbiology, hydrology and geomorphology has prevented a deeper understanding of this emerging issue. Main features: This paper discusses briefly the progressions and the state-of-the-art methods within the disciplines of concern related to contaminated sediments, ranging from ecotoxicological test systems, microbiological/molecular approaches to unravel changes of microbial ecosystems, up to the modelling of sediment transport and sorption/desorption of associated pollutants. The first bilateral research efforts on contaminated sediments include efforts to assess ecotoxicological sediment risk including sediment mobility (i.e. ecotoxicology and engineering), enhance bioremediation potential (i.e. microbiology and ecotoxicology) or to understand biostabilisation processes of sediments by microbial assemblages (i.e. microbiology and engineering). Conclusions and perspectives: In freshwater habitats, acute, chronic and mechanism-specific toxic effects on organisms, shifts in composition, structure and functionality of benthic microbial communities, as well as the obstruction of important ecosystem services by continuously discharged and long-deposited pollutants, should be related to the in situ sediment dynamics. To achieve an improved understanding of the ecology of freshwater sediments and the impairment of their important ecosystem functions by human-derived pollutants, we suggest a 'triad plus x

  10. Semipermeable membrane devices in monitoring of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaliunas, D.

    1999-03-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are passive samplers capable of concentrating hydrophobic chemicals from water, sediments, soil and air. They consist of layflat polymeric membrane such as polyethylene containing a thin film of synthetic lipid such as triolein. The transport of hydrophobic chemicals through the membrane into the lipid is governed by the process of passive diffusion. Therefore, SPMDs sample chemicals in a way similar to organisms. This thesis deals with the application of SPMDs in the monitoring of concentrations and effects of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. SPMDs were exposed to various pesticides (organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, amides) in laboratory flow-through experiments to study the uptake kinetics of organic chemicals from water. To compare the uptake of model compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms, the membrane samplers were exposed to chemicals side-by-side with bivalves. Mixtures of chemicals accumulated by SPMDs and mussels were tested in standard toxicity and genotoxicity assays (Microtox, Mutatox, invertebrate toxicity tests, the Ames test, sister chromatid exchange test). These studies showed that the uptake pattern of organic compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms was similar, and the passive samplers accumulated levels of chemicals sufficient for standard bioassays. To further validate the method, SPMDs were deployed in a number of polluted water sources in Lithuania. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical analytical methods were used to identify pollutants sampled (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines) and their effects were evaluated in bioassays. SPMDs proved to be useful tools in monitoring of organic pollutants under the field conditions. Criteria for bioassays to be integrated with the SPMD technique were defined based on the results of these studies. Some important factors in the integration of SPMDs and bioassays (toxicity of SPMD-inherent oleic and sediment

  11. Microsatellite markers for Nuphar japonica (Nymphaeaceae), an aquatic plant in the agricultural ecosystem of Japan1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Shiga, Takashi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuphar species (Nymphaeaceae) are representative aquatic plants in irrigation ponds in Japanese agricultural ecosystems. We developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for N. japonica and confirmed their utility for its close relatives N. oguraensis var. akiensis and N. ×saijoensis, which originated from natural hybridization between N. japonica and N. oguraensis. Methods and Results: Genetic variation was characterized in 15 polymorphic loci in three populations of N. japonica. The average number of alleles per locus was 3.47 (range = 2−9; n = 32), and the average expected heterozygosity per locus was 0.84 (range = 0.5–1.0); 11 loci were amplified in N. oguraensis var. akiensis and 15 in N. ×saijoensis. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for investigating the levels of genetic diversity within remnant populations of Nuphar taxa and could provide a valuable tool for conservation genetics of these taxa. PMID:28101435

  12. Mapping critical loads of nitrogen deposition for aquatic ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David W.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially explicit estimates of critical loads of nitrogen (N) deposition (CLNdep) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems were developed for the Rocky Mountains, USA, using a geostatistical approach. The lowest CLNdep estimates (-1 yr-1) occurred in high-elevation basins with steep slopes, sparse vegetation, and abundance of exposed bedrock and talus. These areas often correspond with areas of high N deposition (>3 kg N ha-1 yr-1), resulting in CLNdep exceedances ≥1.5 ± 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1. CLNdep and CLNdep exceedances exhibit substantial spatial variability related to basin characteristics and are highly sensitive to the NO3- threshold at which ecological effects are thought to occur. Based on an NO3- threshold of 0.5 μmol L-1, N deposition exceeds CLNdep in 21 ± 8% of the study area; thus, broad areas of the Rocky Mountains may be impacted by excess N deposition, with greatest impacts at high elevations.

  13. Introduction to the effects of wildland fire on aquatic ecosystems in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieman, B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Young, M.; Luce, C.

    2003-01-01

    The management of wildfire has long been controversial. The role of fire and fire-related management in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has become an important focus in recent years, but the general debate is not new. In his recent book, Stephen Pyne (2001)describes the political and scientific debate surrounding the creation of the U.S. Forest Service and the emergence of fire suppression as a central tenet of wildland management. Essentially, views in the first decade of the 20th century focused on fire as good or evil: a tool that might benefit other resources or interests (e.g. Indian burning) and mitigate larger more destructive fires, or a threat to the recruitment and productivity of newly designated forest reserves. The “great fires” in the Western USA in 1910 and the associated loss of human life and property largely forged the public and political will to suppress fire on a massive scale.

  14. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  15. Trophic interactions determine the effects of drought on an aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2016-06-01

    Species interactions can be important mediators of community and ecosystem responses to environmental stressors. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of the indirect ecological effects of stress that arise via altered species interactions. To understand how species interactions will be altered by environmental stressors, we need to know if the species that are vulnerable to such stressors also have large impacts on the ecosystem. As predators often exhibit certain traits that are linked to a high vulnerability to stress (e.g., large body size, long generation time), as well as having large effects on communities (e.g., top-down trophic effects), predators may be particularly likely to mediate ecological effects of environmental stress. Other functional groups, like facilitators, are known to have large impacts on communities, but their vulnerability to perturbations remains undocumented. Here, we use aquatic insect communities in bromeliads to examine the indirect effects of an important stressor (drought) on community and ecosystem responses. In a microcosm experiment, we manipulated predatory and facilitative taxa under a range of experimental droughts, and quantified effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Drought, by adversely affecting the top predator, had indirect cascading effects on the entire food web, altering community composition and decomposition. We identified the likely pathway of how drought cascaded through the food web from the top-down as drought -->predator --> shredder --> decomposition. This stress-induced cascade depended on predators exhibiting both a strong vulnerability to drought and large impacts on prey (especially shredders), as well as shredders exhibiting high functional importance as decomposers.

  16. Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in aquatic ecosystems : influence of natural and anthropic organic matter; Biodisponibilite des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les ecosystemes aquatiques: influence de la matiere organique naturelle et anthropique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourlay, C.

    2004-11-01

    Aquatic ecosystems receive micro-pollutants. They also contain organic matter (OM) of natural and anthropogenic origins. The contaminant bioavailability in aquatic media is determined by the interactions between contaminants and OM. This work deals with the influence of organic matter from anthropogenic media on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic pollutants. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been used as model contaminants, since they are widely spread in urban media. In anthropogenic media, some OM may be bio-degraded. Up to now, most researches focused on the interactions between contaminants and humic OM that are mostly non-degradable, using physico-chemical characterizations of OM. On the contrary, in this work, the biodegradability of OM was deliberately taken into account. Indeed, we assume that the contaminant affinity for OM evolves during OM biodegradation, so that pollutants may be released in a bio-available form and then may be bond again by biodegradation sub-products. In laboratory evaluation, PAH bioavailability was assessed through the measurements of the bioaccumulation in Daphnia magna. The influence of organic matter on the bioavailability of PAHs and the evolution of this influence along OM bacterial mineralization were proved, as well as the strong binding efficiency of degradation by-products. A model of observed phenomena was elaborated. These observations about urban and natural OM effect were compared to in situ PAH bioavailability measurements in the river Seine basin. In this case, the bioavailability was estimated using Semi-Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) sampling technique. (author)

  17. Monitoring of the aquatic environment by species accumulator of pollutants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review on the biomonitoring of aquatic environments by animal and plant species accumulators of toxic pollutants ("scavengers". This monitoring is based on the relationship between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment, and not on alterations produced by pollution on the biota. The latter is the basis of other types of biomonitoring, such as those based on the biotic and diversity indices and saprobic scale. The various aspects of monitoring by pollutant accumulators are illustrated; for example, the uptake and loss of pollutants, the "critical organs" and "tissues", the detoxification mechanisms and the most common factors (C.F., BAF, BSAF for establishing a connection between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment. Several examples of this monitoring on heavy metals, radioisotopes and organic micropollutants are reported. The advantages of this monitoring, the characteristics of the species to be used as bioaccumulators and some practical suggestions are listed. A close collaboration between the scientific teams working on the biomonitoring based on accumulator organisms and on the chemical monitoring is recommended from the scientific and economic point of view.

  18. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  19. IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake: A three-dimensional complex dynamic model for subtropical aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragoso, C.R.; Nes, van E.H.; Janse, J.H.; Motta Marques, da D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake, a three-dimensional complex dynamic model for subtropical aquatic ecosystems. It combines a spatially explicit hydrodynamic model with a water-quality and biotic model of ecological interactions. The software, which is freely available for research purposes, ha

  20. Novel use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy to investigate aquatic carbon cycling from microbial to ecosystem scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, D.T.; Santos, I.S.; Leuven, J.R.F.W.; Oakes, J.M.; Erler, D.V.; Carvalho, M.C.; Eyre, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Development of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) has enabled real-time monitoring of carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane in air. Here we demonstrate that CRDS can be adapted to assess aquatic carbon cycling processes from microbial to ecosystem scales. We first measured in

  1. Climate regulates alpine lake ice cover phenology and aquatic ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.; Caine, Nel; McKnight, Diane M.; Williams, Mark W.; Hell, Katherina; Miller, Matthew P.; Hart, Sarah J.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-05-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, yet relatively few records are available to characterize shifts in ecosystem structure or their underlying mechanisms. Using a long-term data set on seven alpine lakes (3126 to 3620 m) in Colorado, USA, we show that ice-off dates have shifted 7 days earlier over the past 33 years and that spring weather conditions—especially snowfall—drive yearly variation in ice-off timing. In the most well studied lake, earlier ice-off associated with increases in water residence times, thermal stratification, ion concentrations, dissolved nitrogen, pH, and chlorophyll a. Mechanistically, low spring snowfall and warm temperatures reduce summer stream flow (increasing lake residence times) but enhance melting of glacial and permafrost ice (increasing lake solute inputs). The observed links among hydrological, chemical, and biological responses to climate factors highlight the potential for major shifts in the functioning of alpine lakes due to forecasted climate change.

  2. Climate regulates alpine lake ice cover phenology and aquatic ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel L.; Caine, Nel; McKnight, Diane M.; Williams, Mark W.; Hell, Katherina; Miller, Matthew P.; Hart, Sarah J.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2016-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate change, yet relatively few records are available to characterize shifts in ecosystem structure or their underlying mechanisms. Using a long-term dataset on seven alpine lakes (3126 to 3620 m) in Colorado, USA, we show that ice-off dates have shifted seven days earlier over the past 33 years and that spring weather conditions – especially snowfall – drive yearly variation in ice-off timing. In the most well-studied lake, earlier ice-off associated with increases in water residence times, thermal stratification, ion concentrations, dissolved nitrogen, pH, and chlorophyll-a. Mechanistically, low spring snowfall and warm temperatures reduce summer stream flow (increasing lake residence times) but enhance melting of glacial and permafrost ice (increasing lake solute inputs). The observed links among hydrological, chemical, and biological responses to climate factors highlight the potential for major shifts in the functioning of alpine lakes due to forecasted climate change.

  3. A study of 110mAg in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhaorong; Leung, John K C

    2003-04-01

    Experiments on a simulated terrestrial agricultural ecosystem were carried out using the pot culture approach. The most representative plants in local vegetable gardens were selected to investigate the root uptake of (110m)Ag. The results show that carrot, kale and flowering cabbage have the largest transfer factor values among the vegetables. Flowering cabbage, as the most popular leafy vegetable in Hong Kong and the South China area, can be used as a biomonitor for radioisotope contamination in vegetables. Soil column and adsorption tests were also carried out to study the leaching ability of the silver isotope in soil and (110m)Ag was mainly adsorbed in the top 1 cm of soil regardless of the pH value. Experiments on a simulated aquatic ecosystem for freshwater fish and marine organisms were carried out in glass aquaria. The freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio, the marine fish Cuvier and some local abundant seashore molluscs were selected to investigate the kinetic metabolism of (110m)Ag in the compartmental system. The results show that molluscs absorb (110m)Ag much more than fish. Clibanarius infraspinatus has the largest concentration factor among the marine organisms selected. Fish liver, although representing a minor portion of the total body mass, shows the highest (110m)Ag concentration factor, whereas muscle, although representing a major portion of the total body mass, is characterized by an absence of (110m)Ag.

  4. An assessment of aquatic ecosystem health in a temperate watershed using the index of biological integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kwang-Guk; Choi, Shin-Sok

    2003-06-01

    The health effect of an aquatic ecosystem on habitat modifications were evaluated in the Keum river watershed, Korea during 1977-1996 using the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages. Values of IBI, based on overall sites, averaged 35 (range: 26-45, n = 38) before dam construction, indicating a "fair health condition" based on the modified criteria of Karr and Chu (Karr, J.R.; Chu, E.W. Restoring Life in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring; Inland Press: Washington, DC, 1999; 206 pp.), while the values averaged 33 (range: 18-48, n = 15) after dam construction, indicating a similar ecosystem health condition in the IBI between the two periods. Marked modifications in the IBI, however, were partially observed along the longitudinal gradients from the headwaters to downstream along with variations of trophic compositions and habitat guilds. Annual mean of IBI showed significant decreases (p 20% decreases of insectivores and >25% increases of omnivores. Comparisons of habitat guilds indicated that the proportion of riffle benthic species declined linearly from 1977 to 1996 and had inverse relations (r = -0.78, p health was mainly affected by the habitat modifications.

  5. Bioassessment of contaminant transport and distribution in aquatic ecosystems by chemical analysis of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Wiener, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Burrowing mayfly nymphs (Ephemeroptera) inhabit and ingest fine-grained sediments and detritus that may be enriched with metals and persistent organic compounds. The burrowing nymphs can externally adsorb and internally assimilate these contaminants, providing a link for the food chain transfer of potentially toxic substances from sediments to organisms in higher trophic levels. The emergent adults are short-lived and do not feed, thus their gut contents do not contribute greatly to their total contaminant burden. These characteristics make Hexagenia spp. And certain other burrowing mayflies useful for assessing ecosystem contamination. General protocols are presented for the collection, processing and analysis of emergent mayflies to assess the spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Two essential components of this bioassessment approach are a network of on-site volunteers with the materials and instructions needed to correctly collect and store samples and quality assurance procedures to estimate the accuracy of chemical analyses. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with an example of its application to the Upper Mississippi River (USA). Determination of cadmium, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent Hexagenia bilineata from a 1250 km reach of this river revealed (1) several source areas of contaminants and (2) distinct patterns in the bioaccumulation (and apparent sediment-associated transport) of each residue on both small and large spatial scales.

  6. Reviews and syntheses: Effects of permafrost thaw on Arctic aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J.E.; Tank, S.E.; Bowden, W.B.; Laurion, I.; Vincent, W.F.; Alekseychik, P.; Amyot, Y.; Billet, M.F.; Canario, J.; Cory, R.M.; Deshpande, B.N.; Helbig, M.; Jammet, M.; Karlsson, J.; Larouche, J.; MacMillan, G.; Rautio, M.; Walter Anthony, K.M.; Wickland, Kimberly P.

    2015-01-01

    of dissolved vs. particulate organic matter, coupled with the composition of that organic matter and the morphology and stratification characteristics of recipient systems will play an important role in determining the balance between the release of organic matter as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), its burial in sediments, and its loss downstream. The magnitude of thaw impacts on northern aquatic ecosystems is increasing, as is the prevalence of thaw-impacted lakes and streams. There is therefore an urgent need to quantify how permafrost thaw is affecting aquatic ecosystems across diverse Arctic landscapes, and the implications of this change for further climate warming.

  7. Reviews and syntheses: Effects of permafrost thaw on Arctic aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J. E.; Tank, S. E.; Bowden, W. B.; Laurion, I.; Vincent, W. F.; Alekseychik, P.; Amyot, M.; Billet, M. F.; Canário, J.; Cory, R. M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Helbig, M.; Jammet, M.; Karlsson, J.; Larouche, J.; MacMillan, G.; Rautio, M.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Wickland, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    of dissolved vs. particulate organic matter, coupled with the composition of that organic matter and the morphology and stratification characteristics of recipient systems will play an important role in determining the balance between the release of organic matter as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), its burial in sediments, and its loss downstream. The magnitude of thaw impacts on northern aquatic ecosystems is increasing, as is the prevalence of thaw-impacted lakes and streams. There is therefore an urgent need to quantify how permafrost thaw is affecting aquatic ecosystems across diverse Arctic landscapes, and the implications of this change for further climate warming.

  8. Reviews and Syntheses: Effects of permafrost thaw on arctic aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Vonk

    2015-07-01

    enables the delivery of dissolved vs. particulate organic matter, coupled with the composition of that organic matter and the morphology and stratification characteristics of recipient systems will play an important role in determining the balance between the release of organic matter as greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4, its burial in sediments, and its loss downstream. The magnitude of thaw impacts on northern aquatic ecosystems is increasing, as is the prevalence of thaw-impacted lakes and streams. There is therefore an urgent need to address the key gaps in understanding in order to predict the full effects of permafrost thaw on aquatic ecosystems throughout the Arctic, and their consequential feedbacks to climate.

  9. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  10. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  11. Sediment composition mediates the invasibility of aquatic ecosystems by a non-native Poaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Botter Fasoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the invasibility of aquatic ecosystems by an exotic species, we used the invasive macrophyte Urochloa arrecta, which has invaded many Neotropical waterbodies and has reduced biodiversity in these habitats. The extensive growth of this macrophyte can be related to its affinity for mud-rich sediments, which occur primarily in secondary river channels and lentic habitats.MethodsTo test this hypothesis, we cultivated U. arrecta in trays with different percentages of mud and we measured the sprout length and biomass of the plants after 75 days.ResultsOur results showed a positive and significant relationship between sediment mud percentage and nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. Both plant length and biomass increased significantly and continuously with increasing mud content, indicating that the growth of this species is not limited even at the highest levels of mud, which is shown to be toxic for other species of macrophytes. Thus, it is probable that sand-rich sites, such as river shores, are less vulnerable to invasion by this species than relatively mud-rich sites, such as lakes.ConclusionsThis finding indicates that relatively mud-rich ecosystems should be prioritised in monitoring programs to prevent invasion by this species. In addition, the slow development of this species in sandy sediments opens a potential window for its management, at least on small spatial scales. However, despite the reduced growth of U. arrecta in sand-rich sediments, this grass is able to grow in several types of sediments, which explains its spread in a variety of habitats in Neotropical freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Marcellus and mercury: Assessing potential impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on aquatic ecosystems in northwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christopher J; Weimer, Alexander B; Marks, Nicole K; Perow, Elliott S; Oster, Jacob M; Brubaker, Kristen M; Trexler, Ryan V; Solomon, Caroline M; Lamendella, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent element in the environment that has the ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the food chain with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems and human health. Twenty-four streams remotely located in forested watersheds in northwestern PA containing naturally reproducing Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout), were targeted to gain a better understanding of how Marcellus shale natural gas exploration may be impacting water quality, aquatic biodiversity, and Hg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems. During the summer of 2012, stream water, stream bed sediments, aquatic mosses, macroinvertebrates, crayfish, brook trout, and microbial samples were collected. All streams either had experienced hydraulic fracturing (fracked, n = 14) or not yet experienced hydraulic fracturing (non-fracked, n = 10) within their watersheds at the time of sampling. Analysis of watershed characteristics (GIS) for fracked vs non-fracked sites showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), justifying comparisons between groups. Results showed significantly higher dissolved total mercury (FTHg) in stream water (P = 0.007), lower pH (P = 0.033), and higher dissolved organic matter (P = 0.001) at fracked sites. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in crayfish (P = 0.01), macroinvertebrates (P = 0.089), and predatory macroinvertebrates (P = 0.039) were observed to be higher for fracked sites. A number of positive correlations between amount of well pads within a watershed and THg in crayfish (r = 0.76, P shale natural gas exploration is having an effect on aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Assessing Sources of Stress to Aquatic Ecosystems: Using Biomarkers and Bioindicators to Characterize Exodure-Response Profiles of Anthropogenic Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.

    1999-03-29

    Establishing causal relationships between sources of environmental stressors and aquatic ecosystem health if difficult because of the many biotic and abiotic factors which can influence or modify responses of biological systems to stress, the orders of magnitude involved in extrapolation over both spatial and temporal scales, and compensatory mechanisms such as density-dependent responses that operate in populations. To address the problem of establishing causality between stressors and effects on aquatic systems, a diagnostic approach, based on exposure-response profiles for various anthropogenic activities, was developed to help identify sources of stress responsible for effects on aquatic systems at ecological significant levels of biological organization (individual, population, community). To generate these exposure-effects profiles, biomarkers of exposure were plotted against bioindicators of corresponding effects for several major anthropogenic activities including petrochemical , pulp and paper, domestic sewage, mining operations, land-development activities, and agricultural activities. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental stressors varied depending on the type of anthropogenic activity involved. Bioindicator effects, however, including histopathological lesions, bioenergetic status, individual growth, reproductive impairment, and community-level responses were similar among many of the major anthropogenic activities. This approach is valuable to help identify and diagnose sources of stressors in environments impacted by multiple stressors. By identifying the types and sources of environmental stressors, aquatic ecosystems can be more effectively protected and managed to maintain acceptable levels of environmental quality and ecosystem fitness.

  14. Biomarkers of toxicological responses in aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus. Variegatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Gooneratne; Drewes C

    2005-01-01

    @@ Oligochaete worms are key, non-target,macroinvertebrates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems.Aquatic and terrestrial pollution has attracted a great deal of public interest in the past 2 decades.

  15. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore US ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Mark E.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Blett, Tamara F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, Richard A.; Evers, David C.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Jeffries, Dean S.

    2011-01-01

    More than four decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollution have altered, and will continue to alter, our nation's lands and waters. The emission and deposition of air pollutants harm native plants and animals, degrade water quality, affect forest productivity, and are damaging to human health. Many air quality policies limit emissions at the source but these control measures do not always consider ecosystem impacts. Air pollution thresholds at which ecological effects are observed, such as critical loads, are effective tools for assessing the impacts of air pollution on essential ecosystem services and for informing public policy. U.S. ecosystems can be more effectively protected and restored by using a combination of emissions-based approaches and science-based thresholds of ecosystem damage.

  16. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M; Quinn, Laura P; Polder, Anuschka

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT levels reported this century; 13,000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 ng/g wm. Even higher ΣDDT levels at 16,000 ng/g wm were found in House Sparrow eggs (possibly the highest ever recorded for sparrows), with a maximum of 24,400 ng/g wm. Significant eggshell thinning in Cattle Egrets (33% between thickest and thinnest) was associated with increased levels of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. There were indications of unknown use of DDT and lindane. Relative to DDT, PCBs and BFRs levels were quite low. Ordinated data showed that different terrestrial pollutant profiles converged to a homogenised aquatic profile. Converging profiles, high levels of DDT in heron and sparrow eggs, and thinning eggs shells, indicate risk and impacts at release, in the aquatic environment, and in between. If characteristic life-strategies of birds in warm areas (e.g. longer-lived and fewer eggs per clutch) increases the risk compared with similar birds living in colder regions when both experience the same environmental pollutant levels, then malaria control using DDT probably has more significant impacts on biota than previously realised. Therefore, risk assessment and modelling without hard data may miss crucial impacts and risks, as the chemical use patterns and ecologies in Africa and elsewhere may differ from the conditions and assumptions of existing risk assessment and modelling parameters. Consideration of other findings associated with DDT from the same area (intersex in fish and urogental birth defects in baby boys), together with the findings of this study (high

  17. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  18. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  19. Ecological risk assessment of zinc from stormwater runoff to an aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Keithly, James; Santore, Robert C; DeForest, David K; Tobiason, Scott

    2010-03-15

    Zinc (Zn) risks from stormwater runoff to an aquatic ecosystem were studied. Monitoring data on waterborne, porewater, and sediment Zn concentrations collected at 20 stations throughout a stormwater collection/detention facility consisting of forested wetlands, a retention pond and first order stream were used to conduct the assessment. Bioavailability in the water column was estimated using biotic ligand models for invertebrates and fish while bioavailability in the sediment was assessed using acid volatile sulfide-simultaneously extracted metal (AVS-SEM). The screening level assessment indicated no significant risks were posed to benthic organisms from Zn concentrations in sediments and pore water. As would be expected for stormwater, Zn concentrations were temporally quite variable within a storm event, varying by factors of 2 to 4. Overall, probabilistic assessment indicated low (5-10% of species affected) to negligible risks in the system, especially at the discharge to the first order stream. Moderate to high risks (10-50% of species affected) were identified at sampling locations most upgradient in the collection system. The largest uncertainty with the assessment is associated with how best to estimate chronic exposure/risks from time-varying exposure concentrations. Further research on pulse exposure metal toxicity is clearly needed to assess stormwater impacts on the environment.

  20. A methodological approach to characterize the resilience of aquatic ecosystems with application to Lake Annecy, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, J.-L.; Berthier, F.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a methodological approach to characterize the resilience of aquatic ecosystems with respect to the evolution of environmental parameters as well as their aptitude to adapt to forcings. This method that is applied to Lake Annecy, France, proceeds in three stages. First, according to the depth, variations of physicochemical parameters versus time are separated into three components related to (1) energy transfer through the surface of the lake, (2) the flow of rivers and springs that feed the lake, and (3) long-term evolution of the benthic zone as a consequence of mineral and organic matter loads. Second, dynamics of the lake are deduced by analyzing the physicochemical parameter components related to the three boundary conditions. Third, a stochastic process associated with the transfer models aims to characterize the resilience of the lakes according to forcings. For Lake Annecy, whose dynamics are representative of oligotrophic stratified lakes controlled by decarbonation processes where turnover and mixing occurring once a year in winter, the major consequence is the impoverishment of dissolved oxygen in deep water in autumn due to a temperature increase of the surface water in summer. The simulation raises relevant questions about whether a connection exists between physicochemical parameters and global warming, which should not induce harmful consequences on water quality and biodiversity in deep water. This methodological approach is general since it does not use any physical conceptual model to predict the hydrosystem behavior but uses directly observed data.

  1. Scaling relationships among drivers of aquatic respiration from the smallest to the largest freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ed K; Schoolmaster, Donald; Amado, A.M; Stets, Edward G.; Lennon, J.T.; Domaine, L.; Cotner, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    To address how various environmental parameters control or constrain planktonic respiration (PR), we used geometric scaling relationships and established biological scaling laws to derive quantitative predictions for the relationships among key drivers of PR. We then used empirical measurements of PR and environmental (soluble reactive phosphate [SRP], carbon [DOC], chlorophyll a [Chl-a)], and temperature) and landscape parameters (lake area [LA] and watershed area [WA]) from a set of 44 lakes that varied in size and trophic status to test our hypotheses. We found that landscape-level processes affected PR through direct effects on DOC and temperature and indirectly via SRP. In accordance with predictions made from known relationships and scaling laws, scale coefficients (the parameter that describes the shape of a relationship between 2 variables) were found to be negative and have an absolute value 1, others small pond catchments to the largest body of freshwater on the planet, Lake Superior, these findings should be applicable to controls of PR for the great majority of temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Extraordinary stability of copper(I)-tetrathiomolybdate complexes: possible implications for aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, George R; Erickson, Britt E

    2011-01-01

    An extraordinary affinity of MoS₄²⁻ for Cu accounts for Mo-induced Cu deficiency in ruminants (molybdenosis) and offers an approach to treating Wilson's disease in humans. Evidence of thiomolybdates in sulfidic natural waters, and possibly even as metastable traces in oxic natural waters, raises the question of how Cu-Mo affinity might affect Cu availability or toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. Stabilities of inorganic Cu-MoS₄²⁻ complexes are characterized and quantified here for the first time. Two remarkably stable Cu(I) dissolved complexes are identified (T = 23°C ± 2°C): Cu₂(HS)₂MoS₄²⁻ and Cu₂S₂MoS₄⁴⁻. In addition, the solubility constant for a precipitate (NH₄CuMoS₄) was measured. Under the extremely reducing conditions in rumen fluids, these complexes will greatly suppress Cu(+) activity, supporting prior conclusions about the mechanism of molybdenosis. In sulfidic natural waters, they help to prevent complete Cu impoverishment, as might otherwise occur by sulfide mineral precipitation. On the other hand, the complexes discovered here are HS⁻-dependent and could not be important in oxic natural waters (with HS⁻ concentrations < 10⁻⁹ M) even if metastable, biogenic MoS₄²⁻ indeed were present as previously conjectured.

  3. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants. PMID:28272515

  4. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  5. Old river beds under urbanization pressure. Can we protect valuable aquatic ecosystems within the cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, Daria; Sikorski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Old river channels are valuable ecosystems in the scale of whole Europe. Protected as Natura 2000 habitats they are characterized by high biodiversity and provide various ecosystem services. River regulation, eutrophication or lack of annual flooding result in an impoverishment and disappearance of these habitats. Moreover they are subjected to severe pressure from uncontrolled expansion of the cities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with urbanization mostly contributing to impoverishment of the vegetation associated with the old channels and to identify landscape characteristics favouring high diversity and naturalness. We were seeking for indices that could be implemented in spatial management for preservation of these ecosystems. Vegetation inventory of 28 lakes, being former river Vistula beds near Warsaw was held. The lakes were located in an urban-rural gradient from the city centre, suburban zone to rural areas. Mapping of vegetation was performed for aquatic vegetation, rushes and vegetation of the shores (321 relevés). Human pressure was assessed on the basis of landscape composition of the lakes neighbourhood, characteristic features of the reservoir and water physio-chemical properties. High diversity and naturalness of the vegetation associated with former Vistula River beds was proved. Effects of the human pressure in the vegetation composition were recognized in high share of alien species and impoverishment of native plants. Composition was dependant on the intensity of human pressure in the neighbourhood and was mostly related to percentage of built-up areas and road density. Selected measures allowed to explain not more than 30% of plants composition variation which implies strong effect of local factors. Vegetation composition of former river beds changed significantly along urban-rural gradient, though the trend could be noted only to the city border. Several protection activities were proposed favouring high

  6. Floods, fish, and people: Connecting biogeochemical fluxes to aquatic ecosystem functions and people (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrieve, G. W.; Arias, M. E.; Chheng, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River basin, including Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), is the largest inland fishery in the world and a dominant source of protein and income for much of Southeast Asia. Maintaining ecosystem productivity in the face of large-scale environmental change from hydroelectric dams and climate change is critical for economic and social well-being in the region. Yet, we currently lack the most basic understanding of how hydrologic variation relates to fisheries production, nutritional quality, and ultimately livelihoods of people. We will describe past, present, and future research to establish mechanistic connections between the hydrology, ecology, and sustainability of the Mekong ecosystem. Past research includes application of a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1 × 2.3 g O2 m-3 d-1 with minimal differences among sites, while ER averaged 24.9 × 20.0 g O2 m-3 d-1, but had greater than six-fold variation among sites. Using our measurements of GPP, we calibrated a hydrodynamic-productivity model and predicted aquatic net primary production of 2.0 × 0.2 g C m-2 d-1 (2.4 × 0.2 million tonnes C y-1). Present research is using stable isotope and fatty acid methyl ester biomarkers to investigate basal carbon sources to the fishery, focusing specifically on the role of biogenic methane oxidation in supporting the food web. Individuals a wide variety of taxa had tissue carbon isotope values (δ13C) ranging from -36 to -57 per mil. These extremely depleted values are best explained by utilization of biogenic methane by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and subsequent grazing of these bacterial by benthic insects and ultimately fishes. The presence of MOB in the food web was confirmed by identifying 16:1ω8 and 18:1ω8 FAME biomarkers specific to these bacteria in fish

  7. Industria del camarón: su responsabilidad en la desaparición de los manglares y la contaminación acuática - Industry of Shrimp: its responsibility in the loss of the mangrove ecosystems and the aquatic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Moreno, E.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa industria camaronera representa una importante rama de la producción alimentaria mundial y constituye una elemental fuente de proteínas, empleo e ingresos, siendo la base del sustento de una gran parte de la población del planeta; pero precisamente debido a ello, ha crecido muy aceleradamente, agravándose fundamentalmente en cuanto a la superficie total de explotación, lo que ha provocado un serio desequilibrio entre la explotación por parte del hombre y la naturaleza. En la presente revisión bibliográfica se reflejan las tendencias de crecimiento de la camaronicultura versus la afectación del medioambiente, específicamente las implicaciones relacionadas con la destrucción de los manglares como ecosistemas y la contaminación de las aguas marinas y continentales. En el trabajo semanifiesta que el desarrollo acelerado de esta rama productiva sin laobservación necesaria de las normas de protección del medio ambiente,provoca afectaciones serias y puede conducir a catástrofesmedioambientales si no se respeta el equilibrio que debe existir con la naturaleza.SummaryThe shrimp culture is an important line of the world production of food, an elemental source of protein, employment and incomes. It's the base of the sustenance much parts of the world population; for this cause it grows very fast, increasing the total surface of exploitation which provokes an intense unbalance between the production from the man and the nature. The present bibliographical review shows the tendency of the growth of the shrimp culture versus the environmental affectation, specifically the elements about of the destruction of the mangrove’s ecosystems and the pollution of the coastal and continental waters. This work shows t hat the fast development of this line of production without the observance of theprotection regulations to the environment causes several damages and may leads to environmental catastrophes if we don’t respect the balance with

  8. Pollution Pathways of Pharmaceutical Residues in the Aquatic Environment on the Island of Mallorca, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Bak, Søren Alex

    2013-01-01

    This work determines the principal environmental pollution pathways of pharmaceuticals on the island of Mallorca (Spain). The evaluation was made on the basis of the quantification of pharmaceutical residues by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in several environmental water samples......, including wastewater-treatment plant effluents, municipal solid waste landfill leachates, groundwater (GW), and marine water. An overall set of 19 pharmaceuticals has been identified in the environment of the 27 human pharmaceuticals investigated in this study. WWTP effluents are the main source...... of discharge of the pharmaceuticals into the aquatic environment. The data indicate that reuse of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation (which supplies some 30 % of the total water demand in Mallorca) contributes to the contamination of GW. In addition, leaching from landfills is identified as another...

