WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic ecological risk

  1. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  2. Developing ecological scenarios for the prospective aquatic risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Gylstra, Ronald; Focks, Andreas; Brock, Theo Cm

    2016-07-01

    The prospective aquatic environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is generally based on the comparison of predicted environmental concentrations in edge-of-field surface waters with regulatory acceptable concentrations derived from laboratory and/or model ecosystem experiments with aquatic organisms. New improvements in mechanistic effect modeling have allowed a better characterization of the ecological risks of pesticides through the incorporation of biological trait information and landscape parameters to assess individual, population and/or community-level effects and recovery. Similarly to exposure models, ecological models require scenarios that describe the environmental context in which they are applied. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework for the development of ecological scenarios that, when merged with exposure scenarios, will constitute environmental scenarios for prospective aquatic ERA. These "unified" environmental scenarios are defined as the combination of the biotic and abiotic parameters that are required to characterize exposure, (direct and indirect) effects, and recovery of aquatic nontarget species under realistic worst-case conditions. Ideally, environmental scenarios aim to avoid a potential mismatch between the parameter values and the spatial-temporal scales currently used in aquatic exposure and effect modeling. This requires a deeper understanding of the ecological entities we intend to protect, which can be preliminarily addressed by the formulation of ecological scenarios. In this article we present a methodological approach for the development of ecological scenarios and illustrate this approach by a case-study for Dutch agricultural ditches and the example focal species Sialis lutaria. Finally, we discuss the applicability of ecological scenarios in ERA and propose research needs and recommendations for their development and integration with exposure scenarios. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:510-521.

  3. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic organisms from over-water uses of glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Thompson, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Although the herbicide glyphosate is most widely used in agriculture, some is used for the control of emergent aquatic weeds in ditches, wetlands, and margins of water bodies, largely as the formulation Rodeo. This article presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of glyphosate and some of the recommended surfactants as used in or near aquatic systems. Glyphosate does not bioaccumulate, biomagnify, or persist in a biologically available form in the environment. Its mechanism of action is specific to plants and it is relatively nontoxic to animals. As a commercial product, glyphosate may be formulated with surfactants that increased efficacy but, in some cases, are more toxic to aquatic organisms than the parent material. For this risk assessment, three model exposure scenarios--static or low-flow systems such as ponds, flowing waters such as streams, and systems subjected to tidal flows such as estuaries--were chosen and application rates from 1 to 8 kg glyphosate/ha were modeled. Additional measured exposure data from several field studies were also used. As acute exposures are most likely to occur, acute toxicity data were used as effect measures for the purposes of risk assessment. Toxicity data were obtained from the literature and characterized using probabilistic techniques. Risk assessments based on estimated and measured concentrations of glyphosate that would result from its use for the control of undesirable plants in wetlands and over-water situations showed that the risk to aquatic organisms is negligible or small at application rates less than 4 kg/ha and only slightly greater at application rates of 8 kg/ha. Less is known about the environmental fate and toxicology of the surfactants commonly used in combination with the Rodeo formulation of glyphosate. The surfactants used for this purpose were judged not to be persistent nor bioaccumulative in the environment. Distributional analysis of measured deposition concentrations of LI 700, suggest that

  4. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part II: ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Mark L.; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are environmental contaminants found in aquatic ecosystems throughout the world as a result of both anthropogenic and natural production. The ecological risk posed by these compounds to organisms in freshwater environments, with a specific focus on aquatic macrophytes, was characterized. The plants evaluated were Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum and M. sibiricum and the HAAs screened were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). Laboratory toxicity data formed the basis of the risk assessment, but field studies were also utilized. The estimated risk was calculated using hazard quotients (HQ), as well as effect measure distributions (EMD) in a modified probabilistic ecological risk assessment. EMDs were used to estimate HAA thresholds of toxicity for use in HQ assessments. This threshold was found to be a more sensitive measure of low toxicity than the no observed effect concentrations (NOEC) or the effective concentration (EC{sub 10}). Using both deterministic and probabilistic methods, it was found that HAAs do not pose a significant risk to freshwater macrophytes at current environmental concentrations in Canada, Europe or Africa for both single compound and mixture exposures. Still, HAAs are generally found as mixtures and their potential interactions are not fully understood, rendering this phase of the assessment uncertain and justifying further effects characterization. TCA in some environments poses a slight risk to phytoplankton and future concentrations of TFA and CDFA are likely to increase due to their recalcitrant nature, warranting continued environmental surveillance of HAAs. - Current environmental concentrations of haloacetic acids do not pose a risk to aquatic macrophytes, but could impact plankton.

  5. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  6. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  7. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  8. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Margaret C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  9. Aquatic risks of pesticides, ecological protection goals and common aims in EU legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Arts, G.H.P.; Maltby, L.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This discussion paper presents a framework for spatiotemporal differentiation in ecological protection goals to assess the risks of pesticides in surface waters. It also provides a proposal to harmonize the different scientific approaches for ecotoxicological effect assessment adopted in guidance do

  10. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  11. Determination of the Biologically Relevant Sampling Depth for Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical paper provides defensible approximations for what the depth of the biologically active zone, or “biotic zone” is within certain environments. The methods used in this study differ somewhat between Part 1 (Terrestrial Biotic Zone) and Part 2 (Aquatic Biotic Zone). ...

  12. Identifying sources of stress to native aquatic fauna using a watershed ecological risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J M; Serveiss, V B

    2001-12-15

    The free-flowing Clinch and Powell River Basin, located in southwestern Virginia, United States, historically had one of the richest assemblages of native fish and freshwater mussels in the world. Nearly half of the species once residing here are now extinct, threatened, or endangered. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's framework for conducting an ecological risk assessment was used to structure a watershed-scale analysis of human land use, in-stream habitat quality, and their relationship to native fish and mussel populations in order to develop future management strategies and prioritize areas in need of enhanced protection. Our analyses indicate that agricultural and urban land uses as well as proximity to mining activities and transportation corridors are inversely related to fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) and mussel species diversity. Forward stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that coal mining had the most impact on fish IBI followed by percent cropland and urban area in the riparian corridor (R2 = 0.55, p = 0.02); however, these analyses suggest that other site-specific factors are important. Habitat quality measures accounted for as much as approximately half of the variability in fish IBI values if the analysis was limited to sites within a relatively narrow elevation range. These results, in addition to other data collected in this watershed, suggest that nonhabitat-related stressors (e.g., accidental chemical spills) also have significant effects on biota in this basin. The number of co-occurring human land uses was inversely related to fish IBI (r = -0.49, p or = 2 co-occurring land uses had >90% probability of having riparian corridors, better controls of mine effluents and urban runoff, and increased safeguards against accidental chemical spills, as well as reintroduction or augmentation of threatened and endangered species, may help sustain native fish and mussel populations in this watershed. PMID:11775143

  13. Aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their ecological risks in surface seawater of Liaodong Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Juying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Zhen; Cong, Yi; Yao, Ziwei; Lin, Zhongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of ubiquitous pollutants in marine environments, exhibit moderate to high adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. However, the lack of PAH toxicity data for aquatic organism has limited evaluation of their ecological risks. In the present study, aquatic predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of 16 priority PAHs were derived based on species sensitivity distribution models, and their probabilistic ecological risks in seawater of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea, China, were assessed. A quantitative structure-activity relationship method was adopted to achieve the predicted chronic toxicity data for the PNEC derivation. Good agreement for aquatic PNECs of 8 PAHs based on predicted and experimental chronic toxicity data was observed (R(2)  = 0.746), and the calculated PNECs ranged from 0.011 µg/L to 205.3 µg/L. A significant log-linear relationship also existed between the octanol-water partition coefficient and PNECs derived from experimental toxicity data (R(2)  = 0.757). A similar order of ecological risks for the 16 PAH species in seawater of Liaodong Bay was found by probabilistic risk quotient and joint probability curve methods. The individual high ecological risk of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene needs to be determined. The combined ecological risk of PAHs in seawater of Liaodong Bay calculated by the joint probability curve method was 13.9%, indicating a high risk as a result of co-exposure to PAHs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1587-1593. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26517571

  14. Aquatic ecotoxicology: properties of compounds and ecological risk; Aquatische Oekotoxikologie: Stoffeigenschaften und oekologisches Risiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In spite of considerable advances in research ecotoxicology and ecotoxicology for testing purposes, fundamental problems exist owing to the immense range of concepts, prerequisites and goals. Alleged weaknesses of ecotoxicology in terms of knowledge acquisition so far have had their cause not only in its pragmatic empirism but also in inadequate methodics and, especially, inconsistent or diversified target orientation. The methodics currently available provide tools permitting to a very large extent to fulfill requirements with the necessary precision and acuity. But practical execution has to heed the magnitude of effort that society is prepared to make for the benefit of the environment. Here, setting the appropriate priorities is the second major challenge to the objectivity of experts, following the assessment of risk versus benefit. (orig.) [German] Trotz erheblicher Fortschritte in der wissenschaftlichen und Pruefoekotoxikologie bestehen aufgrund der Vielfalt der Konzeptionen, Anforderungen und Zielvorgaben grundsaetzliche Probleme. Bisherige behauptete Schwaechen der Oekotoxikologie im Hinblick auf Erkenntnisfortschritt sind nicht nur durch pragmatische Empirie begruendet, sondern auch in ungenuegender Methodik und insbesondere inkonsistenter bzw. vielfaeltiger Zielorientierung. Mit der derzeit verfuegbaren Methodik koennen Anforderungen mit der jeweils notwendigen Praezision und Aussageschaerfe weitestgehend bearbeitet werden. Die praktische Bearbeitung hat sich jedoch danach zu richten, welchen Aufwand die Gesellschaft bereit ist fuer die Gesundheit der Umwelt zu tragen, wobei die richtige Prioritaetensetzung nach den Kriterien Risiko-Nutzen-Aufwand die wohl groesste Herausforderung an Expertenobjektivitaet darstellt. (orig.)

  15. The use of terrestrial and aquatic microcosms and mesocosms for the ecological risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Tarzona, J.V.; Solomon, K.R.; Knacker, T.; Brink, van den N.W.; Brock, T.C.M.; Hoogland, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the applicability of experimental model ecosystems (microcosms and mesocosms) for the ecological risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs). VMPs are used in large quantities, but the assessment of associated risks to the environment is limited, although th

  16. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

  17. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  18. Aquatic fungi: targeting the forgotten in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor

    2016-06-01

    Fungi constitute important and conspicuous components of aquatic microbial communities, but their diversity and functional roles remain poorly characterized. New methods and conceptual frameworks are required to accurately describe their ecological roles, involvement in global cycling processes, and utility for human activities, considering both cultivation-independent techniques as well as experiments in laboratory and in natural ecosystems. Here we highlight recent developments and extant knowledge gaps in aquatic mycology, and provide a conceptual model to expose the importance of fungi in aquatic food webs and related biogeochemical processes.

  19. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE REGULATED WATERCOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bondar-Nowakowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological risk has not been identified well enough for the designers and contractors to take any actions for its limitation. It results from the lack of the basis formed to assess its level objectively. The aim of this study was to determine the standards useful in the evaluation of the ecological risk for aquatic plants in rivers, where it is planned to conduct regulatory works. The basis for the analysis were the results of the study performed in 2008–2014 in unmodified and transformed lowland watercourses in Lower Silesia. 41 study sections were analysed in 11 watercourses. 30 sections were located in regulated watercourses, while 11 were in unmodified streams. The research included vascular aquatic plants identification and the degree of the bottom coverage by these plants. As a result of regulatory works qualitative and quantitative changes in aquatic plants communities were observed. The analysis of these changes concerning the range and conditions of works conduction enabled assigning measures to the factors of the considered risk. It served as a basis for describing the risk register and the matrix of risk. The study demonstrated that the most important threats resulting from the river regulation from the point of view of environmental protection are complete shading of watercourse bed, and in some cases, bed widening and deepening, embankments slope of 1: 1, 1: 0, embankments protection with stone material or their concreting.

  20. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  1. Physical Thresholds as Ecological Proxies in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, M. B.; Gaines, D. B.; Morrison, R. R.; Sada, D. W.; Scoppettone, G. G.; Stone, M. C.; Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Wilson, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    It is often difficult to directly quantify ecological thresholds and predict ecological responses to changing environmental conditions. Here, we present two case studies from Death Valley National Park - Devils Hole and Travertine Springs - in which physical parameters are used as proxies for ecological processes to assess the consequences of environmental change on aquatic ecosystems. In Devils Hole, seasonal thresholds for water temperature and food availability are defined to quantify the optimal recruitment window for the Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). At Travertine Springs, physical thresholds of water depth, velocity, and temperature are used to define the spatial extent of the preferred habitat of several threatened macroinvertebrate species. In both systems, mechanistic models are developed to predict the response of those physical thresholds to changing environmental conditions informed by climate change scenarios and potential changes in water availability. By examining the temporal and spatial response of targeted physical parameters to alternative scenarios, we can assess potential ecosystem impacts without direct measurement of ecological processes.

  2. Ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bart, H. Jr.; Martinat, P.; Spahn, S. [and others

    1996-05-02

    This project has three major subsections; reports on the progress are detailed in the article. Community and Trophic Responses of fishes to aquatic contamination looks at the fate of environmental contaminants in fish from a lateral floodplain swamp in the lower Mississippi River system and at the ecological risks contaminants pose for fish and other aquatic organisms. Contaminants include cadmium, mercury, nickel, chromium, HCB and HCBC. The second section looks at tree cores of baldcypress as biomarkers of present and past pollution events by heavy metals. The third section evaluates the effects of environmental contamination on colonial wading birds and the usefulness of these birds as indicators of environmental contamination. 3 refs.

  3. Phylogenetic signal in diatom ecology: perspectives for aquatic ecosystems biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, François; Rimet, Frédéric; Franc, Alain; Bouchez, Agnés

    2016-04-01

    Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators in rivers. However using diatoms for monitoring programs is costly and time consuming because most of the methodologies necessitate species-level identification. This raises the question of the optimal trade-off between taxonomic resolution and bioassessment quality. Phylogenetic tools may form the bases of new, more efficient approaches for biomonitoring if relationships between ecology and phylogeny can be demonstrated. We estimated the ecological optima of 127 diatom species for 19 environmental parameters using count data from 2119 diatom communities sampled during eight years in eastern France. Using uni- and multivariate analyses, we explored the relationships between freshwater diatom phylogeny and ecology (i.e., the phylogenetic signal). We found a significant phylogenetic signal for many of the ecological optima that were tested, but the strength of the signal varied significantly from one trait to another. Multivariate analysis also showed that the multidimensional ecological niche of diatoms can be strongly related to phylogeny. The presence of clades containing species that exhibit homogeneous ecology suggests that phylogenetic information can be useful for aquatic biomonitoring. This study highlights the presence of significant patterns of ecological optima for freshwater diatoms in relation to their phylogeny. These results suggest the presence of a signal above the species level, which is encouraging for the development of simplified methods for biomonitoring survey. PMID:27411256

  4. Handbook of Scaling Methods in Aquatic Ecology: Measurement, Analysis, Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrasé, Celia

    2004-03-01

    Researchers in aquatic sciences have long been interested in describing temporal and biological heterogeneities at different observation scales. During the 1970s, scaling studies received a boost from the application of spectral analysis to ecological sciences. Since then, new insights have evolved in parallel with advances in observation technologies and computing power. In particular, during the last 2 decades, novel theoretical achievements were facilitated by the use of microstructure profilers, the application of mathematical tools derived from fractal and wavelet analyses, and the increase in computing power that allowed more complex simulations. The idea of publishing the Handbook of Scaling Methods in Aquatic Ecology arose out of a special session of the 2001 Aquatic Science Meeting of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. The edition of the book is timely, because it compiles a good amount of the work done in these last 2 decades. The book is comprised of three sections: measurements, analysis, and simulation. Each contains some review chapters and a number of more specialized contributions. The contents are multidisciplinary and focus on biological and physical processes and their interactions over a broad range of scales, from micro-layers to ocean basins. The handbook topics include high-resolution observation methodologies, as well as applications of different mathematical tools for analysis and simulation of spatial structures, time variability of physical and biological processes, and individual organism behavior. The scientific background of the authors is highly diverse, ensuring broad interest for the scientific community.