  9. A comparison of freshwater mussels and passive samplers as indicators of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning;

    2013-01-01

    under controlled conditions in order to determine whether either system was capable of functioning as a reliable source of data on aquatic pollution. The laboratory results indicated that mussels are useful in this context. However, passive samplers will require further development to be useful since...

  10. The influence of ecological processes on the accumulation of persistent organochlorines in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Olof

    1999-09-01

    Several ecological problems influences the fate, transport, and accumulation of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in aquatic ecosystems. In this thesis, I have focused on two processes, namely (i) the food chain bioaccumulation of OCs, and (ii) the trophic status of the aquatic system. To test the biomagnification theory, I investigated PCB concentrations in planktonic food chains in lakes. The concentrations of PCB on a lipid basis did not increase with increasing trophic level. Hence, I could give no support to the theory of biomagnification. Instead, lipid content explained most of the variation in PCB accumulation in these food chains. PCBs were differentially fractionated in the food chains, the relative amount of high molecular weight PCBs increased with increasing trophic level, indicating congener specific differences in either the accumulation or the elimination of PCBs at the different trophic levels. In another study, I investigated the relationship between OC concentrations and trophic level, measured as {delta}{sup 15}N, in a specific predatory fish population. The dry weight OC concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N were related, indicating effects of prey choice on the OC accumulation. However, here also, lipid content explained the major part of the variation in OC concentrations, independent of trophic level (e. g. {delta}{sup 15}N). I investigated the effects of trophic status, measured as Tot-P concentration in water, on the concentrations of OCs in water, planktonic food chains and sediment in lakes. The dry weight concentrations of PCBs in phytoplankton were negatively related to the trophic status of the lakes. However, this relationship was explained by the decreasing lipid content of phytoplankton with lake trophic status. The phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes had lower lipid content than phytoplankton in oligotrophic lakes, possibly due to inter- and intraspecific differences in lipid content due to nutrient stress. The sediment accumulation and

  11. Advances in management and utilization of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in aquatic ecosystems - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao-Hua; Song, Wei; Guo, Jun-Yao

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a concise summary of literature in the Chinese language since late 1970s and focuses on recent development in global scenarios. This work will replenish the FAO summary of water hyacinth utilization from 1917 to 1979 and review ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the water hyacinth from 1980 to 2010. This review also discusses the debate on whether the growth of the water hyacinth is a problem, a challenge or an opportunity. Literature suggested that integrated technologies and good management may be an effective solution and the perception of water hyacinth could change from that of a notorious aquatic weed to a valuable resource, including its utilization as a biological agent for the application in bioremediation for removing excess nutrients from eutrophic water bodies at low cost. Key aspects on system integration and innovation may focus on low-cost and efficient equipment and the creation of value-added goods from water hyacinth biomass. In the socioeconomic and ecological domain of global development, all the successful and sustainable management inputs for the water hyacinth must generate some sort of social and economic benefit simultaneously, as well as benefiting the ecosystem. Potential challenges exist in linkages between the management of water hyacinth on the large scale to the sustainable development of agriculture based on recycling nutrients, bio-energy production or silage and feed production. Further research and development may focus on more detailed biology of water hyacinth related with its utilization, cost-benefit analysis of middle to large-scale application of the technologies and innovation of the equipment used for harvesting and dehydrating the plant.

  12. Ecotoxicological monitoring for the evaluation of environmental recovery of aquatic ecosystems using Poecilia reticulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DaSilva, E.M.; Navarro, M.F.T.; Mota, M.F.; Chastinet, C.B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater contamination has led to a considerable environmental impact on the humic acid-rich lake systems of Jaua and Interiagos (Camagari-BA). This was caused by the seepage of rainwater through a dune, which was used for some time as a dumping ground of a titanium dioxide plant. The pH fall in the water has conducted to a precipitation of the humic acids and the disappearance of the local fish fauna. The plant (TIBRAS S/A) initiated a recovery program in 1992 to seal up the contaminated dune, thus avoiding further contamination of the groundwater. During the last two years, ecotoxicity tests have been carried out with lake water, employing young individual of the guppy (Poecilia reticulate), an endemic species, as a test organism. Results for 1993 indicated and confined the contamination of five water stations from a total of eight sampled nearby. The LT{sub 50} were in some cases lower than 60 min. In the end of 1993, a severe drought caused the total disappearance of the surface water in the whole aquatic ecosystem. In May 1994, the testing series restarted and some considerable changes have been detected: the return of the water color for the whole system, an increase in pH and a considerable decrease of toxicity in two other stations. LT{sub 50} values for five stations were above 96 hours. These results are not yet an indicative that the dune sealing has been carried out properly, but are able to show and follow improvements in the biological quality of water bodies.

  13. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Pfennig, Sascha; Van den Brink, Paul J; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Ruepert, Clemens; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple plantations. In this study, acute laboratory toxicity tests with organophosphate pesticides ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos were conducted on two Costa Rican species, cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and fish Parachromis dovii. Tests showed that chlorpyrifos was more toxic than ethoprophos to D. ambigua and P. dovii and that D. ambigua was also more sensitive than P. dovii to both pesticides. Additionally, bioassays were performed by exposing D. magna and P. dovii to contaminated water collected from the field. Chemical analyses of field water revealed that fungicides were generally the most frequent pesticide group found, followed by insecticides/nematicides and herbicides. The bioassays and values obtained from the literature confirmed that D. magna was more sensitive to pesticide contamination than P. dovii and that D. ambigua was more sensitive than D. magna, suggesting that the native cladoceran is a more suitable test species than its temperate counterpart. Species sensitivity distributions showed no significant difference in sensitivity between tropical and temperate fish and the arthropod species exposed to chlorpyrifos in this study. Choline esterase activity (ChE) was measured in P. dovii in laboratory tests in order to assess the applicability of this biomarker. ChE inhibition in P. dovii was observed in the laboratory at levels below the LC10 of both ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos, confirming that ChE is an efficient biomarker of exposure. Both indigenous Costa Rican species used in this study were found to be suitable standard tropical test species. Further studies are needed to investigate how protective the safe environmental concentrations, derived from LC50 of native

  14. Interaction of acid rain and global changes: effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.F.; Schindler, D.W. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway)

    1995-12-01

    Both acid deposition and changes in the global atmosphere and climate affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the atmosphere sulphate aerosols tend to increase haze, altering the global radiation balance. Increased nitrogen deposition to N-limited systems such as boreal forests results in increased growth and increased sequestration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, slowing the increase in CO{sub 2} levels in the atmosphere. Future reduction in S and N emissions may results in a trade-off better with respect to some effects of acid deposition and greenhouse warming, but worse with respect to others. Global warming may cause the incidence and severity of drought to increase. Mineralisation of N and oxidation of organic S compounds release pulses of SO{sub 4}, acid and Al to surface waters. Effects in lakes may include reduced deep water refugia for cold stenotherms, lower nutrient concentrations, and greater penetration of harmful UV radiation. Longer water renewal times cause declines in SO{sub 4} and NO{sub 3} due to increased in situ removal, but increases in base cations. The net result in increased internal alkalinity production. In areas characterised by cold winters, global warming may result in a major shift in hydrologic cycle, with snowmelt episodes occurring during the winter rather than the typical pattern of accumulation in the winter and melting in the spring. Increased storm frequency predicted for the future will cause increased frequency and severity of sea salt episodes in coastal regions. Predicting the interactions of regional and global environmental factors in the coming decades poses new challenges to scientists, managers and policy-makers. 52 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Interaction of acid rain and global changes: Effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.F. [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Schindler, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Both acid deposition and changes in the global atmosphere and climate affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the atmosphere sulphate aerosols tend to increase haze, altering the global radiation balance. Increased nitrogen deposition to N-limited systems such as boreal forests results in increased growth and increased sequestration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} slowing the increase in CO{sub 2} levels in the atmosphere. Future reduction in S and N emissions may result in trade-off -- better with respect to some effects of acid deposition and greenhouse warming but worse with respect to others. Global warming may cause the incidence and severity of drought to increase. Mineralisation of N and oxidation of organic S compounds release pulses of SO{sub 4}, acid and Al to surface waters. Effect in lakes may include reduced deep water refugia for cold stenotherms, lower nutrient concentration and greater penetration of harmful UV radiation. Longer water renewal times cause declines in SO{sub 4} and NO{sub 3} due to increased in situ removal but increases in base cations. The net result is increased internal alkalinity production. In areas characterised by cold winters, global warming may result in major shift in hydrologic cycle, with snow melt episodes occurring during the winter rather than the typical pattern of accumulation in the winter and melting in the spring. Increased storm frequency predicted for the future will cause increased frequency and severity of sea salt episodes in coastal regions. Predicting the interactions of regional and global environmental factors in the coming decades poses new challenges to scientists, managers and policy makers.

  16. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health.

  17. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  18. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and point source released radionuclides to an aquatic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, Linda [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology; Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    In this report three ecosystem models are described in terms of structure, initial data, and results. All models are dynamic, mass-balanced and describe the transport and fate of elements in an open aquatic ecosystem. The models are based on ecologically sound principles, provide model results with high resolution and transparency, and are constrained by the nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem itself. The processes driving the transport in all the models are both the biological processes such as primary production, consumption, respiration and excretion, and abiotic e.g. water exchange and air-sea exchange. The first model, the CNP-model, describes the distribution and fluxes of carbon and nutrients for the coastal ecosystem off Forsmark. The second model, the C-14 model, is an extension of the CNP-model and describes the transport and distribution of hypothetically released C-14 from the underground repository SFR-1 to the ecosystem above. The third model, the RN-model, is a generic radionuclide flow model that models the transport and distribution of radionuclides other than C-14 hypothetically discharged to the ecosystem. The model also analyses the importance of some radionuclide specific mechanisms for the radionuclide flow. The generic radionuclide model is also based on the CNP-model, but has radionuclide specific mechanisms connected to each compartment.

  19. Transport and fate of radionuclides in aquatic environments--the use of ecosystem modelling for exposure assessments of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U; Naeslund, B

    2006-01-01

    In safety assessments of nuclear facilities, a wide range of radioactive isotopes and their potential hazard to a large assortment of organisms and ecosystem types over long time scales need to be considered. Models used for these purposes have typically employed approaches based on generic reference organisms, stylised environments and transfer functions for biological uptake exclusively based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). These models are of non-mechanistic nature and involve no understanding of uptake and transport processes in the environment, which is a severe limitation when assessing real ecosystems. In this paper, ecosystem models are suggested as a method to include site-specific data and to facilitate the modelling of dynamic systems. An aquatic ecosystem model for the environmental transport of radionuclides is presented and discussed. With this model, driven and constrained by site-specific carbon dynamics and three radionuclide specific mechanisms: (i) radionuclide uptake by plants, (ii) excretion by animals, and (iii) adsorption to organic surfaces, it was possible to estimate the radionuclide concentrations in all components of the modelled ecosystem with only two radionuclide specific input parameters (BCF for plants and Kd). The importance of radionuclide specific mechanisms for the exposure to organisms was examined, and probabilistic and sensitivity analyses to assess the uncertainties related to ecosystem input parameters were performed. Verification of the model suggests that this model produces analogous results to empirically derived data for more than 20 different radionuclides.

  20. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balčiauskas, Linas, E-mail: linasbal@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Skipitytė, Raminta, E-mail: raminta.skipityte@ftmc.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Jasiulionis, Marius, E-mail: mjasiulionis@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Trakimas, Giedrius, E-mail: giedrius.trakimas@gf.vu.lt [Center for Ecology and Environmental Research, Vilnius University, Vilnius (Lithuania); Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Daugavpils University, Parades Str. 1a, Daugavpils, LV-5401 (Latvia); Balčiauskienė, Laima, E-mail: laiba@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Remeikis, Vidmantas, E-mail: vidrem@fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ{sup 15}N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ{sup 15}N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ{sup 13}C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ{sup 15}N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ{sup 13}C and

  1. Trophic transfer of mercury and methylmercury in an aquatic ecosystem impacted by municipal sewage effluents in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-01-01

    Gaobeidian Lake, located in Beijing, China, serves as a recipient lake for effluents from a large municipal sewage treatment plant (MSTP). In order to evaluate the effects of discharging MSTP effluent on the mercury contamination of the local aquatic ecosystem, sediment cores, water, plankton, fish, and turtle samples were collected from Gaobeidian Lake for mercury speciation analysis. High concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) were detected in sediment cores (5.24-17.0 microg/g dry weight (dw), average: 10.1 microg/g). The ratio of methylmercury (MeHg) to T-Hg was less than 0.3% in sediments and ranged from 35% to 76% in biota samples. The highest level of T-Hg and MeHg were found in aquatic bryophyte and crucian carp (3673 and 437 ng/g dw, respectively). The relative contents of MeHg were significantly correlated with trophic levels (R2 = 0.5506, p < 0.001), which confirmed that MeHg can be bio-transferred and biomagnified via food chain in this aquatic ecosystem.

  2. Mycobacterium ulcerans dynamics in aquatic ecosystems are driven by a complex interplay of abiotic and biotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Guégan, Jean-François; Léger, Lucas; Eyangoh, Sara; Marsollier, Laurent; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions are often embedded within complex host communities and can be influenced by a variety of environmental factors, such as seasonal variations in climate or abiotic conditions in water and soil, which confounds our understanding of the main drivers of many multi-host pathogens. Here, we take advantage of a combination of large environmental data sets on Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), an environmentally persistent microorganism associated to freshwater ecosystems and present in a large variety of aquatic hosts, to characterize abiotic and biotic factors driving the dynamics of this pathogen in two regions of Cameroon. We find that MU dynamics are largely driven by seasonal climatic factors and certain physico-chemical conditions in stagnant and slow-flowing ecosystems, with an important role of pH as limiting factor. Furthermore, water conditions can modify the effect of abundance and diversity of aquatic organisms on MU dynamics, which suggests a different contribution of two MU transmission routes for aquatic hosts (trophic vs environmental transmission) depending on local abiotic factors.

  3. 三峡工程对水环境与水生态的影响及保护对策%Impacts of Three Gorges Project on water environment and aquatic ecosystem and protective measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹家祥; 翟红娟

    2016-01-01

    介绍三峡工程水环境与水生态现状,分析三峡工程对库区及坝下水文情势、水质、库区及支流富营养化等水环境的影响,以及工程运行对水生态系统、饵料生物、鱼类及珍稀水生动物等水生态的影响,提出优化水库调度、加强城镇生活污水处理、工业废水防治、农村面源治理、饮用水源地保护等水环境保护对策,以及开展栖息地保护、物种保护、人工增殖放流、生态调度等水生生态保护对策。%This paper introduces the water environmental and aquatic ecological status of the Three Gorges Project. The impacts of the project on the aquatic environment, involving hydrological regimes, water quality, reservoir eutrophication, and water blooms in the tributaries, are analyzed. The project ’ s impacts on aquatic ecology, including the aquatic ecosystem, food organisms, fish species, and rare aquatic animals, are also analyzed. Several measures are proposed to protect the water environment, including optimization of reservoir regulation, urban sewage treatment, industrial waste water control, rural non-point source pollution control, and drinking water source protection. For the protection of the aquatic ecosystem, some measures are put forward, including habitat conservation, species conservation, artificial enhancement and release of fish, and ecological reservoir regulation.

  4. The feasibility of automated online flow cytometry for in-situ monitoring of microbial dynamics in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Domenic Besmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent staining coupled with flow cytometry (FCM is often used for the monitoring, quantification and characterization of bacteria in engineered and environmental aquatic ecosystems including seawater, freshwater, drinking water, wastewater, and industrial bioreactors. However, infrequent grab sampling hampers accurate characterization and subsequent understanding of microbial dynamics in all of these ecosystems. A logic technological progression is high throughput and full automation of the sampling, staining, measurement, and data analysis steps. Here we assess the feasibility and applicability of automated FCM by means of actual data sets produced with prototype instrumentation. As proof-of-concept we demonstrate examples of microbial dynamics in (i flowing tap water from a municipal drinking water supply network and (ii river water from a small creek subject to two rainfall events. In both cases, automated measurements were done at 15-min intervals during 12 to 14 consecutive days, yielding more than 1000 individual data points for each ecosystem. The extensive data sets derived from the automated measurements allowed for the establishment of baseline data for each ecosystem, as well as for the recognition of daily variations and specific events that would most likely be missed (or miss-characterized by infrequent sampling. In addition, the online FCM data from the river water was combined and correlated with online measurements of abiotic parameters, showing considerable potential for a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in aquatic ecosystems. Although several challenges remain, the successful operation of an automated online FCM system and the basic interpretation of the resulting data sets represent a breakthrough towards the eventual establishment of fully automated online microbiological monitoring technologies.

  5. The Life Cycle of Mercury Within the Clear Lake Aquatic Ecosystem: From Ore to Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, T. H.; Suchanek, T. H.; Nelson, D. C.; Nelson, D. C.; Zierenberg, R. A.; King, P.; King, P.; McElroy, K.; McElroy, K.

    2001-12-01

    Clear Lake (Lake County) is located in the geologically active Clear Lake volcanics mercury (Hg) bearing Franciscan formation within the Coast Range of California, which includes over 300 abandoned Hg mines and prospects. Intermittent mining at the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (from 1872-1957), now a USEPA SuperFund site, has resulted in approximately 100 metric tonnes of Hg being deposited into the aquatic ecosystem of Clear Lake, with sediment concentrations of total-Hg as high as 650 mg/kg (parts per million = ppm) near the mine, making Clear Lake one of the most Hg contaminated lakes in the world. As a result, largemouth bass and other top predatory fish species often exceed both the Federal USFDA recommended maximum recommended concentrations of 1.0 ppm and the State of California level of 0.5 ppm. Acid rock drainage leaches Hg and high concentrations of sulfate from the mine site through wasterock and subsurface conduits through subsediment advection and eventually upward diffusion into lake sediments and water. When mineral-laden pH 3 fluids from the mine mix with Clear Lake water (pH 8), an alumino-silicate precipitate (floc) is produced that promotes the localized production of toxic methyl Hg. Floc "hot spots" in sediments near the mine exhibit low pH, high sulfate, anoxia and high organic loading which create conditions that promote Hg methylation by microbial activity, especially in late summer and fall. Wind-driven currents transport methyl-Hg laden floc particles throughout Clear Lake, where they are consumed by plankton and benthic invertebrates and bioaccumulated throughout the food web. While Clear Lake biota have elevated concentrations of methyl-Hg, they are not as elevated as might be expected based on the total Hg loading into the lake. A science-based management approach, utilizing over 10 years of data collected on Hg cycling within the physical and biological compartments of Clear Lake, is necessary to affect a sensible remediation plan.

  6. Formation, transformation and transport of black carbon (charcoal) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, M S; Raison, R J; Skjemstad, J O

    2006-10-15

    Black carbon (BC) is ubiquitous in terrestrial environments and its unique physical and chemical properties suggest that it may play an important role in the global carbon budget (GCB). A critical issue is whether the global production of BC results in significant amounts of carbon (C) being removed from the short-term bio-atmospheric carbon cycle and transferred to the long-term geological carbon cycle. Several dozen field and laboratory based studies of BC formation during the burning of biomass have been documented. Findings are difficult to interpret because they have been expressed in an inconsistent manner, and because different physical and chemical methods have been used to derive them. High error terms documented in many of these studies also highlight the problems associated with the quantification of the amount of biomass C consumed in fire, the amount of residue produced and the constituents of that residue. To be able to estimate the potential for BC as a carbon sink, issues regarding its definition, the methods used in its identification and measurement, and the way it is expressed in relation to other components of the carbon cycle need to be addressed. This paper presents BC data in a standard way; BC production as a percentage of the amount of C consumed by fire (BC/CC), which can be readily integrated into a larger carbon budget. Results from previous studies and new data from Australian ecosystems were recalculated in this way. As part of this process, several BC estimates derived solely from physical methods were discarded, based on their inability to accurately identify and quantify the BC component of the post-fire residue. Instead, more focus was placed on BC estimates obtained by chemical methods. This recalculated data lowered the estimate for BC formation in forest fires from 4% to 5% to <3% BC/CC. For savannah and grassland fires a value of <3% is consistent with reported data, but considerable variation among estimates remains. An

  7. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  8. Aquatic ecosystem responses to Holocene climate change and biome development in boreal, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Anson W.; Bezrukova, Elena V.; Leng, Melanie J.; Meaney, Miriam; Nunes, Ana; Piotrowska, Natalia; Self, Angela; Shchetnikov, Alexander; Shilland, Ewan; Tarasov, Pavel; Wang, Luo; White, Dustin

    2012-05-01

    were also significant, but considerably less important. The potential importance of climate and biome development (tundra, steppe, cold deciduous forest and taiga) on different trophic levels (i.e. chironomid and diatom communities) in lake ESM-1 was also assessed using RDA. Climate predictors had a more significant influence on Holocene chironomid assemblages, especially July insolation at 60 °N, estimates of regional precipitation and estimates of northern hemisphere temperature, while only the development of the taiga biome had a significant impact on these primary consumers. Diatom communities also had a small, but significant influence on Holocene chironomid populations, perhaps linked to variation in faunal feeding strategies. In contrast, climatic and biome predictors explained similar amounts of variation in the Holocene diatom assemblage (approximately 20% each), while chironomids themselves as predictors explained just under 7% of diatom variation. Lake acidity was inferred using a diatom inference model. Results suggest that after deglaciation, the lake did not undergo a process of gradual acidification, most likely due to the presence of continuous permafrost and low levels of precipitation, preventing base cations and dissolved organic carbon entering the lake (except for the period between 1.7 and 0.7 ka BP). We conclude that lakes in continental, boreal regions undergo different models of lake ontogeny than oceanic boreal regions. Unlike other regions discussed, climate is a more important driver of ecosystem change than catchment changes. We also demonstrate that the start of the period coincident with the onset of the Little Ice Age resulted in important thresholds crossed in catchment vegetation and aquatic communities.

  9. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló Cullerés, Damià; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Water and water-related services are major components of the human wellbeing, and as such are major factors of socio-economic development in Europe; yet freshwater systems are under threat by a variety of stressors (organic and inorganic pollution, geomorphological alterations, land cover change, water abstraction, invasive species and pathogens. Some stressors, such as water scarcity, can be a stressor on its own because of its structural character, and drive the effects of other stressors. The relevance of water scarcity as a stressor is more important in semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, which are characterized by highly variable river flows and the occurrence of low flows. This has resulted in increases in frequency and magnitude of extreme flow events. Furthermore, in other European regions such as eastern Germany, western Poland and England, water demand exceeds water availability and water scarcity has become an important management issue. Water scarcity is most commonly associated with inappropriate water management, with resulting river flow reductions. It has become one of the most important drivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. Conjoint occurrence of a myriad of stressors (chemical, geomorphological, biological) under water scarcity will produce novel and unfamiliar synergies and most likely very pronounced effects. Within this context, GLOBAQUA has assembled a multidisciplinary team of leading scientists in the fields of hydrology, chemistry, ecology, ecotoxicology, economy, sociology, engineering and modeling in order to study the interaction of multiple stressors within the frame of strong pressure on water resources. The aim is to achieve a better understanding how current management practices and policies could be improved by identifying the main drawbacks and alternatives.

  10. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  11. Damaging Economies and Ecosystems: Light Pollution in Logan City

    OpenAIRE

    Nydegger, Rachel K.; Larson, Shane L.

    2013-01-01

    Though the view of city lights is considered a modern beauty, indicative of the strength of the human intellect, it is the cause of an assortment of negative effects. Most street lights emit light radially, sending large portions of the light into the sky, leaving the ground dim. The excess light- light pollution- directed at the atmosphere destroys our ability to view beauty of the night sky and represents a loss of energy and money. Damage is also done to nocturnal and migratory animals as...

  12. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems — Emerging Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems “Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development”, September 1016, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  13. Laboratory tests for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted harbor sediments using aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mânzatu, Carmen; Nagy, Boldizsár; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato; Giannarelli, Stefania; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations and pollution levels of heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments from the Leghorn Harbor (Italy) on the Mediterranean Sea. The phytoextraction capacity of three aquatic plants Salvinia natans, Vallisneria spiralis, and Cabomba aquatica was also tested in the removal of lead and copper, present in high concentration in these sediments. The average detectable concentrations of metals accumulated by the plants in the studied area were as follows: >3.328 ± 0.032 mg/kg dry weight (DW) of Pb and 2.641 ± 0.014 mg/kg DW of Cu for S. natans, >3.107 ± 0.034 g/kg DW for V. spiralis, and >2.400 ± 0.029 mg/kg DW for C. aquatica. The occurrence of pesticides was also analyzed in the sediment sample by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Due to its metal and organic compound accumulation patterns, S. natans is a potential candidate in phytoextraction strategies.

  14. Relevance of risk predictions derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution with cadmium to aquatic populations and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Criteria to protect aquatic life are intended to protect diverse ecosystems, but in practice are usually developed from compilations of single-species toxicity tests using standard test organisms that were tested in laboratory environments. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) developed from these compilations are extrapolated to set aquatic ecosystem criteria. The protectiveness of the approach was critically reviewed with a chronic SSD for cadmium comprising 27 species within 21 genera. Within the data set, one genus had lower cadmium effects concentrations than the SSD fifth percentile-based criterion, so in theory this genus, the amphipod Hyalella, could be lost or at least allowed some level of harm by this criteria approach. However, population matrix modeling projected only slightly increased extinction risks for a temperate Hyalella population under scenarios similar to the SSD fifth percentile criterion. The criterion value was further compared to cadmium effects concentrations in ecosystem experiments and field studies. Generally, few adverse effects were inferred from ecosystem experiments at concentrations less than the SSD fifth percentile criterion. Exceptions were behavioral impairments in simplified food web studies. No adverse effects were apparent in field studies under conditions that seldom exceeded the criterion. At concentrations greater than the SSD fifth percentile, the magnitudes of adverse effects in the field studies were roughly proportional to the laboratory-based fraction of species with adverse effects in the SSD. Overall, the modeling and field validation comparisons of the chronic criterion values generally supported the relevance and protectiveness of the SSD fifth percentile approach with cadmium. ?? 2009 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Wetland-stream ecosystems of the western Kentucky coalfield: environmental disturbance and the shaping of aquatic community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of surface mining effluents of the shaping of aquatic community structure in wetland-stream ecosystems of the western Kentucky coalfield were examined. Three variously impacted drainage systems were utilized for the investigation of cause-and-effect relationships. Clear Creek wetland-stream ecosystem had a uniformly low pH, high conductivity and high dissolved minerals load linked to the oozing of old, unreclaimed surface mine spoils. Cypress Creek wetland-stream ecosystem exhibited a slug-pulsing of mine drainage effluents tied to active surface mining limited to the headwaters region. Henderson Sloughs-Pond Creek wetland-stream ecosystem had no mining impact and was utilized as a comparison site. Macroinvertebrate taxa and diversity were considerably lowered in the systems receiving mine drainage. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) was 0.61 for Clear Creek, 1.80 for Cypress Creek and 2.01 for Henderson Sloughs. Large numbers of chironomid larvae dominated the benthic community of Clear Creek while mayflies, caddisflies and crustaceans were the major components of the Cypress Creek community. Henderson Sloughs-Pond Creek had an even more diverse community of mayflies, caddisflies, crustaceans, molluscs and odonates. Fishes followed the same general trend, being almost absent in Clear Creek (H - 0.47), slightly depressed in Cypress Creek (H = 1.74) and generally diverse in Henderson Sloughs (H = 2.37).

  16. Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Belyazid, Salim; Calfapietra, Carlo; de Marco, Alessandra; Fenn, Mark; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; He, Shang; Matyssek, Rainer; Serengil, Yusuf; Wieser, Gerhard; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii) Linking genetic control with physiological whole-tree activity; (iii) Epigenetic responses to climate change and air pollution; (iv) Embedding individual tree performance into the multi-factorial stand-level interaction network; (v) Interactions of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds (molecular, functional and ecological bases); (vi) Estimating the potential for carbon/pollution mitigation and cost effectiveness of urban and peri-urban forests; (vii) Selection of trees adapted to the urban environment; (viii) Trophic, competitive and host/parasite relationships under changing pollution and climate; (ix) Atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interactions as affected by anthropospheric changes; (x) Statistical analyses for epidemiological investigations; (xi) Use of monitoring for the validation of models; (xii) Holistic view for linking the climate, carbon, N and O3 modelling; (xiii) Inclusion of multiple environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) in critical load determinations; (xiv) Ecological impacts of N deposition in the under-investigated areas; (xv) Empirical models for mechanistic effects at the local scale; (xvi) Broad-scale N and sulphur deposition input and their effects on forest ecosystem services; (xvii) Measurements of dry deposition of N; (xviii) Assessment of evapotranspiration; (xix) Remote sensing assessment of hydrological parameters; and (xx) Forest management for maximizing water provision and overall forest ecosystem services. Ground-level O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major concern to forest health. Specific issues about O3 are: (xxi) Developing dose-response relationships and

  17. Exploring new Routes for Identifying Phosphorus Species in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems with 31P NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Johan; Persson, Per; Sundman, Annelie; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Giesler, Reiner; Schleucher, Jürgen; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the primary growth-limiting nutrient in some of the world's biomes. Rock phosphate is a non-renewable resource and the major source of agricultural fertilizers. Predictions of P consumption indicate that rock phosphate mining may peak within 35 years, with severe impacts on worldwide food production1. Organic P compounds constitute a major fraction of soil P, but little is known about the dynamics and bioavailability of organic P species. Our aim is to develop new liquid and solid state 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques to identify P-species in water and soils; information required for correlating P speciation with plant and soil processes2, and eventually to improve P use. Soil organic P is frequently extracted using NaOH/EDTA, followed by characterization of the extract by solution 31P-NMR. However, the obtained NMR spectra usually have poor resolution due to line broadening caused by the presence of paramagnetic ions. Therefore, we successfully developed an approach to avoid paramagnetic line broadening by precipitation of metal sulfides. Sulfide precipitation dramatically reduces NMR line widths for soil extracts, without affecting P-composition. The resulting highly improved resolution allowed us to apply for the first time 2D 1H,31P-NMR methods to identify different P monoesters in spectral regions which are extremely crowded in 1D NMR spectra.3 By exploiting 2D 1H-31P NMR spectra of soil extracts we were able to unambiguously identify individual organic P species by combining 31P and 1H chemical shifts and coupling constants. This approach is even suitable for a structural characterization of unknown P-components and for tracing degradation pathways between diesters and monoesters3,4.Currently we apply our approach on boreal4 and tropical soils with focus on Burkina Faso. In addition we also monitor P-species in aqueos ecosystems. For this purpose stream water from the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden5 has been used to

  18. Organization of vegetation cover of aquatic ecosystems at Borodinskiy opencast coal mine dumps (Kansk forest-steppe, Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Efimov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the results of study of the floristic composition and importance of species of aquatic ecosystems on different types of technogenic surfaces of the Borodino coal mine and assessment of the impact of local factors on the structure and the dynamics of vegetation. The list of plant taxa containing 91 species of higher plants and 3 cha-rophytes. The largest amount of macrophytes species are Elodea canadensis Michx., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. & Schult., Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L., Potamogeton alpinus Balb., P. perfoliatus L., Sparganium emersum Rehm., Spirodela polyrhiza (L. Schleid., Typha latifolia L., Warnstorfia fluitans (Hedw. Loeske, Chara contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., the basis (up to 67.6‒70.9 % of vegetation mosaic of aquatic systems and differentiate its structure post-technogenic landscape. Sorensen index (QS = 0.63‒0.71 and Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs = 0.29‒0.62, p < 0.01 values showed the greatest similarity between the species composition of the aquatic complexes arising on mineral surfaces planned dumps. The low level of similarity (QS = 0.13‒0.45; rs = 0.25‒0.34, p < 0.05 in spe-cies composition is typical fir ponds and wetlands formed around the perimeter of the heaps along the erosion of slopes. Non-parametric analysis of variance showed a statistically significant (p < 0.001 differentiation of the species composition of the variables values of the analyzed environmental factors: the direction of reclamation, type and age of geomorphic surfaces dumps. Aquatic complexes significantly complement and enrich the mosaic of man-made landscape of the Borodino coal mine, the potential of their diversity should be taken into account when developing plans and strategies for reclamation of disturbed areas.

  19. [Long-distance transportation of atmospheric pollutants and its effects on ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardans, R; Gimeno, B S

    1994-01-01

    It was known, as far back as the nineteenth century, that rain water from industrial areas was more acid than that from rural areas. The potential risks for life in general were discussed, but no further attention was paid to the issue. At the end of the twentieth century, the ecosystems of Europe, Canada and the United States have been severely damaged by pollutants borne by atmospheric winds to places distant from their origin. The main effects of these atmospheric pollutants are due to sulfur and nitrogen oxide dilution and to photochemical reactions. International organizations have been formed and agreements pronounced and ratified by many countries for a universal study on the pollution process, on the transport of pollutants--mostly sulfur, nitrogen and ozone--and on how to collaborate in order to reduce emissions in the respective countries of origin for the worldwide profit.

  20. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Swiss agriculture is legally committed to fulfill several, partially conflicting goals such as agricultural production on the one hand and the conservation of natural resources on the other hand. In the context of the research project AProWa ("Agricultural Production and Water"), the relationships between the production aspect and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems is analyzed with a holistic approach. Agricultural production and the protection of water resources have high potential for conflicts: Farmers use ground and surface water to irrigate their fields. On the other hand, drainage systems enable the production on otherwise unfavorably wet soils. These in turn often affect ground water recharge and divert precipitation directly into surface waters, which changes their hydrological regime. Typically, drainage systems also elevate the input of nutrients and pesticides into the water bodies. In general, applied fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary drugs and phytohormones of cultivated plants are introduced into the ground and surface waters through different processes such as drift, leaching, runoff, preferential flow or erosion. They influence the nutrient cycles and ecological health of aquatic systems. The nutrient and pesticide loss processes themselves can be altered by tillage operations and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, the competition for space can lead to additional conflicts between agriculture and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. For example, channelized or otherwise morphologically changed rivers do not have a natural discharge pattern and are often not suitable for the local flora and fauna; but naturally meandering rivers need space that cannot be used for agriculture. In a highly industrialized and densely populated country like Switzerland, all these potential conflicts are of importance. Although it is typically seen as a water-rich country, local and seasonal overexploitation of rivers through water extraction

  1. Spawner-recruit relationships and fish stock carrying capacity in aquatic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.; Bowen, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether...

  2. Diversity and distribution of diapausing aquatic invertebrates in inland wetlands: An ecosystem conservation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    processes determining the biogeography of cosmopolitan species are needed. Further knowledge of these issues should provide invaluable information allowing development of appropriate conservation management policies for inland waters across entire ecosystems, landscapes, and geographic regions....

  3. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Sandberg, Johannes (DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into

  4. Two prototype tools for assessing good environmental/ecological status (GES) in aquatic ecosystems – DEVOTES and WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present two prototype tools for assessment of GES (good ecological status and good environmental status) in aquatic ecosystems: the DEVOTES biodiversity assessment tool (for the MSFD) and the WATERS ecological status assessment tool (for the WFD). Both tools are multi-metric indicator......-based tools, which classify ecological/environmental status in two classes (good or not good) and five classes (High, Good, Moderate, Poor or Bad) by comparing observed indicator values with specified status classification boundaries. Assessments are made for geographical entities (“sectors” in DEVOTES...... / “waterbodies” in WATERS) resulting in both an overall status for the geographical entity as well as classifications within indicator groups. Both tools are Excel-based and share many similarities. Whilst the WATERS tool performs assessments for a simple “flat” set of waterbodies, the DEVOTES tools allows...

  5. Sedimentation plan to assess the impact of geothermal activities to the aquatic ecosystem in the Geyers Calistoga KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, R.R.

    1981-05-19

    The prevention of sedimentation or siltation in aquatic ecosystems is always a key environmental issue in the development and operation of power plant units. This report describes a field program which will assess the amount of sedimentation in the streams and tributaties of the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) due to development-related or other site-specific activities. This sediment plan is one part of a four part venture - the others are water quality, benthic invertebrates and fisheries studies - initiated by the California Energy Commission and involving numerous California organizations. Included in this report are the cost breakdowns for each phase, maps and rationale of the sampling sites, the methodology for the laboratory sample processing, and examples of the type of graphic and tabular output expected.

  6. Integration of aquatic fate and ecological responses to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in model stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, S E; Bowling, J W; Lee, D M; LeBlanc, E M; Kerr, K M; McAvoy, D C; Christman, S C; Davidson, D H

    2002-06-01

    An integrated model stream ecosystem fate and effect study of dodecyl linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C(12)LAS) was performed in the summer and fall of 1996. The study addressed responses of periphytic microbes, immature benthic fauna including abundance, drift, and emergence of adult insects in a 56-day exposure. Exposures ranged from 126 to 2978 microg/L and were continuously presented in a single-pass, flow-through test system. Microbial heterotrophs acclimated to C(12)LAS exposure quickly (14 days) and biodegraded C(12)LAS at all concentrations. Blue-green algae responded by increasing in abundance with increasing C(12)LAS concentration. Invertebrates responded by increased drift and reduced benthic abundances at concentrations exceeding 293 microg/L. Emergence at 927 microg/L also declined relative to the control. Adverse responses for mayflies and chironomids were indicated using univariate statistical techniques. Multivariate techniques indicated these taxa plus mollusks, aquatic worms, caddisflies, and stoneflies were impaired at some concentrations. Bioavailability of C(12)LAS was investigated in streams as a function of the total suspended solid load in the water column driven by local weather and watershed patterns. A continuous bioavailability model indicated exposure was reduced by an average of 8.5+/-8.9%. A model ecosystem no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was concluded to be 293 microg/L based on measured water column exposure and adjusted to 268 microg/L by the bioavailability model. A literature review of 13 available model ecosystem studies was conducted and NOEC conclusions were adjusted by a structure-activity relationship to a dodecyl chain length (sulfophenyl position and distribution being ignored due to lack of information in the reviewed studies). Lentic studies (n=7) were found to have higher NOECs than lotic studies (n=6) and were more variable. Mean NOECs+/-SD for all studies, lentic studies only, and lotic studies only were 3320

  7. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  8. Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

    2012-08-01

    Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops.

  9. Human impacts, climate change, and aquatic ecosystem response during the past 2000 yr at Lake Wandakara, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James M.; McCoy, S. J.; Verschuren, D.; Bessems, I.; Huang, Y.

    2009-11-01

    Analyses of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of terrestrial leaf waxes and the carbon and nitrogen abundance, ratio, and isotopic composition of bulk sediments from Lake Wandakara, a crater lake in western Uganda, East Africa, document human and climatic controls on the aquatic system and on the surrounding terrestrial vegetation during the past two millennia. Our data indicate that Wandakara was a relatively stable, productive lake surrounded by C 3 vegetation from AD 70 to 1000. Abrupt changes in the δ 13C of terrestrial leaf waxes indicate a series of abrupt shifts in the relative abundance of C 3 and C 4 vegetation caused by a combination of climate change and human activities around Wandakara beginning at AD 1000. Abrupt shifts in bulk sediment organic geochemistry, particularly C/N ratios and δ 15N, indicate that human activities at this time caused permanent changes in the limnology of Lake Wandakara, including eutrophication. Our results suggest that the biogeochemistry of Lake Wandakara was more sensitive to shifting human impacts than to climate variations during the past millennium, highlighting the importance of understanding the intensity of pre-colonial human impacts on Africa's aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  11. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, pplants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, pplants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent.

  12. Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houserova, Pavlina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuban, Vlastimil [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kuban@mendelu.cz; Kracmar, Stanislav [Department of Animal Nutrition, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Sitko, Jilji [Commenius Museum, Moravian Ornithological Station, Horni nam. 1, Prerov CZ-751 52 (Czech Republic)

    2007-01-15

    Total mercury and mercury species (methylmercury-MeHg, inorganic mercury - Hg{sup 2+}) were determined in the aquatic ecosystem Zahlinice (Czech Republic). Four tissues (muscle, intestines, liver and kidney) of three bird species - cormorant, great crested grebe and Eurasian buzzard, muscle tissues of common carp, grass carp, northern pike, goldfish, common tench, perch and rudd, aquatic plants (reed mace and common reed), sediments and water were analysed. Relative contents of MeHg (of total Hg) were in the range from 71% to 94% and from 15% up to 62% in the muscle and intestines and in liver, respectively, for all birds. Statistically significant differences were found between contents of MeHg in liver tissues of young and adult cormorant populations (F {sub 4.6} = 56.71, P < 10{sup -5}). Relative contents of MeHg in muscle tissues of fishes were in the range from 65.1% to 87.9% of total Hg. - The distribution of the mercury species among the organs of the individual birds is discussed.

  13. Adaptation of forest ecosystems to air pollution and climate change: a global assessment on research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serengil Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution are two of the anthropogenic stressors that require international collaboration. Influence mechanisms and combating strategies towards them have similarities to some extent. Impacts of air pollution and climate change have long been studied under IUFRO Research Group 7.01 and state of the art findings are presented at biannual meetings. Monitoring, modelling, assessment of multiple stressors, ecophysiology, and nutrient cycles have been thoroughly studied aspects of climate change and air pollution research for a long time under the umbrella of IUFRO RG 7.01. Recently, social and economic issues together with water relations are gaining more attention in parallel with science requirements on adaptation. In this paper, we summarise the main research needs emphasized at the recent 24th IUFRO RG 7.01 Conference titled “Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change”. One important conclusion of the conference was the need for information on nutritional status of forest stands for sustainable forest management. It has been suggested to maintain long-term monitoring programs and to account for the effects of extreme years, and past and present management practices. Long-term monitoring can also help to understand the effects of forestry treatments on the nutrient and water budgets of the ecosystems which may enable to improve management practices like water saving silviculture.

  14. Combined proteomic and metallomic analyses in Scrobicularia plana clams to assess environmental pollution of estuarine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Santos, Hugo Miguel; Bebianno, Maria João; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Capelo, José Luis

    2016-12-15

    Estuaries are very important ecosystems with great ecological and economic value, but usually highly impacted by anthropogenic pressure. Thus, the assessment of pollution levels in these habitats is critical in order to evaluate their environmental quality. In this work, we combined complementary metallomic and proteomic approaches with the aim to monitor the effects of environmental pollution on Scrobicularia plana clams captured in three estuarine systems from the south coast of Portugal; Arade estuary, Ria Formosa and Guadiana estuary. Multi-elemental profiling of digestive glands was carried out to evaluate the differential pollution levels in the three study areas. Then, proteomic analysis by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed twenty-one differential proteins, which could be associated with multiple toxicological mechanisms induced in environmentally stressed organisms. Accordingly, it could be concluded that the combination of different omic approaches presents a great potential in environmental research.

  15. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS.

  16. Reviews and syntheses : Effects of permafrost thaw on Arctic aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J. E.; Tank, S. E.; Bowden, W. B.; Laurion, I.; Vincent, W. F.; Alekseychik, P.; Amyot, M.; Billet, M. F.; Canário, J.; Cory, R. M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Helbig, M.; Jammet, M.; Karlsson, J.; Larouche, J.; Macmillan, G.; Rautio, M.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Wickland, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is a water-rich region, with freshwater systems covering about 16 % of the northern permafrost landscape. Permafrost thaw creates new freshwater ecosystems, while at the same time modifying the existing lakes, streams, and rivers that are impacted by thaw. Here, we describe the current st

  17. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Pfennig, S.; Brink, van den P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple planta

  18. Climate-driven changes in the ecological stoichiometry of aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, D.B.; Verschoor, A.M.; Verspagen, J.M.H.; van Donk, E.; Huisman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in ecological stoichiometry, a rapidly expanding research field investigating the elemental composition of organisms and their environment, have shed new light on the impacts of climate change on freshwater and marine ecosystems. Current changes in the Earth's climate alter the availability

  19. Structural and functional responses of the oligochaete and aeolosomatid assemblage in lowland streams: a one-way-pollution-modelled ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. López van Oosterom

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the responses of the assemblage of Oligochaeta and Aeolosomatidae to organic pollution; comparing taxonomic richness, diversity, abundance, and diet of the individuals inhabiting two lowland streams with different degrees of anthropic impact (the Rodríguez and the Carnaval belonging to the Río de la Plata basin, Argentina. The physicochemical parameters in the Rodríguez Stream indicated a strong deterioration of the water quality compared to that of the Carnaval. A canonical-correlation analysis indicated that the Tubificinae, Megadrili, Enchytraeidae, and Rhyacodrilinae were more closely associated with the Rodríguez Stream; whereas the Naidinae, Pristininae, and Opystocystidae were more highly represented in the Carnaval. The diversity and taxonomic richness in the Rodríguez Stream exhibited significant differences from those of the Carnaval (P<0.001, but the abundance was not different between the two sites. Schoener’s index revealed the higher degree of dietary overlap of the two streams because all the species analysed consumed a high proportion of detritus, especially the organisms in the Rodríguez. In the Carnaval Stream a higher number of alimentary items were consumed, and mainly by the Naidinae. This difference, probably reflecting the greater availability of this resource at sites impacted by organic pollution, underscores the fundamental role of oligochaetes in the food webs of aquatic ecosystems. The combined use of structural and functional parameters enables a more comprehensive view of how these lotic systems function and as such provides information that will serve to design tools for the management of such temperate environments.

  20. Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoletti E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01. The IUFRO RG 7.01 deals with "Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems". Climate change and air pollution are closely linked, although in applied scientific research and even more in political negotiations they have been largely separated. Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have not only common sources, but may also interact physically and chemically in the atmosphere causing a variety of environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects of numerous climate change and air pollution factors may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects due to an array of various synergistic or antagonistic interactions. The net effect varies for different ecosystem types and geographic regions, and depends on magnitude of climate or air pollution drivers, and types of interactions between them. This paper reviews the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies and avoiding overlaps between two lines of traditional research. This could result in more effective research, monitoring and management as well as better integration of environmental policies.

  1. Balanced nitrogen economy as a flexible strategy on yield stabilizing and quality of aquatic food crops in wetland ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.; M.; Puste; P.; K.; Sarkar; D.; K.; Das

    2005-01-01

    In wetland ecosystem, nitrogen along with other elements and its management is most imperative for the production of so many aquatic food, non-food and beneficial medicinal plants and for the improvement of soil and water characteristics. With great significant importance of INM (integrated nutrient management) as sources, emphasizing on management on nitrogen as a key element and its divergence, a case study was undertaken on such aquatic food crops (starch and protein-rich, most popular and remunerative) in the farmers' field of low-lying randomized block design, where, three important aquatic food crops (water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.), makhana (Eurya/e ferox Salisb.) and water lily (Nymphaea spp.) as major factor and eleven combinations of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients as sub-factor was considered in the experiment. It revealed from the results that the production of fresh kernels or nuts of water chestnut (8.57 t ha-1), matured nut yield of makhana (3.06 t ha-1) and flower stalks of water-lily as vegetables (6.38 t ha-1) including its nutritional quality (starch, protein, sugar and minerals) was remarkably influenced with the application of both organic (neem oilcake @ 0.2 t ha-1) and inorganic sources (NPK @ 30:20:20 kg ha-1 along with spraying of NPK @ 0.5% each over crop canopy at 20 days interval after transplanting) than the other INM combinations applied to the crops. Among the crops, highest WCYE (water chestnut yield equivalence) exhibited in makhana due to its high price of popped-form in the country, which is being exported to other countries at now. Sole application of both (organic and inorganic sources) with lower range did not produce any significant outcome from the study and exhibited lower value for all the crops.Besides production of food crops, INM also greatly influenced the soil and water characterization and it was favourably reflected in this study. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil (textural class, p

  2. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Sandberg, Johannes (DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into

  3. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal cos

  4. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  5. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA.

  6. Element transport in aquatic ecosystems – Modelling general and element-specific mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalenko, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides are widely used in energy production and medical, military and industrial applications. Thus, understanding the behaviour of radionuclides which have been or may be released into ecosystems is important for human and environmental risk assessment. Modelling of radionuclides or their stable element analogues is the only tool that can predict the consequences of accidental release. In this thesis, two dynamic stochastic compartment models for radionuclide/element transfer in a mar...

  7. Water treatment by aquatic ecosystem: Nutrient removal by reservoirs and flooded fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. R.; Sacco, P. D.; Graetz, D. A.; Campbell, K. L.; Sinclair, L. R.

    1982-05-01

    Potential use of reservoirs and flooded fields stocked with aquatic plants for reduction of the nutrient levels of organic soil drainage water was evaluated. The treatment systems include 1) a large single reservoir (R1) stocked with waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes), elodea ( Egeria densa), and cattails ( Typha sp.) in series; 2) three small reservoirs in series with waterhyacinth (R2), elodea (R3), and cattails (R4), grown in independent reservoirs; 3) a control reservoir (R5) with no cultivated plants; 4) a large single flooded field planted to cattails; 5) three small flooded fields in a series planted to cattails; and 6) a flooded field with no cultivated plants. Drainage water was pumped daily (6 hours a day, and 6 days a week) into these systems for a period of 27 months at predetermined constant flow rates. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of each treatment system and analyzed for N and P forms. The series of reservoirs stocked with aquatic plants functioned effectively in the removal of N and P from agricultural drainage water, compared to a single large reservoir. Allowing the water to flow through the reservoir stocked with waterhyacinth plants with a residence time of 3.6 days was adequate to remove about 50% of the incoming inorganic N. Allowing the water to flow through a series of two small reservoirs, R2 and R3, with a residence time of 7.3 days was necessary to remove about 60% of the incoming ortho-P. Flooded fields were effective in the removal of inorganic N, but showed poor efficiency in the removal of ortho-P.

  8. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    As a result of operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), over 50 radionuclides have been released to the atmosphere and to onsite streams and seepage basins. Now, many of these radionuclides are available to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms for uptake and cycling through the food chain. Knowledge about the uptake and cycling of these radionuclides is now crucial in evaluating waste management and clean-up alternatives for the site. Numerous studies have been conducted at the SRS over the past forty years to study the uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the Savannah River Site environment. In many instances, bioconcentration factors have been calculated to quantify the uptake of a radionuclide by an organism from the surrounding medium (i.e., soil or water). In the past, it has been common practice to use bioconcentration factors from the literature because site-specific data were not readily available. However, because of the variability of bioconcentration factors due to experimental or environmental conditions, site-specific data should be used when available. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive literature search yielded site-specific bioconcentration factors for cesium, strontium, cobalt, plutonium, americium, curium, and tritium. These eight radionuclides have been the primary radionuclides studied at SRS because of their long half lives or because they are major contributors to radiological dose from exposure. For most radionuclides, it was determined that the site-specific bioconcentration factors were higher than those reported in literature. This report also summarizes some conditions that affect radionuclide bioavailability to and bioconcentration by aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  9. Assessment of the Occurrence and Risks of Emerging Organic Pollutants (EOPs) in Ikpa River Basin Freshwater Ecosystem, Niger Delta-Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Edu; Offiong, Nnanake-Abasi; Kang, Suil; Yang, Paul; Essien, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The levels of some emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) including endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products were quantified in surface water of a freshwater ecosystem, the Ikpa River Basin, Nigeria using liquid chromatography/high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, leachates and storm water samples collected from nearby dumpsites were also analysed to assess the effect on water quality. Seventeen compounds were detected at the nanogramme-per-litre levels and the ecological risks of selected compounds assessed based on predicted no-effect concentrations derived from comparison of toxicity data recorded for green algae, fish and invertebrate with the maximum measured environmental concentrations, to obtain risk quotients. Some of the compounds showed some level of widespread occurrence or persistence. Also, bisphenol A, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, triclocarban and triclosan were the most important EOPs detected in the study area that may pose detrimental effects to the aquatic organisms based on the outcome of the risk assessment.

  10. The fate of mercury in Arctic terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Loseto, Lisa L.; MacDonald, Robie W.

    2012-01-01

    This review is the result of a series of multidisciplinary meetings organised by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme as part of their 2011 Assessment ‘Mercury in the Arctic’. This paper presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on the environmental fate of mercury following its entry...... ecosystem trophic processes and biologic Hg levels. We examine whether atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) contribute to increased Hg levels in Arctic biota and provide information on the links between organic carbon and Hg speciation, dynamics and bioavailability. Long-term sequestration of Hg...

  11. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  12. Mercury cycling in aquatic ecosystems and trophic state-related variables--implications from structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollman, Curtis D

    2014-11-15

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) provides a framework that can more properly handle complex variable interactions inherent in mercury cycling and its bioaccumulation compared to more traditional regression-based methods. SEM was applied to regional data sets for three different types of aquatic ecosystems within Florida, USA--lakes, streams, and the Everglades--to evaluate the underlying nature (i.e., indirect and direct) of the relationships between fish mercury concentrations and trophic state related variables such as nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulfate, and alkalinity. The modeling results indicated some differences in key variable relationships--for example, the effect of nutrients on fish mercury in lakes and streams was uniformly negative through direct and indirect pathways consistent with biodilution or eutrophication-associated effects on food web structure. Somewhat surprisingly, however, was that total phosphorus did not serve as a meaningful variable in the Everglades model, apparently because its effects were masked or secondary to the effects of DOC. What is perhaps a more important result were two key similarities across the three systems. First, the modeling clearly indicates that the dominant influence on fish tissue mercury concentrations in all three systems is related to variations in the methylmercury signal. Second, the modeling demonstrated that the effect of DOC on fish mercury concentrations was exerted through multiple and antagonistic pathways, including facilitated transport of total mercury and methylmercury, enhanced rates of methylation, and limitations imposed on bioavailability. Indeed, while the individual DOC pathways in the models were all highly significant (generally pmodel was greatly reduced or insignificant. These results can help explain contradictory results obtained previously by other researchers in other systems, and illustrate the importance of SEM as a modeling tool when studying systems with complex

  13. Spatial and temporal controls on Alnus-derived nutrients and stream stoichiometry: Implications for aquatic ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devotta, D.; Fraterrigo, J.; Walsh, P.; Hu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting how nutrient fluxes that cross ecosystem boundaries will respond to future climate change is one of the greatest challenges for ecology in the 21st century. In southwestern (SW) Alaska, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and nitrogen (N)-fixation by alder (Alnus spp.) provide key nutrient subsidies to freshwater systems. The importance of alder-derived nutrients (ADN) to aquatic systems will increase as alder cover expands under climate warming and salmon harvesting reduces marine-derived nutrients. We investigate broad-scale spatial and temporal drivers of ADN and stream N:P in 26 streams in SW Alaska. Alder cover and watershed features were measured using satellite images and topographic maps in ArcGIS. Stream water samples were collected in each spring and summer from 2010-2013 and analyzed for dissolved N and total phosphorus (TP). We obtained annual growing season length (AGSL) and sum of growing degree days (GDD) data from weather stations. Elevation was inversely related to alder cover, stream N, and N:P (ρ=-0.802, -0.65, and -0.71 resp., pADN export. Higher P was associated with lower temperatures, possibly reflecting reduced P demand under low rates of metabolic activity. Structural equation modeling revealed significant causal relationships among elevation, alder cover, and stream N:P across multiple years (r2=0.94, X2=742.8, df=9, pADN fluxes and stream N:P than temporal variation in growing season conditions. Therefore, the aquatic productivity of streams at low elevations that receive large amounts of ADN will be most resilient to climate change.

  14. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  15. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  16. Interactive effects of phosphorus and copper on Hyalella azteca via periphyton in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miling; Costello, David M; Burton, G Allen

    2012-09-01

    This research examined the interaction between dissolved copper and phosphorus, with respect to their effects on the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca feeding on periphyton. Field-collected periphyton communities were exposed to different nutrient and metal conditions in indoor recirculating streams. H. azteca were then exposed to water and periphyton from these streams. There was rapid Cu accumulation by periphyton but the total Cu concentration of periphyton was not directly related to dissolved P. In terms of H. azteca growth, an interactive effect was found between Cu and P as growth was reduced more than expected in the low Cu-high P treatment. Our data suggest that eutrophic conditions result in greater Cu toxicity to benthic macroinvertebrates at lower metal concentrations, likely due to higher assimilation efficiency of dietary Cu from periphyton incubated under eutrophic conditions. These results imply that non-additive interactions between multiple stressors may cause ecosystem effects as detected in standard laboratory bioassays conducted under controlled conditions.

  17. Biofilm phosphorus uptake capacity as a tool for the assessment of pollutant effects in river ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proia, Lorenzo; Romaní, Anna; Sabater, Sergi

    2017-03-01

    Biofilms are a key component in the nutrient removal from the water column. However, nutrient uptake by biofilms may be hampered by the occurrence of pollutants or other stressors. This study aimed: (i) to investigate the biofilm phosphorus (P) uptake capacity as a relevant process for the maintenance of fluvial water quality and (ii) to explore the sensitivity of this process to different chemical and environmental stressors. We conducted chamber experiments to test for the relevance of biofilm P uptake capacity (PUC) as a tool to detect effects of pollutants on river self-depuration. PUC was calculated by measuring P temporal decay after performing controlled P-spikes in chambers with biofilm-colonized tiles. Four different experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of PUC to: (a) several river waters from increasing polluted sites; (b) the effect of the bactericide triclosan (TCS); (c) the combined effect of TCS and grazers; and (d) the effect of TCS after a drought episode that affected the biofilms. These experiments showed that biofilms decreased their PUC along the pollution gradient. The biofilm PUC was significantly reduced after receiving high TCS concentrations, though lower TCS concentrations also affected the biofilm when this was submitted to grazing pressure. PUC decrease was induced by flow interruption which further enhanced the TCS negative effects. Overall, PUC was sensitive to the effects of pollutants like TCS as well as to the action of biological (grazing) and environmental (drought) factors. The study also showed that multiple stressors enhance the negative effects of pollutants on the PUC of biofilms. Our study values the use of biofilms' PUC as a sensitive ecological-based tool to assess the effects of chemicals on freshwater communities and their derived functioning in river ecosystems.

  18. Polonium, uranium and plutonium radionuclides in aquatic and land ecosystem of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Boryło, Alicja; Kabat, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of study about distribution, inflow and accumulation of polonium, uranium and plutonium in aquatic and land environment of Poland and the southern Baltic Sea. Radionuclides of (210)Po, (234)U and (238)U as well as (239+240)Pu and (241)Pu are strongly accumulated in Baltic organisms and plants and transferred through the trophic chain. The values of bioconcentration factor (BCF) in Baltic plants and animals are higher for polonium and plutonium in comparison with uranium. The principal source of radionuclides in the southern Baltic Sea is their inflow with rivers. Total annual runoff of polonium, uranium and plutonium from the Vistula and the Odra as well as the Pomeranian rivers were calculated at 95 GBq of (210)Po, 750 GBq of (234+238)U and 160 MBq of (238+239+240)Pu. Seasonal and spatial variability of (210)Po, (238)U and (239+240)Pu levels in the Vistula and the Odra drainage basins were assessed by application of neural-network based classification, especially cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing maps (SOM). The result for the Vistula river indicated correlation between polonium and plutonium as well as polonium and uranium. In the Odra drainage basin, the biggest differences were observed in the case of (238)U. To assess if there are statistically significant differences in mean concentration values of (210)Po, (238)U and (239+240)Pu for the Vistula and the Odra rivers drainage basins were obtained by used of the non-parametric tests. Comparing to the Vistula catchment area, statistically differences concentration of (210)Po and (239+240)Pu in all year was observed for river samples collected on the Odra drainage basin.

  19. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Asencio, M., E-mail: misael@ceac.cu [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Alvarado, J.A. Corcho [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Alonso-Hernandez, C. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Quejido-Cabezas, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. ICMyL, Mazatlan (Mexico); Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Gomez-Mancebo, M.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Froidevaux, P. [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, and Physics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the {sup 210}Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Nino periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  20. 上海乡土水生植物资源及其在水生态恢复与水景观建设中的应用潜力%SURVEY OF NATIVE AQUATIC VASCULAR PLANTS AND ITS POTENTIAL APPLICATION FOR RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS IN SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婕; 张净; 达良俊

    2011-01-01

    水生植物作为水生生态系统的主体,对发挥水生生态系统的自维持、自循环功能有重要作用.研究通过相关资料的查阅,建立上海地区乡土水生植物名录,并对其科属组成、区系特征、生活型、生长型等进行统计分析.结果表明上海地区乡土水生植物共计35科83属160种(含变种),单属科、单种属的比例较高,均达65%以上;植物区系组成丰富、成分复杂,以热带成分占优势,达64.6%;生活型以挺水植物为主,沉水植物次之,浮水植物最少;生长型类型丰富,以草本型、禾草型居多,20种生长型可进一步归为表征相似生态学特征和功能地位的6个生长型组.在水生态恢复与水景观建设中,仅有68.8%的景观水体有水生植物应用,且应用种类在2种以下的占79.2%.乡土水生植物应用不足,一半以上为观赏性强的外来物种,应用频率较高的为挺水植物,对具有良好净化效果的沉水植物重视不够.因此,在水生态恢复与水景观建设中,建议加强乡土水生植物资源的繁育栽培,在充分利用乡土水生植物资源配置群落的基础上,根据水质的富营养及基底状况,通过不同生长型组水生植物的应用,构建“沉水-浮水-挺水”植物群落复合体,并通过“近自然型”护岸的营造,形成“水生-湿生”复合生态系统.运用植被工程学的原理和方法,采用“生态浮岛”、“生态沉岛”等技术营造水生植被,将强人工化的水景观建成具生命的水生生态系统.%With the rapid economical development, more and more degraded aquatic ecosystems can not be restored by themselves after they were polluted seriously. Aquatic vascular plant especially the native species, as an important component, play a significant role for implication of self-sustainable and self-circulation in aquatic ecosystems. Reconstruction and restoration of aquatic plants and vegetations is vital to construct the artificial

  1. Impact of photochemical processing of DOC on the bacterioplankton respiratory quotient in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesson, Lina; Ström, Lena; Berggren, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Many studies assume a respiratory quotient (RQ = molar ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed) close to 1 when calculating bacterioplankton respiration. However, evidence suggests that RQ depends on the chemical composition of the respired substrate pool that may be altered by photochemical production of oxygen-rich substrates, resulting in elevated RQs. Here we conducted a novel study of the impact of photochemical processing of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on RQ. We monitored the bacterial RQ in bioassays of both ultraviolet light irradiated and nonirradiated humic lake water, using optic gas-pressure sensors. In the experimentally irradiated samples the average RQ value was significantly higher (3.4-3.5 [±0.4 standard error (SE)]) than that in the dark controls (1.3 [±0.1 SE]). Our results show that the RQ is systematically higher than 1 when the bacterial metabolism in large part is based on photoproducts. By assuming an RQ of 1, bacterioplankton respiration in freshwater ecosystems may be greatly underestimated.

  2. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of heavy metal pollution of water in DTD canal system

    OpenAIRE

    Pajević Slobodanka P.; Vučković Mirjana S.; Kevrešan Žarko S.; Matavulj Milan N.; Radulović Snežana B.; Radnović Dragan V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to establish the presence or absence of chemical contamination of water and the littoral zone (banks) of Danube-Tisza-Danube (DTD) canal system. The investigation covered the canal section from Bezdan to Prigrevica. By analyzing the chemical composition of dominant aquatic species in four locations of the section, we defined the species with the highest capacity to accumulate nutrients and heavy metals. Concentrations of P and K as well as of a beneficial ele...

  3. Concentrations, Deposition, and Effects of Nitrogenous Pollutants in Selected California Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+ from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3– resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95% of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3, drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  4. Concentrations, deposition, and effects of nitrogenous pollutants in selected California ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A; Padgett, P E; Parry, S D; Fenn, M E; Arbaugh, M J

    2001-11-28

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3) and particulate ammonium (NH4+) from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitric acid (HNO3), and particulate nitrate (NO3-) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95%) of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3), drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  5. Nejayote produced at household level by Mayan women in Guatemala : is it a threat to aquatic ecosystems or a resource for food security?

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes de Gramajo, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if nejayote produced at household level in Guatemala represents a threat to aquatic ecosystems and, if so, propose sustainable processing, reuse and disposal methods. First, all aspects related to nejayote production were explored. This study presents combined results from literature study on corn consumption and Guatemalan demography, a survey to Guatemalan women of all ethnical groups, nixtamalization replica and solids removal experiments and laborator...

  6. Biofilm comprising phototrophic, diazotrophic, and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria: a promising consortium in the bioremediation of aquatic hydrocarbon pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Dhia; Kansour, Mayada K; Rayan, Rehab; Radwan, Samir S

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms harboring simultaneously anoxygenic and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria, diazotrophic bacteria, and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were established on glass slides suspended in pristine and oily seawater. Via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis on PCR-amplified rRNA gene sequence fragments from the extracted DNA from biofilms, followed by band amplification, biofilm composition was determined. The biofilms contained anoxygenic phototrophs belonging to alphaproteobacteria; pico- and filamentous cyanobacteria (oxygenic phototrophs); two species of the diazotroph Azospirillum; and two hydrocarbon-utilizing gammaproteobacterial genera, Cycloclasticus and Oleibacter. The coexistence of all these microbial taxa with different physiologies in the biofilm makes the whole community nutritionally self-sufficient and adequately aerated, a condition quite suitable for the microbial biodegradation of aquatic pollutant hydrocarbons.

  7. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Hydrologic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change on Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems in the Mobile Bay, AL Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J.; Woodruff, D.; Quattrochi, D.; Rose, K.; Swann, R.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Mobile Bay, AL estuary, are subject to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including climate change. Climate changes have a direct effect on the discharge of rivers that drain into Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal water bodies. The outflows change water quality (temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations) in the shallow aquatic areas and affect ecosystem functioning. Mobile Bay is a vital ecosystem that provides habitat for many species of fauna and flora. Historically, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and seagrasses were found in this area of the northern Gulf of Mexico; however the extent of vegetation has significantly decreased over the last 60 years. The objectives of this research are to determine: how climate changes affect runoff and water quality in the estuary and how these changes will affect habitat suitability for SAV and seagrasses. Our approach is to use watershed and hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the impact of climate change on shallow water aquatic ecosystems in Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal areas. Remotely sensed Landsat data were used for current land cover land use (LCLU) model input and the data provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the future changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise were used to create the climate scenarios for the 2025 and 2050 model simulations. Project results are being shared with Gulf coast stakeholders through the Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas to benefit coastal policy and climate change adaptation strategies.

  8. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Hydrologic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change on Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems in the Mobile Bay, AL Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Judd, C.; Woodruff, D.; Ellis, J. T.; Quattrochi, D.; Swann, R.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Mobile Bay, AL estuary, are subject to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including climate change. Climate changes have a direct effect on the discharge of rivers that drain into Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal water bodies. The outflows change water quality (temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations) in the shallow aquatic areas and affect ecosystem functioning. Mobile Bay is a vital ecosystem that provides habitat for many species of fauna and flora. Historically, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and seagrasses were found in this area of the northern Gulf of Mexico; however the extent of vegetation has significantly decreased over the last 60 years. The objectives of this research are to determine: how climate changes affect runoff and water quality in the estuary and how these changes will affect habitat suitability for SAV and seagrasses. Our approach is to use watershed and hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the impact of climate change on shallow water aquatic ecosystems in Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal areas. Remotely sensed Landsat data were used for current land cover land use (LCLU) model input and the data provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the future changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise were used to create the climate scenarios for the 2025 and 2050 model simulations. Project results are being shared with Gulf coast stakeholders through the Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas to benefit coastal policy and climate change adaptation strategies.