  5. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblížek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the environmental role of photoheterotrophic bacteria has been one of the main themes of aquatic microbiology over the last 15 years. Aside from cyanobacteria and proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are the third most numerous group of phototrophic prokaryotes in the ocean. This functional group represents a diverse assembly of species which taxonomically belong to various subgroups of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. AAP bacteria are facultative photoheterotrophs which use bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers to harvest light energy. The light-derived energy increases their bacterial growth efficiency, which provides a competitive advantage over heterotrophic species. Thanks to their enzymatic machinery AAP bacteria are active, rapidly growing organisms which contribute significantly to the recycling of organic matter. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the ecology of AAP bacteria in aquatic environments, implying their specific role in the microbial loop.

  6. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists - Concepts, limitations, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut; Calbet, Albert; Hansen, Per Juel; Montagnes, David J S

    2016-08-01

    Functional ecology is a subdiscipline that aims to enable a mechanistic understanding of patterns and processes from the organismic to the ecosystem level. This paper addresses some main aspects of the process-oriented current knowledge on phagotrophic, i.e. heterotrophic and mixotrophic, protists in aquatic food webs. This is not an exhaustive review; rather, we focus on conceptual issues, in particular on the numerical and functional response of these organisms. We discuss the evolution of concepts and define parameters to evaluate predator-prey dynamics ranging from Lotka-Volterra to the Independent Response Model. Since protists have extremely versatile feeding modes, we explore if there are systematic differences related to their taxonomic affiliation and life strategies. We differentiate between intrinsic factors (nutritional history, acclimatisation) and extrinsic factors (temperature, food, turbulence) affecting feeding, growth, and survival of protist populations. We briefly consider intraspecific variability of some key parameters and constraints inherent in laboratory microcosm experiments. We then upscale the significance of phagotrophic protists in food webs to the ocean level. Finally, we discuss limitations of the mechanistic understanding of protist functional ecology resulting from principal unpredictability of nonlinear dynamics. We conclude by defining open questions and identifying perspectives for future research on functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists. PMID:27094869

  7. Amchitka aquatic ecology studies, third quarter, January through March 1968: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the aquatic ecology study include an assessment of the fish and aquatic invertebrate populations in the streams and in the ponds throughout the...

  8. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  9. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, P.H.; Bakker, J.P.; Grootjans, A.P.; Gulati, R.D.; De Jonge, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    ecosystems are in full swing now, enhanced by the European Union policy to set aside agricultural land in the Netherlands in favour of the development of `nature'. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands is given. Starting from the conceptu

  10. Assessing Aquatic Ecological Risk of Aniline by Species Sensitivity Distributions%应用物种敏感性分布评估苯胺的水生生态风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡习邦; 曾东; 王俊能; 贺德春; 许振成

    2016-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was used to assess the ecological risk of aniline for freshwater organisms. The hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC5) was calculated, and the distinguished character of hazardous concentrations of aniline to different species was analyzed. The acute ecological risks of the aniline and the sensitivity of different freshwater species were assessed in the different surface water body in China, including environmental accident water. The results showed that different organisms have different tolerance range of aniline. That was in the order of Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Crustacean < Amphibia < Worms < Fishes < Ciliophora < Annelida. The wider tolerance range of aniline for organisms indicated that the increasing trend of ecological risk would slow down when the aniline’s concentration increased. The HC5 for all the species from low to high was in the order of Crustacean < Worms < Fishes < Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Amphibia < Ciliophora < Algae < Annelida < Arthropod < Molluscas < Amphibia. The lower HC5 is, the higher ecological risk of aniline for species is. Crustacean was the most sensitive specie among all the freshwater species with the HC5 of 2.29μg·L-1. Meanwhile, the HC5 for all of the freshwater species came up to 4.72μg·L-1. The value of Potential affected fraction (PAF) reflected the different damage degree in different pollution scenario. There was very low aquatic ecological riskby using SSD to assess the acute ecological risk assessment of aniline from several surface water body in China, which the PAF value was close to 0. It was obviously posed ecological damage to crustacean and worms during the aniline spilling accident in Shanxi Province.%应用物种敏感性分布(Species Sensitivity Distribution,SSD)方法构建了淡水生物对苯胺(Aniline)的敏感性分布曲线,计算了苯胺对不同生物的5%危害浓度(HC5),分析比较不同类别生物

  11. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks.

  12. Modeling the ecological impact of heavy metals on aquatic ecosystems: a framework for the development of an ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M; Wang, Z; Tang, H

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, an ecological model is proposed to predict the effects of heavy metals on aquatic ecosystems. The bioavailable concentration of metals and a concept of toxicity strength (TS) are combined. The integrated ecological model relates the transport, distribution and speciation of heavy metals and their toxicity, and the effect of environmental variability on metal toxicity. It also emphasizes the link between physical and chemical processes of heavy metals in rivers and ecological effects. Based on the data obtained from research in the CERP project (Co-operative Ecological Research Project), the ecological impact of heavy metals on the aquatic ecosystem of the Le An River (polluted by heavy metals from a copper mine) was predicted. The results show that the estimated values of toxicity strength for surface water are in agreement with the percentage inhibition for the test organism (P. phosphoreum) and that the predicted ecological effect of polluted sediment is consistent with natural variability in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:11258829

  13. 珠三角地区鱼塘水体中双酚A污染及其生态风险评价%Bisphenol A pollution in aquatic waters of Pearl River Delta and related ecological risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water and sediments of aquiculture pond in Zhongshan City was determined. BPA is detected in all surface water samples and 44.4% sediment samples. Residual content of BPA in surface water is in the range of 0.96 ~ 4.51 μg · L~(-1), with an average of 3.29 μg · L~(-1), that in sediments is in the range of 0.19~1.31 ng · g~(-1)(dry weight), with an average of 0.23 ng·g~(-1) (dry weight). No significant relationship exists between BPA content and that of main environmental factors, except for pH and COD. Based on EC/PNEC evaluation standard, BPA residuary extent of the aquatic environment in Zhongshan City could induce minimal ecological risk to people and the environment.%对地处珠三角的中山市鱼塘表层水及底泥中双酚A(BPA)污染水平进行了测定分析,结果表明:鱼塘表层水样品中BPA检出率为100%,底泥样品中BPA检出率为44.4%.鱼塘表层水中BPA残留量为0.96~4.51μg·L~(-1),平均浓度为3.29μg·L~(-1);底泥中BPA含量较低,浓度范围为0.19~1.31 ng·g~(-1) (干重),平均浓度为0.23 ng·g~(-1) (干重).相关及回归分析表明,除pH及COD外,BPA残留量与大部分环境因子关系不密切.参照EC/PNEC体系,BPA在中山鱼塘水体中的残留水平不会导致生态风险.

  14. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  15. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi

    2014-03-01

    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  16. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculat...

  17. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  18. An automated platform for phytoplankton ecology and aquatic ecosystem monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomati, F.; Jokela, J.; Simona, M.; Veronesi, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    High quality monitoring data are vital for tracking and understanding the causes of ecosystem change. We present a potentially powerful approach for phytoplankton and aquatic ecosystem monitoring, based on integration of scanning flow-cytometry for the characterization and counting of algal cells wi

  19. Ecological study of some parasitic helminths of aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Geets, A.; P. Van Damme; Hamerlynck, O.

    1988-01-01

    Except for Monogenea, most other helminth parasites (Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala) of aquatic organisms have a rather complex life cycle, which includes one or more intermediate hosts. Studies have been carried out on the elucidation of helminth life cycles and on parasite-host relationships. Knowledge of the feeding behaviour of the host is a very useful starting-point for elucidation of the life cycles of its' parasites. Asymphylodora demeli, a trematode of two sympatric go...

  20. [Method of ecological risk assessment for risk pollutants under short-term and high dose exposure in water pollution accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bing-Li; Sun, Yan-Feng; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Zeng, Xiang-Ying

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, water pollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in water pollution incidents. PMID:22295619

  1. FABM-PCLake - linking aquatic ecology with hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fenjuan; Bolding, Karsten; Bruggeman, Jorn; Jeppesen, Erik; Flindt, Morgens R.; van Gerven, Luuk; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Mooij, Wolf M.; Trolle, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    This study presents FABM-PCLake, a redesigned structure of the PCLake aquatic ecosystem model, which we implemented in the Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM). In contrast to the original model, which was designed for temperate, fully mixed freshwater lakes, the new FABM-PCLake represents an integrated aquatic ecosystem model that can be linked with different hydrodynamic models and allows simulations of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes for zero-dimensional, one-dimensional as well as three-dimensional environments. FABM-PCLake describes interactions between multiple trophic levels, including piscivorous, zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish, zooplankton, zoobenthos, three groups of phytoplankton and rooted macrophytes. The model also accounts for oxygen dynamics and nutrient cycling for nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, both within the pelagic and benthic domains. FABM-PCLake includes a two-way communication between the biogeochemical processes and the physics, where some biogeochemical state variables (e.g., phytoplankton) influence light attenuation and thereby the spatial and temporal distributions of light and heat. At the same time, the physical environment, including water currents, light and temperature influence a wide range of biogeochemical processes. The model enables studies on ecosystem dynamics in physically heterogeneous environments (e.g., stratifying water bodies, and water bodies with horizontal gradients in physical and biogeochemical properties), and through FABM also enables data assimilation and multi-model ensemble simulations. Examples of potential new model applications include climate change impact studies and environmental impact assessment scenarios for temperate, sub-tropical and tropical lakes and reservoirs.

  2. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Ćurković, Lidija; Fajković, Hana; Rončević, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in...

  3. Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Alix, A.; Brown, C.D.; Capri, E.; Gottesburen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for pestici

  4. Priorities to improve the ecological risk assessment and management for pesticides in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with prospective and retrospective ecological risk assessment (ERA) procedures for pesticides in surface waters as carried out under European legislation (Regulation 1107/2009/EC; Directive 2009/128/EC; Directive 2000/60/EC). Priorities to improve the aquatic risk assessment and m

  5. Recent trends in the development of ecological models applied on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, S E

    2002-02-12

    This paper presents an overview of the application of models on aquatic ecosystems. More than 17% of the models published in the focal journal in the field, Ecological Modelling, are aquatic ecosystem models. An increasing number of papers are dealing with the theoretical aspects of modeling--new modeling approaches and techniques, how models can be used to reveal ecosystem properties, and how models can better reflect the properties of ecosystems. This development implies that today we have more types of models. The characteristics, the advantages, and the disadvantages of these model types are presented briefly. The selection criteria for the presented model types are discussed, and the application of these types to models for aquatic ecosystems is reviewed. A recent improvement in model calibration of particular interest for aquatic ecosystems is presented, and the perspectives resulting from this new calibration procedure and from possible hybrids of the presented model types are discussed. PMID:12806024

  6. Recent Trends in the Development of Ecological Models Applied on Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Jorgensen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the application of models on aquatic ecosystems. More than 17% of the models published in the focal journal in the field, Ecological Modelling, are aquatic ecosystem models. An increasing number of papers are dealing with the theoretical aspects of modeling – new modeling approaches and techniques, how models can be used to reveal ecosystem properties, and how models can better reflect the properties of ecosystems. This development implies that today we have more types of models. The characteristics, the advantages, and the disadvantages of these model types are presented briefly. The selection criteria for the presented model types are discussed, and the application of these types to models for aquatic ecosystems is reviewed. A recent improvement in model calibration of particular interest for aquatic ecosystems is presented, and the perspectives resulting from this new calibration procedure and from possible hybrids of the presented model types are discussed.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

  8. Genetic fingerprinting of plankton community provides new insights into aquatic ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qingyun; YU Yuhe; FENG Weisong

    2006-01-01

    Over the past two decades, molecular techniques have been widely used in ecological study and molecular ecology has been one of the most important branches of ecology. Meanwhile, genetic fingerprinting analyses have significantly enhanced our knowledge of the diversity and evolutionary relations of the planktonic organisms. Compared with conventional approaches in ecological study ( e. g.morphological classification), genetic fingerprinting techniques are simpler and much more effective. This review provides an overview of the principles, advantages and limitations of the commonly used DNA fingerprinting techniques in plankton research. The aim of this overview is to assess where we have been, where we are now and what the future holds for solving aquatic ecological problems with molecular-level information.

  9. DISSIPATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL ON AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    JOAQUIM G. MACHADO-NETO; MAYRA A.P. FIGUEIREDO; WILSON G. MANRIQUE

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been used in agriculture to avoid productivity losses caused by various organisms. However, the indiscriminate use of these chemicals has resulted in negative impacts on the environment, such as residues in soil, water, air, plants and animals. Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in agricultural management to control pests of sugar cane in Brazil, and it can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to evaluate the environmental risk of toxic...

  10. The ecological potentials of Phytomyxea ("plasmodiophorids") in aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Sigrid; Kirchmair, Martin; Gleason, Frank H

    2011-01-01

    The Phytomyxea ("plasmodiophorids") including both Plasmodiophorida and Phagomyxida is a monophyletic group of Eukaryotes composed of obligate biotrophic parasites of green plants, brown algae, diatoms and stramenopiles commonly found in many freshwater, soil and marine environments. However, most research on Phytomyxea has been restricted to plant pathogenic species with agricultural importance, thereby missing the huge ecological potential of this enigmatic group of parasites. Members of the Phytomyxea can induce changes in biomass in their hosts (e.g. hypertrophies of the host tissue) under suitable environmental conditions. Upon infection they alter the metabolism of their hosts, consequently changing the metabolic status of their host. This results in an altered chemical composition of the host tissue, which impacts the diversity of species which feed on the tissues of the infected host and on the zoospores produced by the parasites. Furthermore, significant amounts of nutrients derived from the hosts, both primary producers (plants and algae) and primary consumers (litter decomposers and plant parasites [Oomycetes]), can enter the food web at different trophic levels in form of zoospores and resting spores. Large numbers of zoospores and resting spores are produced which can be eaten by secondary and tertiary consumers, such as grazing zooplankton and metazoan filter-feeders. Therefore, these microbes can act as energy-rich nutrient resources which may significantly alter the trophic relationships in fresh water, soil and marine habitats. Based on the presented data, Phytomyxea can significantly contribute to the complexity and energy transfer within food webs.

  11. Open, Sharable, and Extensible Data Management for the Korea National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Program: A RESTful API-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meilan Jiang; Karpjoo Jeong; Jung-Hwan Park; Nan-Young Kim; Soon-Jin Hwang; Sang-Hun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Implemented by a national law, the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program (NAEMP) has been assessing the ecological health status of surface waters, focusing on streams and rivers, in Korea since 2007. The program involves ecological monitoring of multiple aquatic biota such as benthic diatoms, macroinvertebrates, fish, and plants as well as water quality and habitat parameters. Taking advantage of the national scale of long-term aquatic ecological monitoring and the standardization o...