  9. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, María F Silva; Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Meijide, Fernando; Grosman, Fabián; Sanzano, Pablo; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2016-04-15

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment can affect organisms inhabiting aquatic systems, in particular shallow lakes that are vulnerable to environmental stressors. This study aimed to assess POPs accumulation and changes at histological and physiological levels in tissues of three fish species with different trophic habits. Gills, brain, muscle, liver and gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis, Oligosarcus jenynsii and Cyphocharax voga were collected from the shallow lake La Peregrina, located in an agricultural area from Argentina. In addition, contaminant levels in surface water (SW), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments (BS) were assessed. Histological lesions were evaluated in fish tissues and levels of vitellogenin (VTG) were assessed in plasma of male fish in order to correlate these alterations with the presence of POPs in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by GC-ECD. Biotic and abiotic samples showed the same POPs distribution pattern: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs. Although tissue distribution of OCPs was species-specific, muscle showed the lowest levels in all species. The most abundant contaminants were endosulfans, suggesting their widespread use in the area. O. bonariensis showed the highest endosulfans levels in liver (184.2-219ngg(-1)wet w), which was associated with the high SPM levels considering this species is a filter feeder. The occurrence of PCBs and PBDEs shows the ubiquity of these pollutants in the area. Histological lesions in gills and liver of O. bonariensis and O. jenynsii, might be related with the high levels of endosulfans in these organs. The detection of VTG in males warns about a possible exposure to estrogenic compounds in the environment. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of fish to multiple environmental pollutants leads to different alterations, so measures should be taken in

  11. Towards Sustaining Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems: Forecasting Watershed Risks to Current and Future Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Newburn, D.; Opperman, J. J.; Brooks, C.; Merenlender, A.

    2005-05-01

    development in a watershed significantly reduced the odds of observing low embeddedness. Our 2010 forecasts highlight the sensitivity of watersheds to small changes in exurban growth. In previously unimpaired watersheds, small increases in future exurban growth resulted in cumulative impacts on substrate quality not predicted by models lacking this land use type. Because most previous analyses have characterized land use at a resolution that cannot capture exurban development, these results suggest that many such models may be missing an important type of development that can adversely impacting aquatic ecosystems. We suggest that parcel level data may be the fundamental unit for land use change analysis because it represents the economic decision unit for land owners and resolves issues of geographical scale and boundary issues that have long hampered progress in ecological forecasting.

  12. Selective photocatalytic degradation of aquatic pollutants by titania encapsulated into FAU-type zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan; Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Seok Han; Hong, Suk Bong

    2011-04-15

    The selective photocatalytic degradation of charged pollutants in water was achieved on titania encapsulated into FAU-type zeolites. The electrostatic attraction of cationic substrates and repulsion of anionic substrates by the negatively charged zeolite framework facilitated the selective photocatalytic degradation of charged substrates. The hybrid zeolite-titania photocatalysts were prepared through the ion-exchange method. The titania clusters were mainly well distributed within the cavities of FAU-type zeolites whereas no TiO(2) nanoparticles aggregates were observed on the external surface of zeolite crystals. The hybrid zeolite-titania photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The selective degradation of charged pollutants was investigated by employing three pairs of oppositely charged substrates. The comparison between the cationic and anionic substrates clearly showed that the degradation rates for the cationic substrates on the hybrid photocatalysts are markedly higher than those for the anionic substrates. Among the cationic substrates, the smaller cations such as tetramethylammoniums were preferentially degraded. This enabled the selective removal of cationic substrates among the mixture. Such a selective photocatalytic degradation of water pollutants may provide a useful strategy for the development of economical photocatalytic process by targeting only the most recalcitrant pollutant.

  13. A Screening-Level Approach for Comparing Risks Affecting Aquatic Ecosystem Services over Socio-Environmental Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Conde, D.; Villamizar, S. R.; Reid, B.; Escobar, J.; Rusak, J.; Hoyos, N.; Scordo, F.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; Velez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing risks to aquatic ecosystems services (ES) is challenging and time-consuming, and effective strategies for prioritizing more detailed assessment efforts are needed. We propose a screening-level risk analysis (SRA) approach that scales ES risk using socioeconomic and environmental indices to capture anthropic and climatic pressures, as well as the capacity for institutional responses to those pressures. The method considers ES within a watershed context, and uses expert input to prioritize key services and the associated pressures that threaten them. The SRA approach focuses on estimating ES risk affect factors, which are the sum of the intensity factors for all hazards or pressures affecting the ES. We estimate the pressure intensity factors in a novel manner, basing them on the nation's (i) human development (proxied by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, IHDI), (ii) environmental regulatory and monitoring state (Environmental Performance Index, EPI) and (iii) the current level of water stress in the watershed (baseline water stress, BWS). Anthropic intensity factors for future conditions are derived from the baseline values based on the nation's 10-year trend in IHDI and EPI; ES risks in nations with stronger records of change are rewarded more/penalized less in estimates for good/poor future management scenarios. Future climatic intensity factors are tied to water stress estimates based on two general circulation model (GCM) outcomes. We demonstrate the method for an international array of six sites representing a wide range of socio-environmental settings. The outcomes illustrate novel consequences of the scaling scheme. Risk affect factors may be greater in a highly developed region under intense climatic pressure, or in less well-developed regions due to human factors (e.g., poor environmental records). As a screening-level tool, the SRA approach offers considerable promise for ES risk comparisons among watersheds and regions so that

  14. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  15. Cell-Based Sensor System Using L6 Cells for Broad Band Continuous Pollutant Monitoring in Aquatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evamaria Stütz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of drinking water sources represents a continuously emerging problem in global environmental protection. Novel techniques for real-time monitoring of water quality, capable of the detection of unanticipated toxic and bioactive substances, are urgently needed. In this study, the applicability of a cell-based sensor system using selected eukaryotic cell lines for the detection of aquatic pollutants is shown. Readout parameters of the cells were the acidification (metabolism, oxygen consumption (respiration and impedance (morphology of the cells. A variety of potential cytotoxic classes of substances (heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, neurotoxins, waste water was tested with monolayers of L6 cells (rat myoblasts. The cytotoxicity or cellular effects induced by inorganic ions (Ni2+ and Cu2+ can be detected with the metabolic parameters acidification and respiration down to 0.5 mg/L, whereas the detection limit for other substances like nicotine and acetaminophen are rather high, in the range of 0.1 mg/L and 100 mg/L. In a close to application model a real waste water sample shows detectable signals, indicating the existence of cytotoxic substances. The results support the paradigm change from single substance detection to the monitoring of overall toxicity.

  16. From Polluter Pays to Provider Gets: Distribution of Rights and Costs under Payments for Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Mauerhofer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Should society have the right to freely available clean air and water, or should people be required to pay for these as commodities just as they do for many other goods or services that they consume? With this question and further questions on environmental governance in mind, we reviewed the paradigm shift in natural resource management from the polluter pays principle (PPP, which focuses on polluters and enforcement of thresholds, to the principle of payments for ecosystem services (PES, which emphasizes provider-based economic approaches. Given that there are conflicts of interest over natural resources and ecosystem services (ESs, these conflicts could be resolved through rights and/or cost assignments via third-party intervention, i.e., by the "state," or through private compensation beyond initial regulation and state-initiated assignments of cost. Our analysis includes an in-depth literature review and a description of existing policies on ESs. We also examine the so-called Coase theorem based on a "neutral" situation where no rights or costs are distributed in advance. This theorem provides room for the PPP approaches and the provider-gets approaches. Both of these approaches should ensure, given certain assumptions, an economically efficient allocation of resources; however, they still ignore two indispensable issues, namely, the ecologically sustainable scale and inherent qualities of ecosystems and the distributional effects. With regard to the relationship between these two sets of approaches and their respective relationship to the legal framework, PES programs can evolve instead of PPP where no regulations are in place, existing regulations are deemed to be insufficiently formulated, or regulations are not enforced at all. We also further address some critical issues that can arise when PES programs evolve instead of PPP in practice, such as the general necessity of PES to coexist with basic rights and legal obligations

  17. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  18. Predicting Watershed Ecosystems Through Targeted Local Land Use Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Land-use change is arguably the most pervasive socioeconomic force driving the change and degradation of watershed ecosystems. This paper combines an econometric model of land use choice with three models of watershed health indicators (conventional water pollution, toxic water pollution, and the number of aquatic species at risk) to examine the effects of land use policies on watershed ecosystems through their effect on land use choice. The analysis is conducted using parcel-level data from ...

  19. Toxic metals in aquatic plants surviving in surface water polluted by copper mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

    2004-09-01

    Concentrations of the metals Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, as well as the macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S were measured in water, sediments, and the aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, growing in surface water receiving sewages and solid wastes from a copper smelter and a copper ore processing factory located in the Legnica-Glogow copper district in Southwest Poland. The deposition of mineral wastes in this area belong to the largest repository in Europe. The plants were able to survive at heavily contaminated sites. The concentrations of Cd (up to 0.6-1.7 microg/L in water and up to 10.1-12.9 mg/kg in sediments), Cu (up to 29-48 microg/L in water and up to 4.6-5.6g/kg in sediments), Pb (up to 1.5-2.2 g/kg in sediments), and Zn (up to 167-200 microg/L in water and up to 1.4-1.8 g/kg in sediments) seriously exceeded background values. P. pectinatus was able to survive tissue concentrations (in mg/kg) of up to 920 Cu, 6240 Mn, 98 Co, and 59 Ni, while M. spicatum survived tissue concentrations up to 1040 Cu, 6660 Mn, and 57 Co for. Enrichment ratios of elements in plant tissue and in water were much higher than those between plant tissue and sediments.

  20. Dynamic release process of pollutants during suspended sediment transport in aquatic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红伟; 王道增; 程鹏达

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants release is highly consistent with suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in water column, especially during re-suspension and transport events. The present research focuses on pollutant dynamic release from re-suspended sediment, especially the vertical distribution relationship between them. The sediment erosion experiments on a series of uniform flow are conducted in a circulate flume. Reactive tracer (phosphorus) is used as the contaminant in fine-grained sediments to identify the release characteristic length and time. Experimental results show that the flow condition near-bed depends on the sediment surface roughness. The region with high turbulent intensities corresponds to a high concentration sediment layer. In addition, the SSC decreases with the distance, water depth, and particle grain size. The sediment in a smaller grain size takes much more time to reach equilibrium concentration. Total phosphorus (TP) concentration changes along the water depth as SSC in the initial re-suspension stage, appearing in two obvi-ous concentration regimes: the upper low-concentration layer and the high-concentration near-bottom layer. This layered phenomenon remains for about 3 hours until SSC distri-bution tends to be uniform. Longitudinal desorption plays an important role in long-way transport to reduce the amount of suspended sediment in water column.

  1. The legacy of nitrogen pollution in heather moorlands: ecosystem response to simulated decline in nitrogen deposition over seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J; Terribile, E; Carroll, J A; Price, E A C; Caporn, S J M

    2013-02-01

    Eutrophication and acidification of heather moorlands by chronic atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution, is of major concern within these internationally important ecosystems. However, in the UK and Western Europe generally emissions of NO(y) and NH(x) peaked during the 20th century. Due to the history and scale of atmospheric N pollution, the legacy of these high levels of N deposition, through accumulation in soil, may hinder or prevent ecosystem recovery. Effects of N pollution on heather moorland were investigated throughout the ecosystem including; the dominant plant species, Calluna vulgaris, the bryophyte and lichen community and the soil system using a long-term experiment simulating wet N deposition. We observed an increase in C. vulgaris height, shoot extension and canopy density, litter mineral N, total N concentration, N:P and C:N ratios in response to N addition. Bryophyte species diversity, bryophyte and lichen frequency and the frequency of two individual bryophyte species (Lophozia ventricosa and Campylopus flexuosus) were significantly reduced by N addition. We developed an N recovery experiment, using a split-plot design, on the long-term N treatment plots to investigate ecosystem response to a simulated decline in N deposition. Two years after cessation of N treatment the only ecosystem component that responded to the recovery experiment was C. vulgaris shoot extension, however after seven years of recovery there were significant declines in litter total N concentration and mineral N and an increase in litter C:N ratio. Although bryophytes and lichens form a close relationship with atmospheric N deposition these organisms did not show a significant response to the N recovery experiment, two years after cessation of N treatment. These data indicate that low nutrient ecosystems, such as moorlands, have the capacity to respond to declines in N deposition however the accumulation of pollution may hinder recovery of sensitive organisms, such as bryophytes

  2. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  3. Linking the evolution of habitat choice to ecosystem functioning: direct and indirect effects of pond-reproducing fire salamanders on aquatic-terrestrial subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Timm; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Paetzold, Achim; Weitere, Markus

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in life history traits and in the behaviour of species can potentially alter ecosystem functioning. The reproduction of the central European fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), which usually deposits its larvae in first-order streams, in small pool and pond-like habitats, is an example of a recent local adaptation in this species. Here we aimed to quantify the direct and indirect effects of the predatory larvae on the aquatic food webs in the ponds and on the flux of matter between the ponds and adjacent terrestrial habitats. Our estimates are based on biomass data of the present pond fauna as well as on the analysis of stomach content data, growth rates and population dynamics of the salamander larvae in pond habitats. By their deposition of larvae in early spring, female fire salamanders import between 0.07 and 2.86 g dry mass m(-2) larval biomass into the ponds. Due to high mortality rates in the larval phase and the relatively small size at metamorphosis of the pond-adapted salamanders compared to stream-adapted ones, the biomass export of the metamorphosed salamanders clearly falls below the initial biomass import. Catastrophic events such as high water temperatures and low oxygen levels may even occasionally result in mass mortalities of salamander larvae and thus in a net 100 % import of the salamander biomass into the pond food webs. Indirect effects further accelerate this net import of matter into the aquatic habitat, e.g. the feeding of salamanders on aquatic insect larvae with the emergence of terrestrial adults-thus preventing export-and on terrestrial organisms that fall on the water surface (supporting import). This study demonstrates that the adaptation of salamanders to pond reproduction can alter food web linkages across ecosystem boundaries by enhancing the flux of materials and energy from terrestrial (i.e. forest) to the aquatic (i.e. pond) habitat.

  4. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean T.; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  5. Multiproxy evidence for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses during the 8.2 ka cold event as recorded at Højby Sø, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Rasmussen, Peter; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna;

    2010-01-01

    .2 ka cold event as registered in the Greenland ice cores. At Højby Sø, the climate anomaly appears to have started 200–250 yr earlier than the 8.2 ka cold event as the lake proxy data provide strong evidence for a precipitation-induced distinct increase in catchment soil erosion beginning around 8500...... cal yr BP. Alteration of the terrestrial environment then resulted in a major aquatic ecosystem change with nutrient enrichment of the lake and enhanced productivity, which lasted until c. 7900 cal yr BP. Keywords: 8.2 ka cold event; Lake sediments; Palaeoclimate; Pollen; Macrofossils; Geochemistry...

  6. Bioindication of heavy metals with aquatic macrophytes: the case of a stream polluted with power plant sewages in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

    2001-01-12

    The Kozi Brod (left tributary of the Biala Przemsza, east of Katowice) flows in a highly industrial coal-mining area dominated by the power plant of Siersza. Concentrations of the microelements nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), barium (Ba), aluminum (Al), vanadium (V), and strontium (Sr), as well as the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and sulfur (S), were measured in water and plants of the Kozi Brod. The collected plants were: Myosotis palustris L. Nathorst, Galium palustre L., Mentha rotundifolia L. Huds., Mentha aquatica L., Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville, Cardamine amara L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Geranium palustre L., Lysimachia vulgaris L., Crepis paludosa L. Much., Calitriche verna L., Solanum dulcamara L., and the aquatic moss Hygrohypnum ochraceum (Turn.) Loesk. These plants were used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the Kozi Brod and contained elevated levels of Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Al, Pb, and Cu. Significant correlations between concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Mn in water and plants indicate the potential of these species for pollution monitoring.

  7. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Tellez

    Full Text Available Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment.

  8. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Marisa; Merchant, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment.

  9. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M

    2009-01-01

    The coastal environment of the Yucatan Peninsula (SE, Mexico) includes a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from mangroves to coral reefs, resulting in a heterogeneous landscape. Specifically, the marine system is characterized by environmental differences which respond to regional and local forcing functions such as marine currents and groundwater discharges (GD). Such functional characteristics were used here to define four subregions across the Yucatan coast and diagnose the health status of this coastal marine ecosystem. To achieve this goal, we conducted an analysis and integration of water quality variables, an eutrophic assessment, evaluated changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and analyzed the community structure and distribution of harmful phytoplankton. The first step was to determine the reference values for each subregion based on data previously collected from 2002 to 2006 along the coast of Yucatan, 200m offshore. The trophic index (TRIX) and Canadian index for aquatic life (CCMEWQI) were used to diagnose each subregion and then the ASSETS approach was conducted for Dzilam and Progreso, sampling localities on each end of the health status continuum (those with the best and worst conditions). Overall, results indicated that the marine coastal ecosystem of Yucatan is in good condition; however, differences were observed between subregions that can be attributed to local forcing functions and human impacts. Specifically, the central region (zone HZII, Progreso-Telchac) showed symptoms of initial eutrophication due to nutrient inputs from human activities. The eastern region (zone HZ III, Dzilam-Las Bocas) showed a meso-eutrophic condition linked to natural groundwater discharges, while the other two subregions western (zone HZI Celestun-Palmar) and caribbean (zone HZ IV Ria Lagartos-El Cuyo) exhibited symptoms of oligo-mesotrophic condition. These findings may be considered baseline information for coastal ecosystem monitoring programs in

  10. Combining Passive Sampling with Toxicological Characterization of Complex Mixtures of Pollutants from the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; Witt, Gesine; Schäfer, Sabine; Haase, Nora; Escher, Beate I

    2016-08-04

    The combination of polymer-based passive sampling to collect complex environmental mixtures of pollutants, the transfer of these mixtures into bioassays, and their related toxicological characterization is still in its infancy. However, this approach has considerable potential to improve environmental hazard and risk assessment for two reasons. First, the passive sampler collects a broad range of chemicals representing the fraction of compounds available for diffusion and (bio)uptake, excluding a large part of the matrix; thus, extensive sample cleanup which could discriminate certain compounds can be avoided. Second, the toxicological characterization of samples using bioassays is complementary to chemical (target) analysis within environmental monitoring because it captures all chemicals exerting the same mode of toxic action and acting jointly in mixtures, thus providing a comprehensive picture of their overall combined effects. The scientific literature describes a range of examples from the water phase where passive sampling is usually carried out in the kinetic uptake regime for most chemicals although some may already have reached equilibrium. The composition of the chemical mixture changes from the water phase to the passive sampling material because of kinetic effects and polymer/water partition coefficients which depend on the chemicals' hydrophobicity. In contrast, only a few applications in sediment and biota have been described, but amongst these some pioneering studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential of this combined approach. This chapter gives an overview of what has been carried out in this research area, focusing on opportunities and challenges, and points out desirable future developments with a focus on the importance of choosing a suitable combination of sampling and dosing to transfer (or re-establish) the environmental mixture into the bioassay.

  11. Ecological effects of diffuse mixed pollution are site-specific and require higher-tier risk assessment to improve site management decisions: a discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma, L.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Koelmans, A.A.; Vijver, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Many Dutch ecosystems, whether terrestrial, aquatic or sediment-based, are diffusely polluted by mixtures of contaminants, whose concentrations often exceed regulatory Safe Values or other generic quality criteria. This situation has unclear consequences, especially when local authorities are confro

  12. Science for Managing Riverine Ecosystems: Actions for the USGS Identified in the Workshop "Analysis of Flow and Habitat for Instream Aquatic Communities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Hamilton, David B.; Petersen, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state agencies need improved scientific analysis to support riverine ecosystem management. The ability of the USGS to integrate geologic, hydrologic, chemical, geographic, and biological data into new tools and models provides unparalleled opportunities to translate the best riverine science into useful approaches and usable information to address issues faced by river managers. In addition to this capability to provide integrated science, the USGS has a long history of providing long-term and nationwide information about natural resources. The USGS is now in a position to advance its ability to provide the scientific support for the management of riverine ecosystems. To address this need, the USGS held a listening session in Fort Collins, Colorado in April 2006. Goals of the workshop were to: 1) learn about the key resource issues facing DOI, other Federal, and state resource management agencies; 2) discuss new approaches and information needs for addressing these issues; and 3) outline a strategy for the USGS role in supporting riverine ecosystem management. Workshop discussions focused on key components of a USGS strategy: Communications, Synthesis, and Research. The workshop identified 3 priority actions the USGS can initiate now to advance its capabilities to support integrated science for resource managers in partner government agencies and non-governmental organizations: 1) Synthesize the existing science of riverine ecosystem processes to produce broadly applicable conceptual models, 2) Enhance selected ongoing instream flow projects with complementary interdisciplinary studies, and 3) Design a long-term, watershed-scale research program that will substantively reinvent riverine ecosystem science. In addition, topical discussion groups on hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic habitat and populations, and socio-economic analysis and negotiation identified eleven important complementary actions required to advance the state of the science and to

  13. Environmental behaviour of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijuan; Fu, Jianjie; Pan, Wenxiao; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-07-15

    The environmental behaviour of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) was investigated in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic. The mean concentrations of SCCPs in the aquatic and terrestrial samples were 178.9ng/g dry weight (dw) and 157.2ng/g dw, respectively. Short carbon chain (C10) and less-chlorinated (Cl6) congener groups were predominant in the Arctic samples, accounting for 48.6% and 34.8% of the total SCCPs, respectively. The enrichment of lighter SCCP congener groups (i.e., fewer chlorine atoms with shorter carbon chain lengths) indicated that the fractionation process occurred during long-range transport. The biomagnification factor (BMF) was 0.46 from gammarid to cod, which indicated that the SCCPs did not biomagnify between these two species. The soil-vegetation bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of SCCPs was 29.9, and C13 and Cl7, 8 congener groups tended to accumulate in the terrestrial vegetation. Regression analysis (BAFs=10.9×#C+5.6×#Cl-125.2, R=0.53, P<0.01) showed that the number of carbon and chlorine atoms influenced the bioaccumulative behaviour of SCCPs and suggested that the number of carbon atoms had a greater influence on the BAFs of SCCPs in the terrestrial ecosystem than did the number of chlorine atoms.

  14. Modelling Pb, Zn and As transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems during the ice-free season in three Pyrenean catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardit, Montserrat; Camarero, Lluís

    2010-11-01

    Long-range atmospheric trace element contamination affecting natural systems has occurred since early historical times in the Northern Hemisphere. In relatively remote sites, soils are the largest reservoir of these airborne contaminants. Trace elements stored in soils can later be remobilized and thus soils are a potential delayed, long-lasting source of contamination for the aquatic ecosystems. Here we measured the atmospheric deposition and in-lake fluxes in order to model the transfer of Pb, Zn and As from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems during the snow- and ice-free season in three mountain catchments in the Central Pyrenees. According to the model, there was a net export of Pb and As from the catchments. We postulate that accumulated anthropogenic Pb contamination and the weathering of As-rich rocks are the most likely sources. In contrast, Zn was largely retained in the catchment. For Pb and As, the terrestrial inputs were >91% and for Zn were ~71% of the total inputs to the lakes. Nearly all Pb entering the lakes was retained in the sediments whereas 5-38% of As and Zn was lost through the outflow. We were unable to adjust the model for Zn for one of the lakes. The uptake by macrophytes could be a considerable sink for Zn, which was not considered in our transport model.

  15. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  16. ECLAIRE: Effects of Climate Change on Air Pollution Impacts and Response Strategies for European Ecosystems. Project final report

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Mark A; Howard, Clare M.; Nemitz, Eiko; Arneth, Almut; Simpson, Dave; Mills, Gina; de Vries, Wim; WINIWARTER, Wilfried; Amann, Markus; Alonso, Rocio; Ammann, Christof; Bealey, William J.; Bleeker, Albert; Cescatti, Alessandro; Dentener, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of ECLAIRE is to assess how climate change will alter the extent to which air pollutants threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Particular attention has been given to nitrogen compounds, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3), as well as Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) in relation to tropospheric ozone (O3) formation, including their interactions with aerosol components. ECLAIRE has combined a broad program of field and laboratory experimentation and modelli...

  17. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants along a high-altitude aquatic food chain in the Tibetan Plateau: Processes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Chuanfei; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiruo; Yao, Tandong

    2017-01-01

    Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic. The composition profiles of POPs in the fish were different from that in the water, but similar to their food. DDEs, DDDs, PCB 138, 153 and 180 displayed significant positive correlations with trophic levels, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged between 1.5 and 4.2, implying these chemicals can undergo final biomagnification along food chain. A fugacity-based dynamic bioaccumulation model was applied to the fish with localized parameters, by which the simulated concentrations were comparable to the measured data. Modeling results showed that most compounds underwent net gill loss and net gut uptake; only when the net result of the combined gut and gill fluxes would be positive, bioaccumulation could eventually occur. The net accumulation flux increased with fish age, which was caused by the continuous increase of gut uptake by aged fish. Due to the oligotrophic condition, efficient food absorption is likely the key factor that influences the gut POPs uptake. Long residence times with half-lives up to two decades were found for the higher chlorinated PCBs in Gymnocypris namensis.

  18. Effects of the global changes on the aquatic ecosystems in West Europe - role of the plankton communities; Effets des changements globaux sur les ecosystemes aquatiques d'Europe Occidentale - role des communautes planctoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souissi, S. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Ecosystem COmplexity REsearch Group, Station Marine de Wimereux, CNRS - FRE 2816 ELICO, 62 - Wimereux (France)

    2007-07-01

    Examination of long-term records of aquatic ecosystems has provided useful information to find out their major driving forces. Understanding the impact of climate change on these ecosystems, the management of their resources and the extrapolation between sites are the main scopes of actual and emerging studies. Such goals can be achieved by inter-site and inter-ecosystem comparisons. This approach was undertaken during our project which has the originality to tackle with marine and freshwater ecosystems. It allowed us to compile and validate several multi-decadal time series of planktonic and other physical driving forces at local and regional scales. Then, the same methodology based on the analysis of the variability of climate indices and biological data across several spatial scales was used. The different ecosystems analyzed here showed clear response to the North Atlantic climate variability. Although the local differences abrupt changes in community composition occurred in all ecosystems in the middle of the years 80. During this period there was also a major shift in climatic conditions during winter and early spring, suggesting an impact of climatic factors. Phenological changes were also observed in plankton communities in all sites. The consequences of the modifications of plankton dynamics on higher trophic levels were also showed. Fluctuations in plankton have resulted in long-term changes in cod recruitment in the North Sea (bottom-up control). On the other hand, both climate change and the improvement of trophic status in Geneva Lake favored the outbreak of whitefish during the years 90. Lower larval mortality and better recruitment are supposed to be linked to faster growth associated with warmer temperatures and better food conditions induced by better temporal overlap between larvae hatching and zooplankton development. (author)

  19. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, D. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology RAS (Russian Federation); Erenturk, S. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)

    2014-07-01

    Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated that high levels of ionizing radiation can result in impacts on plants and animals, however little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure on biodiversity or other population and ecosystem level effects. The issue of ecological impact has been addressed after the Fukushima accident, which has raised questions about the impacts of radioactivity not only on human health, but also on wildlife. The overall aim of the EANOR project (2012-2015) is to assess the impacts of chronic exposure to enhanced radioactivity and chemical pollutants by studying the diversity of plant and soil invertebrate populations at two field sites. The first is a radium contaminated site in the Vodny area of the Komi Republic, Russia. Between 1931 and 1956, this was the main location of Soviet radium production. Wastes from the industry caused contamination of the environment, leading to high levels of radionuclides, heavy metals and rare-earth elements in the surroundings. The prolonged exposure of the ecosystem, combined with relatively low human activities, makes the site an excellent field laboratory for investigating the long-term effects of pollution. The second site is metal mining (Fe, Au, Ag, Mn, Mo, Cu, Pb and Zn) and industrial area on the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, having elevated levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides for many decades. Eastern Black Sea Region is a mountainous area covered with dense forests, where numerous rivers and torrents flow through gorges and is characterized by heavy rainfall, humid summers, and mild winters. Based on these conditions, the region is rich in biological diversity. Joint field expeditions have been carried out in 2012 and 2013 with the objective of documenting levels of radionuclides and other chemical contaminants in soils and organisms, and assessing plant and soil invertebrate biodiversity. Measurement of a range of biomarkers, including soil meta

  20. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  1. Optimization of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecosystem in Relation to Soil Nitrogen Status for the Cultivation of Fish and Aquatic Food Crops of the Indian Subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Puste

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study was undertaken during wet and postwet seasons to improve the perennial and alternate submerged saucer-shaped ponded lands (tal and semi-tal lands in the coasts and northeastern plains of the Indian subtropics through pisciculture and cultivation of starch- and protein-rich aquatic food crops like water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb. and makhana or fox nut (Euryale ferox Salisb.. The study revealed that the physico-chemical properties of soils (pH, organic C, organic matter, available N, P, and K as well as quality of water (pH, EC, BOD, COD, CO3+, HCO3�, NO3-N, SO4-S, and Cl�, growing fish, makhana, and water chestnut was remarkably influenced by different moisture regimes and exhibited a significant improvement of soil health. The amount of organic C, available N, P, and K content were found significantly highest in the treatment where makhana was grown under alternate flooding and drying situation with a depth >2 m as compared to other treatments. Such enrichment of soil fertility, particularly in available N and P content, might be due to the accumulation of considerable amounts of biomass and fish excreta and their subsequent decomposition in situ in the soils. Therefore, the present study suggests that the N-enriched soil may effectively be utilized further for growing subsequent arable crops surroundings during summer season, which not only saves the amount of applied N fertilizer but also increases the apparent N efficiency with simultaneous increase in yield, and would benefit the farmers in this region.

  2. Chromatium species: an emerging bioindicator of crude oil pollution of tidal mud flats in the Niger Delta mangrove ecosystem, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, J P; Antai, S P

    2009-06-01

    Establishing microbiological indices for the monitoring of environmental decay by crude oil pollution in the Niger Delta region has been a major concern of our current researches. Chromatium species, a purple, Gram positive pleomorphic, motile, microaerophlic sulfur bacterium offers a good potential for use in the assessment of the short term effects of oil pollution of tidal mud flats in the Niger Delta mangrove ecosystem. Its response to the November 22, 2003 spillage at the Qua Iboe Estuary and the adjoining Cross River Estuary was investigated. Our results have revealed that the sulphur bacterium is easily identified and widely distributed in the epipellic sediment of the mangrove ecosystem but very sensitive to hydrocarbon pollution. The bacterium was readily detected in the tidal mud flats containing as much as 2.0 mg kg(-1) but not detected in sediment with THC level of 3.65 mg kg(-1) and above. It is thus, suggestive that the threshold and lethal limits of effect of hydrocarbons against the sulfur bacterium lies between 2.04 and 3.65 mg kg(-1). These imply that in any case of crude oil pollution that Chromatium is not detected during monitoring the THC levels of the sediment may have been raised to a level close to or above 3.65 mg kg(-1). Statistical analysis of the relationship between THC level and density of Chromatium in sediment revealed a significant (p mangrove ecosystem as against an insignificant (p > 0.05) relationship (r = -0.41) recorded for the Cross River mangrove ecosystem which served as the control. The result indicates that oil pollution affect the homeostatic status of Chromatium in tidal mud flats despite its even distribution (R2 = 71.4%). The finding though not definitive may contribute to the hierarchical process of oil pollution assessment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. However, its effective utilization will require not only the development of a selective medium for enumeration and isolation of the bacterium but also the

  3. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  4. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC)

    OpenAIRE

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-01-01

    Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losse...

  5. Heat Transfer Processes for the Thermal Energy Balance of Organisms. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes heat transfer processes involved in the exchange of heat…

  6. Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.

  7. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  8. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN ABIOTIC COMPONENT OF ECOSYSTEM OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bilyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of abiotic component in theVyrlytsa Lake. Was determined the amount of movable form of heavy metals in the water and bottomsediments by the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anthropogenic pollution of the lake is connectedwith discharges of waste waters from enterprises that situated in the industrial zone.Keywords: abiotic component, heavy metals, migration, mobile form.

  9. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution

  10. Radionuclide transport and uptake in coastal aquatic ecosystems: a comparison of a 3D dynamic model and a compartment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Konovalenko, Lena; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe; Bradshaw, Clare; Aquilonius, Karin; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2013-05-01

    In safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories, understanding radionuclide fate in ecosystems is necessary to determine the impacts of potential releases. Here, the reliability of two mechanistic models (the compartmental K-model and the 3D dynamic D-model) in describing the fate of radionuclides released into a Baltic Sea bay is tested. Both are based on ecosystem models that simulate the cycling of organic matter (carbon). Radionuclide transfer is linked to adsorption and flows of carbon in food chains. Accumulation of Th-230, Cs-135, and Ni-59 in biological compartments was comparable between the models and site measurements despite differences in temporal resolution, biological state variables, and partition coefficients. Both models provided confidence limits for their modeled concentration ratios, an improvement over models that only estimate means. The D-model enables estimates at high spatio-temporal resolution. The K-model, being coarser but faster, allows estimates centuries ahead. Future developments could integrate the two models to take advantage of their respective strengths.

  11. Radionuclide transport and uptake in coastal aquatic ecosystems - a comparison of a 3D dynamic model and a compartment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences Stockholm University (Sweden); Erichsen, A.C.; Moehlenberg, F. [Ecological and Environmental Department DHI (Sweden); Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    In safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories, understanding the fate of radionuclides in ecosystems is necessary. Here, two mechanistic models (K- and D- model) describing the fate of radionuclides released into a Baltic Sea bay were compared. Both are based on ecosystem models that simulate the cycling of organic matter. Parallel to adsorption, transfer of radionuclides is linked to flows of organic matter (carbon) in food chains. Despite differences in temporal resolution, biological state variables and partition coefficients, the accumulation of Th-230, Cs-135 and Ni-59 in biological compartments was comparable between the models and with site measurements. Both models provided confidence limits for their modeled concentration ratios, an improvement over models that only estimate mean values. The D-model enables estimates at high spatio-temporal resolution. The K-model being coarser but faster, allows estimates centuries ahead. Future developments could integrate the two models to take full advantage of their respective strengths. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Radionuclide Transport and Uptake in Coastal Aquatic Ecosystems: A Comparison of a 3D Dynamic Model and a Compartment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erichsen, Anders Christian; Moehlenberg, Flemming; Closter, Rikke Margrethe [Ecological and Environmental Dept., DHI, Hoersholm (Denmark)], E-mail: aer@dhigroup.com; Konovalenko, Lena; Bradshaw, Clare [The Dept. of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden); Aquilonius, Karin [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    In safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories, understanding radionuclide fate in ecosystems is necessary to determine the impacts of potential releases. Here, the reliability of two mechanistic models (the compartmental K-model and the 3D dynamic D-model) in describing the fate of radionuclides released into a Baltic Sea bay is tested. Both are based on ecosystem models that simulate the cycling of organic matter (carbon). Radionuclide transfer is linked to adsorption and flows of carbon in food chains. Accumulation of Th-230, Cs-135, and Ni-59 in biological compartments was comparable between the models and site measurements despite differences in temporal resolution, biological state variables, and partition coefficients. Both models provided confidence limits for their modeled concentration ratios, an improvement over models that only estimate means. The D-model enables estimates at high spatio-temporal resolution. The K-model, being coarser but faster, allows estimates centuries ahead. Future developments could integrate the two models to take advantage of their respective strengths.

  13. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  14. Service Function Analysis and Value Evaluation of Aquatic Ecosystem in Yinchuan%银川市水生态系统服务功能价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美玲; 马鹏燕

    2011-01-01

    地处西北干旱半干旱区的银川市,有限的水资源能否支撑经济社会可持续发展,已成为亟需解决的问题.为了对银川市水生态系统的服务价值进行有效评估,笔者以相关统计文献为基础,从水资源的生态、生产和生活功能出发,采用影子价格法、替代成本法、旅行费用法、恢复费用法等方法,对银川市水生态系统服务价值进行了评价.结果表明:(1)自2003年到2008年,由于城市工业用水、生活用水量的逐年增大,城市淡水供应价值逐年上升.今后,随着银川市工业化、城市化的发展,其人口规模和经济规模都必将急剧扩大,城市用水中的工业用水和生活用水将继续加速上升.(2)城市淡水供应价值和休闲娱乐价值占GDP的比重均呈逐年下降的趋势.表明银川市水生态系统的服务价值严重滞后于经济的发展,在城市GDP增长中的贡献越来越小.%The city of Yinchuan that located in the northwest of arid and semiarid zones, whether limited water resources can support sustainable economic and social development has become urgent problem. In order to have an effective assessment about the value of aquatic ecosystem, based on the relevant statistical literature, and using shadow price method, replacement cost method, travel cost method and recovery fees and other methods, the author evaluated the value of aquatic ecosystem service of Yinchuan. The results showed that: (1) from 2003 to 2008, as urban industrial water, living water consumption increased every year, the value of urban water supply increased year by year. In the future, with the development of industrialization and urbanization, the population scale and economic scale would expand rapidly, the amount of industrial water and domestic water would continue to be accelerated. (2) The proportion of urban water supply and recreational value of the GDP appeared a declining trend. This showed that the value of aquatic ecosystem

  15. Integrated research approach to the evaluation of the danger of airborne pollutants to forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F.; Smidt, S. [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The protection of the Alpine area, which, between Vienna and Nice, provides a home to thirteen million people, should be given highest priority not only because of the (commercial and other) benefits that the area offers and that are sometimes over-exploited for tourism, but also because the Alpine area is one of the largest coherent ecoregions of Europe and a Noah`s ark for endangered species and ecosystems. The present report focuses on two aspects of the dangers to forest ecosystems: on the threats caused by the input of ozone and nitrogen. (author)

  16. Modelling of tidal hydrodynamics for a tropical ecosystem with implications for pollutant dispersion (Cohin Estuary, Southwest India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Kizhakkepat Kalathil; Reddy, Guddemmari Sidha; Revichandran, Chenicherry; Srinivas, Kotamarpi; Vijayan, Panachikkal Ramakrishnan; Thottam, Tony Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Tidal circulation in the Cochin Estuary, a moderately polluted estuary along the southwest coast of India, was studied using a 2D hydrodynamic model. The predicted tides and currents showed very good agreement with measured tides. Particle trajectories and residual currents computed from the model have been used to classify the study region into three zones: northern estuary, central estuary, and southern estuary. The central estuary is dynamic, whereas the other two zones are relatively weak. An amplification of measured tides in the south estuary during March indicates the presence of standing waves caused by the hydraulic barrier at Thanneermukkom. Model results suggest that the northern and southern zones are sensitive to environmental pollution. The present level of pollution in the northern estuary is due to the direct release of industrial effluents into the river Periyar, which can be minimized if they are brought down to central estuary for disposal. The concept of different zones in the estuary will be useful to planners in protecting the vulnerable regions of this productive ecosystem from human interventions.

  17. Three dimensional thermal pollution models. Volume 2: Rigid-lid models. [waste heat discharge from power plants and effects on ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.

    1978-01-01

    Three versions of rigid lid programs are presented: one for near field simulation; the second for far field unstratified situations; and the third for stratified basins, far field simulation. The near field simulates thermal plume areas, and the far field version simulates larger receiving aquatic ecosystems. Since these versions have many common subroutines, a unified testing is provided, with main programs for the three possible conditions listed.

  18. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  19. The ``C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE'': A self-sustaining closed aquatic ecosystem for spaceflight experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    The C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE is the miniaturized space flight version of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.). It fits into a large middeck locker tray and is scheduled to be flown in the STS 85 and in the NEUROLAB missions. Its volume is about 9 liters and it consists of two animal tanks, a plant cultivator, and a bacteria filter in a monolithic design. An external sensor unit is connected to a data acquisition/control unit. The system integrates its own biological life support. The CO2 exhaled by the consumers (fishes, snails, microorganisms) is assimilated by water plants (Ceratophyllum demersum) which provide them with oxygen. The products of biomass degradation and excretion (mainly ammonia ions) are converted by bacteria into nitrite and nitrate. The latter is taken up by the plants as a nitrogen source together with other ions like phosphate. The plants convert light energy into chemical energy and their illumination is regulated via the oxygen concentration in the water by the control unit. In ground laboratory tests the system exhibited biological stability up to three month. The buffer capacity of the biological filter system is high enough to eliminate the degradation products of about one half of the dead animal biomass as shown in a ``crash test''. A test series using the laboratory model of the flight hardware demonstrated the biological stability and technical reliability with mission-identical loading and test duration. A comprehensive biological research program is established for the C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE in which five German and three U.S.-American universities as well as the Russian Academy of Sciences are involved.

  20. Evaluation of Function of Aquatic Ecosystem and Its Economic Value in Eighteen Creeks of Cangshan%苍山十八溪流域水资源生态系统服务功能价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟羽佳; 刘春学

    2015-01-01

    苍山十八溪是大理市主要饮用水源,也是洱海水补给的重要清洁水源地。为进一步认识水资源价值从而科学开发和利用水资源,提高节水意识,对苍山十八溪流域水资源生态系统服务功能进行了分类并分别对其进行价值评估。采用的评估方法有市场价值法、旅行费用法、机会费用法、影子工程法和影子价格,得到2013年十八溪流域水资源生态系统服务功能总价值为32.413亿元,包括经济服务功能23.17亿元和生态服务功能9.243亿元,其中,用水供应价值0.58亿元、水力发电价值0.12亿元、渔业生产价值1.83亿元、休闲娱乐价值20.64亿元,生态屏障价值7.122亿元、水质净化0.37亿元、调蓄水资源1.56亿元、生物多样性维持0.018亿元、降解污染物0.173亿元。从价值量来看,休闲娱乐价值和生态屏障价值所占比例较高,分别占总价值的63.7%和22%,可见十八溪对于大理市经济发展以及保护生态方面具有重要作用。%As the main resources of drinking water in Dali ,eighteen creeks of Cangshan is also an important major recharge resource of clean water to Erhai .In order to make further acquaintance with the value of water resources ,two kinds of aquatic ecosystem services are identified in this paper .Evaluating the value of the aquatic ecosystem services by market method ,travel expenses ,op‐portunity cost ,shadow project and shadow price which was 32 .263 billion RMB in 2013 ,the economic benefit value was 23 .02 bil‐lion RMB and the ecological function value was 9 .243 billion RMB .For the value of different functions ,water supply was 0 .58 bil‐lion RMB ,hydraulic electro-generating was 0 .12 billion RMB ,fishery industry was 1 .83 billion RMB ,entertainment was 20 .64 bil‐lion RMB ,ecological barrier was 7 .122 billion RMB ,water purification was 0 .37 billion RMB ,regulating water resources was 1 .56

  1. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  2. Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 microm), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p macrophytes for pollution monitoring.

  3. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem.

  4. Ecosystem Effects from Nutrient and Pesticide Pollutants: Catchment Care as a Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Bowmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural chemicals include fertilisers (nitrogen and phosphorus and biocides (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. Environmental impacts in surface waters include algal blooms and disruption to ecological function. Strategies for protection of rivers from eutrophication include improved agricultural land management, conservation farming methods, recycling or retention of drainage and runoff water, and use of buffer strips and riparian vegetation for filtration. Reduction in pesticide use has been achieved by improved application technologies, precision farming, adoption of organic farming, and use of biological control methods. Australian river health audits show widespread deterioration, and protection using the “Polluter Pays Principle” is attractive. However, who should pay for environmental assessment, for adoption of new technologies or change in land use, and how will this be determined? Unfortunately, as demonstrated in two case studies on algal blooms and cotton pesticides, the links between pollutant source and environmental impact remain poorly understood, and the complexity of assessing environmental benefit of agricultural changes makes sheeting home the costs of pollution sources difficult. Alternatives to imposition of penalties include catchment-based targets and guidelines, benchmarking, and adoption of best management practice with an emphasis on incentives and encouragement. Many strategies for risk reduction in agricultural cropping systems are available for inclusion in a “Catchment Care” approach.

  5. Using High-Resolution Models to Predict the Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in the Crown of the Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Muhlfeld, C.; Marshall, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate trends and projections have prompted interest in assessing the thermal sensitivity of aquatic species. How species will adapt and respond to these changes is uncertain, however, climatic and hydrologic changes may shift species habitat distributions and physiological functions both spatially and temporally. This is particularly true for salmonids (e.g., trout, char, and salmon), which are cold-water species strongly influenced by changes in temperature, flow, and physical habitat conditions. Therefore, understanding how habitats are likely to change and how species may respond to changes in climatic conditions is critical for developing conservation and management strategies. The purpose of this study is to develop a high-resolution stream temperature model for the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE) to simulate potential climate change impacts on thermal regimes throughout the riverscape. A spatially explicit statistical regression model is coupled with high-resolution climate data such as air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, baseflow and surface runoff. This empirically based model is used to predict daily stream temperatures under historic, current and forecasted climate conditions. The model is parameterized with empirical stream temperature data, which has been gathered from agencies across the region. The current database of empirical stream temperature data consists of over 800 sites throughout the CCE, which provide time series data to the model application. The biological integration and application of this model is on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations within the CCE. The model will be used to assess species vulnerabilities caused by spatial and temporal changes in stream temperature and hydrology. By evaluating the magnitude, timing and duration of climatic changes on the riverscape, we can more accurately assess potential vulnerabilities of critical life history traits, such as growth potential, spawning migrations

  6. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo dos Santos; Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves; Gücker, Björn

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics.

  7. AQUATOX coupled foodweb model for ecosystem risk assessment of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling

    2014-08-01

    The AQUATOX model considers the direct toxic effects of chemicals and their indirect effects through foodwebs. For this study, the AQUATOX model was applied to evaluating the ecological risk of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a highly anthropogenically disturbed lake-Baiyangdian Lake. Calibration and validation results indicated that the model can adequately describe the dynamics of 18 biological populations. Sensitivity analysis results suggested that the model is highly sensitive to temperature limitation. PBDEs risk estimate results demonstrate that estimated risk for natural ecosystems cannot be fully explained by single species toxicity data alone. The AQUATOX model could provide a good basis in ascertaining ecological protection levels of "chemicals of concern" for aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, AQUATOX can potentially be used to provide necessary information corresponding to early warning and rapid forecasting of pollutant transport and fate in the management of chemicals that put aquatic ecosystems at risk.

  8. An Eco-tank system containing microbes and different aquatic plant species for the bioremediation of N,N-dimethylformamide polluted river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jibo; Chu, Shuyi; Tian, Guangming; Thring, Ronald W; Cui, Lingzhou

    2016-12-15

    An Eco-tank system of 10m was designed to simulate the natural river. It consisted of five tanks sequentially connected containing microbes, biofilm carriers and four species of floating aquatic plants. The purification performance of the system for N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) polluted river water was evaluated by operating in continuous mode. DMF was completely removed in Tanks 1 and 2 at influent DMF concentrations between 75.42 and 161.05mg L(-1). The NH4(+)-N concentration increased in Tank 1, followed by a gradual decrease in Tanks 2-5. Removal of NH4(+)-N was enhanced by aeration. The average effluent NH4(+)-N concentration of Tank 5 decreased to a minimum of 0.89mg L(-1), corresponding to a decrease of 84.8% when compared with that before aeration. TN concentration did not decrease significantly as expected after inoculation with denitrifying bacteria. The average effluent TN concentration of the system was determined to be 4.58mg L(-1), still unable to satisfy the Class V standard for surface water environmental quality. The results of this study demonstrated that the Eco-tank system is an efficient process in removing DMF, TOC, and NH4(+)-N from DMF polluted river water. However, if possible, alternative technologies should be adopted for controlling the effluent TN concentration.

  9. [Measuring water ecological carrying capacity with the ecosystem-service-based ecological footprint (ESEF) method: Theory, models and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-jun; Min, Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; Fuller, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Integrated watershed management based on aquatic ecosystems has been increasingly acknowledged. Such a change in the philosophy of water environment management requires recognizing the carrying capacity of aquatic ecosystems for human society from a more general perspective. The concept of the water ecological carrying capacity is therefore put forward, which considers both water resources and water environment, connects socio-economic development to aquatic ecosystems and provides strong support for integrated watershed management. In this paper, the authors proposed an ESEF-based measure of water ecological carrying capacity and constructed ESEF-based models of water ecological footprint and capacity, aiming to evaluate water ecological carrying capacity with footprint methods. A regional model of Taihu Lake Basin was constructed and applied to evaluate the water ecological carrying capacity in Changzhou City which located in the upper reaches of the basin. Results showed that human demand for water ecosystem services in this city had exceeded the supply capacity of local aquatic ecosystems and the significant gap between demand and supply had jeopardized the sustainability of local aquatic ecosystems. Considering aqua-product provision, water supply and pollutant absorption in an integrated way, the scale of population and economy aquatic ecosystems in Changzhou could bear only 54% of the current status.

  10. Caffeine as an environmental indicator for assessing urban aquatic ecosystems Cafeína como indicador ambiental prospectivo para avaliar ecossistemas aquáticos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of caffeine and the extent of its influence as compared to other traditional water quality parameters (microbiological and physico-chemical in order to characterize it as an efficient indicator of anthropic pollution of urban aquatic environments. Caffeine is an ingredient in a variety of beverages (coffee, tea, and caffeinated soft drinks and numerous food products (chocolate, pastries, and dairy desserts. Although the human body metabolizes this stimulant efficiently, between 0.5 and 10.0% is excreted, mostly in the urine. Analysis of water samples from the Leopoldina Basin and Guanabara Bay revealed a significant difference between areas not commonly affected by nutrient enrichment or sewage inputs and areas chronically influenced by sewage discharges and elevated eutrophication. Monitoring caffeine will be fundamental in stressed urban aquatic environments where frequent accidental ruptures of sewer lines and discharges of untreated effluents impede effective water quality evaluation with traditional indicators.Este estudo visou avaliar a co-ocorrência de cafeína e a extensão de sua influência frente a outros parâmetros tradicionais de qualidade de água (microbiológicos e físico-químicos, de modo a caracterizá-la como um eficiente indicador de poluição de origem antrópica em ambientes aquáticos urbanos. Cafeína é um componente de uma variedade de bebidas (café, chá e bebidas cafeinadas e de numerosos produtos alimentícios (chocolate, massas e sobremesas. Embora o corpo humano seja eficiente na metabolização deste estimulante, entre 0,5-10,0% são excretados, principalmente na urina. A análise de amostras da Bacia Hidrográfica da Leopoldina e Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, revelou uma significante diferença entre áreas não comumente afetadas por enriquecimento de nutrientes ou esgoto, contra áreas cronicamente influenciadas por descargas de esgoto e

  11. Effects of chitosan on growth of an aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) in polluted waters with different chemical oxygen demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-jin; NIAN Yue-gang; JIN Xiang-can; YAN Chang-zhou; LIU Jin; Jiang Gao-ming

    2007-01-01

    Effects of chitosan on a submersed plant, Hydrilla verticillata, were investigated. Results indicated that H. verticillata could prevent ultrastructure phytotoxicities and oxidativereaction from polluted water with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in H. verticillata treated with 0.1% chitosan in wastewater increased with high COD (980 mg/L) and decreased with low COD (63 mg/L), respectively. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the stroma and grana of chloroplast basically remained normal. However, plant cells from the control experiment (untreated with chitosan) were vacuolated and the cell interval increased. The relict of protoplast moved to the center, with cells tending to disjoint. Our findings indicate that wastewater with high COD concentration can cause a substantial damage to submersed plant, nevertheless, chitosan probably could alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidization and ultrastructure phytotoxicities, and protect plant cells from stress of high COD concentration polluted water.

  12. Responses of aquatic organisms to metal pollution in a lowland river in Flanders: A comparison of diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, Maarten de [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: maarten.dejonge@ua.ac.be; Vijver, Bart van de [Department of Bryophytes and Thallophytes, National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Domein van Bouchout, 1860 Meise (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-12-15

    The role of macroinvertebrates and diatoms as indicator for metal pollution was investigated by assessing both biota along a metal gradient in the Belgian river the Dommel. Macroinvertebrates and diatoms were sampled in summer and winter and physical-chemical characteristics of the water were measured at four different sample periods and related to sediment characteristics. Although metal concentrations, except cadmium, in the water nowhere exceeded water quality standards, high metal concentrations were measured in the sediment, indicating historical contamination of the Dommel. At the sites that were situated downstream of the pollution source, high levels of conductivity and chloride were measured in the water. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated pH, phosphate and zinc as the significant environmental variables explaining each respectively 7.7%, 11.6% and 22.6% of the macroinvertebrate community composition. Two clusters could be separated, with Gammarus pulex, Leptocerus interruptus, Baetis rhodani and Cloeon dipterum associated with low zinc concentrations and Tubificidae, Asellus aquaticus, Erpobdella sp. and Chironomus thummi-plumosus associated with higher zinc concentrations. Ammonium (10.6%), conductivity (16.5%), chloride (11.4%) and zinc (5.9%) turned out to be significant variables explaining the diatom community structure. Based on physical-chemical differences and species composition, three different groups could be separated. With this Tabellaria flocculosa and Fragilaria capucina var. rumpens were associated with low metal concentrations, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia palea with elevated concentrations and Eolimna minima and Sellaphora seminulum with high zinc concentrations. In conclusion, the diatom community best reflected the metal gradient. With regard to water quality indices, those based on macroinvertebrates best followed the metal pollution gradient and were most strongly correlated with physical-chemical variables of water and

  13. Mosses as indicators of polluted ecosystems; Moose als Indikatoren oekosystemarer Schadstoffbelastungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, I.; Sutter, K.; Krauss, G.J. [Halle Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Biochemie/Biotechnologie; Friese, K. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Sektion Gewaesserforschung; Schumann, H. [Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, Halle (Germany). Abt. Umweltplanung/Umweltanalytik; Jung, K. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Chemische Oekotoxikologie

    2000-07-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in terrestrial mosses collected in Sachsen-Anhalt and the response of the mosses were investigated. The studies were supplemented by laboratory experiments with the water moss Fontinalis antipyretica. The parameters investigated were the changes in the concentration of thiol compounds and in {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotope ratios. The studies were the first ever to investigate whether this specific stress response is an indication of heavy metal pollution in the sense of biomonitoring. It was found that the biochemical reaction in mosses differs significantly from the heavy metal stress response of higher plants. Further biochemical and molecular biological investigations will be required for a more detailed picture. The stress response of thiol peptide is unsuitable for bioindication while the isotope ratio is promising for indicating nitrogen pollution. [German] Im Projekt wurden Untersuchungen zur Akkumulation von Schwermetallen in Moosen sowie die physiologisch-biochemischen Reaktion dieser Pflanzen auf die Umweltbelastung durchgefuehrt. Objekte fuer Freiland-Untersuchungen waren terrestrische Moose (vorwiegend Scleropodium purum), die an verschiedenen Standorten Sachsen-Anhalts gesammelt wurden. Die Studien wurden durch Laborversuche ergaenzt, wobei insbesondere das Wassermoos Fontinalis antipyretica als Modellorganismus fuer Experimente zur biochemischen Schwermetallstressantwort diente. Die Untersuchungen am Moos-Objekt waren auf Veraenderungen im Gehalt thiolhaltiger Verbindungen und auf die Bestimmung von {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N-Isotopenverhaeltnissen beschraenkt. Das Anliegen war, Aussagen darueber zu erhalten, ob diese spezielle Stressantwort Rueckschluesse auf die Schwermetallbelastung dieser Pflanzen im Sinne eines Biomonitoring ermoeglichen koennte. Die vorgelegten Studien sind die ersten, die in diesem Umfang durchgefuehrt wurden. Wir konnten zeigen, dass die biochemische Reaktion von Moosen auf Schwermetallstress von der hoeherer

  14. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) model: applicability for investigating the immunosuppressive effects of the aquatic pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, E A; Li, Y; Zelikoff, J T

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that BaP is a carcinogen, mammalian immunosuppressant, and ubiquitous aquatic pollutant, knowledge regarding the effects of BaP on the immune system of fish is still lacking. To begin to fill this gap, studies were conducted in medaka to examine the effects and mechanisms by which BaP exposure might alter host immunocompetence. Fish, exposed by IP injection of BaP (2-600 microg/g BW), were examined after 48 h for effects upon immune function and CYP1A expression/activity. Benzo[a]pyrene, at a concentration below that which increased levels of CYPIA expression/activity (2 microg BaP/g BW) suppressed lymphocyte proliferation. Concentrations of BaP at 20 and 200 microg/g BW. suppressed antibody-forming cell (AFC) numbers, superoxide production, and host resistance against bacteria. In contrast, exposure to the low affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), neither induced CYP1A expression nor altered immune function. Given the lack of immunosuppressive effects produced by BeP, and the fact that exposure to the AhR antagonist (and CYP1A inhibitor) alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) ameliorated the suppressive effects of BaP upon AFC numbers, the AhR pathway (including CYP1A-mediated production of reactive BaP metabolites) appears important in mediating BaP-induced immunotoxicity in fish, as in mammals. In the past, the medaka has proven a successful model for assessing carcinogenic agents. These studies have demonstrated its utility for also determining the immunosuppressive effects of an important aquatic contaminant.

  15. Anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), particularly PAHs and LABs, in Malaysian sediments: Application of aquatic environment for identifying anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Najat; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Halimoon, Normala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Magam, Sami M; Kannan, Narayanan; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Ali, Masni Mohd; Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed

    2016-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were used as anthropogenic markers of organic chemical pollution of sediments in the Selangor River, Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted on sediment samples from the beginning of the estuary to the upstream river during dry and rainy seasons. The concentrations of ƩPAHs and ƩLABs ranged from 203 to 964 and from 23 to 113 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. In particular, the Selangor River was found to have higher sedimentary levels of PAHs and LABs during the wet season than in the dry season, which was primarily associated with the intensity of domestic wastewater discharge and high amounts of urban runoff washing the pollutants from the surrounding area. The concentrations of the toxic contaminants were determined according to the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The PAH levels in the Selangor River did not exceed the SQGs, for example, the effects range low (ERL) value, indicating that they cannot exert adverse biological effects.

  16. Mass flows of nitrogen-containing pollutants between atmosphere and forest ecosystem. Massenfluesse stickstoffhaltiger Schadstoffe zwischen Atmosphere und Waldoekosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, W.; Grieser, J.; Herrmann, U.; Kessel, M.; Kosiol, W.; Nietzsche, I.; Sattler, T. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung)

    1992-01-01

    In the discussion about the possible causes of novel forest decline, nitrogen-containing components in the atmosphere have received increased interest in recent years. At the Centre for Environmental Research of the University of Frankfurt, a new approach to this problem was tried within the framework of the coordinated research project Frankfurter Stadtwald. A whole number of concentrations and flows of different pollutants were used to make up a balance for the area of investigation. Where possible, all relevant concentrations and flows were to be measured or at least realistically estimated. Therefore several measuring set-ups were realized. From the compiled data, a budget of nitrogen-containing components for the area of investigation was made up. This novel approach gives an idea of the concentrations and flows of a multitude of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem like the Frankfurter Stadtwald. These constitute a necessary basis for impact investigations by botanists to explain novel forest decline. (orig./KW) With 90 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Review of the Foreign and Domestic Research Progress in the Mercury in the Aquatic Ecosystem%关于水生生态系统中汞的国内外研究进展评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武岳; 林清

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了国内外对于水生生态系统中汞的生物地球化学循环研究的各项进展,从汞对水生动植物的毒性、汞的迁移转化、甲基汞的形成以及甲基汞对食物链及人体健康的影响等几方面进行评述。%This paper introduces the foreign and domestic research progress in the biogeochemical cycle of the mercury in the aquatic ecosystem, and makes a comprehensive review of mercury′s toxicity to aquatic macrophyte, mercury′s migration and transformation, the formation of methyl, and methyl′s impacts on the food chain and human health.

  18. 水生植物对水体重金属污染的监测和生态修复%Biomonitoring and Ecological Restoring Heavy Metal Polluted Water by Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠峰; 王良桂

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic plants have excellent ability in biomonitoring and ecological restoring heavy metal polluted water. Bryophytes are excellent biomonitors of heavy metal pollution, so they can be used to monitor and evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of the studied water. Moreover, four life forms of aquatic plants (including emergent, free-drifting, floating-leaved and submergent) all have certain accumulation capacity on heavy metals, so they are appropriate materials for ecological restoring of heavy metal polluted water. Using aquatic plants to treat heavy metal polluted water is a simple and low cost method, and won't bring secondary pollution. This phytoremediation method can not only restore heavy metal pollution, but also prettify the environment and bring direct and indirect economic benefits.%水生植物对水体重金属污染具有良好的监测和生态修复功能.苔藓植物是重金属污染良好的生物监测器,可用于水体重金属污染状况的监测和评价.同时,4种生活型的水生植物(挺水、浮叶、漂浮和沉水植物)对重金属都有一定的富集能力,对重金属污染水体有生态修复作用.利用水生植物对水体进行生态修复具有简便易行、成本较低、不易形成二次污染的优势,在修复水体重金属污染的同时还可以美化环境,并可产生直接或间接的经济效益.

  19. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  20. 应用生物完整性指数评价水生态系统健康的研究进展%Research progress on using index of biological integrity to assess aquatic ecosystem health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖静秋; 黄艺

    2013-01-01

    Index of biological integrity (IBI) is one of the most important and popular tools in as-sessing aquatic ecosystem health. This paper reviewed the selection of indicator species for IBI, its construction process, and its applications in assessing aquatic ecosystem health, summarized the commonly used candidate biological parameter indices of fish-index of biological integrity (F-IBI), benthos-index of biological integrity (B-IBI) , and periphyton-index of biological integrity (P-IBI) , and pointed out the feasibility and necessity of using microbe-index of biological integrity (M-IBI) to assess the health of aquatic ecosystem.%生物完整性指数(IBI)法是评价水生态系统健康的一种重要且被广泛应用的方法.本文综述了生物完整性指数的指示物种选择原因、构建方法以及在水生态系统健康评价中的应用,并总结了现阶段生态系统评估常用的鱼类完整性指数(F-IBI)、底栖无脊椎动物完整性指数(B-IBI)和着生藻类完整性指数(P-IBI)中候选生物状况参数指标,提出了使用微生物完整性指数(M-IBI)评价水生态系统健康的可行性和必要性.

  1. An integrated approach to aquatic health assessment: water quality index and multibiomarker response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedeno-Diaz, J. E.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; Jimenez-Trujillo, P.; Tejeda-Vera, R.; Espainal Carrion, T.

    2009-07-01

    The pollution of water bodies reduces their quality and is stressful to their biota. In a river, water usually is of the high-est quality in its headwaters reaches, becoming dirtier along its length as it passes through different land uses. Therefore, the aquatic environment should be assessed using physicochemical and biological features in order to provide a full spectrum of aquatic ecosystem health. Water Quality Indexes can be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters and to translate this information into a single value. The use of bio markers as indicators of toxicity delineates the effects of xenobiotics before the appearance of diseases in aquatic organism. The use of a battery bio markers may be useful to evaluate the various response to mixtures of pollutants. (Author)

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Niemiec

    2015-11-01

    was observed in Cystoseira barbata than in Ulva rigida. The value of copper bioaccumulation coefficient (BC ranged from 181 to 1201, whereas cadmium from 181 to 5256. The contents of the analysed metals, both in biotic and abiotic elements of the studied ecosystems point to anthropogenic enrichment and the results obtained for Sevastopolska, Galubaja and Kozacha bays indicate a hazardous, excessive bioaccumulation of copper and cadmium and to potential threat to the life of aquatic organisms and seafood consumers.

  3. Describing Anopheles arabiensis aquatic habitats in two riceland agro-ecosystems in Mwea, Kenya using a negative binomial regression model with a non-homogenous mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Griffith, Daniel; Muturi, Ephantus; Caamano, Erick X; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    This research illustrates a geostatistical approach for modeling the spatial distribution patterns of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Patton) aquatic habitats in two riceland environments. QuickBird 0.61 m data, encompassing the visible bands and the near-infra-red (NIR) band, were selected to synthesize images of An. arabiensis aquatic habitats. These bands and field sampled data were used to determine ecological parameters associated with riceland larval habitat development. SAS was used to calculate univariate statistics, correlations and Poisson regression models. Global autocorrelation statistics were generated in ArcGISfrom georeferenced Anopheles aquatic habitats in the study sites. The geographic distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l. aquatic habitats in the study sites exhibited weak positive autocorrelation; similar numbers of log-larval count habitats tend to clustered in space. Individual rice land habitat data were further evaluated in terms of their covariations with spatial autocorrelation, by regressing them on candidate spatial filter eigenvectors. Each eigenvector generated from a geographically weighted matrix, for both study sites, revealed a distinctive spatial pattern. The spatial autocorrelation components suggest the presence of roughly 14-30% redundant information in the aquatic habitat larval count samples. Synthetic map pattern variables furnish a method of capturing spatial dependency effects in the mean response term in regression analyses of rice land An. arabiensis aquatic habitat data.

  4. Identification of water pollution factors and their spatial distribution with aquatic bioindicators in streams of Lake Dianchi watershed%利用水生生物指标识别滇池流域入湖河流水质污染因子及其空间分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文航; 蔡佳亮; 苏玉; 孙金华; 黄艺; 张远

    2011-01-01

    入湖河流作为连接湖泊流域"源"(陆地)-"汇"(湖体)的廊道,其水生态系统健康状态是对流域上游陆地生态系统土地利用/覆被变化的响应,而其下游水质污染因子则因流域分水线的封闭性,可以表征上游土地利用/覆被变化对入湖河流水生态系统健康的影响.因此,利用水生生物指标识别入湖河流水质污染因子及其空间分布特征,对于整个湖泊流域的水生态系统健康恢复和水环境污染总量控制就显得尤为必要.本文基于滇池流域29条入湖河流2009年7~8月丰水期着生藻类和底栖动物调查数据与2009年逐月水质监测数据,通过运用因子分析、典型对应分析和等级聚类分析,来探讨入湖河流水生生物群落结构与水质污染因子及其空间分布特征,以期为流域综合管理提供基础.结果表明,滇池流域入湖河流在水生生物调查期间共检出着生藻类5门18科24属,以硅藻门的舟型藻属(Navicula)为优势属,底栖动物3门7科8属,以环节动物门的水丝蚓属(Limnodrilus)为优势属;TN、NH4+-N和TP是滇池流域入湖河流的水质污染因子;滇池流域入湖河流水质污染状况的空间分布特征为流域北部入湖河流(王家堆渠、新运粮河、老运粮河、乌龙河、大观河、西坝河、船房河、采莲河、金家河、盘龙江、大青河、海河、六甲宝象河、小清河、五甲宝象河、虾坝河、老宝象河、新宝象河和马料河)污染程度大于南部入湖河流(南冲河、淤泥河、老柴河、白鱼河、茨巷河、东大河、中河和古城河)大于东部入湖河流(洛龙河和捞鱼河).%In the lake watershed, streams are important landscape corridors that link the source (land) and the sink (lake). The ecosystem health of streams is usually used to indicate the aquatic biodiversity of the lake ecosystem, as well as being affected by water pollution factors in response to changes in land use cover of

  5. Quantifying the importance of the rare biosphere for microbial community response to organic pollutants in a freshwater ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqi; Hatt, Janet K; Tsementzi, Despina; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Weigand, Michael R; Kizer, Heidi; Maresca, Gina; Krishnan, Raj; Poretsky, Rachel; Spain, Jim C; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2017-03-03

    A single liter of water contains hundreds, if not thousands, of bacterial and archaeal species, each of which typically makes up a very small fraction of the total microbial community (microbial community response to environmental perturbations represent important, unanswered questions toward better understanding the value and modeling of microbial diversity. We tested whether rare species frequently responded to changing environmental conditions by establishing 20 liter, planktonic mesocosms with water from Lake Lanier (Georgia, USA), and perturbing them with organic compounds that are rarely detected in the lake, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and caffeine. The populations of the degraders of these compounds were initially below detection limit of qPCR or metagenomic sequencing methods, but increased substantially in abundance after perturbation. Sequencing of several degraders (isolates) and time-series metagenomic datasets revealed distinct, co-occurring alleles of degradation genes, encoded frequently on transmissible plasmids, especially for the 2,4-D mesocosms, and distinct species dominating the post-enrichment microbial communities from each replicated mesocosm. This diversity of species and genes also underlay distinct degradation profiles among replicated mesocosms. Collectively, these results supported the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a genetic reservoir, which can be frequently missed by metagenomics but enables community response to changing environmental conditions caused by organic pollutants, and provided insights into the size of the pool of rare genes and species.IMPORTANCE A single liter of water or gram of soil contains hundreds of low-abundance bacterial and archaeal species, the so called "rare biosphere". The value of this astonishing biodiversity for ecosystem functioning remains poorly understood, primarily due to the fact that microbial community analysis frequently focuses on

  6. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  7. Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of both point and non-point sources of pollution on coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay were studied at three levels of biological organization; the...