  12. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of cadmium in the Bohai Sea using native saltwater species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jingli; WANG Juying; WANG Ying; CONG Yi; ZHANG Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    Predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) is often used in ecological risk assessment to determine low-risk concentrations for chemicals. In the present study, the chronic data from native saltwater species were used to calculated PNEC values using four methods: log-normal distribution (ETX 2.0), log-triangle distribution (US EPA’s water quality criteria procedure), burr III distribution (BurrliOZ) and traditional assessment fac-tor (AF). The PNECs that were calculated using four methods ranged from 0.08 μg/L to 1.8 μg/L. Three of the SSD-derived PNECs range from 0.94 to 1.8 μg/L, about a factor of two apart. To demonstrate the use of SSD-based PNEC values and comprehensively estimate the regional ecological risk for cadmium in surface water of the Bohai Sea, in the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay, and Laizhou Bay, China, the dissolved cadmium con-centrations were measured and obtained 753 valid data covering 190 stations from July 2006 to November 2007. Based on three ecological risk assessment approaches, namely hazard quotient (HQ), probabilistic risk quotient and joint probability curve (JPC), the potential ecological risk of cadmium in surface water of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay, and Laizahou Bay were estimated. Overall, the ecological risk of cadmium to aquatic ecosystem in the whole Bohai Sea was at acceptable ecological risk level, the order of ecological risk was Liaodong Bay>Bohai Bay>Laizhou Bay. However, more concerns should be paid to aquatic ecological risk in the Liaodong Bay which is the home of many steel, metallurgy and petrochemical industrial in China.

  13. Nominal radio ecological benchmarks for the ecological risk assessment of radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological risk assessments are used to assess potential ecological impacts from contaminated sites, such as radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. These assessments determine the overall significance of the impact of such facilities on non-human biota. Specific indicator species are selected as representative non-human biota at the study sites for the purposes of these risk assessments. Potential environmental impacts are generally assessed in terms of 'screening indices'. In simple terms, a screening index is the ratio of an estimated exposure level of the indicator species (or environmental concentration) divided by a level or concentration deemed unlikely to have a significant ecological effect. These latter levels or concentrations are referred to as 'estimated no effect value' or ENEVs. Nominal ENEV values for chronic radiation effects based on our current interpretation of literature data are presented in this paper. They are: 5 mGy/d for fish and amphibians; 2.4 mGy/d for aquatic plants; 2 mGy/d for reptiles; 5 mGy/d for benthic and terrestrial invertebrates; 1 mGy/d for slow-growing terrestrial animals that reproduce late in life; 10 mGy/d for short-lived prolific terrestrial animals; 2.4 mGy/d for terrestrial plants; 5 mGy/d for birds. The paper identifies major areas of uncertainty regarding the selection of these nominal ENEVs for practical applications. (author)

  14. Developing best-practice Bayesian Belief Networks in ecological risk assessments for freshwater and estuarine ecosystems: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K S; Ryder, D S; Tighe, M

    2015-05-01

    Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) are being increasingly used to develop a range of predictive models and risk assessments for ecological systems. Ecological BBNs can be applied to complex catchment and water quality issues, integrating multiple spatial and temporal variables within social, economic and environmental decision making processes. This paper reviews the essential components required for ecologists to design a best-practice predictive BBN in an ecological risk assessment (ERA) framework for aquatic ecosystems, outlining: (1) how to create a BBN for an aquatic ERA?; (2) what are the challenges for aquatic ecologists in adopting the best-practice applications of BBNs to ERAs?; and (3) how can BBNs in ERAs influence the science/management interface into the future? The aims of this paper are achieved using three approaches. The first is to demonstrate the best-practice development of BBNs in aquatic sciences using a simple nutrient model. The second is to discuss the limitations and challenges aquatic ecologists encounter when applying BBNs to ERAs. The third is to provide a framework for integrating best-practice BBNs into ERAs and the management of aquatic ecosystems. A quantitative review of the application and development of BBNs in aquatic science from 2002 to 2014 was conducted to identify areas where continued best-practice development is required. We outline a best-practice framework for the integration of BBNs into ERAs and study of complex aquatic systems. PMID:25733196

  15. DISSIPATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL ON AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM G. MACHADO-NETO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have been used in agriculture to avoid productivity losses caused by various organisms. However, the indiscriminate use of these chemicals has resulted in negative impacts on the environment, such as residues in soil, water, air, plants and animals. Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in agricultural management to control pests of sugar cane in Brazil, and it can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to evaluate the environmental risk of toxic concentrations and dissipation of fipronil to Poecilia reticulata, based on the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50 value estimated at 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/L without sediment and 0.09 ± 0.01 mg/L with sediment of fipronil in the aquatic environment. These values of fipronil were classified as extremely toxic to P. reticulata in both cases, which showed high environmental risk of poisoning to a shallow film of water of 1 ha and 0.30 m deep, with and without sediment. On the other hand, in bodies of water 1 ha and 2.0 m deep, it was of moderate toxicity. Dissipation of fipronil in the water was not affected by temperature, sediment or photoperiod. The minimum time to which fipronil caused 50% acute mortality (0.08 mg/L after dilution of 0.75 mg/L was 242 days; the withdrawal period, after which no mortality occurs (0.025 mg/L, was 263 days.

  16. Is there a risk associated with the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) commonly found in aquatic environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, S.D.; Watkinson, A.J.; Murby, E.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the active ingredient of most commercial insect repellents. This compound has commonly been detected in aquatic water samples from around the world indicating that DEET is both mobile and persistent, despite earlier assumptions that DEET was unlikely to enter aquatic ecosystems. DEET's registration category does not require an ecological risk assessment, thus information on the ecological toxicity of DEET is sparse. This paper reviews the presence of DEET in aqueous samples from around the world (e.g. drinking water, streams, open seawater, groundwater and treated effluent) with reported DEET concentrations ranging from 40–3000 ng L− 1. In addition, new DEET data collected from 36 sites in coastal waterways from eastern Australia (detections ranging from 8 to 1500 ng L− 1) are examined. A summary of new and existing toxicity data are discussed with an emphasis on preparing a preliminary risk assessment for DEET in the aquatic environment. Collated information on DEET in the aquatic environment suggests risk to aquatic biota at observed environmental concentrations is minimal. However, the information available was not sufficient to conduct a full risk assessment due to data deficiencies in source characterisation, transport mechanisms, fate, and ecotoxicity studies. These risks warrant further investigation due to the high frequency that this organic contaminant is detected in aquatic environments around the world.

  17. [Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Laura Cristina; Longo, Magnolia; John Jairo, Ramirez; Guillermo, Chalar

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia. Available indices to assess the ecological status of rivers in Colombia are mostly based on subjective hypotheses about macroinvertebrate tolerance to pollution, which have important limitations. Here we present the application of a method to establish an index of ecological quality for lotic systems in Colombia. The index, based on macroinvertebrate abundance and physicochemical variables, was developed as an alternative to the BMWP-Col index. The method consists on determining an environmental gradient from correlations between physicochemical variables and abundance. The scores obtained in each sampling point are used in a standardized correlation for a model of weighted averages (WA). In the WA model abundances are also weighted to estimate the optimum and tolerance values of each taxon; using this information we estimated the index of ecological quality based also on macroinvertebrate (ICE(RN-MAE)) abundance in each sampling site. Subsequently, we classified all sites using the index and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in a cluster analysis. Using TP and ICE(RN-MAE), mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation, we defined threshold values corresponding to three categories of ecological status: good, fair and critical. PMID:25189081

  18. Toxicity assessment of boron (B) by Lemna minor L. and Lemna gibba L. and their possible use as model plants for ecological risk assessment of aquatic ecosystems with boron pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Nurcan; Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun

    2016-08-01

    As many of the metalloid-based pollutants, the boron (B) toxicity issues have aroused more and more global attentions, especially concerning drinking water sources which flow through boron-rich areas. Therefore, feasible and innovative approaches are required in order to assess B toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the toxic effects of B on Lemna minor L. and Lemna gibba L. were investigated using various endpoints including number of fronds, growth rates, dry biomass and antioxidants enzymatic activities. Lemna species were exposed to B concentrations of 2 (control), 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg L(-1) for a test period of 7 days. The results demonstrated that plant growth was significantly reduced when the B concentration reached 16 mg L(-1). Furthermore, our results also concluded that among the antioxidative enzymes, SOD, APX and GPX can serve as important biomarkers for B-rich environment. The present results suggested that L. minor and L. gibba are very useful model plants for phytoremediation of low-B contaminated wastewater and they are also suitable options for B biomonitoring due to high phototoxic sensitivity against B. In this respect, the scientific insight of the present study is to fill the gaps in the research about the use of L. minor and L. gibba in ecotoxicological research associated with B toxicity. PMID:27192627

  19. Palladium Nanoparticles: Is There a Risk for Aquatic Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderwald, Simon; Seitz, Frank; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2016-08-01

    Nano-sized palladium (nano-Pd) is used in catalytic converters of automobiles, where it can be released into the environment by abrasion. Although these particles may subsequently be transported into surface water bodies, no data estimating their fate and toxicity in aquatic systems exists. This study characterized the particle size development of nano-Pd (advertised size ~12 nm; hydrodynamic size ~70 nm) in media with variable ionic strength (IS). Additionally, the particles' acute toxicity for daphnids and chironomids was assessed. While nano-Pd agglomerated more quickly with increasing IS, it caused only marginal effects in both test species after 96 h of exposure. After 144 h of exposure, however, an EC50 value of 1.23 mg nano-Pd/L for daphnids was determined indicating effects over the long run. When considering the relatively low environmental concentration of elemental Pd in surface waters (usually ng/L), though, this study suggests only a low aquatic risk in response to nano-Pd. PMID:27107586

  20. Microplastics: addressing ecological risk through lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syberg, Kristian; Khan, Farhan R; Selck, Henriette; Palmqvist, Annemette; Banta, Gary T; Daley, Jennifer; Sano, Larissa; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2015-05-01

    Plastic litter is an environmental problem of great concern. Despite the magnitude of the plastic pollution in our water bodies, only limited scientific understanding is available about the risk to the environment, particularly for microplastics. The apparent magnitude of the problem calls for quickly developing sound scientific guidance on the ecological risks of microplastics. The authors suggest that future research into microplastics risks should be guided by lessons learned from the more advanced and better understood areas of (eco) toxicology of engineered nanoparticles and mixture toxicity. Relevant examples of advances in these two fields are provided to help accelerate the scientific learning curve within the relatively unexplored area of microplastics risk assessment. Finally, the authors advocate an expansion of the "vector effect" hypothesis with regard to microplastics risk to help focus research of microplastics environmental risk at different levels of biological and environmental organization. PMID:25655822

  1. Ecological Risk Assessment of Acid Rain%酸雨的生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁传政; 方萍

    2013-01-01

    随着我国的经济发展,酸雨的生态风险评价技术也随之发展,包括酸雨对地表水水生生物、对陆生生物以及地下水的风险评价。综述了我国水生生态风险评价及陆生生态风险评价技术,旨在为我国酸雨的生态风险评价技术的完善和风险管理提供借鉴。%With the development of the economy, the ecological risk assessment technology of acid rain is also developing, including the risk assessment for the aquatic organism and terrestrial organism. To improve ecological risk assessment technology and provide reference for risk management, this paper reviewed technology of aquatic ecological risk assessment and terrestrial ecological risk assessment in China.

  2. Concepts in ecological risk assessment. Professional paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.K.; Seligman, P.F.

    1991-05-01

    Assessing the risk of impact to natural ecosystems from xenobiotic compounds requires an accurate characterization of the threatened ecosystem, direct measures or estimates of environmental exposure, and a comprehensive evaluation of the biological effects from actual and potential contamination. Field and laboratory methods have been developed to obtain direct measures of environmental health. These methods have been implemented in monitoring programs to assess and verify the ecological risks of contamination from past events, such as hazardous waste disposal sites, as well as future scenarios, such as the environmental consequences from the use of biocides in antifouling bottom paints for ships.

  3. 水生植物的生态敏感度研究%Ecological Sensitivity of Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏文; Paul; K.Chien

    2001-01-01

    Throughy the study on the ecological effects of Cd and Zn onseveral aquatic plants,the ecological sensitivity of 5 species is determined.The results show that according to critical time when plants are injured by Cd and Zn,the order for ecological sensitivity of 5 species is:Nymphoides peltatum>Hydrilla verticillata>Potamogeton malaianus>Spirodela polyrhiza>Alternanthera philoxeroides.The results also show that on basis of catalase activity of aquatic plants,the order for ecological sensitivity of 5 species is:Alternanthera philoxeroides>Spirodela polyrhiza≈Potamogeton malaianus>Hydrilla verticillata>Nymphoides peltatum.It is evident that the pollution-durablty Potamogeton malaianus is higher than for Nymphoides peltatum and Hydrilla verticillata,pollution-sensible species

  4. New improvements on pesticide ecological risk assessment on the soil-water interface

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Sara Pais de Almeida da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Doutoramento em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Improving knowledge to evaluate and reduce pesticide impacts in the environment is a present concern to achieve their sustainable use. With the aim of increasing ecological relevance on the environmental risk assessment of pesticides (ERA), an integrated approach was undertaken linking pesticide fate and effects on aquatic and terrestrial non-target organisms under irrigated crop-based scenarios in Mediterr...

  5. Tier 1 Ecological Risk Assessment of a Contaminated Rail Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted for a contaminated rail corridor in British Columbia. The purpose of the ERA was to demonstrate the utility of British Columbia Tier 1 ERA methodology for identifying contaminated sites with unacceptable ecological risks requiring remediation andor risk management. The methodology applies a weight of evidence approach to characterize ecological risks with risk quotients and site observations serving as the two lines of evidence....

  6. Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Mercury in Water, Sediments and Typical Aquatic Organisms from Northern Taihu Lake%北太湖水、沉积物及典型水生生物样品汞的分布特征与生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡良锋; 王永花; 王秋英; 陆光华; 谢正鑫; 张正华

    2014-01-01

    利用NIC MA-800型测汞仪对北太湖水、沉积物及典型水生生物样品的汞含量进行测定,并用单项污染指数法和地积累指数法对其生态风险进行评价。结果表明:北太湖三湾的水体均未受到明显的汞污染,均低于《地表水环境质量标准》第Ⅱ类(≤50 ng·L-1);沉积物样品,除了竺山湖(平均汞含量为150.5 ng·g-1)稍高于《土壤环境质量标准》第Ⅰ类(≤150 ng·g-1)外,贡湖和梅梁湖均未超标,具体污染情况为竺山湖(中度污染)>贡湖(偏中度污染)>梅梁湖(轻度污染),且整个北太湖沉积物处于中度污染水平;典型水生生物样品(螺蛳、蚬子和鱼)的汞含量均低于我国《农产品安全质量无公害水产品安全要求》(≤300 ng·g-1),其污染大小顺序为鱼(轻污染水平)>蚬子(正常背景水平)>螺蛳(正常背景水平),且鱼、蚬子和螺蛳的汞污染空间分布特征均为竺山湖>贡湖>梅梁湖。对比以往研究结果可知,汞含量浓度稍高且有上升的趋势,故应加大对汞污染的监测及治理。%Taihu Lake, the second largest freshwater lake in China, has become polluted in recent years. However, there is little information about mercury pollution. In this study, mercury contents in water, sediments and typical aquatic organisms in Northern Taihu Lake were de-termined using a NIC MA-800 Mercury Analyzer. Single Pollution Index and Index of Geoaccumulation were used to assess ecological risks of mercury. The results showed that mercury concentrations in aqueous phase in three bays of Northern Taihu Lake were lower than the sec-ondary-level standard of the National Surface Water Environment Quality Standard(≤50 ng·L-1). The average mercury concentration in sediments from Gonghu Bay and Meiliang Bay was below the primary standard of the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard(≤150 ng·g-1), whereas higher from

  7. A lake as a microcosm: reflections on developments in aquatic ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob; Chapman, Ben B.;

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we aim at relating Forbes’ remarkable paper on ‘‘The lake as a microcosm’’, published 125 years ago, to the present status of knowledge in our own research group. Hence, we relate the observations Forbes made to our own microcosm, Lake Krankesjo¨n in southern Sweden, that ha......, although aquatic ecology has made considerable progress over the latest century, Forbes might be viewed as one of the major pioneers and visionary scientists of limnology...... been intensively studied by several research groups for more than three decades. Specifically, we focus on the question: Have we made any significant progress or did Forbes and colleagues blaze the trail through the unknown wilderness and we are mainly paving that intellectual road? We conclude that...