  8. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  9. Retracted: Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    Retraction: 'Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems' by Michael R. Wierda, Katherine F. Leith, Teryl G. Grubb, James G. Sikarskie, David A. Best, and William Bowerman The above article from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, published online on 10 February 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, G.A. Burton, Jr., SETAC and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed since the authors determined that some of the plasma samples run at Clemson University had failed quality assurance/quality control and were retested. The concentrations have since been corrected and validated. Reference Wierda MR, Leith KF, Grubb TG, Sikarskie JG, Best DA, Bowerman W. 2015. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems. Environ ToxicolChem doi:10.1002/etc.2859.

  10. Evaluation of an hPXR reporter gene assay for the detection of aquatic emerging pollutants: screening of chemicals and application to water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creusot, Nicolas; Kinani, Said; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Ait-Aissa, Selim [Unite Ecotoxicologie, INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Balaguer, Patrick [IRCM-UM1-CRLC Val d' Aurelle, INSERM U896, Montpellier (France); Tapie, Nathalie; LeMenach, Karyn; Budzinski, Helene [ISM/LPTC-UMR 5255 CNRS Universite Bordeaux 1, Talence (France)

    2010-01-15

    Many environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. Among these receptors, the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is well described as a xenobiotic sensor to various classes of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and steroids. To assess the potential use of PXR as a sensor for aquatic emerging pollutants, we employed an in vitro reporter gene assay (HG5LN-hPXR cells) to screen a panel of environmental chemicals and to assess PXR-active chemicals in (waste) water samples. Of the 57 compounds tested, 37 were active in the bioassay and 10 were identified as new PXR agonists: triazin pesticides (promethryn, terbuthryn, terbutylazine), pharmaceuticals (fenofibrate, bezafibrate, clonazepam, medazepam) and non co-planar polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs; PCB101, 138, 180). Furthermore, we detected potent PXR activity in two types of water samples: passive polar organic compounds integrative sampler (POCIS) extracts from a river moderately impacted by agricultural and urban inputs and three effluents from sewage treatment works (STW). Fractionation of POCIS samples showed the highest PXR activity in the less polar fraction, while in the effluents, PXR activity was mainly associated with the dissolved water phase. Chemical analyses quantified several PXR-active substances (i.e., alkylphenols, hormones, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PCBs, bisphenol A) in POCIS fractions and effluent extracts. However, mass-balance calculations showed that the analyzed compounds explained only 0.03% and 1.4% of biological activity measured in POCIS and STW samples, respectively. In effluents, bisphenol A and 4-tert-octylphenol were identified as main contributors of instrumentally derived PXR activities. Finally, the PXR bioassay provided complementary information as compared to estrogenic, androgenic, and dioxin-like activity measured in these samples. This study shows the usefulness of HG5LN-hPXR cells to detect PXR-active compounds in water samples

  11. 大型底栖动物在水生态系统健康评价中的应用%The application of benthic macroinvertebrates in aquatic ecosystem health assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳杰; 李法云; 范志平; 程志辉; 张建祺

    2012-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates are the main components of the aquatic ecosystem and play a key role in function and health of aquatic ecosystem.With the increasing emphasis on the aquatic ecosystem management based on watershed integrity in China,the studies on aquatic ecosystem health is more and more detailed,thus the study of benthic macroinvertebrates are improved not only in depth but also in breadth.The main study tasks,impacting factors and analytical methods on benthic macroinvertebrates were summarized at home and abroad in recent years.The results indicate that the response of benthic macroinverebrates to the variation of aquatic ecosystem is significant on the spatial scale,so the effects of natural environment,habitat conditions and water quality on benthic animal diversity and its community structure in the different spatial scales were analyzed.The variations of water environment factors caused by the human activities or the damage of habitat could influence directly the species composition and community features of benthic animal according to the integrated analysis of various factors.The analytical methods on benthic animal could be classified as two types,namely,a model analytical method and a biology index assessment method.Which one is selected in the actual application depends on the features of model and index.%大型底栖动物是维系水生态系统结构和功能的重要组成部分,也是影响水生态系统健康与功能的重要水生生物指标。随着中国对基于流域完整性水生态管理的日益重视,水生态系统健康的研究也更加深入,因而底栖动物的研究在深度和广度上均有所提高。概述了近年来国内外底栖动物的主要研究方向、影响因素及其分析方法。结果表明:在研究方向上,由于底栖动物对水生态系统变化的响应具有明显的空间尺度效应,因而以不同尺度空间上的自然环境、生境条件和水质等因子为分界,分析其对底

  12. Applications of eco-exergy in ecological modeling and assessment of aquatic ecosystems%生态能质(eco-exergy)在水生生态系统建模和评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晴新; 冯剑丰; 朱琳

    2011-01-01

    Eco-exergy is defined as the amount of work that a system can perform when the system is brought into thermodynamic equilibrium from a given state.It can be used to measure the complex biochemical components and ecological structure.A system with more exergy will present better ordering and stability.Eco-exergy and specific eco-exergy can be used to assess the status of aquatic ecosystem health, and indicate the certain succession stage in aquatic ecosystem restoration.This paper presented the definitions and ecological meanings of eco-exergy and specific eco-exergy as well as the calculation methods of eco-exergy and weighting factor fi, summarized the applications of eco-exergy as a goal function in structural dynamic models (SDMs) and as an ecological indicator for ecosystem health assessment and ecological restoration of aquatic ecosystems, and discussed the limitations and future development of eco-exergy.Furthermore,the unified translation of "eco-exergy" and "specific eco-exergy" in Chinese was suggested.%生态能质(eco-exergy)是指系统从给定状态达到热力学平衡状态所做的功,可以度量生态系统的复杂生物化学组分及生态结构.系统具有的能质越大,有序化程度越高,稳定性也越强.生态能质和比生态能质(specific eco-exergy)指标能够评价水生生态系统健康状况,对水生生态系统演替阶段具有指示作用.本文阐述了生态能质的定义、生态学意义以及生态能质值和权重因子fi值的计算方法.对生态能质作为功能函数在水生生态系统结构动力学模型(structural dynamic models,SDMs)中以及作为生态指标在生态系统健康评价、生态恢复研究中的实际应用进行了总结.最后探讨了生态能质指标的局限性以及未来的发展.此外,文中建议将"eco-exergy"和"specific eco-exergy"统一翻译为"生态能质"和"比生态能质".

  13. Application of Microorganisms in the Degradation of Polluted Chemicals in Aquatic Environments%微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕; 蔡俊鹏

    2008-01-01

    Every year, waters on earth receive large quantities of wastewater from industry, agriculture, fish and poultry raising, and municipal sewage treatment plants. Consequently, the aquatic environment on the earth is under a serious challenge from a very large quantity of pollutants such as antibiotics, insecticides, herbicides, hydrocarbons, etc., contained in the domestic wastewater, industrial and agricultural waste water and illegal effluents. In particular, with the development of intensive aquiculture and poultry, the effluent pollution has recently become more and more serious with more attentions. Furthermore more and more chemical pollutants discharged into aquatic environment have been detected with the advancement of analytical techniques. These chemicals can cause toxic effects on water habitats after discharged into aquatic environment. However, microorganisms have many key functions in pollution control. In this review, applications of microorganism in the degradation of chemicals in aquatic environments are reviewed. It was concluded that most applications of microorganisms degrading chemicals focused on aquaculture waters, whereas other aquatic systems (such as river, lake, sea, coastal waters) have been scarcely studied.%每年有大量来自工业、农业、养殖业和城市污水处理厂的废水被排入到水环境中,因此,地球上的水环境面临大量来自生活废水、工农业废水、非法排放的废水及其它废水的污染物质(如抗生素、杀虫剂,除草剂、烃等)的严重挑战,特别是近年来随着集约化养殖的发展,废水污染问题日益突出,并且随着分析手段的进步,能够检测到被排入水环境中的化学污染物质也越来越多,这些化学污染物对水环境中的生物产生有害影响.但是,微生物在污染控制上具有许多重要的作用.因此,本文对微生物在水环境污染物降解中的应用进行了评论.结果表明微生物主要是应用

  14. Biotransformation and accumulation of selenium inside organisms in an engineered aquatic ecosystem designed for bioremediation of Se from agriculture drainage water and brine shrimp production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive selenium (Se) in soils and waters present in the westside of central California was determined to be responsible for ecotoxicities observed in water fowl frequenting large bodies of water, i.e., evaporation ponds. In order to monitor the fate and potentially design an aquatic Se remediatio...

  15. The use of enclosed plankton communities in aquatic ecotoxicology : fate effects of mercury, cadmium and selected aromatic organics in a marine model ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1982-01-01

    Most investigations in ecotoxicology are carried out in the laboratory. Although laboratory experiments are indispensable and yield useful information, it is difficult if not impossible to extrapolate results of short-term laboratory tests currently in use to real field situations. The need in aquat

  16. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  17. Linking water quality and quantity in environmental flow assessment in deteriorated ecosystems: a food web view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Ma, Lekuan; Guo, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guo, Tong; Feng, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Most rivers worldwide are highly regulated by anthropogenic activities through flow regulation and water pollution. Environmental flow regulation is used to reduce the effects of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. Formulating flow alteration-ecological response relationships is a key factor in environmental flow assessment. Traditional environmental flow models are characterized by natural relationships between flow regimes and ecosystem factors. However, food webs are often altered from natural states, which disturb environmental flow assessment in such ecosystems. In ecosystems deteriorated by heavy anthropogenic activities, the effects of environmental flow regulation on species are difficult to assess with current modeling approaches. Environmental flow management compels the development of tools that link flow regimes and food webs in an ecosystem. Food web approaches are more suitable for the task because they are more adaptive for disordered multiple species in a food web deteriorated by anthropogenic activities. This paper presents a global method of environmental flow assessment in deteriorated aquatic ecosystems. Linkages between flow regimes and food web dynamics are modeled by incorporating multiple species into an ecosystem to explore ecosystem-based environmental flow management. The approach allows scientists and water resources managers to analyze environmental flows in deteriorated ecosystems in an ecosystem-based way.

  18. A Comparative Study of Distribution of Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Pomacea insularum Collected from Polluted and Unpolluted Sites of the Freshwater Ecosystem in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Franklin Berandah Edward; Bin Huan Pang

    2009-01-01

    The snails (Pomacea insularum) were collected from polluted and unpolluted sites at Juru River and the Universiti Putra Malaysia Lake, respectively. Besides the shells, the soft tissues of snails were dissected into 6 different parts: intestine, operculum, foot, pennial sac, lung sac and the remainder. They were analyzed for the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe. The present study found 6 interesting points. First, all the metal levels found in the different parts of P. insularum collected from Juru River were significantly (p0.05) between the different sizes (small sizes: 30.5-33.2 mm; large sizes: 37.7-40.4 mm) of P. insularum. The first 5 points supported the use of different soft tissues of P. insularum as biomonitoring organs of heavy metal pollution in the freshwater ecosystem in Malaysia although further validation is required.

  19. Pollution of soils and ecosystems by a permanent toxic organochlorine pesticide: chlordecone—numerical simulation of allophane nanoclay microstructure and calculation of its transport properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pest control technology was introduced into the tropics without considering the specificity of their ecosystems and the risk of pollution was underestimated. Some volcanic soils (andosols contain nanoclay (allophane with a unique structure and porous properties compared to crystalline clays. Andosols are characterized by large pore volume and pore size distribution, a high specific surface area, and a fractal structure. These soils are more polluted than the other kinds of tropical soils but release less pollutants (chlordecone to water and plants. The literature shows that the allophane microstructure favors accumulation and sequestration of chlordecone, an organochlorine pesticide, in andosols.We used a numerical model to simulate the structure of allophane aggregates. The algorithm is based on a cluster-cluster aggregation model. From the simulated data, we derived the structural features, pore volume and tortuosity, and its transport properties, hydraulic conductivity and diffusion. We show that transport properties decrease because of the presence of allophane. We propose that low hydraulic conductivity and diffusion are important parameters to explain the high concentrations and trapping of pollutants in andosols.

  20. Biodiversity of roadside plants and their response to air pollution in an Indo-Burma hotspot region: implications for urban ecosystem restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent Anthropocene, biodiversity of urban roadside plants is now increasingly being realized as an eco-sustainable tool for monitoring and mitigation of air pollution. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of particulate matter (PM pollutants on leaf morphology (stomata, biochemical (heavy metals, protein, and sugars parameters and enzyme activity (peroxidase and catalase of 12 common roadside plant species, growing at two different sites of Aizawl City, i.e. the Ramrikawn (RKN-Med; polluted peri-urban site and the Mizoram University (MZU-Low; less polluted rural site. The highest dust deposition was noted for the RKN-Med site on Ficus benghalensis and the lowest in Bauhinia variegate. The plant species growing at the RKN-Med site showed significant decreases in stomatal size and stomatal index (p ˂ 0.05. Further, increased concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, and Zn was recorded at the RKN-Med site. Moreover, tolerant roadside plants find their suitability for plantation in ecologically sensitive regions, having implications for urban ecosystem restoration.

  1. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  2. Evaluation of Aquatic Ecosystem Service Value of the Rivers and Reservoirs Connection Project in Ji′nan City%济南市河库连通工程水生态系统服务价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解文静; 茅樵; 曹升乐

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic ecosystem service value of the rivers and reservoirs connection project in Ji′nan City was divided into four parts:providing product function,regulating function,cultural function and life support function. The direct market value method,shadow engineering method,replacement cost method,carbon tax method and assets value method were used to evaluate the aquatic ecosystem service value of the rivers and reservoirs connection project in Ji′nan City. The results show that the rivers and reservoirs system of ecological service value in Ji′nan City is diverse and of great value,especially remarkable in the living environment,the function of leisure tourism and the function of water supply. This conclusion conforms to the actual situation of Ji′nan City,and the evaluation results are reasonable.%将济南市河库连通工程河库水系生态系统服务功能分为提供产品功能、调节功能、文化功能和生命支持功能4类,采用直接市场评价法、影子价格法、替代费用法、碳税法、费用支出法等方法评估了该工程的生态服务价值。结果表明:济南市河库系统生态服务价值多样,且价值巨大,尤其是发挥人居环境功能、休闲旅游功能、水供给功能的价值,评估结果符合济南市实际情况。

  3. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G. V.; Katkova, M. N.; Shoshina, R. R.; Synzynys, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable.

  4. Proceedings of the Workshop on Aquatic Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment Techniques for Application within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    relationships such as the Holling type II function (which include a maximum rate at which predators can consume prey); ratio-dependent models ( Arditi and...USACE Workshop on Ecosystem Modeling & Assessment Akcakaya, H.R., Arditi , R., and Ginzburg, L.R. 1995. Ratio-dependent predation: an abstraction that...works. Ecology 76:995-1004. Arditi , R., and Ginzburg, L.R. 1989. Coupling in predator-prey dynamics: ratio-dependence. Journal of Theoretical Biology

  5. 环境水体微污染有机物及其去除技术研究进展%A review of organic micro pollutants in aquatic environment and its removal technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦乔; 周庆; 李爱民

    2012-01-01

    水体有机污染物因其生物毒性对人体健康和生态环境造成了严重的危害.随着环保技术的发展,高浓度有机污染物已得到很好的去除.检测水平的不断提高使微量有机污染物日益受到广泛关注.为了深入地研究微污染有机物及其去除技术,对微污染有机物的种类、性质和危害进行了详细阐述,并综述了国内外生物法、膜处理技术、高级氧化技术、吸附技术对微污染有机物的去除效果,总结了各种技术的优缺点.%Organic pollutants in aquatic environment are harmful to human health and ecological environment. With the development of environmental science and engineering, organic pollutants in high concentration have been well removed from the wastewater. Nowadays, organic micro pollutants have got more attention because of their known and unknown toxicity. In order to further study the organic micro pollutants and their removal technologies, the categories, properties and hazards of organic micro pollutants are introduced in details. Removal technologies of organic micro pollutants are reviewed, including biological technology, membrane technology, advanced oxidation technology and adsorption technology. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are summarized.

  6. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  7. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L Johansen

    Full Text Available Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.. Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m, mid-slope (6 m and deep-slope (9 m depth of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz, emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  8. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    Species associated with freshwater ecosystems are currently undergoing severe global declines and freshwater ecosystems are regarded as some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. These declines are a consequence of decades of human overexploitation, pollution and climate change. If adeq......Species associated with freshwater ecosystems are currently undergoing severe global declines and freshwater ecosystems are regarded as some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. These declines are a consequence of decades of human overexploitation, pollution and climate change....... Chapters II exemplifies that national changes in land use can influence the perception of a species’ realized niche across different landscapes. By observing the environmental niche of a threatened European dragonfly in landscapes with different land use history it is shown that if a species’ realized...

  9. Modelling of tidal hydrodynamics for a tropical ecosystem with implications for pollutant dispersion (Cochin Estuary, Southwest India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Reddy, G.S.; Revichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    the establishment of Cochin Port in 1936, but since then, has drawn environmental attention because of increased industrial pollution (Menon et al., 2000). The anthropogenic activities in the region started since the second part of 19 th century onwards... (Eldho and Navin, 2004; Paul and Cvetkovic, 2007) are also limited to the Cochin harbour area and hence, do not contribute much to the tidal dynamics of the estuary. Keeping this in view, a modeling study has been carried out to understand the tide...

  10. Progresses on the InteraCtion between Selenium and MerCury in an AquatiC ECosystem%水生生态系统中汞-硒相互作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南雪娇; 余晓平; 郭金玲; 郭亚飞; 邓天龙

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury is the most toxic form among mercury compounds in the aquatic ecosystem,and poses health risks to organisms through the food chain. The effective control of methylation processes of mercury is an active research field in environmental chemistry and toxicology. Selenium(Se)has a significant suppression effect on the methylation processes of mercury(Hg). Therefore,it will be beneficial to the prevention and control of mercury contamination to clarify the speciation characteristic of mercury and the interaction mechanisms between mercury and selenium in the aquatic ecosystem. Mercury toxicity is closely associated with the levels of selenium in organisms,the interaction between Hg and Se are mainly embodied in the formation of insoluble compounds to contribute mercury demethylation or methylmercury directly ruled out by inhibition of biological a selenium related enzyme,which inhibits the toxic effect of mercury. In this paper,the speciation and distribution characteristics of mercury and selenium in the aquatic ecosystem and their interaction mechanisms were reviewed. Meanwhile,the reasonable addition of selenium compounds into water will be an effective way to inhibit the methylation processes of mercury in organisms. The development direction for the studies of interaction mechanisms between mercury and selenium and its physical effects in organisms were also reviewed.%甲基汞是汞存在于水生生态系统(水体、沉积物和水生生物)毒性最强的形态,并通过食物链的传递对生物体产生危害,因此有效控制汞的甲基化过程是汞环境化学和毒理学研究的重要课题.生物体内硒对汞的甲基化过程有明显的抑制作用,明确汞和硒在水生生态系统的形态特征以及汞 - 硒相互作用机制,有助于解决汞污染问题.汞在生物体内的毒性与生物体内硒含量紧密相关,汞与硒相之间的相互作用主要表现在生成不溶的化合物促使汞去甲基化或受生物

  11. Ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution - Ecological risk assessment for the biota on regional radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyeva, G.V.; Synzynys, B.I.; Shoshina, R.R.; Mirzeabasov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Ecology, Studgorodok,1, 249040 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Now the methods of ecological regulation of a radiation factor from risk assessment are developed poorly. The paper attempts to assess and forecast the terrestrial ecosystem conditions under chronic ionizing radiation by calculating the critical loads. The paper is aimed at developing a methodology to assess the ecological risk for a terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution in a biotope of a regional radioactive waste storage. Objects and Methods: Biotope monitoring of a radioactive waste storage makes clear that the radioecological situation in this territory is stipulated by technogenic {sup 90}Sr found in soil, ground water and biota. Terrestrial mollusks of a shrubby Snail type (Bradybaena fruticum) were chosen as reference species due to their activity to accumulate {sup 90}Sr in shells and the number of colony-forming soil units (CFU) as reference indices. The number of CFU was determined by inoculation of solid medium. Soil and mollusk samples have been collected at most representative sites identified in the previous studies. To assess {sup 90}Sr content in the samples collected, radiochemical separation was used with further radionuclide activity measurements by a 'BETA-01C' scintillation beta-ray spectrometer according to a standard procedure of {sup 90}Sr content assessment from beta-radiation of its daughter radionuclide {sup 90}Y. Ecological risk was calculated from analyzed critical loads using a 'dose-effect' dependence. Statistical data processing was realized with Excell 2007 and R software programs [R Development Core Team, 2010]. The software R was also used for GIS creation. Results and Discussion: A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment

  12. Pesticide and PCB residues in the aquatic ecosystems of Laguna de Terminos, a protected area of the coast of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, C; Rendón, Jaime; Mota de Oliveira, J

    2009-02-01

    The coastal lagoon system of Laguna de Terminos, Campeche, Mexico, a natural reserve since 1994, was investigated for contamination by agricultural and industrial chemical residues. Water, sediment and biota samples were analyzed for a wide variety of organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds. Chlorpyrifos was detected in water in concentrations up to 72 pgL(-1) and, amongst organochlorine compounds, summation operator PCB were measured averaging 1177 pgL(-1) and summation operator DDT 279 pgL(-1). Residues of chlorinated compounds were present in sediments and in biota with summation operator DDT averaging 190 pg g(-1) and 5876 pg g(-1) in sediment and oysters, respectively. Results show that the more widespread contaminants in the Laguna were residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as DDTs, PCBs, endosulfan, and lindane. Concentrations of residues were not at an alarming level and were even lower than reported for other costal lagoons of the region. Still there is a need to implement control measures on persistent and bioaccumulative compounds that may reach the aquatic system of Laguna de Terminos.

  13. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.L.B. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: veerle.jaspers@ua.ac.be; Covaci, A. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, S. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, T. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, M. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Schepens, P. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2006-01-15

    Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000 {mu}g/g lipid weight). PBDEs could be determined in most samples at lower concentrations than PCBs (up to 64 {mu}g/g lipid in sparrowhawk liver). Sparrowhawks had the highest levels of hexachlorobenzene, DDTs and PBDEs. In contrast, kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) had relatively low levels of most measured organochlorines. BDE 47 was the most abundant congener in heron (Ardea cinerea) and grebe (Podiceps cristatus), while BDE 47, 99 and 153 were equally important in the terrestrial species. BDE 183 and BDE 209 were only measured in the terrestrial birds. These results indicate that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than aquatic species. - Aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds show different accumulation profiles of PBDEs.

  14. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@magnet.fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States); Gu, Binhe [South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL 33406 (United States); Lee, Ming-Kuo [Department of Geology and Geography, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36839 (United States); Jiang, Shijun, E-mail: sjiang@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Hydrobiology/Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Xu, Yingfeng [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades – a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (> 600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  15. [Ecosystem service and economic valuation in the upper reaches of Xin' an River, Anhui, China for mitigating phosphorus nonpoint source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Wu, Nan; Fang, Xiang-long; Gao, Ji-xi; Zhou, Xiao-tie; Feng, Chao-yang

    2015-04-01

    A model of phosphorus purification in a watershed was established based on the export coefficient and purification index of phosphorus in different types of land cover. The model was employed to simulate the economic value of the ecosystem service with the expected water quality standard and marginal cost of pollutant purification of the upper reaches of Xin' an River of Anhui, China. The results revealed that from 2000 to 2010, some farmland outside the Tunxi, Jixi, Shexian, Yixian and Xiuning was converted to built-up land. The total amount of phosphorus exported to the upper Xin' an River decreased a little, and the main source of phosphorus pollution was farmland and built-up land. More than half of the exported phosphorus was efficiently purified by different types of land cover via flow accumulation. The pattern of purification and export of highly concentrated phosphorus showed the same trend which occurred in the northern part of the watershed including the Yangzhi River, Fengle River and Hengjiang River. Forestland and grassland did not efficiently purify phosphorus in the watershed owing to the irrational distribution of existing land cover. The total service value was 3.80 and 3.31 million Yuan in 2000 and 2010, respectively.

  16. Impact of Volcanic Eruptions on the Occurrence of PAHs Compounds in the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Southern Part of West Spitsbergen (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in concentration levels of dioxin-like compounds that can be observed over the course of four study seasons in water samples collected from the Arctic watershed of Svalbard. The conducted analysis involved anthropogenic and natural factors that may affect the concentration of PAHs in the study samples of water. An attempt is made to indicate the emission source of the compounds being deposited and to identify the extent to which the substances under analysis actually affect the Arctic ecosystems. Moreover, the work employs the following: diagnostic ratios PAHs, air masses backward trajectory analysis, Lidar observations and land relief analysis in order to provide a multi-level interpretation of the obtained data. Natural environment constitutes a complex system of subtle correlations that need to be perceived as a dynamic medium, in which multi-faceted processes take place.

  17. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Gu, Binhe; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Jiang, Shijun; Xu, Yingfeng

    2014-07-15

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades - a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (>600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  18. Results 2005 of the surveillance of the artificial radioactivity levels of aquatic ecosystems in the basin of Seine-Normandy. Riviere 2005; Resultats 2005 de la surveillance des niveaux de la radioactivite artificielle d'ecosystemes aquatiques appartenant au bassin Seine-Normandie. Riviere 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Set up in 2004 by the A.C.R.O. the citizens network of radioecological surveillance, information and evaluation (R.I.V.I.E.R.E.) aims at making a follow-up of the radioactive contamination of the aquatic ecosystems on the scale of the Seine-Normandy pond: from Nogent-on-Seine to La Hague and from the Mont-Saint-Michel to the Treport. The peculiarity of this network, which also makes its strength is to associate strictly all those who wish to appropriate the knowledge of the radioactivity levels around to them. With R.I.V.I.E.R.E., the citizen is at the same moment an author and an actor of the surveillance of his environment as his information. An approach defended by the A.C.R.O. since about 20 years and which has no equivalent anywhere else. This project has four main objectives: to know the levels and the tendencies of the present radioactivity in the main aquatic ecosystems of the Seine-Normandy widened pond, and so feed a data base including more than 3000 analysis (limited to the gamma radioactivity and to the tritium); to allow the citizens who put a lot to appropriate the knowledge and the indispensable references to understand the radioactivity of their environment; to establish a support in the public information about the radioactivity in environment; to supply data to the national network of measures of the radioactivity in environment, network established by decree recently and in charge of the evaluation of the public exposure. (N.C.)

  19. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  20. Invisible face of boron pollution in fluvial ecosystem: the level in the tissues of sentinel and nectonic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Naime

    2013-10-01

    Turkey is the largest producer of borate products in the world. Among four largest boron mines in Turkey two of them are located in basins of Orhaneli and Emet Streams. In this study, boron levels in abiotic (water-sediment) and some biotic elements (sentinel organisms; Asellus aquaticus, Gammarus pulex, Chironomus tentans, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and nektonic organism; Squalius cii) of Orhaneli and Emet Streams were investigated and their ranks among the food chain were demonstrated. Since Orhaneli and Emet Streams confluence to form Mustafakemalpaşa Brook which feeds Uluabat Lake which is one of the most important Ramsar fields of the world, Boron levels in those two streams have importance in terms of both continuances of aquatic systems. Present study results have shown that boron levels in water of both streams are much higher (vary between 8.64 and 16.73 mg L(-1)) than not only Turkish Standard but also limits determined by WHO, US EPA, and NAS. Boron levels determined in sediments of two streams vary between 18.05 and 36.7 mg kg(-1). The highest boron level in the biotic elements was determined in liver of Squalius cii (34.64 mg kg(-1)), it is followed by Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (2.84 mg kg(-1)), Chironomus tentans (2.11 mg kg(-1)), and Gammarus pulex (1.98 mg kg(-1)).

  1. Does fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendment enhance phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted aquatic ecosystem in the presence of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Jenyo-Oni, Adetola; Chukwuka, Kanayo S; Ndimele, Chinatu Charity; Ayodele, Ibukunoluwa Augustine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inorganic fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendments on crude oil uptake by water hyacinth. Experimental units (water hyacinth grown in fresh water) were spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L crude oil. After 24 h, they were randomly assigned fertilizer (N15P15K15) at three different concentrations; 0, 6 and 10 mg/L. Crude oil degradation and absorption were determined by measuring total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the water column and water hyacinth, respectively. The measurements were taken monthly for six months (February-August 2010). The results showed that TPH concentration in the water column in the treatment amended at 6 mg/L (0.30 ± 0.01 mg/L) was significantly lower (p phytoremediation) absorbed significantly higher (p phytoremediation of crude oil by water hyacinth and biostimulation with fertilizer (N15P15K15) is possible.

  2. Community responses of intertidal soft-bottom macrozoobenthos to oil pollution in a tropical mangrove ecosystem, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbey, Nenibarini; Uyi, Hanson

    2014-05-15

    Preliminary impact assessment of two large oil spill incidents at Bodo Creek, in the Niger Delta, was undertaken, focusing on intertidal macrozoobenthos. Post-spill number of species and abundance were measured against recent pre-spill baseline data from the same study area. Results show that surface and infauna communities suffered severe reduction in abundance and number of species reduced by 81% after the spills, with two of the resampled sites having no taxa at all. Capitella capitata populations increased several-fold over pre-spill numbers. The impact of the oil spills is discussed in relation to local livelihoods and ecosystem integrity. The Niger Delta endemic lucinid, Keletistes rhizoecus, is proposed as a potential bioindicator for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination in Niger Delta estuaries.

  3. The role of storm flows in concentration of pesticides associated with particulate and dissolved fractions as a threat to aquatic ecosystems - Case study: the agricultural watershed of Save river (Southwest of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the fluxes of pesticides was carried out for a year, ending in March 2009, in the Save catchment, in the vicinity of Toulouse. The hydrograph separation technique was used to evaluate the respective contribution of stormflow and baseflow in transport of 12 pesticide molecules. Transport of over 59% of pesticides and their controlling factors such as total suspended matter (TSM, particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC occurred during storm periods. Hysteresis patterns could be observed in the concentration-discharge relationships only for some molecules between rising and falling periods of the storm hydrograph. Clockwise hysteresis was noticed for low to moderately soluble pesticide molecules and for particulate fractions, which explains the role of surface runoff in pesticide displacement. In contrast, anticlockwise hysteresis was registered for soluble molecules and dissolved fractions, explaining the role of subsurface flows and soil leaching processes. The important role of TSM, POC and DOC in pesticide transport was clearly established. We also came to the conclusion that the role of stormy periods in pesticide movement and their controlling factors worked as a threat to aquatic ecosystems. And there was a positive relation between riverine TSM, POC, DOC and pesticides according to pesticide properties.

  4. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  5. An integrated approach for assessing aquatic ecological carrying capacity: a case study of Wujin District in the Tai Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Yanfang; Hu, Jiameng; Bai, Xiaogang; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecological carrying capacity is an effective method for analyzing sustainable development in regional water management. In this paper, an integrated approach is employed for assessing the aquatic ecological carrying capacity of Wujin District in the Tai Lake Basin, China. An indicator system is established considering social and economic development as well as ecological resilience perspectives. While calculating the ecological index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series images, followed by spatial and temporal analysis of vegetation cover. Finally, multi-index assessment of aquatic ecological carrying capacity is carried out for the period 2000 to 2008, including both static and dynamic variables. The results reveal that aquatic ecological carrying capacity presents a slight upward trend in the past decade and the intensity of human activities still exceeded the aquatic ecological carrying capacity in 2008. In terms of human activities, population has decreased, GDP has quadrupled, and fertilizer application and industrial wastewater discharge have declined greatly in the past decade. The indicators representing aquatic ecosystem conditions have the lowest scores, which are primarily attributed to the water eutrophication problem. Yet the terrestrial ecosystem is assessed to be in better condition since topographic backgrounds and landscape diversity are at higher levels. Based on the work carried out, it is suggested that pollutant emission be controlled to improve water quality and agricultural development around Ge Lake (the largest lake in Wujin District) be reduced.

  6. Multivariate and phylogenetic analyses assessing the response of bacterial mat communities from an ancient oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem to different scenarios of long-term environmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x) mesocosm experiment: a) Control; b) Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c) 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d) UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f) UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months) and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8%) and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%) were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin) had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus), which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp) through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data, can

  7. Multivariate and phylogenetic analyses assessing the response of bacterial mat communities from an ancient oligotrophic aquatic ecosystem to different scenarios of long-term environmental disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pajares

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of bacterial communities to environmental change is extremely important in predicting the effect of biogeochemical modifications in ecosystem functioning. The Cuatro Cienegas Basin is an ancient oasis in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert that hosts a wide diversity of microbial mats and stromatolites that have survived in extremely oligotrophic pools with nearly constant conditions. However, thus far, the response of these unique microbial communities to long-term environmental disturbances remains unexplored. We therefore studied the compositional stability of these bacterial mat communities by using a replicated (3x mesocosm experiment: a Control; b Fluct: fluctuating temperature; c 40C: increase to 40 ºC; d UVplus: artificial increase in UV radiation; and f UVmin: UV radiation protection. In order to observe the changes in biodiversity, we obtained 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from microbial mats at the end of the experiment (eight months and analyzed them using multivariate and phylogenetic tools. Sequences were assigned to 13 major lineages, among which Cyanobacteria (38.8% and Alphaproteobacteria (25.5% were the most abundant. The less extreme treatments (Control and UVmin had a more similar composition and distribution of the phylogenetic groups with the natural pools than the most extreme treatments (Fluct, 40C, and UVplus, which showed drastic changes in the community composition and structure, indicating a different community response to each environmental disturbance. An increase in bacterial diversity was found in the UVmin treatment, suggesting that protected environments promote the establishment of complex bacterial communities, while stressful environments reduce diversity and increase the dominance of a few Cyanobacterial OTUs (mainly Leptolyngbya sp through environmental filtering. Mesocosm experiments using complex bacterial communities, along with multivariate and phylogenetic analyses of molecular

  8. Accumulation and fluxes of mercury in terrestrial and aquatic food chains with special reference to Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is known for its biomagnification especially in aquatic food chains and for its toxic effects on different organisms including man. In Finland mercury has formerly been used in industry and agriculture and in addition many anthropogenic activities may increase the mercury levels in ecosystems. Phenyl mercury was widely used as slimicide in the pulp and paper industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In the chlor-alkali industry metallic mercury was used as catalyst at three plants. The most toxic form of mercury, methyl mercury, may be formed in soils, water, sediments and organisms. Many factors, including microbial activity, temperature, oxygen status etc., affect the methylation rate. In the lake ecosystem bioaccumulation of methyl mercury is very strong. In early 1980s there was a restriction of fishing concerning approximately 4000 km2 of lakes and sea areas because of mercury pollution. In aquatic systems we still find elevated concentrations near former emission sources. Long-range atmospheric transport and mechanical operations like ditching and water regulation may cause increased levels of mercury in the aquatic ecosystems. In the Finnish agriculture organic mercury compounds were used for seed dressing until 1992. Although the amounts used were substantial the concentrations in agricultural soils have remained rather low. In terrestrial food chains bioaccumulation is normally weak with low or moderate concentration at all ecosystem levels. Due to a weak uptake through roots terrestrial, vascular plants normally contain only small amounts of mercury. There is a bidirectional exchange of mercury between vegetation and atmosphere. Contrary to vascular plants, there is a very wide range of concentrations in fungi. Mercury may pose a threat to human health especially when accumulated in aquatic food chains.