  8. Ecological Risk Assessment of a Metal-Contaminated Area in the Tropics. Tier II: Detailed Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui; Rutgers, Michiel; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes; Sousa, José Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This study presents data on the detailed evaluation (tier 2) of a site-specific ecological risk assessment (ssERA) in a former smelter area contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil). Combining information from three lines of evidence (LoE), chemical (ChemLoE), ecotoxicological (EcotoxLoE) and ecological (EcoLoE), in the Triad approach, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites and confirm the potential risk disclosed with tier 1. Risk values were calculated for the habitat and for the retention functions in each sampling point. Habitat function included the ChemLoE calculated from total metal concentrations. The EcotoxLoE was based on reproduction tests with terrestrial invertebrates (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia andrei), shoot length and plant biomass (Avena sativa, Brassica rapa). For the EcoLoE, ecological parameters (microbial parameters, soil invertebrate community, litter breakdown) were used to derive risk values. Retention function included the ChemLoE, calculated from extractable metal concentrations, and the EcotoxLoE based on eluate tests with aquatic organisms (Daphnia magna reproduction and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth). Results related to the habitat function indicated that the metal residues are sufficient to cause risk to biota, while the low metal levels in extracts and the general lack of toxicity in aquatic tests indicated a high soil retention capacity in most sampling points. Integrated risk of tier 2 showed the same trend of tier 1, suggesting the need to proceed with remediation actions. The high risk levels were related to direct toxicity to organisms and indirect effects, such as failure in the establishment of vegetation and the consequent loss of habitat quality for microorganisms and soil fauna. This study shed some light on the selection of tools for the tier 2 of an ssERA in tropical metal-contaminated sites, focusing on ecological receptors at risk and using available chemical

  9. Ecological Risk Assessment of a Metal-Contaminated Area in the Tropics. Tier II: Detailed Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Carina Niemeyer

    Full Text Available This study presents data on the detailed evaluation (tier 2 of a site-specific ecological risk assessment (ssERA in a former smelter area contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil. Combining information from three lines of evidence (LoE, chemical (ChemLoE, ecotoxicological (EcotoxLoE and ecological (EcoLoE, in the Triad approach, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites and confirm the potential risk disclosed with tier 1. Risk values were calculated for the habitat and for the retention functions in each sampling point. Habitat function included the ChemLoE calculated from total metal concentrations. The EcotoxLoE was based on reproduction tests with terrestrial invertebrates (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia andrei, shoot length and plant biomass (Avena sativa, Brassica rapa. For the EcoLoE, ecological parameters (microbial parameters, soil invertebrate community, litter breakdown were used to derive risk values. Retention function included the ChemLoE, calculated from extractable metal concentrations, and the EcotoxLoE based on eluate tests with aquatic organisms (Daphnia magna reproduction and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth. Results related to the habitat function indicated that the metal residues are sufficient to cause risk to biota, while the low metal levels in extracts and the general lack of toxicity in aquatic tests indicated a high soil retention capacity in most sampling points. Integrated risk of tier 2 showed the same trend of tier 1, suggesting the need to proceed with remediation actions. The high risk levels were related to direct toxicity to organisms and indirect effects, such as failure in the establishment of vegetation and the consequent loss of habitat quality for microorganisms and soil fauna. This study shed some light on the selection of tools for the tier 2 of an ssERA in tropical metal-contaminated sites, focusing on ecological receptors at risk and using available

  10. Ecological strategies predict associations between aquatic and genetic connectivity for dryland amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Meryl C; Phillipsen, Ivan C; Lytle, David A; Kirk, Emily E Hartfield; Olden, Julian D

    2015-05-01

    The study of how population genetic structure is shaped by attributes of the environment is a central scientific pursuit in ecology and conservation. But limited resources may prohibit landscape genetics studies for many threatened species, particularly given the pace of current environmental change. Understanding the extent to which species' ecological strategies--their life histories, biology, and behavior-predict patterns and drivers of population connectivity is a critical step in evaluating the potential of multi-taxa inference in landscape genetics. We present results of a landscape genetic study of three dryland amphibians: the canyon treefrog (Hyla arenicolor), red-spotted toad (Anaxyrus punctatus), and Mexican spadefoot (Spea multiplicata). These species characterize a range of ecological strategies, driven primarily by different water dependencies, enabling amphibian survival in arid and semiarid environments. We examined a suite of hypothesized relationships between genetic connectivity and landscape connectivity across species. We found a positive relationship between population differentiation and water dependency, e.g., longer larval development periods and site fidelity for reliable water sources. We also found that aquatic connectivity is important for all species, particularly when considered with topography (slope). The effect of spatial scale varied by species, with canyon treefrogs and Mexican spadefoots characterized by relatively consistent results at different scales in contrast to the stark differences in results for red-spotted toads at different scales. Using ecological information to predict relationships between genetic and landscape connectivity is a promising approach for multi-taxa inference and may help inform conservation efforts where single-species genetic studies are not possible.

  11. Ecological risk assessment in prevention of pollution of auxiliary products of textile sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Christofaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of ecological risk assessment for Pollution Prevention (P2. Thirteen textile industry auxiliary products were selected by their Material Safety Data Sheets – MSDS. The exposure and environmental behavior of substances were estimated by the softwares E-FAST and EPIWin, respectively, considering the following properties: bio-concentration potential (Kow and Bioconcentration Factor, soil absorption potential (Koc, biodegradability, and removal percentage after effluent treatment. The hazards to aquatic biota identified were the acute and chronic toxic effects to algae, aquatic invertebrates and fish, estimated through Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR, using the ECOSAR software. The ecological risk was determined considering the hazards and exposure of each substance, and demonstrated that three wetting agents and one dispersant have ecological risks in sufficient degree to justify their exclusion. The products evaluated presented low potentials for biota distribution (low Kow and bio-accumulation factor and soil absorption (low Koc. The study demonstrates that ecological risk assessment is a low-cost, fast, and relatively reliable method for selecting products with lower pollution potentials that can be used by any industrial sector.

  12. Support for NATO Advanced Study Institute on molecular ecology of aquatic microbes, August 28--September 9, 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint, I.

    1995-06-16

    This is a summary paper for a NATO Advanced Study Institute sponsored meeting entitled `The Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes` held in Luccia, Italy from August 28 to September 9, 1994. A full reference book for the proceedings is to be published later.

  13. Assessment of risk to aquatic biota from elevated salinity -- a case study from the Hunter River, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschal, Monika

    2006-05-01

    An ecological risk assessment was performed on salinity levels of the Hunter River and its tributaries to respond to concerns that high salinity may be damaging aquatic ecosystems. Probabilistic techniques were used to assess likelihood and consequence, and hence the risk to aquatic biota from salinity. Continuous electrical conductivity distributions were used to describe the likelihood that high salinity would occur (exposure dataset) and toxicity values were compiled from the limited literature sources available to describe the consequence of high salinity (effects dataset). The assessment was preliminary in the sense that it modelled risk on the basis of existing data and did not undertake site-specific toxicity testing. Some sections of the Hunter River catchment have geologies that are saline because of their marine origins. Catchment development has increased the liberation rates of salts into surface-waters. Such modifying activities include coal-mining, power generation and land clearing. The aquatic biota of tributaries had a greater risk of impairment from high salinity than that of the Hunter River. High salinities in the tributaries were attributed to the combined factors of naturally saline geologies, increased liberation of salts due to modification of the landscape, and reduced dilution by flushing flows. A salinity guideline trigger value of 1100 mg L(-1) was recommended.

  14. Ecological risk assessment of the antibiotic enrofloxacin applied to Pangasius catfish farms in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Artero, A.; Phu, T.M.; Huong, D.T.T.; Phuong, N.T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics applied in aquaculture production may be released into the environment and contribute to the deterioration of surrounding aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, we assessed the ecological risks posed by the use of the antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENR), and its main metabolite ciprofloxaci

  15. Aquatic risk assessment of the new rice herbicide profoxydim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tiered protocol for assessing ecological risks has been applied to the rice pesticide profoxydim. The initial assessment (Tier I) was based on toxicity exposure ratio (TER) calculations based on laboratory data using a worst-case rice scenario. The first refinement (Tier II) was based on direct toxicity assessment (DTA) of water samples collected during a field-mesocosm study. Finally, a higher-tier assessment on the in situ assessment of paddy community responses (field-mesocosm-Tier III) was performed. A successive application of three pesticides, the herbicides azimsulfuron, propanil and the insecticide malathion, was used as reference controls. The refined assessments indicated a lower risk than that predicted from TER estimations. DTA-based Tier II showed toxicity effects only for concentrations above the recommended dose of profoxydim. Effects for reference controls were observed in DTA which were not expected from Tier I. The field-mesocosm study confirmed these effects but also showed that they were transient and of low relevance. - Risk refinement assessment of rice pesticides starting with DTA and moving to community studies is a cost-effective approach, only if required

  16. An ecological risk assessment for insecticides used in adult mosquito management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan S; Peterson, Robert K D; Macedo, Paula A

    2007-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has been a concern for people across the United States since the disease was initially observed in the summer of 1999. Since 1999, WNV has caused the largest arboviral encephalitis epidemic in US history. Vector control management programs have been intensively implemented to control mosquitoes that carry WNV. Our deterministic ecological risk assessment focused on 6 common mosquito adulticides used in vector control, including 3 pyrethroids (d-phenothrin, resmethrin, and permethrin), pyrethrins, and 2 organophosphates (malathion and naled). Piperonyl butoxide, a synergist for the pyrethroids, was also assessed. Both aquatic and terrestrial nontarget organisms were considered for acute and chronic exposures to the adulticides. Tier I exposure estimates were derived from ISCST3 and AERMOD for deposition and air concentrations affecting terrestrial organisms and PRZM-EXAMS for standard pond concentrations affecting aquatic organisms. Nontargets exposed to adulticides included small mammals, birds, as well as aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates in a pond subject to receiving the chemical via drift and runoff. Risk quotients were obtained by comparing exposures to toxic endpoints. All risk quotients were low indicating that risks to ecological receptors most likely were small. PMID:17695110

  17. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, PH; Bakker, JP; Grootjans, AP; Gulati, RD; de Jonge, VN

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands are a small, low-lying delta in W. Europe (42 000 km 2;50degrees-54degrees N; 3degrees-8degrees E), mainly consisting of alluvial deposits from the North Sea and from the large rivers Rhine and Meuse. The country was 'created by man'. The conversion of natural aquatic and terrestrial

  18. Potential human health risks from metals and As via Odontesthes bonariensis consumption and ecological risk assessments in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monferran, Magdalena V; Garnero, Paola Lorena; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Angeles Bistoni, María de Los

    2016-07-01

    The concentration of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and As was analyzed in water, sediment, and muscle of Odontesthes bonariensis from the eutrophic San Roque Lake (Córdoba-Argentina). The monitoring campaign was performed during the wet, dry and intermediate season. The concentration of Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Al and Cd in water exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediment, intermediate concentrations, in fish muscle, and the lowest in water, with the exception of Cr, Zn, As and Hg, which were the highest in fish muscle. Potential ecological risk analysis of heavy metal concentrations in sediment indicated that the San Roque Lake posed a low ecological risk in all sampling periods. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and carcinogenic risk (CR) for individual metals showed that As in muscle was particularly hazardous, posing a potential risk for fishermen and the general population during all sampling periods. Hg poses a potential risk for fishermen only in the intermediate season. It is important to highlight that none of these two elements exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life in water and sediment. This result proves the importance of performing measurements of contaminants, in both abiotic and biotic compartments, to assess the quality of food resources. These results suggest that the consumption of this fish species from this reservoir is not completely safe for human health. PMID:27060257

  19. Neonicotinoid contamination of global surface waters and associated risk to aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christy A; Mineau, Pierre; Devries, James H; Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Liess, Matthias; Cavallaro, Michael C; Liber, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, broad-spectrum systemic insecticides, are the fastest growing class of insecticides worldwide and are now registered for use on hundreds of field crops in over 120 different countries. The environmental profile of this class of pesticides indicate that they are persistent, have high leaching and runoff potential, and are highly toxic to a wide range of invertebrates. Therefore, neonicotinoids represent a significant risk to surface waters and the diverse aquatic and terrestrial fauna that these ecosystems support. This review synthesizes the current state of knowledge on the reported concentrations of neonicotinoids in surface waters from 29 studies in 9 countries world-wide in tandem with published data on their acute and chronic toxicity to 49 species of aquatic insects and crustaceans spanning 12 invertebrate orders. Strong evidence exists that water-borne neonicotinoid exposures are frequent, long-term and at levels (geometric means=0.13μg/L (averages) and 0.63μg/L (maxima)) which commonly exceed several existing water quality guidelines. Imidacloprid is by far the most widely studied neonicotinoid (66% of the 214 toxicity tests reviewed) with differences in sensitivity among aquatic invertebrate species ranging several orders of magnitude; other neonicotinoids display analogous modes of action and similar toxicities, although comparative data are limited. Of the species evaluated, insects belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera appear to be the most sensitive, while those of Crustacea (although not universally so) are less sensitive. In particular, the standard test species Daphnia magna appears to be very tolerant, with 24-96hour LC50 values exceeding 100,000μg/L (geometric mean>44,000μg/L), which is at least 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the geometric mean of all other invertebrate species tested. Overall, neonicotinoids can exert adverse effects on survival, growth, emergence, mobility, and behavior of many

  20. Baseline ecological risk assessment of the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana: 1. Overview and problem formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Donald D.; Moore, Dwayne R.J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Smorong, Dawn E.; Carr, R. Scott; Gouguet, Ron; Charters, David; Wilson, Duane; Harris, Tom; Rauscher, Jon; Roddy, Susan; Meyer, John

    2011-01-01

    A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) of the Calcasieu Estuary cooperative site was initiated in 1998. This site, which is located in the southwestern portion of Louisiana in the vicinity of Lake Charles, includes the portion of the estuary from the saltwater barrier on the Calcasieu River to Moss Lake. As part of the RI/FS, a baseline ecological risk assessment (BERA) was conducted to assess the risks to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent wildlife exposed to environmental contaminants. The purpose of the BERA was to determine if adverse effects on ecological receptors are occurring in the estuary; to evaluate the nature, severity, and areal extent of any such effects; and to identify the substances that are causing or substantially contributing to effects on ecological receptors. This article describes the environmental setting and site history, identifies the chemicals of potential concern, presents the exposure scenarios and conceptual model for the site, and summarizes the assessment and measurement endpoints that were used in the investigation. Two additional articles in this series describe the results of an evaluation of effects-based sediment-quality guidelines as well as an assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates associated with exposure to contaminated sediment.

  1. THE INSURANCE OF ECOLOGICAL RISKS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Pikus, R.; Lobova, O.

    2009-01-01

    The article defines the meaning and major tasks for ecological insurance in the society and economy. Its international experience and status in Ukraine is analyzed, a prospect for development of ecological insurance is determined.

  2. Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR was tasked to revise the Guidance Document (GD on Aquatic Ecotoxicology under Council Directive 91/414/EEC (SANCO/3268/2001 rev.4 (final, 17 October 2002. This Guidance of the PPR Panel is the first of three requested deliverables within this mandate. It has its focus on tiered acute and chronic effect assessment schemes with detailed guidance on tier 1 and higher tier effect assessments for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and on proposals regarding how to link effects to exposure estimates. The exposure assessment methodology was not reviewed and it is assumed that the current FOCUS surface water exposure assessment methodology will continue to be used for exposure assessment at EU level. The current GD is intended to be used for authorisation of active substances at EU level as well as for plant protection products at Member State level. The effect assessment schemes in this GD allow for the derivation of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs on the basis of two options: (1 the ecological threshold option (ETO, accepting negligible population effects only, and (2 the ecological recovery option (ERO, accepting some population-level effects if ecological recovery takes place within an acceptable time period. In the tiered effect assessment schemes, in principle, all tiers (1, 2 and 3 are able to address the ETO, while the model ecosystem approach (tier 3, under certain conditions, is able to also address the ERO. The GD provides the scientific background for the risk assessment to aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and is structured to give detailed guidance on all assessment steps. An executive summary joining all parts of the guidance and decision schemes in a concise way is provided and is intended to help applicants and regulatory authorities in day-to-day use.

  3. Ecological and economic risks under current economic conditions. social aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Залевський, Роман Антонович; Князєва, Ольга Павлівна

    2016-01-01

    Different approaches to the definitions of ecological and economic risks notions are considered in the paper. The analysis of various views on ecological and economic risks is given and the interaction between these categories in current social context is determined and grounded.

  4. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration.

  5. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration. PMID:27041062

  6. Radiological endpoints relevant to ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the potential risk from radiation due to the releases of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities, considerable research was performed to determine for humans the levels of dose received, their responses to the doses and mechanisms of action of radioactivity on living matter. More recently, there is an increased interest in the effects of radioactivity on non-human species. There are differences in approach between risk assessment for humans and ecosystems. For protection of humans, the focus is the individual and the endpoint of primary concern is cancer induction. For protection of ecosystems, the focus is on population stability and the endpoint of concern is reproductive success for organisms important ecologically and economically. For these organisms, information is needed on their responses to irradiation and the potential impact of the doses absorbed on their reproductive success. Considerable information is available on the effects of radiation on organisms from different phyla and types of ecosystems. Databases useful for assessing risk from exposures of populations to radioactivity are the effects of irradiation on mortality, fertility and sterility, the latter two of which are important components of reproductive success. Data on radiation effects on mortality are available both from acute and chronic irradiation. In relation to radiation effects, reproductive success for a given population is related to a number of characteristics of the species, including inherent radiosensitivity of reproductive tissues and early life stages, processes occurring during gametogenesis, reproductive strategy and exposure history. The available data on acute and chronic radiation doses is reviewed for invertebrates, fishes and mammals. The information reviewed indicates that wide ranges in responses with species can be expected. Parameters that most likely contribute to inherent radiosensitivity are discussed. (author)

  7. Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Preston, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey scientists and cooperating partners are examining the potential risk to aquatic resources (for example, wetlands, streams) by contamination from saline waters (brine) produced by petroleum development in the Williston Basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The primary goals of this study are to provide a science-based approach to assess potential risk of brine contamination to aquatic systems and to help focus limited monitoring and mitigation resources on the areas of greatest need. These goals will be accomplished through field investigations that quantify brine movement and risk assessments using remotely-sensed and other spatial datasets.

  8. Evaluation of population-level ecological risks of fish-eating birds to dioxinlike PCBs exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Wataru; Yoshida, Kikuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Research Center for Chemical Risk Management, Tsukuba (Japan); Murata, Mariko [National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs) and some non- and monoortho- polychlorinated biphenyl congeners that can attain planar configuration (dioxinlike PCBs), which are chemically stable and persistent, are thought to be biomagnified via foodchain. Many studies have revealed that higher levels of these compounds have been observed in fish-eating birds, a top consumer in aquatic biota. Among these compounds, Dioxinlike PCBs has contributed more than 80% of the total TEQs found in eggs of fish-eating birds. In order to evaluate the effects of these compounds on fish-eating birds, therefore, it is important to elucidate exposure pathways and characteristics of dioxinlike PCBs. The conventional ecological risk assessment method of chemicals entails comparing the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) determined from laboratory toxicity tests with the predicted or observed concentration in a target organism or a surrounding environmental media. Utilizing such a result of simplistic individual-level effect to draw conclusions regarding chemical effects on population is, however, questionable. Since risk management decisions should be based on protecting populations, the methods for population-level ecological risk assessment of chemicals have been of increasing interest for risk assessors and managers. In this study, a population-level ecological risk assessment of dioxinlike PCBs on fish-eating birds was performed to judge the need for risk management measures to protect aquatic wildlife from dioxinlike PCBs contamination in Japan. Egg mortality risk and the changes in population growth rate, {lambda}, in relation to the contamination levels of dioxinlike PCBs in eggs of four different types of fish-eating birds were determined by integrating the results from both bioaccumulation and life-history models.

  9. Antibiotics in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta and Pearl River Estuary, China: Concentrations, mass loading and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten antibiotics belonging to three groups (macrolides, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were investigated in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China for assessing the importance of riverine runoff in the transportation of contaminants from terrestrial sources to the open ocean. All antibiotics were detected in the eight outlets with concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 127 ng L−1. The annual mass loadings of antibiotics from the PRD to the PRE and coast were 193 tons with 102 tons from the fluoroquinolone group. It showed that antibiotics decreased from the riverine outlets to the PRE and open ocean. Risk assessment showed that most of these antibiotics showed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms, in which ofloxacin (OFL), erythromycin (ETM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) posed high ecological risks to the studied aquatic environments. -- Highlights: •Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river water and costal water in the Pearl River Delta. •Antibiotics exhibited distinct temporal and spatial trends in the riverine runoff outlets. •Annual outflows of antibiotics were 193 tons from the Pearl River to coastal ocean. •Some antibiotics posed high risks to some organisms in the PRD environments. -- Antibiotics were ubiquitous in the river and coastal water in the Pearl River Delta and posed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms

  10. Environmental risk of climate change and groundwater abstraction on stream ecological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige; Bøgh, Eva; Jensen, Niels H.

    flows and groundwater levels are of interest, as they relate to aquatic habitat and nitrate leaching, respectively. This study evaluates the risk to stream ecological conditions for a lowland Danish catchment under multiple scenarios of climate change and groundwater abstraction. Projections of future...... and risk to stream ecological conditions. We find low flow and annual discharge to be most impacted by scenarios of climate change, with high variation across climate models (+/- 40% change). Doubling of current groundwater abstraction rates reduces annual discharge by approximately 20%, with higher......A doubling of groundwater abstraction rates has been proposed in selected areas of Denmark to meet water resource demands. Combined with projected climate change, which is characterised by increased annual temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration rates for the country, the impacts to low...

  11. Ecological risk assessment for radionuclides and metals: A radiological and chemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the regulatory concern over the adverse effects of depleted uranium (DU) on ecological receptors at two sites contaminated with DU and metals, an ecological risk assessment (ERA) was performed, in conjunction with a radiological/chemical human health risk assessment (HRA). To date, most research on the harmful effects of radiation has focused only on humans. With regard to radiation protection of the environment, national and international radiation protection advisory committees have concluded that levels protecting human health should be sufficient to protect the environment as well. To select chemicals of potential ecological concern, a qualitative ERA was first performed by comparing chemical stressor concentrations in abiotic media with various benchmarked criteria. The results indicate that, as with the case of human health, DU was the ecological risk-driving chemical at these sites. Both radiological and chemical effects posed by DU were then estimated for the bald eagle, an endangered species that represents the assessment end point of the quantitative ERA. Abiotic media and food webs evaluated were: soils, surface water, plants, terrestrial (both mammalian and avian) species, and aquatic species. The results of the quantitative ERA indicate that the decision to cleanup DU contamination at these sites can solely be based on human health effects as limiting criteria. The risk assessments were well received by the regulatory agencies overseeing the project

  12. Nutrient dynamics, transfer and retention along the aquatic continuum from land to ocean: towards integration of ecological and biogeochemical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Bouwman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In river basins, soils, groundwater, riparian zones and floodplains, streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs act as successive filters in which the hydrology, ecology and biogeochemical processing are strongly coupled and together act to retain a significant fraction of the nutrients transported. This paper compares existing river ecology concepts with current approaches to describe river biogeochemistry, and assesses the value of these concepts and approaches for understanding the impacts of interacting global change disturbances on river biogeochemistry. Through merging perspectives, concepts, and modeling techniques, we propose integrated model approaches that encompass both aquatic and terrestrial components in heterogeneous landscapes. In this model framework, existing ecological and biogeochemical concepts are extended with a balanced approach for assessing nutrient and sediment delivery, on the one hand, and nutrient in-stream retention on the other hand.

  13. Two prototype tools for assessing good environmental/ecological status (GES) in aquatic ecosystems – DEVOTES and WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present two prototype tools for assessment of GES (good ecological status and good environmental status) in aquatic ecosystems: the DEVOTES biodiversity assessment tool (for the MSFD) and the WATERS ecological status assessment tool (for the WFD). Both tools are multi-metric indicator...... / “waterbodies” in WATERS) resulting in both an overall status for the geographical entity as well as classifications within indicator groups. Both tools are Excel-based and share many similarities. Whilst the WATERS tool performs assessments for a simple “flat” set of waterbodies, the DEVOTES tools allows for......-based tools, which classify ecological/environmental status in two classes (good or not good) and five classes (High, Good, Moderate, Poor or Bad) by comparing observed indicator values with specified status classification boundaries. Assessments are made for geographical entities (“sectors” in DEVOTES...

  14. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups. PMID:27045632

  15. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  16. The influence of ecological processes on the accumulation of persistent organochlorines in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Olof

    1999-09-01

    Several ecological problems influences the fate, transport, and accumulation of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in aquatic ecosystems. In this thesis, I have focused on two processes, namely (i) the food chain bioaccumulation of OCs, and (ii) the trophic status of the aquatic system. To test the biomagnification theory, I investigated PCB concentrations in planktonic food chains in lakes. The concentrations of PCB on a lipid basis did not increase with increasing trophic level. Hence, I could give no support to the theory of biomagnification. Instead, lipid content explained most of the variation in PCB accumulation in these food chains. PCBs were differentially fractionated in the food chains, the relative amount of high molecular weight PCBs increased with increasing trophic level, indicating congener specific differences in either the accumulation or the elimination of PCBs at the different trophic levels. In another study, I investigated the relationship between OC concentrations and trophic level, measured as {delta}{sup 15}N, in a specific predatory fish population. The dry weight OC concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N were related, indicating effects of prey choice on the OC accumulation. However, here also, lipid content explained the major part of the variation in OC concentrations, independent of trophic level (e. g. {delta}{sup 15}N). I investigated the effects of trophic status, measured as Tot-P concentration in water, on the concentrations of OCs in water, planktonic food chains and sediment in lakes. The dry weight concentrations of PCBs in phytoplankton were negatively related to the trophic status of the lakes. However, this relationship was explained by the decreasing lipid content of phytoplankton with lake trophic status. The phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes had lower lipid content than phytoplankton in oligotrophic lakes, possibly due to inter- and intraspecific differences in lipid content due to nutrient stress. The sediment accumulation and

  17. Ecological risk assessment of multimedia hazardous air pollutants. Estimating exposure and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, 37831-6036 Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, D.L. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, 27711 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2001-07-02

    Hazardous air pollutants, some of which have the potential for multimedia distribution, raise several hurdles for ecological risk assessment including: (1) the development of an adequate transport, fate and exposure model; and (2) the selection of exposure-response models that can accommodate multiple exposure routes for ecological receptors. To address the first issue, the EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards has developed TRIM.FaTE, a mass-balance, fate, transport, and ecological exposure model that is a component of the Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM) for air pollutants. In addition to abiotic transfers and transformations, TRIM.FaTE estimates the uptake of a chemical by terrestrial and aquatic organisms with time. Measures of exposure that TRIM.FaTE can provide include: (1) body burdens or tissue concentrations; (2) doses averaged over any time period; or (3) concentrations of chemicals in abiotic media. The model provides the user with the flexibility to choose the exposure-response thresholds or dose-response relationships that are best suited to data availability, routes of exposure, and the mechanism of toxicity of the chemical to an ecological receptor. One of the challenges of incorporating TRIM.FaTE into a risk assessment methodology lies in defining a streamlined model simulation scenario for initial screening-level risk assessments. These assessments may encompass multiple facilities that emit a variety of pollutants near diverse ecosystems. The risk information on ecological assessment methodology that is described is applicable to the EPA Residual Risk Program with emphasis on multimedia pollutants and the role of TRIM.FaTE.

  18. Evolutionary Consequences for Ecological Risk Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of the human health risk assessment model as a basis for developing ecological risk assessment (ERA). For ERA, risk to individuals is less important than the survival of the population, with the exception of endangered species. Suggests that ERA take into account the relative reproductive value of the potentially impacted…

  19. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  20. [Occurrence of PFOA and PFOS in the aquatic environments and their ecological toxicities in the aquatic environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin-Ling; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xu, Qi-Gong; Wang, Ze-Bin; Jiang, Tian-Tian; Jiang, Lei; Mao, Jing-Ying

    2011-10-01

    Based on current researches, described the sources, toxicities, analytical methods and occurrence of PFOA and PFOS in wastewater treatment plants, lakes, rivers, coastal areas and tap waters in different countries in the world. According to the limited concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) put forward by Germany, the concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in WTP effluents in Singapore, Germany, Korea and England were assessed. The results showed that the concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in WTP effluents in Singapore were higher than the liminted concentration of 300 microg/L. Researches done by China, Japan, USA, and other countries showed that the concentrations of POFA and PFOS in rivers and coastal areas reached to ng/L, and the concentrations in Tennessee River, USA were the highest, reached to 100 ng/L. The risk assessments of PFOA and PFOS in tap water in some cities in China were assessed according to the risk quotients(RQ). The assessment results showed that tap waters from 19 cities in China were all below the risk level. PMID:22279887

  1. Single and joint ecotoxicity data estimation of organic UV filters and nanomaterials toward selected aquatic organisms. Urban groundwater risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2016-02-01

    The hazardous potential of organic UV filters (UV-Fs) is becoming an issue of great concern due to the widespread application of these compounds in most daily-use goods, such as hygiene and beauty products. Nanomaterials (NMs) have also been used in personal care products (PCPs) for many years. Nowadays, both classes of chemicals are considered environmental emerging contaminants. Despite some studies performed in vitro and in vivo reported adverse effects of many UV-Fs on the normal development of organisms, there is scarce data regarding acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the EC50 values of selected UV-Fs using standardised toxicity assays on three aquatic species i.e. Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata and Vibrio fischeri. EC50 values obtained were in the mgl(-1) range for all the species. The estimated toxicity data allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by selected UV-Fs in urban groundwater from Barcelona (Spain). The calculated ecological risk indicated a negligible impact on the aquifer. Giving the increasing importance of studying mixtures of pollutants and due to the widespread presence of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment, other objective of this work was to explore the response on D. magna after exposure to both binary combinations of UV-Fs among them and UV-F with NMs. In all cases but the nano-silver mixtures, joint toxicity was mitigated or even eradicated. PMID:26674115

  2. The Prospects of Using Fuzzy Approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Uzhga-Rebrov, Oleg; Kuleshova, Galina

    2015-01-01

    The issue of environmental quality improvement has been receiving much attention in the developed countries in recent years. Due to that, the role of assessment of ecological risks associated both with natural events and technogene activity of humans is increasing. Previous approaches to the assessment of ecological risks were fully based on statistical data and expert evaluation of potential losses and probabilities of unfavourable consequences. When this kind of assessment is carried out, i...