  9. Ozone, nitric acid, and ammonia air pollution is unhealthy for people and ecosystems in southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros, Ricardo, E-mail: rcisneros@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, 1600 Tollhouse Road, Clovis, CA 93611 (United States); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej, E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Dr., Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Schweizer, Donald, E-mail: dschweizer@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, 1600 Tollhouse Road, Clovis, CA 93611 (United States); Zhong, Sharon, E-mail: zhongs@msu.ed [Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 116 Geography Building East, Lansing, MI 48824-1117 (United States); Traina, Samuel, E-mail: straina@ucmerced.ed [Environmental Systems Graduate Group, University of California Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Bennett, Deborah H., E-mail: dhbennett@ucdavis.ed [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, TB 169 Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Two-week average concentrations of ozone (O{sub 3}), nitric acid vapor (HNO{sub 3}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were measured with passive samplers during the 2002 summer season across the central Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, along the San Joaquin River drainage. Elevated concentrations of the pollutants were determined with seasonal means for individual sites ranging between 62 and 88 ppb for O{sub 3}, 1.0-3.8 {mu}g m{sup -3} for HNO{sub 3}, and 2.6-5.2 {mu}g m{sup -3} for NH{sub 3}. Calculated O{sub 3} exposure indices were very high, reaching SUM00-191 ppm h, SUM60-151 ppm h, and W126-124 ppm h. Calculated nitrogen (N) dry deposition ranged from 1.4 to 15 kg N ha{sup -1} for maximum values, and 0.4-8 kg N ha{sup -1} for minimum values; potentially exceeding Critical Loads (CL) for nutritional N. The U.S., California, and European 8 h O{sub 3} human health standards were exceeded during 104, 108, and 114 days respectively, indicating high risk to humans from ambient O{sub 3}. - Ozone concentrations remained unchanged while those of nitric acid vapor and ammonia decreased along the river drainage crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  10. APPLICATION OF SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE N THE BIOMONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yanovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to the pollution of fisheries water bodies by industrial and agricultural waste waters, as well as by xenobiotics coming from other sources, taking into account a pridictable increase in the amounts of such effluents in the short and long terms, the problems related to the study of the effects of the pollutants of different nature and origin on aquatic organisms, especially fish, as well as a prediction of possible adverse consequences on aquatic ecosystems, becomes particularly important. The aim of our work was an analysis and synthesis of existing literature data concerning the indication in the biomonitoring of aquatic environments based on biological markers of salmonids as highly sensitive objects of fish fauna to external factors. Findings. The review summarizes and systematizes the data concerning the use of salmonids in biomonitoring studies. Furthermore, we highlighted and characterized the specificity of bioindication parameters of the aquatic environment state, such as the biochemical, genetic, physiological, morphological, histopathological, behavioral and population markers and noted the effects of hydroecosystem ecotoxication on different levels of biological organization (cell, individual, population, fish community. We also described the possibility of biological monitoring based on saprobic indexes identified for indicator species belonging to salmonids. Originality. In the article describes the structure, pros and cons of the use of specific biomarkers of individual salmonid fish and their populations for assessing the ecological status of aquatic environments. Practical value. The data given in the article can be used to improve the system of the ecological monitoring of aquatic environments by extending the range of indicator indices with organism and population biomarkers of highly sensitive salmonid species.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS AMONG THE COMPONENTS OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the distribution of heavy metals among the components of freshwater ecosystems. Findings. The review of the works of many scientists showed that heavy metals are widespread in the biotic and abiotic components of freshwater ecosystems. The article highlights the distribution of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments, natural food base, fish organs and tissues. It has been shown that as a result of global pollution of the ecosystem, the majority of Ukrainian rivers belong to polluted and very polluted. Of special interest are the studies of the distribution of heavy metals in phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos because these components occupy a certain position in fish food chain. The presence of heavy metals in the natural food base showed that, on one hand, it could accumulate heavy metals in large amounts in such a way cleaning the water; and on the other hand, the heavy metals could migrate in the food web and contaminate fish. Ones of objects, which should be given attention when assessing toxicologic pollution, are aquatic plants, in particular phytoplankton. Studies showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in plants occurred first of all by their adsorption on the cellular wall. It explains the maximum adsorption of heavy metals by plants immediately after introduction of heavy metals into their culture. Fish as a rule occupy in the food web of water bodies one of the last places. They actively move in the aquatic environment and accumulating heavy metals at the same time they provide the most integrated and precise estimate of environmental pollution. By analyzing the distribution of heavy metals in fish organs and tissues, depending on their ability to accumulate them, it can be noted that the accumulation is the most intensive in such organs as gills, liver, and kidneys. Usually, their lowest content is observed in muscles that is important for human life because they are the main

  12. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen; Metreveli, George; Baumann, Thomas; Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Nießner, Reinhard; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the DFG is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Thus, INTERNANO provides a scientific basis to assess and predict the environmental impact of EINP release into the environment.

  13. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  14. A quantication of photoproduction of CO2 throughout the water column by degradation of terrigenous organic compounds present in the dissolved form for aquatic ecosystems of the boreal region in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouhinec, J.; Lucotte, M. M.; Ouellet, A.; Gelinas, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study focuses on the quantity of CO2 produced by photodegradation in various pristine and disrupted water bodies. Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water column was evaluated in relation to two environmental factors e.g., the presence or absence of logging on the watershed and the contrast between natural lakes and hydroelectric reservoirs. Water samples were irradiated after filtration under 0,2µm, and subsequently analyzed for their CO2 production. Mean energy normalized for the spectral energy exposed to samples was determined to evaluate the photoreactivity of DOM under similar exposure conditions. In complement, organic matter samples had been concentrated via reverse osmosis. We then characterized the origin of DOM present in the water column with lignin biomarkers. Our results confirmed that the photomineralization increased significantly with DOM concentration. The daily photodegradation production was strikingly different in natural lakes and hydroelectric reservoirs. Average springtime and summertime production was evaluated at 5.45 ± 5.61 µmol.L-1.d-1 for lakes, compared to 14.21 ± 8.77 µmol.L-1.d-1 for boreal reservoirs. A similar comparison between ecosystems affected and unaffected by logging, also showed contrasting results for the photodegradation of DOM. Moreover, our lignin biomarkers increased significantly with CO2 generation. It thus appears that allochthonous organic matter strongly influences CO2 photoproduction. Finally, we evaluated the Photochemical Contribution to CO2 diffusive Fluxes (PCFCO2) between 14% and 32% depending on the degree of perturbation of the aquatic system.

  15. 2009-2011年广州市番禺区水产品污染状况分析%Monitoring of the pollution of aquatic products in Panyu, Guangzhou in 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东明; 吴利楠; 麦洁梅; 张琪; 杨福荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the exteni of pollution of aquatic products in Panyu Guangzhou and to provide the basic food safety supervision. Methods Aquatic products (e.g. freshwater fish, marine fish, shrimps, crabs, shellfish, chilled ready to eat aquatic products and other aquatic products) from different markets, meat and vegetable markets and catering units of Panyu Guangzhou, were randomly collected for the detection of heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, pathogens, liver fluke and other projects. Results All aquatic products had a high cadmium level, and 5.2% of the samples exceeded the limit. The average cadmium content of shrimps/crabs was 0.516 mg/kg, the highest content was 14.300 mg/kg; and the percentage of shellfish, marine fish and freshwater fish exceeding the limit was 4.5% , 3.7% and 2.5%, respectively. 99.5% of the samples had the lead content below the limit. The levels of mercury and arsenic were not exceeding the limit. Part of the aquatic products were found to have a high level of tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline, and the percentage of samples exceeding the limit for these antibiotics was ranged from 8.3% to 14.3%. The levels of BHC and DDT in all samples were below the limit. 98.1% of the samples had the content of formaldehyde below the limit. Among the 222 samples, 18.5% had Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP). The percentage of shrimps/crabs and shellfish with Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 41.7% and 33.3%, respectively. There was a significant different in the degree of contamination with Vibrio parahaemolyticus in freshwater fish, marine fish, shrimps/crabs and shellfish (P0.05). Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae was not detected. Pathogens and liver fluke were not found in the ready to eat raw aquatic products. Conclusion There was a serious cadmium contamination of aquatic products. The level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was high in the aquatic products in Panyu district. The abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture and by the food

  16. Heavy metals and trace elements in muscle of silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) and water from different environments (Argentina): aquatic pollution and consumption effect approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigliano, Esteban; Schenone, Nahuel Francisco; Volpedo, Alejandra Vanina; Goessler, Walter; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2015-02-15

    The concentrations of As, Ag, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Te, Ti, U, V and Zn were determined in water and silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) muscle samples from four important commercial fishing sites (Argentina) by ICPMS. Trace element concentrations in water with well-documented human health effects were above the recommended maximum levels established by Argentinean and international guidelines for the aquatic biota protection in three sampling sites (e.g. As: 28.4-367 μg L(-1); Cd: 0.17-1.05 μg L(-1); Hg: 0.07-0.63 μg L(-1); Zn: 71.3-90.0 μg L(-1)). High concentrations of As, Hg and Pb (0.03-0.76; 0.03-0.42 and 0.04-0.19 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively) were found in silverside muscle. Fishing communities associated with contaminated environments are likely to have higher consumption rates and are thus more likely to be exposed to higher concentrations of the toxic elements (As, Hg and Pb).

  17. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  18. Retrospective stable isotope analysis reveals ecosystem responses to river regulation over the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas F; Krabbenhoft, Trevor I; Collyer, Michael L; Krabbenhoft, Corey A; Edwards, Melanie S; Sharp, Zachary D

    2015-12-01

    Disruption of natural flow regimes, nutrient pollution, and other consequences of human population growth and development have impacted most major rivers of the world. Alarming losses of aquatic biodiversity coincide with human-caused river alteration, but effects of biotic homogenization on aquatic ecosystem processes are not as well documented. This is because unaltered systems for comparison are scarce, and some ecosystem-wide effects may take decades to manifest. We evaluated aquatic ecosystem responses to extensive river- floodplain engineering and nutrient addition in the Rio Grande of southwestern North America as revealed by changes in trophic structure of, and resource availability to, the fish community. Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA) was conducted on museum-preserved fishes collected over a 70-year period of intensive river management and exponential human population growth. Trophic complexity and resource heterogeneity for fish consumers (measured as "isotopic niche breadth") decreased following sediment deprivation and channelization, and these effects persist into the present. Increased nutrient inputs led to δ15N enrichment in the entire fish community at all affected sites, and a shift to autochthonous sources of carbon at the most proximal site downstream of wastewater release, probably via bottom-up transfer. Overall, retrospective SIA of apex consumers suggests radical change and functional impairment of a floodplain river ecosystem already marked by significant biodiversity loss.

  19. 广州市海珠区水产品副溶血性弧菌污染状况调查分析%Survey report analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus pollution in aquatic products Haizhu district of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映霞; 吴琪; 黄芳; 曾雅

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解广州市海珠地区海产品中副溶血性弧菌的污染状况,初步确定可能污染副溶血性弧菌的高危食品,为食物中毒监测提供科学依据和为食品安全的危险性评估提供依据.方法:按照GB/T4789.7-2008对样品进行副溶血性弧菌分离、生化鉴定.结果:检测甲贝壳、鱼类、虾蟹类、养殖水、珠江水5类样品共289宗,检出副溶血性弧菌64宗,检出率22.14%;5类样品中副溶血性弧菌阳性率最高的为虾蟹类产品(41.94%).结论:海珠地区水产品副溶血性弧菌污染较为严重,存在饮食安全隐患,应进一步加强对水产品加工销售环节副溶血性弧菌主动监测和污染控制.%Objective:To understand the status of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) pollution in seafood in Haizhu district of Guangzhou city, so as to initially identify the potential high - risk food by Vibrio parahaemolyticus pollution and provide scientific basis for food poisoning monitoring and food safety evaluation. Methods: According to GB/T4789.7 -2008, separation and biochemical identification of Vibrio parahaerrwlyticus in samples were carried out. Results; 289 samples in 5 kinds, including shellfish, fish, shrimps and crabs, aquaculture and Pearl river water, were detected, 64 samples were found Vibrio parahaerrwlyticus(22. 14% ) , shrimps and crabs had the highest positive rate in these 5 kinds of samples ( 41.94% ). Conclusion: In Haizhu area, Vibrio parahaemolyticus pollution was serious, which had potential risk on food safety. Therefore, active monitoring and pollution control of Vibrio parahaemolyticus should be strengthened in the process and marketing of aquatic products.

  20. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  1. Gammarus spp. in aquatic ecotoxicology and water quality assessment: toward integrated multilevel tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Kienle, Cornelia; Gerhardt, Almut

    2010-01-01

    The amphipod genus Gammarus is widespread and is structurally and functionally important in epigean freshwaters of the Northern Hemisphere. Its presence is crucial, because macroinvertebrate feeding is a major rate-limiting step in the processing of stream detrius. In addition, Gammarus interacts with multiple trophic levels bu functioning as prey, predator, herbivore, detritivore, and shredder. Such a broad span of ecosystem participation underlines the importance of Gammarus to pollutants and other disturbances may render it a valuable indicator for ecosystem health. This review summarizes the vast number of studies conducted with Gammarus spp. for evaluating aquatic ecotoxicology endpoints and examines the suitability of this native invertabrate species for the assessment of stream ecosystem health in the Northern Hemisphere. Numerous papers have been published on how pollutants affect gammarind behavior (i.e., mating, predator avoidance), reproduction, development, feeding activity, population structure, as well as the consequences of pollution on host-parasite, predator-prey, or native-invasive species interactions. Some biochemical and molecular biomarkers have already been established, such as the measurement of vitellogenin-like proteins, metallothioneins, alkali-labile phosphates (in proteins), and lipogenic enzyme activities for assessing endocrine distribution and detoxification mechanisms.

  2. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    a profile conducive to small fish and avian foraging and reptile and mammal haul-out. This method, along with the soft-shore design (see below...Island, Biloxi, Mississippi. MS thesis, University of South Alabama . Mississippi Department of Marine Resources, Coastal Preserves Program Website

  3. Planning aquatic ecosystem restoration monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program (EEIRP). The EEIRP is sponsored by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The objectives of this work are to (1) identify relevant approaches and features for environmental investment measures to be applied throughout the project life; (2) develop methods to access the effectiveness of the approach or feature for providing the intended environmental output; (3) develop and provide guidance for formulating environmental projects; and (4) provide guidance for formulating and identifying relevant cost components of alternate restoration plans.

  4. Nitrogen transformations in stratified aquatic microbial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Schramm, Andreas;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  New analytical methods such as advanced molecular techniques and microsensors have resulted in new insights about how nitrogen transformations in stratified microbial systems such as sediments and biofilms are regulated at a µm-mm scale. A large and ever-expanding knowledge base about n...

  5. Invasion and predation in aquatic ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judith S. WEIS

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews biological invasions in which predation (or its absence) plays a major role in the success of the invader.Examples are described in which the invader out-competes native species for the same food,and cases in which the invader consumes valued native species.In many instances,better predator avoidance by the invasive species or the absence of predators in the new habitat contributes to the success of the invaders; in other cases native or introduced predators appear to be able to keep the invasive species in check.A relatively new management approach in the US is the idea of adding another trophic level-to have humans act as the predators and consume the invasive species.This approach is being utilized in Florida and throughout the Caribbean against the lionfish,but could be extended to other fishes,as well as to various invasive crustaceans and mollusks.This idea is controversial,and current regulations prohibiting the possession of individuals of the invasive species (e.g.,mitten crabs or snakefish) would preclude the development of a fishery for them [Current Zoology 57 (5):613-624,2011].

  6. A macrophyte submodel for aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Carol Desormeau; Wlosinski, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    A macrophyte submodel has been incorporated and tested in CE-QUAL-R1, a one-dimensional, vertically averaged model of reservoir water quality. A quasi two-dimensional scheme was necessary to represent the spatial relationship of macrophytes in reservoirs adequately. The macrophyte processes modeled were photosynthesis, dark respiration, excretion and nonpredatory mortality. Process equations for photosynthesis as a function of light and temperature, and dark respiration as a function of temperature were tested using data from laboratory studies. The submodel was field tested, along with other components of CE-QUAL-R1, using data collected at Eau Galle Reservoir, WI, U.S.A.

  7. The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction to the Integrated Nitrogen in European Catchments project (INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Wade

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess nitrogen in soils, fresh water, estuarine and marine systems contributes to nutrient enrichment in key ecosystems throughout Europe, often leading to detrimental environmental impacts, such as soil acidification or the eutrophication of water bodies. The Integrated Nitrogenmodel for European Catchments (INCA project aims to develop a generic version of the Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments (INCA model to simulate the retention and transport of nitrogen within river systems, thereby providing a tool to aid the understanding of nitrogen dynamics and for river-basin management/policy-making. To facilitate the development of the model, 10 partners have tested the INCA model with data collected in study sites located in eight European countries as part of the INCA project. This paper summarises the key nitrogen issues within Europe, describes the main aims and methodology of the INCA project, and sets the project in the context of the current major research initiatives at a European level. Keywords: Europe, European Union, nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, river basin management, modelling, water chemistry, acidification, eutrophication, Water Framework Directive, INCA.

  8. 水生植物对污染水体修复的研究进展%Development in Research of Aquatic Phytoremediation for Polluted Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温闪闪; 刘芳

    2014-01-01

    水生植物净化修复是一项绿色环保的生态工程技术,能有效地净化富营养化及受污染水体,而且不带来二次污染,有利于重建和恢复水生生态环境,其技术投资和维护成本低,操作相对简单。该文阐述了水生植物修复水体的净化机理以及水体富营养化的消除、重金属的去除、石油化工类及生活类污水的降解、水生植物耐盐性等相关研究成果;介绍了净化塘、人工湿地、生态浮床技术和根际过滤技术在工程实践中的应用;强调了水生植物在净化应用中需关注的技术问题;最后提出了一些可行方法和建议,展望了这种净化技术的发展前景。%Phytoremediation is a bioremediation technology,which can degrade or eliminate contaminants from eutrophic water or polluted water without the secondary pollution. It is the least harmful method because it uses natural occurring organisms to preserve the environment in a more natural state. The cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes and the operation is simple. Purification mechanism and effect of hydrophyte phytoremediation were reviewed. Purification pond,artificial wetland, ecological floating bed technology and rhizofiltration technology applied in engineering cases were introduced. The key points of hydrophyte phytoremediation were emphasized. The feasible methods and suggestions were put forward and prospected.

  9. Pollutants increase song complexity and the volume of the brain area HVC in a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available Environmental pollutants which alter endocrine function are now known to decrease vertebrate reproductive success. There is considerable evidence for endocrine disruption from aquatic ecosystems, but knowledge is lacking with regard to the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, we show for the first time that birds foraging on invertebrates contaminated with environmental pollutants, show marked changes in both brain and behaviour. We found that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris exposed to environmentally relevant levels of synthetic and natural estrogen mimics developed longer and more complex songs compared to control males, a sexually selected trait important in attracting females for reproduction. Moreover, females preferred the song of males which had higher pollutant exposure, despite the fact that experimentally dosed males showed reduced immune function. We also show that the key brain area controlling male song complexity (HVC is significantly enlarged in the contaminated birds. This is the first evidence that environmental pollutants not only affect, but paradoxically enhance a signal of male quality such as song. Our data suggest that female starlings would bias their choice towards exposed males, with possible consequences at the population level. As the starling is a migratory species, our results suggest that transglobal effects of pollutants on terrestrial vertebrate physiology and reproduction could occur in birds.

  10. Alteração da atividade enzimática em organismos aquáticos por poluentes de origem agrícola: uma abordagem geral e sobre a suscetibilidade da fosfatase ácida Alteration of enzymatic activity in aquatic organisms by agricultural pollutants: a general approach and the susceptibility of the acid phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Martín Jonsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The input of agrochemicals in the aquatic compartment can results in biochemical injuries for living organisms. In this context, the knowledge of alterations of enzymatic activities due the presence of agriculture pollutants contributes for the elucidation of the mechanisms of toxicity, implementation of economic methods for monitoring purposes and establishment of maximum allowed concentrations. In the present work, the above considerations are discussed, and data concerning changes in enzymatic function by pesticides and fertilizer contaminants are reviewed. Also, we focused on the acid phosphatase due its susceptibility to several pollutants and diversity in cellular functions.

  11. Insect herbivory on native and exotic aquatic plants: phosphorus and nitrogen drive insect growth and nutrient release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, E.M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication and globalisation facilitate the dominance of exotic plants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic omnivores can provide biotic resistance to plant invasions, but little is known about whether obligate aquatic herbivores can do the same. Herbivores such as insects can decimate aquat

  12. Managed island ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Atwater, Tanya; Collins, Paul W.; Faulkner, Kate R.; Richards, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.

  13. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  14. A Simulation Model for Studying Effects of Pollution and Freshwater Inflow on Secondary Productivity in an Ecosystem. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical model of an ecosystem is developed. Secondary productivity is evaluated in terms of man related and controllable factors. Information from an existing physical parameters model is used as well as pertinent biological measurements. Predictive information of value to estuarine management is presented. Biological, chemical, and physical parameters measured in order to develop models of ecosystems are identified.

  15. Impact and Mitigation of Nutrient Pollution and Overland Water Flow Change on the Florida Everglades, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schade-Poole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A subtropical watershed and wetland covering nearly 47,000 km2 in the southeastern United States, the Florida Everglades is a degraded, human-dominated environment. As a unique and important ecosystem, the Everglades provide a variety of important environmental services for society and nature. Over the past century and a half, anthropogenic actions have severely impacted the Everglades by disrupting the natural water flow and causing water pollution. As a result, the native flora and fauna have been displaced, important habitats have been lost, invasive species have become prevalent, and water contaminant concentrations have increased. Accelerating efforts are being made towards preserving the Everglades ecosystem by restoring water flow and improving water quality. To explore this complex and important aquatic ecosystem, we critically review the relevant environmental history, major terrestrial and aquatic characteristics and dynamics, engineered changes to water flow, major sources and impacts of nutrient pollution, trends in system response to pollution and mitigation actions, and recent regulatory efforts driving restoration.

  16. Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries Lima, Marta1; Menor, Eldemar2; Lima, Enjolras3; Neumann, Virginio4 1MFGTransportes, Brazil; 2Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil 3Servico Geologico do Brasil-CPRM, Brazil 4Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil Heavy metal (HM) concentrations in estuarine sediments of the Botafogo and Manguaba river, North-eastern Brazil were investigated on basis of samples from a bottom core drill performed 4km from the mouth of the rivers. Total sediments (TS) of the sliced profiles (62 cm, Botafogo river and 87 cm, Manguaba river ) were submitted to chemical analysis (51 elements), mineralogical analysis (XRD) and statistical study, followed by stoichiometric calculations. Geochronologic determinations of 210Pb allowed studying the evolution of the contamination level approximately 150 year-old interval in the Botafogo river. Mercury (Hg) and Arsenic (As) are emphasized because of a chlorine-soda industry that dumps its effluents about 15 km upstream of the estuary and extensive cultivation of sugarcane existent in this watershed. Hg background in pelitic total sediments (PTS) was certain established considering the Hg content (126 ppb) in sedimentary intervals previous to 1910. The production of chlorine-soda (since 1963) coincides with a drastic increase of the Hg concentrations and contemporary values around 6.000 ppb, without interruption in the pollutant process. The conclusions found that the Hg was the main indicator of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments of the Botafogo river. On the other hand, an increase in the Hg-As concentrations has been observed at the last decades due to an increase of the clay mineral fraction in TS of the Manguaga river. This scenario indicates that the accumulation of HM has been constant since the last decades, under a

  17. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Underwater plants are a valuable part of the Great Lakes ecosystem, providing food and shelter for aquatic animals. Aquatic plants also help stabilize sediments, thereby reducing shoreline erosion. Annual fall die-offs of underwater plants provide food and shelter for overwintering small aquatic animals such as insects, snails, and freshwater shrimp.

  18. 污染足迹:一种基于生态系统服务的生态足迹%Pollution Footprint: A Type of Ecological Footprint Based on Ecosystem Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵庆文; 焦雯珺; 成升魁

    2011-01-01

    传统生态足迹理论虽然在可持续发展评价等方面得到了广泛的应用,但仍然存在着明显的缺陷和不足,其无法全面评估人类活动的根源在于土地功能排他性假设限制了其对利用生态系统非生物生产性产品和服务的人类活动的衡量.为了摆脱传统生态足迹理论的局限性,应当承认土地功能多样性的客观事实.本文提出了基于生态系统服务的生态足迹概念和计算方法,并以污染足迹为例进行了系统分析.污染足迹,即基于污染物吸纳的生态足迹,是一类典型的基于生态系统服务的生态足迹,它不是对传统生态足迹中能源足迹的简单置换,而是能够囊括人类活动产生的大部分污染物,并可以根据不同的污染物类别或类型进一步细化.污染足迹计算的难点在于必须明确污染物的迁移转化规律,进而确定进入各种土地类型的污染物量以及各种土地类型的纳污能力,而应用的难点在于如何确定不同类别或类型污染物污染足迹之间的关系.%After nearly twenty years of development, ecological footprint has become one of the most widely methods for sustainable development assessment.The ecological footprint is,however, unable to evaluate the impacts of human activities on natural ecosystems in an all-round way.There are a multitude of deficiencies in conventional ecological footprint theories.For example, neither does the conventional ecological footprint involve the utilization of other ecosystem services except primary product provision, nor it accounts for other pollutants except CO2 released by human activities.In addition, there have some inherent contradictions involved in both the calculation methods and the selection of variables involved in the energy footprint.Through comprehensive analysis of such deficiencies, the authors indicated that the failure of the conventional ecological footprint in providing a comprehensive measurement on human

  19. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  20. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  1. Anatomy of pollution: Rivers of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flintrop, C.; Hohlmann, B.; Jasper, T. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    North Rhine-Westphalia, the most industrialized and densely populated state of Germany, is drained by six major tributaries of the Rhine: the Sieg, Wupper, Ruhr, Erft, Emscher, and Lippe. The first four drain predominantly catchments with Phanerozoic siliciclastic rocks, while the latter two dewater Cretaceous carbonate basins. Together, the rivers account for {approximately}11 percent of the Rhine water, and they reflect various stages of pollution, from a moderately polluted Sieg and Ruhr to the heavily damaged Emscher. The {delta}{sup 18}O H{sub 2}O of -8.5{+-}1.5 permil SMOW suggests that summer recharge into local aquifers is the main source of water in these rivers. Down-stream, the water becomes enriched in {sup 18}O, by {approximately}2 permil, due to low altitude precipitation and because of evaporation, particularly in artificial lakes. However, thermal fractionation, when water is utilized for cooling in power stations and smelters, also contributes to this trend. State-wide, and down-stream within rivers, the increasing pollution levels are characterized by rising salt concentrations (from normal riverine values up to a third of seawater), by up to two orders of magnitude CO{sub 2} overpressures, oxygen depletion, and enhanced nutrient concentrations. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} demonstrate that microbial respiration of C{sub org} in soil/groundwater systems accounts for about 50 to 100 percent of the entire DIC, with the higher values typical of more polluted ecosystems. Evasion of gaseous CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere and microbial nitrification are the most important processes for the riverine aquatic cycles of carbon and nitrogen, resulting in more advanced dissipation of CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the less polluted ecosystems. Denitrification may fuel generation of some {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} CO{sub 2} only in the highly polluted ecosystems, such as the Emscher. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The C.E.B.A. Mini Module on the STS-107 Mission: Data of Ground Experiments and Preliminary Results of the third Spaceflight of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.; Bungart, S.

    The C.E.B.A.S MINI MODULE is the miniaturized version of an artificial aquatic ecosystem consisting of four subcomponents: a ZOOLOGICAL COMPONENT (aquarium for animals), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (higher water plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition, control unit). It has a total volume of 8.6 liters and contains the ovoviviparous teleost Xiphophorus helleri (swordtail), larvae of the ovuliparous cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus, the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the rootless (non-graivitropic) higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum (hornweed) and special strains of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. This device was already flown twice successfully in space with the space shuttle missions STS- 89 and STS-90 (NEUROLAB) in 1998. It will fly a third time with the STS-107-mission the launch of which has been repeatedly shifted December 222, April 2001, October 2001) and is now finally scheduled for June 2002. The main focus of scientific interest in the past missions were system performance, reproductive biology (reproductive function of adult females including endocrine system, fertilization, gonadal development in juveniles), vestibular and immunological research in X. helleri, embryology and shell formation in B. glabrata, general morphology and physiology of C. demersum and groth rates of the bacteria. The standard load of the system were 4 adult and 200 neonate X. helleri, 30 adult B. glabrata and 30 g of C. demersum. The evaluation of these experiments showed that all reproductive functions and the immune system of the fishes snails remained undisturbed in space, that the snails developed normally and exhibited no disturbance of shell formation and that the plants showed growth and photosynthesis rates comparable to those on Earth. So, as a logical continuation, the main topics for the STS-107 mission are the remaining important questions in X. helleri biology: puberty, male sexual

  3. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... stocks.Ecosystem effects expands from the ecosystem approach to fisheries management to an integratedapproach where other human activities are taken into consideration. Fisheries management developsmethods, models and tools for predicting and evaluating the effects of management measures andregulations...

  4. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  5. Effects of Forest Ecosystems on Non-point Pollution Control%森林生态系统对非点源污染的控制机理与效果及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿强; 张彪; 李文华; 杨艳刚; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution, particularly agricultural non-point source pollution, has become a major contributor of water pollution in many countries during recent years. Major lakes and rivers in China have suffered from serious eutrophication problems, e.g., five lakes (Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Taihu Lake, Hongze Lake, and Chaohu Lake), the Three Gorges Reservoir,Baiyangdian Lake, Nansi Lake, and Yilong Lake. The contribution rate of non-point pollution to eutrophication has been found to be much higher than point source pollution. Although tremendous efforts have been made to control non-point pollution, they seem to be far from effective due to uncertain emissions of the non-point pollutants. As such, people are resorting to purifying natural ecosystems, e.g., forest riparian buffer has been recommended as one of the Best Management Practices (BMP) for non-point source pollutant control in the United States. The authors comprehensively summarized studies associated with the effects of forest ecosystems on non-point source pollution control. Forest ecosystems have been shown to be of the capacity to adsorb and purify non-point source pollutants mainly through plants, canopy, ground litter, and soil layers.Plant uptake is one of important mechanisms of nutrients control. Part of pollutions carried by rainfall can be intercepted by canopy, while the nutrient content will increase because of eluviations. However, the non-point pollution can be greatly reduced after runoff flow through ground cover and soil layer. Numerous studies show that forests could reduce about 60~90% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus from upper farming areas. Non-point source pollution control is generally affected by many factors. The forest belt width has an impact on the effect of non-point source pollution reduction, and therefore the width needs to be adjusted appropriately. Different tree species show varying absorption capacities of non-point source pollutants; therefore the

  6. Effects of cement flue dust from a cement factory on stress parameters and diversity of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Serkan; Demirtas, Ayten

    2010-07-01

    Cement kiln dusts, made of a complex mixture of elements, include high levels of heavy metals such as fluoride, magnesium, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, copper, beryllium and some toxic compounds. Because of the toxic element compositions and radioactive isotope properties of cement kiln dusts, not only terrestrial but also aquatic ecosystems are subjected to greater stress. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of pollution caused by Askale-Erzurum cement factory (CF) on the stress parameters and diversity of aquatic plants. For this purpose, aquatic plant species were collected from the outer zone of the CF. Only three (Lemna minor, Ceratophyllum submersum and Potamogeton natans) of these species were able to be determined in the CF zone. Antioxidant enzyme activities of the collected aquatic plants were measured and compared to their controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of P. natans in the CF zone was significantly high compared to their respective control, while it was low in L. minor and C. submersum compared to their controls. Similarly, peroxidase (POX) activity of P. natans was high, while those of L. minor and C. submersum were low compared to their respective controls. On the other side, while catalase (CAT) activities of L. minor and C. submersum were low, that of P. natans did not show an important change compared to their respective controls. Furthermore, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of all the studied plants were also very high compared to their controls. According to these results, it is clear that pollution caused by the CF reduced diversity and number of aquatic plant species. Besides, the obtained data revealed that P. natans have a more resistant defense system than other species.

  7. Effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Cipangopaludina cathayensis on Pollutant Removal and Microbial Community in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic animals play an important role in the energy flow and matter cycling in the wetland ecosystem. However, little is known about their effects on pollutant removal performance and microbial community in constructed wetlands. This work presents an initial attempt to investigate the effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (loach and Cipangopaludina cathayensis (snail on nutrient removal performance and microbial community of constructed wetlands (CWs. Compared with a control group, CW microcosms with aquatic animals exhibited better pollutant removal performance. The removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP in the loach group were 13.1% higher than in the control group, and snails increased the ammonium removal most effectively. Moreover, the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC and TP in sediment significantly reduced with the addition of loaches and snails (p < 0.05, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen (TN showed an obvious increase with the addition of loaches. High-throughput sequencing showed a microbial community structure change. Loaches and snails in wetlands changed the microbial diversity, especially in the Proteobacteria and denitrifying community. Results suggested that benthic aquatic animals might play an important role in CW ecosystems.