  3. Current directions in screening-level ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Efroymson, R A

    2000-12-11

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is a tool used by many regulatory agencies to evaluate the impact to ecological receptors from changes in environmental conditions. Widespread use of ERAs began with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program to assess the ecological impact from hazardous chemicals released to the environment. Many state hazardous chemical regulatory agencies have adopted the use of ERAs, and several state regulatory agencies are evaluating the use of ERAs to assess ecological impacts from releases of petroleum and gas-related products. Typical ERAs are toxicologically-based, use conservative assumptions with respect to ecological receptor exposure duration and frequency, often require complex modeling of transport and exposure and are very labor intensive. In an effort to streamline the ERA process, efforts are currently underway to develop default soil screening levels, to identify ecological screening criteria for excluding sites from formal risk assessment, and to create risk-based corrective action worksheets. This should help reduce the time spent on ERAs, at least for some sites. Work is also underway to incorporate bioavailability and spatial considerations into ERAs. By evaluating the spatial nature of contaminant releases with respect to the spatial context of the ecosystem under consideration, more realistic ERAs with respect to the actual impact to ecological receptors at the population, community or ecosystem scale should be possible. In addition, by considering the spatial context, it should be possible to develop mitigation and monitoring efforts to more appropriately address such sites within the context of an ecological framework.

  4. Residues, Distributions, Sources, and Ecological Risks of OCPs in the Water from Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lakes > Eastern Lakes and water area. The sources of the HCHs were mainly from the historical usage of lindane. DDTs were degraded under aerobic conditions, and the main sources were from the use of technical DDTs. The ecological risks of 5 OCPs were assessed by the species sensitivity distribution (SSD method in the order of heptachlor > γ-HCH > p,p′-DDT > aldrin > endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS > JC > ZM > TX, and those of different species were crustaceans > fish > insects and spiders. Overall, the ecological risks of OCP contaminants on aquatic animals were very low.

  5. Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Köpp, H.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Brock, T.C.M.; Forbes, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of risks to aquatic organisms is important in the registration procedures for pesticides in industrialised countries. This risk assessment consists of two parts: (i) assessment of effects to these organisms derived from ecotoxicological experiments (=effect assessment), and (ii) assessmen

  6. Risk assessment of radioisotope contamination for aquatic living resources in and around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Shiro; Morita, Takami; Eguchi, Shinto

    2016-01-01

    Food contamination caused by radioisotopes released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant is of great public concern. The contamination risk for food items should be estimated depending on the characteristics and geographic environments of each item. However, evaluating current and future risk for food items is generally difficult because of small sample sizes, high detection limits, and insufficient survey periods. We evaluated the risk for aquatic food items exceeding a threshold of the radioactive cesium in each species and location using a statistical model. Here we show that the overall contamination risk for aquatic food items is very low. Some freshwater biota, however, are still highly contaminated, particularly in Fukushima. Highly contaminated fish generally tend to have large body size and high trophic levels. PMID:26929347

  7. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R Gordon

    Full Text Available We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders, and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  8. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response. PMID:10189585

  9. PRINCIPLES AND ESTIMATION METHODS DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL RISKS INITIATION OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS AT RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. V. Zelenko; Leshchynska, A. L.; S. V. Boichenko

    2010-01-01

    The basic aspects of forming of ecological risks in the conditions of ecologization of transport processes are considered. The methods of probabilities estimation and management principles of ecological risks on a railway transport are offered.

  10. Principles and estimation methods development of ecological risks initiation of emergency situations at railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. V. Zelenko; Leshchynska, A. L.; S. V. Boichenko

    2010-01-01

    The basic aspects of forming of ecological risks in the conditions of ecologization of transport processes are considered. The methods of probabilities estimation and management principles of ecological risks on a railway transport are offered.

  11. Delineation of level III aquatic ecological function regionalization in the Taihu Lake basin%太湖流域水生态功能三级分区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永年; 高俊峰; 陈垌烽; 许妍; 赵家虎

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic ecoregions have been used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. According to the protection requirements and characteristics of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake basin, the main purpose and the principles of level III aquatic ecological function regionalization delineation in this basin were proposed. Then the indicators for delineating level III aquatic ecological function regionalization were established based on regionalization objective and principles. The indicators for delineating level Ili aquatic ecological function regionalization in the non-Taihu Lake area included benthic Shannon-Wiener diversity index, chlorophyll content, water habitat types and benthic indicator species types (including Ephemera, Bivalvia, snail, Chironomidae and Oligochaeta), and the regionalization indicators for delineating level III aquatic ecological function regionalization in the Taihu Lake area included benthic Shannon-Wiener diversity index, chlorophyll content, water flow velocity and benthic indicator species (including Oligochaeta, Chironomidae class, Bivalvia, snail and others) ratio. With the aid of GIS technology, the spatial distribution of the indicators for level III aquatic ecological function regionalization delineation was identified based on the raster data from 1106 aquatic ecoregion function units in the non-Taihu Lake area and 3568 aquatic ecoregion function units in the Taihu Lake area, respectively. Two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to delineate level III aquatic ecological function zones. Then the Taihu Lake basin was divided into 21 level III aquatic ecological function zones. Moreover, the characteristics of the 21 zones were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in the aspects such as topography, soil type, water quality and aquatic ecology. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the benthic dominant

  12. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  13. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M; Quinn, Laura P; Polder, Anuschka

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT levels reported this century; 13,000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 ng/g wm. Even higher ΣDDT levels at 16,000 ng/g wm were found in House Sparrow eggs (possibly the highest ever recorded for sparrows), with a maximum of 24,400 ng/g wm. Significant eggshell thinning in Cattle Egrets (33% between thickest and thinnest) was associated with increased levels of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. There were indications of unknown use of DDT and lindane. Relative to DDT, PCBs and BFRs levels were quite low. Ordinated data showed that different terrestrial pollutant profiles converged to a homogenised aquatic profile. Converging profiles, high levels of DDT in heron and sparrow eggs, and thinning eggs shells, indicate risk and impacts at release, in the aquatic environment, and in between. If characteristic life-strategies of birds in warm areas (e.g. longer-lived and fewer eggs per clutch) increases the risk compared with similar birds living in colder regions when both experience the same environmental pollutant levels, then malaria control using DDT probably has more significant impacts on biota than previously realised. Therefore, risk assessment and modelling without hard data may miss crucial impacts and risks, as the chemical use patterns and ecologies in Africa and elsewhere may differ from the conditions and assumptions of existing risk assessment and modelling parameters. Consideration of other findings associated with DDT from the same area (intersex in fish and urogental birth defects in baby boys), together with the findings of this study (high

  14. Are we going about chemical risk assessment for the aquatic environment the wrong way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Sumpter, John P

    2016-07-01

    The goal of protecting the aquatic environment through testing thousands of chemicals against hundreds of aquatic species with thousands of endpoints while also considering mixtures is impossible given the present resources. Much of the impetus for studies on micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, came from the topic of endocrine disruption in wild fish. But despite concern over reductions in fish fertility, there is little evidence that fish populations are in peril. Indeed, fish biologists suggest that many cyprinid populations have been recovering for the past 30 to 40 yr. The central assumption, key to current risk assessment, that effects observed in the laboratory or predicted by models are readily transferrable to the population level, is therefore questionable. The neglect in monitoring wildlife populations is the key weakness in environmental protection strategies. If we do not know whether aquatic wildlife species are declining or increasing, how valuable are our other ecotoxicological activities? Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1609-1616. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27331653

  15. Fuzzy model for risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, X; Pujolasus, E; Betrò, S; Agueda, A; Casal, J; Ocampo-Duque, W; Rudolph, I; Barra, R; Páez, M; Barón, E; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D; Darbra, R M

    2013-07-01

    We developed a model for evaluating the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to aquatic organisms. The model is based on fuzzy theory and uses information provided by international experts through a questionnaire. It has been tested in two case studies for a particular type of POPs: brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The first case study is related to the EU-funded AQUATERRA project, with sampling campaigns carried out in two Ebro tributaries in Spain (the Cinca and Vero Rivers). The second one, named the BROMACUA project, assessed different aquatic ecosystems in Chile (San Vicente Bay) and Colombia (Santa Marta Marsh). In both projects, the BFRs under study were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). However, the model can be extrapolated to other POPs and to different aquatic ecosystems to provide useful results for decision-makers. PMID:23524177

  16. Back-end Science Model Integration for Ecological Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) relies on a number of ecological risk assessment models that have been developed over 30-plus years of regulating pesticide exposure and risks under Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Endangered Spe...

  17. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENR), were monitored in river water and sediment samples. Moreover, we assessed the toxicity of OTC and ENR on tropical freshwater invertebrates and performed a risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems. All interviewed tilapia farmers reported to routinely use antibiotics. Peak water concentrations for OTC and ENR were 49 and 1.6 μg/L, respectively. Antibiotics were most frequently detected in sediments with concentrations up to 6908 μg/kg d.w. for OTC, and 2339 μg/kg d.w. for ENR. The results of this study indicate insignificant short-term risks for primary producers and invertebrates, but suggest that the studied aquaculture farms constitute an important source of antibiotic pollution. - Highlights: • First study assessing the risks of antibiotics applied in freshwater tilapia cages. • Ten antibiotics were reported to be used by tilapia cage farmers in two Thai rivers. • Peak oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin concentrations were in the order of μg/L. • Antibiotic concentrations in river sediments next to cages were up to several mg/kg. • Antibiotics are not posing a short-term risk for pelagic aquatic organisms. - Antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems and constitute an important source of environmental pollution

  18. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) were rarely detected. Additionally, the detection frequencies and measured concentrations of all targets were clearly higher in mussels than in fish. Spatial distribution of studied UV filters indicated a positive correlation between their measured concentrations and the anthropogenic activities responsible for their direct emission. The ecological risk assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. PMID:27235899

  19. Biological Production in Lakes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Ecological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. A.; Carey, G. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Primary production in aquatic ecosystems is carried out by phytoplankton, microscopic plants…

  20. 水生植物的生态功能和资源应用%Ecological Functions and Resource Utilization of Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬林; 王磊; 丁晶晶; 芮雯奕

    2011-01-01

    水生植物具有水体产氧、氮循环、吸附沉积物、抑制浮游藻类繁殖、减轻水体富营养化、提高水体自净能力的重要功能,同时还能为水生动物、微生物提供栖息地和食物源,维持水岸带物种多样性.通过综述国内外水生植物的研究进展,阐明了水生植物的概念及分类方法,全面概述了水生植物的生态功能,讨论了中国城市建设中水生植物资源利用现状和效果,提出了水生植物在水岸带生态恢复应用中需要关注的问题以及今后水生植物研究的目标和方向.%Aquatic plants are one of the important factors in maintaining water ecological quality effectively. A lots of research showed that aquatic plants have many important functions, such as producing oxygen, nitrogen cycling, and adsorption deposit, controlling the harmful algal breeding, lightening water eutrophication, improving water clear ability. Moreover aquatic plants can provide inhabits and food to aquatic animals and microbe, maintain species diversity too. The concepts and classifying methods of aquatic plants were clarified by synthesized researched progress of aquatic plants in the paper. Ecological functions of aquatic plants were systematically summarized; their utilizing actuality and effect on building in the cities were discussed. Presently, much of correlative basic researches on aquatic plants, such as the collecting of genetic resources, breeding of new varieties, the general industrialized level and ecological functions with much faultiness in China. The more efforts of relevant studies were concentrated on ecological effect of aquatic plants on rivers and lakes water environment, but studies on their eco-physiological characteristics and regulation in adverse circumstances were few; presently, the researches on absorption of aquatic plants to nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water have already been reported frequently in China, but the studies on the morphology

  1. Ecological risks of DOE`s programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  2. Ecological risks of DOE's programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  3. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface seawater and sediment near the outlet of a zinc factory in Huludao City, Liaoning Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongliang; Chen, Yanzhen; Wang, Jing; Gong, Yufeng; Liu, Xigang; Mu, Gang; Tian, Hua

    2016-03-01

    At present, the methods widely applied to assess ecological risk of heavy metals are essentially single-point estimates in which exposure and toxicity data cannot be fully used and probabilities of adverse biological eff ects cannot be achieved. In this study, based on investigation of concentrations of six heavy metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) in the surface seawater and sediment near the outlet of a zinc factory, located in Huludao City, Liaoning Province, China, a tiered approach consisting of several probabilistic options was used to refine ecological risk assessment for the individuals. A mixture of various heavy metals was detected in the surface seawater, and potential ecological risk index (PERI) was adopted to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediment. The results from all levels of aquatic ecological risk assessment in the tiered framework, ranging from comparison of single eff ects and exposure values to the use of distribution-based Hazard Quotient obtained through Monte Carlo simulation, are consistent with each other. Briefly, aquatic Zn and Cu posed a clear ecological risk, while Cd, Pb, Hg, and As in the water column posed potential risk. As expected, combined ecological risk of heavy metal mixture in the surface seawater was proved significantly higher than the risk caused by any individual heavy metal, calculated using the concept of total equivalent concentration. According to PERI, the severity of pollution by the six heavy metals in the surface sediment decreased in the following sequence: Cd>Hg>As>Pb>Cu>Zn, and the total heavy metals in the sediment posed a very high risk to the marine environment. This study provides a useful mathematical framework for ecological risk assessment of heavy metals.