  8. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  9. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

  11. ZINC AND LEAD IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND AQUATIC PLANTS IN RIVER NAREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are a valuable part of natural environment. The increasing level of pollution in waters transforming biocoenoses and other adverse effects of the impact of toxic substances have contributed to the development of biological monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in contents of zinc and lead in bottom sediments and roots of aquatic plants: Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus in the river Narew. There were 14 points on the river, from where samples of bottom sediments and plant material were collected. The contents of lead and zinc were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Varian device. It was proven that bottom sediments were characterized by low contents of zinc and lead except from two sampling points: in Bondary and Narew. Achieved results of analyzes of plant material showed a slight exceeding in the case of lead. Spatial distribution of zinc and lead contents in examined roots of plants coincided with their contents in bottom sediments, which was also confirmed by statistical analysis. It was proven that aquatic plants had greater tendency for accumulation of metals than bottom sediments.

  12. 水生植物的生态功能和资源应用%Ecological Functions and Resource Utilization of Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬林; 王磊; 丁晶晶; 芮雯奕

    2011-01-01

    structure of aquatic plants and adaptation to water microenvironment were reported a fat lot; there were many researches of herbaceous plants than woody plants, the studies of woody plants just was about Kandelia candel. Questions need to be paid attention to and some suggestions on researches of aquatic plants as follows. To strengthen the basic research work on material cycling of aquatic plants and effect to water nutrient cycling under pollution stress, in the same time, great importance to the basic research on the influences and mechanism of the growth and morphological structure changes of aquatic plants in water ecosystem should be attached; the comprehensive analysis researches of the ecological characteristics, landscape impact and ecological benefit of aquatic plants should be paid great attention to; about the utilization researches of aquatic plants, to expand the scope of screening of plant resources, attach great significance to the introduction of aquatic trees and evergreen shrubs with good water resistance, make further improvement on the hydrophyte diversity and overall function, which will be helpful to promote the damaged wetland system restoration and rebuilding.

  13. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  14. Conclusions of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment on the risks of neonicotinoids and fipronil to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, J.P.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bijleveld van Lexmond, M.F.I.J.; Bonmatin, J-M.; Chagnon, M.; Downs, C.A.; Furlan, L.; Gibbons, D.W.; Giorio, C.; Girolami, V.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; Long, E.; McField, M.; Mineau, P.; Mitchell, E.A.D.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Pisa, L.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Tapparo, A.; Van Dyck, H.; van Praagh, J.; Whitehorn, P.R.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of the current global use of pesticides on wildlife, particularly at higher levels of biological organization: populations, communities and ecosystems, are poorly understood (Köhler and Triebskorn 2013). Here, we focus on one of the problematic groups of agrochemicals, the systemic

  15. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. McLachlan

    2003-12-01

    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial

  16. Impact of estuarine pollution on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kerwin, J.A.; Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Stickel, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution of estuaries affects bird populations indirectly through changes in habitat and food supply. The multi-factor pollution of Chesapeake Bay has resulted in diminution of submerged aquatic plants and consequent change in food habits of the canvasback duck. Although dredge-spoil operations can improve wildlife habitat, they often result in its demise. Pollution of estuaries also affects birds directly, through chemical toxication, which may result in outright mortality or in reproductive impairment. Lead from industrial sources and roadways enters the estuaries and is accumulated in tissues of birds. Lead pellets deposited in estuaries as a result of hunting are consumed by ducks with sufficient frequency .to result m large annual die-offs from lead poisoning. Fish in certain areas, usually near industrial sources, may contain levels of mercury high enough to be hazardous to birds that consume them. Other heavy metals are present in estuarine birds, but their significance is poorly known. Oil exerts lethal or sublethal effects on birds by oiling their feathers, oiling eggs and young by contaminated parents, and by ingestion of oil-contaminated food. Organochlorine chemicals, of both agricultural and industrial origin, travel through the food chains and reach harmful levels in susceptible species of birds in certain estuarine ecosystems. Both outright mortality and reproductive impairment have occurred.

  17. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and DNA damage as an indicator of environmental stress in fish of different feeding habits of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mille, Donaji J; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ize-Lema, Irina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús

    2010-10-01

    The region of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz hosts one of the largest and most important industrial areas of Mexico and Latin America. Industrial development and rapid population growth, have triggered a severe impact on aquatic ecosystems of the region. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of POPs in sediment and in muscle tissue of five fish species from different trophic levels in downstream residents of the Coatzacoalcos River, and their integration with DNA damage in the fish, evaluated with the comet assay in whole blood as a biological indicator of stress, in order to obtain a baseline of the ecological condition of the region. The compounds detected in sediment and in muscle tissue were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sediment concentrations of these pollutants (except for mirex) exceeded the values of protection provided by international guidelines, suggesting a potential risk to aquatic life in the region. DNA damage recorded in the fish species is evidence of exposure to a mix of genotoxic pollutants, which combined with exposure to POPs, reflects the degree of environmental stress of aquatic organisms in the region. The results of this study show the importance of determining the presence of contaminants in the environment, the bioaccumulation in tissues and their effects on exposed organisms, providing an integrated approach in assessing the health of aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Methods for evaluating the pollution impact of urban wet weather discharges on biocenosis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, Antoine; Ferro, Yannis; Durrieu, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Rainwater becomes loaded with a large number of pollutants when in contact with the atmosphere and urban surfaces. These pollutants (such as metals, pesticides, PAHs, PCBs) reduce the quality of water bodies. As it is now acknowledged that physico-chemical analyses alone are insufficient for identifying an ecological impact, these analyses are frequently completed or replaced by impact studies communities living in freshwater ecosystems (requiring biological indices), ecotoxicological studies, etc. Thus, different monitoring strategies have been developed over recent decades aimed at evaluating the impact of the pollution brought by urban wet weather discharges on the biocenosis of receiving aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this review is to establish a synthetic and critical view of these different methods used, to define their advantages and disadvantages, and to provide recommendations for futures researches. Although studies on aquatic communities are used efficiently, notably on benthic macroinvertebrates, they are difficult to interpret. In addition, despite the fact that certain bioassays lack representativeness, the literature at present appears meagre regarding ecotoxicological studies conducted in situ. However, new tools for studying urban wet weather discharges have emerged, namely biosensors. The advantages of biosensors are that they allow monitoring the impact of discharges in situ and continuously. However, only one study on this subject has been identified so far, making it necessary to perform further research in this direction.

  19. Analysis of Microbial Ecosystem in Petroleum Polluted Soils by Statistic Analysis Software SPSS%应用SPSS软件分析石油污染土壤微生态环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政; 梁昌峰; 赵朝成; 张云波; 赵东风

    2012-01-01

    Microbial ecosystem in petroleum polluted soils was analyzed through statistical product and service soIutions(SPSS) analysis software to improve the bioremediation effect. The canonical correlations of microbial ecosystem elements were studied to optimize environment conditions for microbial growth and metabolism. The deformation gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE) was used to investigate the impact of petroleum pollution on microbial community structure and diversity in petroleum polluted soils. The results showed that the mass fractions of N, P, H2O and petroleum hydrocarbon were the factors to limit the growth and reproduction of petroleum-degrading bacteria. So adding proper amount of N and P nutrition, increasing the moisture content in soil could increase the petroleum-degrading bacteria population and improve the bioremediation efficiency. Common petroleum-degrading bacteria existed in petroleum polluted soils, however, petroleum pollution made the microbial populations being simplification and functionalization, and the diversity reduced. The research results provided a credible foundation for adjusting the microbial ecosystem and determining the dominant community in petroleum polluted soils.%为了对石油污染土壤进行更加有效的生物修复,应用统计分析软件SPSS分析石油污染土壤微生态环境构成要素间的典型相关性,优化提高微生物生长代谢的环境条件,并运用变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)技术考察石油污染对土壤微生物群落结构及多样性的影响.结果表明,土壤中有效的氮、磷质量分数,含水率和石油污染程度是石油降解“生长繁殖的限制因素,因此在生物修复过程中,投加适量的氮、磷营养,适当地提高土壤含水率会增加降解眉数量,可以提高石油污染土壤的修复效率;石油污染土壤中存在常见的石油烃降解子;石油污染一定程度上使微生物种群趋于单一化和功能化,微生物种群多样性降

  20. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  1. Heavy metal burdens in patches of asphyxiated swamp areas within the Qua Iboe estuary mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, J P; Essien, V; Olajire, A A

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the burden of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and V in patches of asphyxiated mangrove swamp areas within Qua Iboe Estuary mangrove ecosystem by sediments and surface water analysis; in order to establish natural background levels of these metals and to assess anthropogenic influences on them. The analysis shows that the mean concentrations (mg/kg, dw) of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and V in sediments from asphyxiated and healthy mangrove ecosystems of Qua Iboe vary from 36.3-179.4, 29.2-43.2, 3.6-37.4, 39.6-93.8, 0.15-0.53 and 2.9-9.3, with the former exhibiting higher metal accumulating potential. Although heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the asphyxiated swamp were low, their accumulative effect is significant. The concentrations of Cu and Pb in surface water of this ecosystem exceeded the water quality criteria while Ni and Cr were under the maximum concentration for drinking water quality and protection of aquatic life. The values of pollution load index (PLI), which are generally greater than unity, show that the sediments and the surface water from the asphyxiated mangrove ecosystem were polluted with heavy metals, thus suggesting anthropogenic activities as a possible source of these metals. The mean concentrations of Zn, Ni and Pb exceeded the effects range-low (ERL), indicating that there may be some ecotoxicological risk to organisms living in asphyxiated mangrove sediments.

  2. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submerged aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects in the hydrological regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitats of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, as for example through the introduction of invasive s...

  3. Three dimensional thermal pollution models. Volume 1: Review of mathematical formulations. [waste heat discharge from power plants and effects on ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical model package for thermal pollution analyses and prediction is presented. These models, intended as user's manuals, are three dimensional and time dependent using the primitive equation approach. Although they have sufficient generality for application at sites with diverse topographical features; they also present specific instructions regarding data preparation for program execution and sample problems. The mathematical formulation of these models is presented including assumptions, approximations, governing equations, boundary and initial conditions, numerical method of solution, and same results.

  4. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  5. Report on stakeholder evaluation of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report gives an overview of completed research activities on the value ascribed by users, local communities and stakeholders to functions, goods and services (including non‐use values) derived from the aquatic resources in the study areas. The perceived impact of factors such as environmenta...... to better characterise constraints and conflicts, and build consensus concerning opportunities for better conservation and management of highland aquatic resources, opportunities for livelihoods enhancement and sustaining ecosystem services....

  6. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on aquatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, G.; Davies, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ebke, P.; Hanson, M; Hommen, U.; Knauer, K; Loutseti, S.; Maltby, L.; Mohr, S.; Poovey, A.; Poulsen, V.

    2010-01-01

    \\ud Introduction and background\\ud \\ud Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species be...

  7. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  8. Fish biodiversity sampling in stream ecosystems: a process for evaluating the appropriate types and amount of gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph M.; Wells, Sarah P.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Because human impacts and climate change threaten aquatic ecosystems, a need exists to quantify catchment-scale biodiversity patterns and identify conservation actions that can mitigate adverse human impacts on aquatic biota.

  9. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Comet assay is a novel biological analysis, which is a sensitive, flexible, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to assess aquatic genotoxicant. Since Singh and co-workers developed the method in 1988, its use has increased exponentially in various fields. This review discourses on the application of this assay in aquatic ecosystems. Various types of cells from various aquatic organisms have been tested by various genotoxicant both direct- and indirect-acting using the comet assay. The applications of this assay suggest that it is a useful assay to assess aquatic genotoxicants. However, there are some factors, which should be taken into account when using this assay as aquatic ecotoxicological assessment device such as inter-animal and cell variability.

  10. Field exposure of frog embryos and tadpoles along a pollution gradient in the Fox River and Green Bay ecosystem in Wisconsin, Usa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H; Jung, Robin E; Langenberg, Susan Vanden; Bergeson, Tara L E

    2005-04-01

    We raised embryos and tadpoles of green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota) and leopard frogs (R. pipiens) in situ along a contamination gradient in the Fox River/Green Bay ecosystem (WI, USA). Differences in exposure were reflected by significant positive regressions between concentrations in sediment and in frogs of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb), which could have predictive value for estimating exposure of amphibians to contaminants in this ecosystem and, perhaps, in others. On average, non-ortho-substituted coplanar PCBs made up a very small percentage (average, 0.2%) of the PCB congeners in all samples analyzed, with larger fractions accounted for by mono- and di-ortho congeners (average, 19%) and routine congeners (average, 81%). Hatchability of frog embryo batches and anuran species richness at the sites were negatively correlated with level of contamination, but tadpole growth and survival were not. Sediment and tissue levels of PCBs and metals generally were correlated with each other, confounding the association of effects on frogs with any particular contaminant. It is also plausible that high levels of un-ionized ammonia (NH3) reduced hatching success of green frog, but not leopard frog, embryos in the field enclosures. Other environmental factors that were present but unmeasured in the field, such as ultraviolet-B radiation as well as water flow and level fluctuations, might have caused differences in hatching success at the field sites.

  11. Phenol toxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna paucicostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Sook [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Division of Life Science, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Green Environmental Research, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Phenol is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and a widely used reference toxicant for many bioassays. However, little information is available regarding the toxic effects of phenol on aquatic macrophytes. Seventy-two hour bioassays, with different end-points, were carried out to assess phenol toxicity in Lemna paucicostata. A concentration-dependent decline in frond multiplication and colony disintegration was observed, with 11.38 and 22.76 {mu}M phenol resulting in browning of fronds and colony disintegration, respectively. Growth of fronds, as measured by changes in surface area, was significantly inhibited with EC{sub 50} value of 2.70 {mu}M. When pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence imaging (i-PAM) was employed, the maximum quantum yield of PS II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) significantly declined with increasing phenol concentrations with resultant EC{sub 50} of 1.91 {mu}M and coefficients of variation (CVs) generated for the EC{sub 50} values of less than 4.7%. A gradual increase in fluorescence emissions from chlorophylls a and b and pheophytin up to a concentration of 2.85 {mu}M was found but declined markedly at higher concentrations. The significant correlation between the F{sub v}/F{sub m} and surface growth rate data implies that the former is an appropriate biomarker of whole plant toxicity. Using imaging Chl a fluorescence on L. paucicostata provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for assessing the toxic risks posed by phenol to aquatic ecosystems and has practical applications for municipal and industrial waste water management.

  12. Vpliv lokalnih virov emisij in čezmejnega prenašanja onesnaženega zraka na kakovost okolja v alpskem ekosistemu Slovenije = The impact of local emission sources and transborder transmission of polluted air on the environmental quality of the Alpine ecosystem in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes that the air pollution in Alpin ecosystem in Slovenia is influenced by poor neutrlizing and self- purifying air capacitis in Alpine valleys and basins whith the relatively small quantitis of harmful emissions. The quality of air is also influenced by transborder transmission of emissions.

  13. The Urban Forest and Ecosystem Services: Impacts on Urban Water, Heat, and Pollution Cycles at the Tree, Street, and City Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, S J; McPherson, G M; Calfapietra, C

    2016-01-01

    Many environmental challenges are exacerbated within the urban landscape, such as stormwater runoff and flood risk, chemical and particulate pollution of urban air, soil and water, the urban heat island, and summer heat waves. Urban trees, and the urban forest as a whole, can be managed to have an impact on the urban water, heat, carbon and pollution cycles. However, there is an increasing need for empirical evidence as to the magnitude of the impacts, both beneficial and adverse, that urban trees can provide and the role that climatic region and built landscape circumstance play in modifying those impacts. This special section presents new research that advances our knowledge of the ecological and environmental services provided by the urban forest. The 14 studies included provide a global perspective on the role of trees in towns and cities from five continents. Some studies provide evidence for the cooling benefit of the local microclimate in urban green space with and without trees. Other studies focus solely on the cooling benefit of urban tree transpiration at a mesoscale or on cooling from canopy shade at a street and pedestrian scale. Other studies are concerned with tree species differences in canopy interception of rainfall, water uptake from biofilter systems, and water quality improvements through nutrient uptake from stormwater runoff. Research reported here also considers both the positive and the negative impacts of trees on air quality, through the role of trees in removing air pollutants such as ozone as well as in releasing potentially harmful volatile organic compounds and allergenic particulates. A transdisciplinary framework to support future urban forest research is proposed to better understand and communicate the role of urban trees in urban biogeochemical cycles that are highly disturbed, highly managed, and of paramount importance to human health and well-being.

  14. Aquatic fungi: targeting the forgotten in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor

    2016-06-01

    Fungi constitute important and conspicuous components of aquatic microbial communities, but their diversity and functional roles remain poorly characterized. New methods and conceptual frameworks are required to accurately describe their ecological roles, involvement in global cycling processes, and utility for human activities, considering both cultivation-independent techniques as well as experiments in laboratory and in natural ecosystems. Here we highlight recent developments and extant knowledge gaps in aquatic mycology, and provide a conceptual model to expose the importance of fungi in aquatic food webs and related biogeochemical processes.

  15. Effects of pollution on chub in the River Elbe, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randak, T; Zlabek, V; Pulkrabova, J; Kolarova, J; Kroupova, H; Siroka, Z; Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Hajslova, J

    2009-03-01

    The Elbe River is one of the most polluted aquatic ecosystems in the Czech Republic. The effect of three major chemical plants located on the Elbe River (at Pardubice, Neratovice, and Usti nad Labem) on fish was studied in 2004. Health status, chemical concentrations (Hg, PCB, DDT, HCH, HCB, OCS, 4-tert-nonylphenols, 4-tert-octylphenol) in muscle, and biomarkers (hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), plasma vitellogenin, and plasma 11-ketotestosterone) were assessed in male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.). Differences between localities upstream (US) and downstream (DS) from the monitored source of pollution were identified. Fish from DS sampling sites showed significantly higher levels of contaminants than fish from US sampling sites. Generally, the concentrations of pollutants in fish from the Elbe sites were significantly higher compared to the reference site. Reduced gonad size, decreased plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone, EROD and vitellogenin induction, and histopathologies of male gonads indicated harmful effects of aquatic pollution in fish from the Czech portion of the Elbe River.

  16. 三门湾海域水产品重金属污染现状及对人体健康风险分析%Current Pollution Status and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Aquatic Products of Sanmen Bay,Zhej iang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 马志凯; 陈锋

    2016-01-01

    According to the survey data on 14 samples of aquatic products collected from the San-men Bay in November 2014,the contents of Hg,As,Cu,Pb,Zn,Cd and Cr in the samples were an-alyzed.Single factor pollution index and metal pollution index methods were used to assess the current pollution status of the samples,and the health risk caused by these heavy metals through consumption of the aquatic products was evaluated using the method of daily intake of the heavy metals and the target hazard quotient.The results showed that slight pollution of Cd in the crus-taceans,while the contents of heavy metals in other aquatic products were in the normal range of background value.The results of the assessments of heavy metals’ intake indicated that the con-tents of heavy metals’ intake through consumption of different kinds of aquatic products were far below the acceptable daily intake recommended by FAO/WHO.The calculation results of the tar-get hazard quotient (THQ)showed that there was no heavy metal health risk for adults and teen-agers through the exposure path of the consumption of aquatic products,while children had high health risk,especially the Hg potential health risk.%文章基于2014年11月采集的三门湾海域鱼类、甲壳类和贝类等水产品样品14个,分析其中各重金属元素(Hg、As、Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd和Cr)的含量,并采用单因子污染指数法和重金属污染指数法对各样品污染现状进行评价,进而采用重金属摄入量和危险指数法分析不同年龄段人群通过食用各类水产品的重金属暴露的健康风险。结果表明,除甲壳类的Cd 处于轻污染水平外,其他各重金属含量均处于正常的背景值范围内;当地不同年龄段人群通过食用各种水产品而摄入的重金属含量均远远小于FAO/WHO推荐的重金属日摄入量;危险指数(THQ)结果显示,成年人和青少年食用各类水产品没有重金属暴露的健康风险,儿童有较

  17. Reactivity and transfer of tributyl-tin and mercury in aquatic environments; Etude de la reactivite et du transfert du tributyletain et du mercure dans les environnements aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessier, E.

    2004-12-15

    Aquatic ecosystems are particularly affected by tributyl-tin (TBT) and mercury (Hg) chronic contamination. These micro-pollutants are ubiquitous and persistent and occurred at trace level, likely to drastically impair aquatic environments. TBT and Hg biogeochemical cycles are driven by transformation and transfer mechanisms between the different environmental compartments. These natural processes have been studied in details by using novel analytical methods and environmental design to improve the risk assessment. The first part of this work focus on the mechanistic study of TBT and Hg reactivity and transfer in reconstituted aquatic ecosystems. These experiments involve both state-of-the-art analytical speciation techniques, partly based on quantification by isotopic dilution and experimental tools simulating the environmental conditions. Kinetics of TBT and Hg distribution (adsorption, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, clearance) have been simultaneously characterized in all compartments of the microcosms presenting a simple biological organization. In a second step, volatilization kinetics of TBT at real interfaces have been studied to assess the potential remobilization and elimination pathways of butyl-tin compounds. Finally, in a third part, stable isotopic tracers of Hg have been employed to discriminate and quantify the coupled methylation and demethylation kinetics in estuarine sediments, by forcing different environmental factors (oxygenation, microbial activity). (author)

  18. The use of biotic and abiotic components of Red Sea coastal areas as indicators of ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted using some biotic (Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii fish) and abiotic (water and sediment) components of the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic along two polluted sites (Al-Dawar beach and Urj village) in comparison to a reference site (Al-Nukhailah beach). The studied fish biomarkers included hepatosomatic index (HSI), condition factor (K), scaled mass index (SMI), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and albumin. In addition, metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) concentrations in water and sediment were measured and sediment pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). The studied metals concentration in water and sediment samples showed significant increase among the polluted sites in comparison to the reference site. Sediment pollution assessment generally confirmed that Urj village was the most contaminated site followed by Al-Dawar beach. Catalase, GST and MDA proved to be the most responsive biomarkers with increased values of GST and MDA at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities while catalase, HSI, K, SMI, total protein and albumin showed the opposite trend. This study recommends monitoring of sediment Igeo and EF values as well as SMI, catalase, GST and MDA as sensitive indicators of different anthropogenic activities and their effects on aquatic ecosystems under complex and different gradients of metal pollution. In addition, P. hasta proved to be more sensitive towards the detected pollution condition.

  19. Trace elements in native and transplanted Fontinalis antipyretica and Platyhypnidium riparioides from rivers polluted by uranium mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Grzegorz; Steinnes, Eiliv; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Lierhagen, Syverin; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Ziembik, Zbigniew

    2017-03-01

    The past uranium/polymetallic mining activities in the Sudety (SW Poland) left abandoned mines, pits, and dumps of waste rocks with trace elements and radionuclides which may erode or leach out and create a potential risk for the aquatic ecosystem, among others. In the present work four rivers affected by effluents from such mines were selected to evaluate the application of aquatic mosses for the bioindication of 56 elements. Naturally growing F. antipyretica and P. riparioides were compared with transplanted samples of the same species. The results demonstrate serious pollution of the examined rivers, especially with As, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, U and Zn, reaching extremely high concentrations in native moss samples. In the most polluted rivers native F. antipyretica and P. riparioides samples showed significantly higher concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Fe, La, Nd, Ni, Pb, U and Zn than corresponding transplanted samples, whereas at less polluted sites a reverse situation was sometimes observed. Transplanted moss moved from clean to extremely polluted rivers probably protects itself against the accumulation of toxic elements by reducing their uptake. Selection of native or transplanted F. antipyretica and P. riparioides depended on the pollution load.

  20. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  1. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  2. Ecosystem services in the St. Louis River AOC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset indicates the presence or absence of each ecosystems service at each coordinate Location. Also included are depth, fetch, and aquatic vegetation data. See...

  3. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  4. Natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

  5. Global thermal pollution of rivers from thermoelectric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, C. E.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Pfister, S.

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide riverine thermal pollution patterns were investigated by combining mean annual heat rejection rates from power plants with once-through cooling systems with the global hydrological-water temperature model variable infiltration capacity (VIC)-RBM. The model simulates both streamflow and water temperature on 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution worldwide and by capturing their effect, identifies multiple thermal pollution hotspots. The Mississippi receives the highest total amount of heat emissions (62% and 28% of which come from coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants, respectively) and presents the highest number of instances where the commonly set 3 °C temperature increase limit is equalled or exceeded. The Rhine receives 20% of the thermal emissions compared to the Mississippi (predominantly due to nuclear power plants), but is the thermally most polluted basin in relation to the total flow per watershed, with one third of its total flow experiencing a temperature increase ≥5 °C on average over the year. In other smaller basins in Europe, such as the Weser and the Po, the share of the total streamflow with a temperature increase ≥3 °C goes up to 49% and 81%, respectively, during July-September. As the first global analysis of its kind, this work points towards areas of high riverine thermal pollution, where temporally finer thermal emission data could be coupled with a spatially finer model to better investigate water temperature increase and its effect on aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Environmental legislation and aquatic ecotoxicology in Mexico: past, present and future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Ramírez-Romero, Patricia; Pica-Granados, Yolanda

    2007-08-01

    The consolidation of environmental legislation is fundamental for governments that wish to support and promote different actions focused on reducing pollution and protecting natural water resources in order to maintain the present and future benefits that water provides for human beings and wild life. Environmental laws are essential for sustaining human activities and health, preserving biodiversity and promoting sustainable development. In this context, it is important that environmental regulations concentrate on preventing or reducing the harmful impact of pollutants on organisms and ecosystems. The introduction of toxicity bioassays in environmental regulations is a positive step toward achieving this goal. In Mexico, the development of environmental legislation and the introduction of bioassays in water regulation are part of a very recent and complex journey. This article describes how aquatic ecotoxicology tools, particularly bioassays, have influenced water pollution policies in Mexico. Three scenarios are reviewed: the background of Mexican legislation on water protection and Mexico's participation in the Watertox project; the actual efforts of SEMARNAT to develop bioassay batteries for this country; and, the challenges and perspectives of ecotoxicological bioassays as regulatory instruments.

  7. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  8. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  9. Comparison of leaf decomposition and macroinvertebrate colonization between exotic and native trees in a freshwater ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Gonzalez-Munoz, N.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important sources of energy in aquatic ecosystems is the allochthonous input of detritus. Replacement of native tree species by exotic ones affects the quality of detritus entering freshwater ecosystems. This replacement can alter nutrient cycles and community structure in aquatic ec

  10. Using aquatic vegetation to remediate nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus in simulated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. ...

  11. 关于中国淡水生态系统生物多样性监测与管理的探讨%BIODIVERSITY MONITORING FOR AND MANAGEMENT OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS IN CHINA: A DISCUSSION AND POSITION PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dong-Jiong; LI Gang

    2006-01-01

    Due to the rapid economic growth and the continuous increase of human, ecosystem disturbances and habitat destructions, the biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems in China is rapidly declining. This issue is gradually gaining the government's attention as its environmental policy becomes more and more equally-weighed on both "pollution prevention and control" and "ecological conservation" issues while only the former was emphasized in the past. However, some unsolved issues still exist with regard to aquatic biodiversity monitoring and management in China. For example, there are functional overlaps among governmental departments; regional ecological function divisions are not clarified; biodiversity is usually neglected or not emphasized in environmental impact assessment for construction projects; and so on. In our opinion, the following areas should be emphasied: (a) enhancing the cooperation among governmental departments; (b) setting up mechanisms to allow ecological watershed management;(c) establishing the biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration planning for local freshwater ecosystem; (d) clarifying the ecological function divisions; (e) enhancing the biodiversity monitoring and management for freshwater ecosystem in environmental impact assessment studies for industrial construction and rural development projects; (f) establishing a technical regulatory framework for related monitoring and management activities which includes an index system for monitoring and assessment; (g) studying and establishing the related biological criteria for formulating assessment standards; and (h) paying attention to aquatic vegetation,fishes, benthic macro-invertebrates and other key aquatic assemblages.

  12. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  13. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  14. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  15. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure.

  16. CEDEX research activities in Antarctica. Aquatic ecosystems in Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, maritime Antarctica); Actividad investigadora del CEDEX en la Antartida. Ecosistemas acuaticos de la Peninsula Byers (Isla Livingston, Antartida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro, M.; Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Oliva, M.; Alcami, A.; Antoniades, D.; Banon, M.; Fassnacht, S.; Fernandez-Valiente, E.; Galan, L.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Justel, A.; Liu, E. J.; Lopez-Bravo, A.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Rastrojo, A.; Rico, E.; Rochera, C.; Van de Vijver, B.; Velazquez, D.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Vicent, W. F.

    2015-07-01

    Since 2001 CEDEX has taken part in many Antarctic joint research projects with different institutions from Spain and other countries, developing scientific activities in the International Camp of Byers Peninsular (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). This place was designed as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (No.126) because the importance and value of its terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It is one of the largest ice-free areas of maritime Antarctica, with the highest diversity of environments and geological, hydrological and biological processes in the whole region, all of them in a pristine state. Byers Peninsula is considered the most significant limnological area in the Antarctic Peninsula region because it hosts a high number of lakes, ponds and streams, with an exceptional fauna and flora diversity, including the most singular, representative or endemic Antarctic species. Furthermore, the lakes sedimentary record is one of the widest and complete archives in Antarctic Peninsula region for the palaeocological and climatic study of the Holocene. Because Byers Peninsula is an Antarctic biodiversity hotspot, and it is located in one of the areas in the Earth where global warming is being more significant, it must be considered as a suitable international reference site for limnetic, terrestrial and coastal studies, and long term monitoring programmes. (Author)

  17. 定量评估水生资源及生态系统的EWE营养模型研究%Study on EWE Nutrition Model for the Quantitative Assessment of Aquatic Resources and Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳力剑; 胥献宇; 胡思玉; 刘文

    2011-01-01

    According to environmental data. Ecopath with Ecosim (EWE) can quantitatively describe the energy flow in the produolion and consumption of function components of system by using trophodynamics, and accurately assess the biomass and stable state of aquatic ecosys tem. In the paper, the basic principle and parameter) of EWE model were introduced firstly, then the relationship between Q/B (the important parameter of EWE model) and basic life indies of fish was discussed, and the current study and typical results of EWE model were analyzed finally.%基于环境调查数据,EWE生态营养通道模型利用营养动力学原理,定量描述系统中各功能成分生产和消耗的能量流动,能较为准确地评估稳定状态下水域生态系统组份的生物量及其系统稳定状态:首先概括了EWE模型的基本原理和基本参数,然后探讨了EWE重要参数Q/B与鱼类基本生命指标之间的关系,最后分析了EWE模型的研究现状及典型研究成果.

  18. Richness and distribution of aquatic macrophytes in Brazilian semi-arid aquatic ecosystems Riqueza e distribuição de macrófitas aquáticas em ecossistemas aquáticos do semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzaga Henry-Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the richness and distribution of the aquatic macrophytes in the basin of the Apodi/Mossoró River, in the semi-arid region (caatinga of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; METHODS: A survey of the floristic composition of the aquatic macrophytes was made at 20 sampling stations in the basin at four seasons (August/2007, November/2007, February/2008, May/2008. Specimens of each species were collected and deposited in the Dárdano de Andrade Lima Herbarium of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido; RESULTS: We found 40 species of aquatic macrophytes, in 33 genera and 22 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Cyperaceae, and the most species-rich genera were Cyperus and Eleocharis. The most common plant form was amphibian (42.5%, followed by emergent (27.5%, free-floating (12.5%, rooted-submersed (10.0%, and floating-leaved (7.5%. The lowest richness was observed at the estuarine region (3 species, and the highest richness in the upper basin (17 species. The rooted-submersed Hydrothrix gardneri Hooker f. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. were observed in great abundance and frequency in the Santa Cruz Reservoir of Apodi, especially in areas close to cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758. The most common free-floating species were Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms., Pistia stratiotes L., and Salvinia auriculata Aubl., predominantly in stretches that run through urban centers; CONCLUSION: The species richness of aquatic macrophytes in aquatic environments of the caatinga is similar to that observed in other basins of Brazil. Because of the many dams and reservoirs in the semi-arid Northeast, inventory and monitoring of aquatic macrophytes have become essential, especially in basins that will receive water from the diversion of the São Francisco River.OBJETIVO: Nós objetivamos avaliar a riqueza e a distribuição das macrófitas aquáticas nos ambientes aqu

  19. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M.V.; Pace, M.L.; Mather, J.R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Howarth, R.W.; Folt, C.L.; Chen, C.-Y.; Hemond, Harold F.; Flebbe, P.A.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    ameliorated. Recommendations for future monitoring efforts include: (1) extending and improving data on the distribution, abundance and effect of anthropogenic Stressors (non-point pollution) within the region; and (2) improving scientific knowledge regarding the contemporary distribution and abundance of aquatic species. Research recommendations include: (1) establishing a research centre(s) where field studies designed to understand interactions between freshwater ecosystems and climate change can be conducted; (2) projecting the future distribution, activities and direct effects of humans within the region; (3) developing mathematical analyses, experimental designs and aquatic indicators that distinguish between climatic and anthropogenic effects on aquatic systems; (4) developing and refining projections of climate variability such that the magnitude, frequency and seasonal timing of extreme events can be forecast; and (5) describing quantitatively the flux of materials (sediments, nutrients, metals) from watersheds characterized by a mosaic of land uses. ?? 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Formulating an ecosystem approach to environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Otto J.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embraced a new strategy of environmental protection that is place-driven rather than program-driven. This new approach focuses on the protection of entire ecosystems. To develop an effective strategy of ecosystem protection, however, EPA will need to: (1) determine how to define and delineate ecosystems and (2) categorize threats to individual ecosystems and priority rank ecosystems at risk. Current definitions of ecosystem in use at EPA are inadequate for meaningful use in a management or regulatory context. A landscape-based definition that describes an ecosystem as a volumetric unit delineated by climatic and landscape features is suggested. Following this definition, ecosystems are organized hierarchically, from megaecosystems, which exist on a continental scale (e.g., Great Lakes), to small local ecosystems. Threats to ecosystems can generally be categorized as: (1) ecosystem degradation (occurs mainly through pollution) (2) ecosystem alteration (physical changes such as water diversion), and (3) ecosystem removal (e.g., conversion of wetlands or forest to urban or agricultural lands). Level of threat (i.e., how imminent), and distance from desired future condition are also important in evaluating threats to ecosystems. Category of threat, level of threat, and “distance” from desired future condition can be combined into a three-dimensional ranking system for ecosystems at risk. The purpose of the proposed ranking system is to suggest a preliminary framework for agencies such as EPA to prioritize responses to ecosystems at risk.