  4. Combined ecological risks of nitrogen and phosphorus in European freshwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutrophication is a key water quality issue triggered by increasing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels and potentially posing risks to freshwater biota. We predicted the probability that an invertebrate species within a community assemblage becomes absent due to nutrient stress as the ecological risk (ER) for European lakes and streams subjected to N and P pollution from 1985 to 2011. The ER was calculated as a function of species-specific tolerances to NO3− and total P concentrations and water quality monitoring data. Lake and stream ER averaged 50% in the last monitored year (i.e. 2011) and we observed a decrease by 22% and 38% in lake and stream ER (respectively) of river basins since 1985. Additionally, the ER from N stress surpassed that of P in both freshwater systems. The ER can be applied to identify river basins most subjected to eutrophication risks and the main drivers of impacts. - Highlights: • Ecological risk was estimated as response additions of N and P. • The risk posed by N stress is higher than that by P in European freshwaters. • Ecological risks have remained unchanged in most European river basins. - Quantifying the ecological risk of invertebrate losses due to N and P pollution

  5. Increasing potential risk of a global aquatic invader in Europe in contrast to other continents under future climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anthropogenically-induced climate change can alter the current climatic habitat of non-native species and can have complex effects on potentially invasive species. Predictions of the potential distributions of invasive species under climate change will provide critical information for future conservation and management strategies. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to invasive species and climate change, but the effect of climate change on invasive species distributions has been rather neglected, especially for notorious global invaders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ecological niche models (ENMs to assess the risks and opportunities that climate change presents for the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, which is a worldwide aquatic invasive species. Linking the factors of climate, topography, habitat and human influence, we developed predictive models incorporating both native and non-native distribution data of the crayfish to identify present areas of potential distribution and project the effects of future climate change based on a consensus-forecast approach combining the CCCMA and HADCM3 climate models under two emission scenarios (A2a and B2a by 2050. The minimum temperature from the coldest month, the human footprint and precipitation of the driest quarter contributed most to the species distribution models. Under both the A2a and B2a scenarios, P. clarkii shifted to higher latitudes in continents of both the northern and southern hemispheres. However, the effect of climate change varied considerately among continents with an expanding potential in Europe and contracting changes in others. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are the first to predict the impact of climate change on the future distribution of a globally invasive aquatic species. We confirmed the complexities of the likely effects of climate change on the potential distribution of globally invasive species, and it is extremely

  6. Increasing Potential Risk of a Global Aquatic Invader in Europe in Contrast to Other Continents under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Guo, Zhongwei; Ke, Zunwei; Wang, Supen; Li, Yiming

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthropogenically-induced climate change can alter the current climatic habitat of non-native species and can have complex effects on potentially invasive species. Predictions of the potential distributions of invasive species under climate change will provide critical information for future conservation and management strategies. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to invasive species and climate change, but the effect of climate change on invasive species distributions has been rather neglected, especially for notorious global invaders. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ecological niche models (ENMs) to assess the risks and opportunities that climate change presents for the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which is a worldwide aquatic invasive species. Linking the factors of climate, topography, habitat and human influence, we developed predictive models incorporating both native and non-native distribution data of the crayfish to identify present areas of potential distribution and project the effects of future climate change based on a consensus-forecast approach combining the CCCMA and HADCM3 climate models under two emission scenarios (A2a and B2a) by 2050. The minimum temperature from the coldest month, the human footprint and precipitation of the driest quarter contributed most to the species distribution models. Under both the A2a and B2a scenarios, P. clarkii shifted to higher latitudes in continents of both the northern and southern hemispheres. However, the effect of climate change varied considerately among continents with an expanding potential in Europe and contracting changes in others. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are the first to predict the impact of climate change on the future distribution of a globally invasive aquatic species. We confirmed the complexities of the likely effects of climate change on the potential distribution of globally invasive species, and it is extremely important to develop

  7. Analysis and management of ecological risks : interests of PRA.

    OpenAIRE

    Delmotte, Sebastien; Arrignon, Florent; Gonzalez, Maya

    2010-01-01

    National audience Increasing intensity of human activities and natural resources exploitation threaten Earth ecological stability and resource durability. The recent understanding of the stakes linked with biodiversity erosion, especially for the goods and services given back to the society, rises the need for tools able to tackle ecological risks analysis. Addressing such analyses leads to be able to apprehend the inherent complexity of the natural ecosystems functioning, the diversity of...

  8. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Schmitt, Walter; Heine, Simon; Brock, Theo Cm; Duquesne, Sabine; Manson, Phil; Meregalli, Giovanna; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; van Vliet, Peter; Arts, Gertie

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field water bodies. A standard European Union (EU) risk assessment for an example herbicide based on macrophyte laboratory tests indicated risks for several exposure scenarios. Three of these scenarios are further analyzed using effect models for 2 aquatic macrophytes, the free-floating standard test species Lemna sp., and the sediment-rooted submerged additional standard test species Myriophyllum spicatum. Both models include a toxicokinetic (TK) part, describing uptake and elimination of the toxicant, a toxicodynamic (TD) part, describing the internal concentration-response function for growth inhibition, and a description of biomass growth as a function of environmental factors to allow simulating seasonal dynamics. The TK-TD models are calibrated and tested using laboratory tests, whereas the growth models were assumed to be fit for purpose based on comparisons of predictions with typical growth patterns observed in the field. For the risk assessment, biomass dynamics are predicted for the control situation and for several exposure levels. Based on specific protection goals for macrophytes, preliminary example decision criteria are suggested for evaluating the model outputs. The models refined the risk indicated by lower tier testing for 2 exposure scenarios, while confirming the risk associated for the third. Uncertainties related to the experimental and the modeling approaches and their application in the risk assessment are discussed. Based on this case study and the assumption that the models prove suitable for risk assessment once fully evaluated, we recommend that 1) ecological scenarios be developed that are also

  9. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Schmitt, Walter; Heine, Simon; Brock, Theo Cm; Duquesne, Sabine; Manson, Phil; Meregalli, Giovanna; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; van Vliet, Peter; Arts, Gertie

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field water bodies. A standard European Union (EU) risk assessment for an example herbicide based on macrophyte laboratory tests indicated risks for several exposure scenarios. Three of these scenarios are further analyzed using effect models for 2 aquatic macrophytes, the free-floating standard test species Lemna sp., and the sediment-rooted submerged additional standard test species Myriophyllum spicatum. Both models include a toxicokinetic (TK) part, describing uptake and elimination of the toxicant, a toxicodynamic (TD) part, describing the internal concentration-response function for growth inhibition, and a description of biomass growth as a function of environmental factors to allow simulating seasonal dynamics. The TK-TD models are calibrated and tested using laboratory tests, whereas the growth models were assumed to be fit for purpose based on comparisons of predictions with typical growth patterns observed in the field. For the risk assessment, biomass dynamics are predicted for the control situation and for several exposure levels. Based on specific protection goals for macrophytes, preliminary example decision criteria are suggested for evaluating the model outputs. The models refined the risk indicated by lower tier testing for 2 exposure scenarios, while confirming the risk associated for the third. Uncertainties related to the experimental and the modeling approaches and their application in the risk assessment are discussed. Based on this case study and the assumption that the models prove suitable for risk assessment once fully evaluated, we recommend that 1) ecological scenarios be developed that are also

  10. What's New: Acquatic Stabilization: Aquatic Rehabilitation Strategies for the Lumbar Spine and Risk Management for the Aquatic Therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschettti, Marilou

    Through dynamic aquatic stabilization techniques, patients will develop the ability to characterize sensory distractions and develop self-awareness and sensitivity to movement in the water, which will relate directly to improved motor function. Aquatic therapy is a systematic method of treatment, with programs developed by a licensed physical…

  11. Aquatic invertebrate communities in tank bromeliads: how well do classic ecological patterns apply?

    OpenAIRE

    Jocque, Merlijn; Field, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) often occur in high densities in the Neotropics and represent a key freshwater habitat in montane forests, housing quite complex invertebrate communities. We tested the extent to which there are species richness–altitude, richness–environment, richness–size, richness–habitat complexity and richness–isolation relationships for the aquatic invertebrate communities from 157 bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. We found that invertebrate species richness an...

  12. The potential risk assessment for different arsenic species in the aquatic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Du; Dongbin Wei; Zhuowei Tan; Aiwu Lin; Yuguo Du

    2015-01-01

    The different toxicity characteristics of arsenic species result in discrepant ecological risk.The predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) 43.65,250.18,and 2.00 × 103 μg/L were calculated for As(Ⅲ),As(Ⅴ),and dimethylarsinic acid in aqueous phase,respectively.With these PNECs,the ecological risk from arsenic species in Pearl River Delta in China and Kwabrafo stream in Ghana was evaluated.It was found that the risk from As(Ⅲ) and As(Ⅴ)in the samples from Pearl River Delta was low,while much high in Kwabrafo stream.This study implies that ecological risk of arsenic should be evaluated basing on its species.

  13. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  14. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms: Consequences for Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, Andre; Classen, Silke; Strauss, Tido; Ottermanns, Richard; Brock, Theo C M; Ratte, Hans Toni; Hommen, Udo; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related to the affected taxon, the ecosystem of concern and the type of stressor with consequences for the assessment and management of risks associated with chemical contaminants. Whereas the effects caused by short-term exposure might be acceptable to some extent, the conditions under which ecological recovery can serve as a decision criterion in the environmental risk assessment of chemical stressors remains to be evaluated. For a generic consideration of recovery in the risk assessment of chemicals, we reviewed case studies of natural and artificial aquatic systems and evaluate five aspects that might cause variability in population recovery time: (1) taxonomic differences and life-history variability, (2) factors related to ecosystem type and community processes, (3) type of disturbance, (4) comparison of field and semi-field studies, and (5) effect magnitude, i.e., the decline in population size following disturbance. We discuss our findings with regard to both retrospective assessments and prospective risk assessment.

  15. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  16. Identifying the risk to the aquatic environment of endocrine disrupters derived from agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Matthiessen, Peter; Arnold, David; Johnson, Andrew; Pepper, Tim; Pottinger, Tom G.; Pulman, Kim G. T.; Williams, Richard

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. The purpose of this project was to review possible inputs to UK headwater streams of steroid hormones originating from livestock, to investigate hormone contamination in some streams in which concentrations were expected to be maximal, and to draw conclusions about possible risks that these hormones may pose to aquatic organisms. 2. The review concluded that although livestock in the UK excretes more steroid sex hormones (oestradiol and testosterone) than the hu...

  17. Aquatic risk assessment of priority and other river basin specific pesticides in surface waters of Mediterranean river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    To meet good chemical and ecological status, Member States are required to monitor priority substances and chemicals identified as substances of concern at European Union and local/river-basin/national level, respectively, in surface water bodies, and to report exceedances of the environmental quality standards (EQSs). Therefore, standards have to be set at national level for river basin specific pollutants. Pesticides used in dominant crops of several agricultural areas within the catchment of Mediterranean river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo', Portugal) were selected for monitoring, in addition to the pesticides included in priority lists defined in Europe. From the 29 pesticides and metabolites selected for the study, 20 were detected in surface waters of the river basins, seven of which were priority substances: alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, simazine and terbutryn, all of which exceeded their respective EQS values. QSs for other specific pollutants were calculated using different extrapolation techniques (i.e. deterministic or probabilistic) largely based on the method described in view of the Water Framework Directive. Non-acceptable aquatic risks were revealed for molinate, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, propanil, terbuthylazine, and the metabolite desethylatrazine. Implications of these findings for the classification of the ecological status of surface water bodies in Portugal and at the European level are discussed. PMID:26002046

  18. Occurrence of anionic surfactants in treated sewage: Risk assessment to aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungray, Arvind Kumar [Department of Chemical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395007 (India)], E-mail: akm@ched.svnit.ac.in; Kumar, Pradeep [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: pkumafce@iitr.ernet.in

    2008-12-30

    A comparative evaluation of occurrence of and risk to aquatic environment due to anionic surfactants (AS) in treated effluents from three main treatment processes, i.e. activated sludge process (ASP), oxidation pond (OP), and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) is presented. UASBR effluents contained substantial concentrations of AS (4.25-5.91 mg/L as average AS removal was not found to exceed 18%). Post-treatment of UASBR effluent using 1-1.6 days detention, anaerobic polishing ponds (PP) was also found quite ineffective. In UASBR-PP combine, AS reduced only up to 30%. Effluents from OP based sewage treatment plants (STPs) also contained significant concentrations of AS. On the contrary, effluent AS or linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentrations recorded in ASP effluents were quite low (less than 0.2 mg/L). Unlike UASBR, LAS or AS removals greater than 99% are achieved in ASP. Treated effluents from UASBR and OP based STPs when discharged to aquatic ecosystems are likely to cause substantial risk to aquatic environment due to the presence of AS while effluents from ASP are not supposed to pose risk. Need to find an effective aerobic post-treatment unit to UASBR for desired removal of AS is emphasized.

  19. Occurrence of anionic surfactants in treated sewage: Risk assessment to aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative evaluation of occurrence of and risk to aquatic environment due to anionic surfactants (AS) in treated effluents from three main treatment processes, i.e. activated sludge process (ASP), oxidation pond (OP), and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) is presented. UASBR effluents contained substantial concentrations of AS (4.25-5.91 mg/L as average AS removal was not found to exceed 18%). Post-treatment of UASBR effluent using 1-1.6 days detention, anaerobic polishing ponds (PP) was also found quite ineffective. In UASBR-PP combine, AS reduced only up to 30%. Effluents from OP based sewage treatment plants (STPs) also contained significant concentrations of AS. On the contrary, effluent AS or linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentrations recorded in ASP effluents were quite low (less than 0.2 mg/L). Unlike UASBR, LAS or AS removals greater than 99% are achieved in ASP. Treated effluents from UASBR and OP based STPs when discharged to aquatic ecosystems are likely to cause substantial risk to aquatic environment due to the presence of AS while effluents from ASP are not supposed to pose risk. Need to find an effective aerobic post-treatment unit to UASBR for desired removal of AS is emphasized

  20. Prediction of the environmental fate and aquatic ecological impact of nitrobenzene in the Songhua River using the modified AQUATOX model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Bingli; HUANG Shengbiao; QIAO Min; LI Tianyun; WANG Zijian

    2008-01-01

    An accidental discharge of nitrobenzene happened in November 2005 in the Songhuajiang River, China. The AQUATOX model was modified and adapted to simulate the time-dependent nitrobenzene distribution in this multimedia aquatic system and its potential ecological impacts. Nitrobenzene concentrations in flowing water, sediment, and biota were predicted. Based on the initial concentrations of nitrobenzene observed on the field during the accidental discharge, that is, 0.167-1.47 mg/L at different river segments, the predicted water concentrations of nitrobenzene would decrease to 0.02 and 0.002 mg/L after twenty days and one month, respectively. Both model prediction and field observation were in good agreement. The predicted nitrobenzene concentrations in sediments and aquatic organisms would be lower than 0.025 and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively, after two months. Among environmental factors affecting nitrobenzene concentrations in water, inflow water dilution, water temperature, and initial concentration were the most important, by sensitivity analysis. Comparing the perturbed simulation and control simulation, the biomass changes for diatoms and mussel were significantly affected, whereas, no influence on other organisms could be predicted. Therefore the results indicated that nitrobenzene pollution in the Songhuajiang River should have a limited impact on the benthos community.

  1. Low concentrations, potential ecological consequences: Synthetic estrogens alter life-history and demographic structures of aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contraceptive drugs are nowadays found in aquatic environments around the globe. Particularly, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) may act even at low concentrations, such as those recorded in natural ecosystems. We evaluated the physiological effects of EE2 on cyclopoids and calanoids, common copepods in both marine and freshwater communities. We used three EE2 concentrations and assessed its impact on activity of different physiological endpoints: Acetylcholinesterase (neurotransmission), Glutathione S-transferase (detoxifying system), and Caspase-3 (apoptosis). While EE2 exerts, distinctive effect on detoxifying and apoptotic systems, no effect on AChE was observed at environmental doses. Our results show that EE2 exposure affects differently copepod physiology endpoints, altering moulting process, adult recruitment in calanoids and calanoid to cyclopoid ratio. The ecological consequences of this underlying physiological process may affect since life history to population and community structures, and this represent a new aspects of this xenobiotic in natural systems. Highlights: •We evaluated physiological effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on copepods. •We measured the EE2 effect on neurotransmission, detoxifying system and apoptosis. •EE2 exert distinctive effect on detoxifying and apoptotic systems. •EE2 affects differently calanoids and cyclopoids moulting and adult recruitment. •Physiological impact in invertebrates' communities is a novel aspect of EE2 effects. -- Anthropogenic estrogens modify the physiological functioning of aquatic invertebrates

  2. Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

  3. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists–concepts, limitations, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut;

    2016-01-01

    in aquatic food webs. This is not an exhaustive review; rather, we focus on conceptual issues, in particular on the numerical and functional response of these organisms. We discuss the evolution of concepts and define parameters to evaluate predator-prey dynamics ranging from Lotka......, food, turbulence) affecting feeding, growth, and survival of protist populations. We briefly consider intraspecific variability of some key parameters and constraints inherent in laboratory microcosm experiments. We then upscale the significance of phagotrophic protists in food webs to the ocean level...

  4. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystemwide risk, which can

  5. Predicted distribution and ecological risk assessment of a "segregated" hydrofluorrother in the Japanese environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, John L; Nakanishi, Junko; Cousins, Ian; Werner, Kurt; Giesy, John P

    2002-11-15

    An assessment of HFE-7500, a 'segregated' hydrofluoroether, was conducted to evaluate the potential for exposure to and subsequent effects on humans and wildlife in Japan. The segregated hydrofluoroethers belong to a class of fluorochemicals currently being proposed as replacements for traditional fluorochemicals (CFCs and PFCs) that are currently being used in several industries, in particular, the semiconductor industry. These traditional compounds have been implicated as ozone-depleting or potent "greenhouse gases". The segregated hydrofluoroethers have useful physical and chemical properties, but do not contribute to ozone depletion and have lower "global warming potential" (GWP) indices. Although the physical properties of these materials (low H2O solubility and high vapor pressure) suggest there would be a very low level of risk to aquatic systems, a thorough analysis had not been previously performed. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of HFE-7500 in Japan were determined with the Higashino model, a Gausian puff and plume model that used an approximation of environmental releases to the atmosphere as input to the model. Allowable concentrations to protect aquatic life, wildlife, and humans from noncancer effects were determined as detailed in USEPA's final Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes Systems. Potential risk to ecological receptors and humans was determined by calculating hazard quotients and margins of safety. The results of the risk assessment indicate that HFE-7500 poses no significant risk to either aquatic or terrestrial wildlife species or humans living in the Japanese environment. The least margin of safety for any ecological receptor was 100,000, and a margin of safety greater than 100,000,000 for most receptors indicated that HFE-7500 poses no threat to human health. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. Therefore, the actual margins of safety for

  6. Combined ecological risks of nitrogen and phosphorus in European freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, L.B.; van Zelm, R.; Leuven, R. S. E. W; Hendriks, A. J; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication is a key water quality issue triggered by increasing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels and potentially posing risks to freshwater biota. We predicted the probability that an invertebrate species within a community assemblage becomes absent due to nutrient stress as the ecological risk (ER) for European lakes and streams subjected to N and P pollution from 1985 to 2011. The ER was calculated as a function of species-specific tolerances to NO3 - and total P concentrations a...

  7. Distribution, speciation, environmental risk, and source identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daoquan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Kefu

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and speciation of several heavy metals, i.e., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, in surface sediments from the karst aquatic environment of the Lijiang River, Southwest China, were studied comparatively. The mean contents of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were 1.72, 38.07, 0.18, 51.54, and 142.16 mg/kg, respectively, which were about 1.5-6 times higher than their corresponding regional sediment background values. Metal speciation obtained by the optimized BCR protocol highlighted the bioavailable threats of Cd, Cu, and Zn, which were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (the labile phase). Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that in sediments, As and Cr were mainly derived from natural and industrial sources, whereas fertilizer application might lead to the elevated level of Cd. Besides, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn were related to traffic activities. The effects-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) showed that Hg, Pb, and Zn could pose occasional adverse effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. However, based on the potential ecological risk assessment (PER) and risk assessment code (RAC), Cd was the most outstanding pollutant and posed the highest ecological hazard and bioavailable risk among the selected metals. Moreover, the metal partitioning between water and sediments was quantified through the calculation of the pseudo-partitioning coefficient (K P), and result implied that the sediments in this karst aquatic environment cannot be used as stable repositories for the metal pollutants. PMID:26832870

  8. PROBABILITY SURVEYS , CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show that probability-based environmental resource monitoring programs, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and conditional probability analysis can serve as a basis for estimating ecological risk over ...

  9. Toward an Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Nathalie S.

    2005-01-01

    We suggest a new framework for conducting research in the field of special education. This framework is inspired by the ecological risk assessment frameworks of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1995) and G.W. Suter (1993), which are primarily used in ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology. The framework includes three phases by which…

  10. U.S. EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundThe ERASC provides technical information and addresses scientific questions of concern or interest on topics relevant to ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites for EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with nonexperts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    of the public perception of pesticides. We used the key informant approach in recruiting our participants. They were first identified as key stakeholders in ecological risk assessment of pesticides and then sampled by means of a snowball sampling technique. In the analysis, first we identified main motifs...... for estimating the readability of technical documents. Our results highlight 3 main obstacles standing in the way of effective communication with wider audiences. First of all, ecological risk assessment as a highly technical procedure uses the specific language of ecological risk assessment, which is also...

  11. Study of the ecological restoration of aquatic macrophytes in a eutrophic shallow lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dong-Ru; Wu, Zhen-Bin; Yan, Guo-An; Li, Yi-Jian; Zhou, Yuan-Jie

    1997-03-01

    Investigations in 1991 to 1993 showed that a perennial submerged plant, Potamogeton maackianus A. Benn, which always dominates the submerged vegetation in the shallow lakes in the middle and lower basins of the Changjiang River, had been extinct from Donghu Lake of Wuhan, and that some other submerged plants sensitive to water contamination had also dissappeared or declined in the lake. The r-selected species, Najas marina L., Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Vallisneria sp. had superseded the K-selected one, P. maackianus, to co-dominate the submerged vegetation. Several hypereutrophic or eutrophic subregions had switched from macrophyte dominance to phytoplankton dominance, while the shrinkage of macrophytes and the deterioration of water quality had also become more and more severe in the other subregions. The emergent macrophytes were poorly developed and the share of leaf-floating plants had increased in the lake. It was found that the existing vegetation fluctuated drastically from year to year. Macrophyte restoration experiments carried out in large enclosures at 3 subregions of different trophic state, suggested that the aquatic vegetation of less polluted sublakes, such as Niuchao, Tanglin and Houhu Lakes, could recover spontaneously after stocking of herbivorous fish stopped; that K-selected plants should be introduced into these sublakes to enhance the stability of aquatic vegetation; that a prerequisite for the recovery of macrophytes in the severely polluted basins is the reduction of external and internal nutrient loadings coupled with feasible management measures; and that r-selected submerged species should be used as pioneer plants for the macrophyte recovery. The recently introduced exotic submerged plant, Elodea canadensis, transplanted into the Houhu Enclosure could survive but failed to survive summer in the enclosures located in the hypereutrophic Shuiguohu Bay.

  12. Adding Value to Ecological Risk Assessment with Population Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Calow, Peter; Grimm, Volker;

    2011-01-01

    population models can provide a powerful basis for expressing ecological risks that better inform the environmental management process and thus that are more likely to be used by managers. Here we provide at least five reasons why population modeling should play an important role in bridging the gap between......Current measures used to estimate the risks of toxic chemicals are not relevant to the goals of the environmental protection process, and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA) is not used as extensively as it should be as a basis for cost-effective management of environmental resources. Appropriate...... what we measure and what we want to protect. We then describe six actions needed for its implementation into management-relevant ERA....

  13. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...

  14. Assessing ecological risks and benefits of genetically modified crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Jelena V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops and biotechnology are providing new opportunities for increasing crop productivity and tackling agriculture problems, such as diseases, pests and weeds, abiotic stress and nutritional limitations of staple food crops. As GM crops are being adopted in various locations with different ecosystems, a scientifically based understanding of the environmental effects of cultivations of GM crops would assist decision makers worldwide in ensuring environmental safety and sustainability. In this paper are discussed some of the most important problems related to the GM crops into the environment such as: plant protection, hybridisation, ecological effects of HRCs, gene flow, biodiversity, stress, ecological risks (ERA, effects on the soil ecosystem etc.

  15. The conceptual imperfection of aquatic risk assessment tests: highlighting the need for tests designed to detect therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standardized ecotoxicological tests still constitute the fundamental tools when doing risk-assessment of aquatic contaminants. These protocols are managed towards minimal mortality in the controls, which is not representative for natural systems where mortality is often high. This methodological bias, generated from assays where mortality in the control group is systematically disregarded, makes it difficult to measure therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants leading to lower mortality. This is of concern considering that such effects on exposed organisms still may have substantial ecological consequences. In this paper, we illustrate this conceptual problem by presenting empirical data for how the therapeutic effect of Oxazepam—a common contaminant of surface waters—lower mortality rates among exposed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from wild populations, at two different life stages. We found that fry hatched from roe that had been exposed to dilute concentrations (1.1 ± 0.3 μg l−1) of Oxazepam for 24 h 3–6 days prior to hatching showed lower mortality rates and increased activity 30 days after hatching. Similar effects, i.e. increased activity and lower mortality rates were also observed for 2-year old perch exposed to dilute Oxazepam concentrations (1.2 ± 0.4 μg l−1). We conclude that therapeutic effects from pharmaceutical contaminants need to be considered in risk assessment assays to avoid that important ecological effects from aquatic contaminants are systematically missed. (letter)

  16. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  17. Ecological Risk Assessment of Lead (Pb after Waste Disposal from Metallurgical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Jafari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Not being available sufficient information about ERA of lead, this paper provides a brief critical review to the mentioned concept. Being presented in soils, heavy metals constitute serious environmental hazards from the point of view of polluting the soils and adjoining streams and rivers. Pb is generally the metal of great concern as well as being phytotoxic. Ecological risk assessment is a process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors. Metallurgical waste like other waste materials consists not only of Pb, but also consists in large quantities relatively. The ubiquitous distribution and known toxicity of lead pollution in urban environment are posing great concern, in term of human health and environment. According to the importance and criticality of this issue, a holistic risk-based approach is inevitable at least for environmental health and monitoring (EHM. Reviewing literature, it is found that approximately most of the researches have been carried out in aquatic environments. From the other side, those carried out in terrestrial environment, are non-Pb focusing. Considering the researches pertaining to ERA, however few researches have been carried out in the field of metallurgical industries, none of them has addressed the Pb ERA in a holistic approach.

  18. 化学品对水生动物的生态毒理学研究评述%Review on Ecological Toxicity of Chemicals to Aquatic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乙震; 黄岁樑; 林超; 周绪申

    2015-01-01

    水生动物毒性实验一般都是在实验室条件下进行的,忽略了天然水体中各种环境因子和暴露方式的影响。较全面地讨论了水体中溶解性有机质、悬浮颗粒物、混合污染物、pH、温度和硬度等几种环境因子存在条件下化学品对水生动物的生态毒性效应,阐述了非稳定暴露方式下毒理学研究应考虑毒性机制、初始暴露浓度、持续时间以及暴露频率等几个方面,简要探讨了几种非稳定暴露生态毒理学模型的优缺点。为更好预测和评价化学品对水生动物生态风险,今后的研究重点是环境因子对化学品毒性效应的影响及化学品生态毒理学模型以及水生动物远离污染物后机体各项指标的恢复。%Nowadays,most of the aquatic toxicity experiments are conducted in conventional toxicity testing procedures based on the dose-response relationship under simplified laboratory conditions,and this method ignores the effect of envi⁃ronmental factors and the style of exposure in the natural water body. The influence of environmental factors are discussed such as the dissolved organic matter,suspended particles,mixture contaminants,pH,temperature,hardness,and other water quality characteristics on toxicity of chemicals to aquatic animals. It is summarized that we should consider about the fluctuating or pulsed exposure in the research,such as the toxicity mechanisms,post-exposure concentration,the dura⁃tion and frequency of pulses,and so on. And also an overview is presented of advantage and disadvantage of several ecologi⁃cal toxicity models for fluctuating or pulsed exposure. In order to make a better prediction and evaluation to the ecological risk assessment of chemical pollutants,it is pointed out that more research should be put on the influence of environmental factors on toxicity of chemicals to aquatic animals,ecological toxicity models and the recovery of aquatic animals following the exposure.

  19. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  1. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document

  2. Can transgenic rice cause ecological risks through transgene escape?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Alien transgene escape from genetically engineered rice to non-transgenic varieties or close wild relatives (including weedy rice) may lead to unpredictable ecological risks. However, for transgene escape to occur three conditions need to be met: (i) spatially, transgenic rice and its non-transgenic counterparts or wild relatives should have sympatric distributions; (ii) temporally, the flowering time of transgenic rice and the non-transgenic varieties or wild relatives should overlap; and (iii) biologically, transgenic rice and its wild relative species should have such a sufficiently close relationship that their interspecific hybrids can have normal generative reproduction. This paper presents research data on the geographic distribution, flowering habits, interspecific hybridization, and gene flow of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its closely related wild relatives containing the AA genome. The objective is to estimate the possibility of transgene escape to non-transgenic rice varieties and wild relatives of rice, which may result in unpredictable ecological risks.

  3. Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 2004, ORD's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) received a request from the Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) relating to the evaluation of ecological risk to vertebrate and benthic invertebrate receptors from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds...

  4. Microfluidic Trap Arrays: Passive Sensors for Studying Aquatic Protozoan Ecology and Biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Bouchillon, G.; Shor, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microscopic organisms such as bacteria and protozoa are the engine that drives global biogeochemical processes: microbes fix carbon, produce oxygen, mediate nutrient cycling, and break down anthropogenic contaminants. In many habitats, the bacterial community structure and its net production is controlled in a top-down fashion by predation by protozoa. Despite their importance, many researchers have noted a significant gap in our understanding of their diversity, biogeography, and ecosystem function. We developed a microfluidic field sampling and analysis tool to study the biogeography and function of microbial eukaryotes. Microfluidic samplers were created to systematically target the morphology, function, and habitat of different microbial eukaryotes. Features such as channel dimensions, branching angles and radii of curvature were varied to allow organisms to be selected and captured based on cell size, shape, plasticity, and swimming or crawling modalities. We also developed genetic analysis protocols to extract and amplify DNA from a single trapped cell, allowing for molecular identification of trapped species. Results from freshwater sediment and water column deployments confirmed design efficiencies in trapping and concentrating protozoa based on biomass density, allowed for analysis of body plasticity and cell size, and also confirmed the viability of this technology for future real time monitoring of protozoa in aquatic ecosystems. This research offers a radical departure from existing approaches to study microbial eukaryotic communities in the field. Our novel methodology involving trapping, observation and recording of physical characteristics and genetic analysis of single cells allows comparison with bulk samples to place trapped microbes within a function- and habitat-specific context.

  5. Overview of DOD activities in ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, J E; Porter, R C

    1997-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Congress has mandated that all designated hazardous waste sites will be remediated to protect human health and the environment. This law is the driving force behind the Department of Defense (DOD) ecological risk assessment (ERA) program. Ecological risk assessments are currently underway at many DOD sites with budgets ranging from five thousand to ten million dollars. However, with the advent of downsizing government and shrinking funds, efforts are being made within DOD to better refine these assessments. Two DOD work groups function to develop guidance for and assist project managers with the ERA process. These groups are the Army Biological Technical Assistance Group chaired by the Army Environmental Center and the Tri-Service Ecological Risk Assessment Work Group (ERWG) chartered by the Tri-Service Environmental Support Centers Coordinating Committee. Membership in the Tri-Service ERWG includes all facets of DOD. In the research arena, the Fate & Effects Research and Development Program is one of four primary thrust areas under the Army's Environmental Quality Technology Program "Clean Up" pillar. This program is currently being executed by three laboratories, the Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, the Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, and the Army Center for Environmental Health Research (Provisional), Ft. Detrick, MD. The goal of this program is to provide tools to improve environmental risk assessments, both human and ecological. The research is geared toward addressing user requirements and is defined by the Fate and Effects Research Program. PMID:9433659

  6. Evaluating Farming Practices: Use of Health and Ecological Risk Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Kiyotada

    2002-01-01

    Methodologies for evaluating farming practices are reviewed to provide systematic perspectives on agri-environmental issues in which diversified research topics have been discussed. As a representative method for selecting farm management systems, multicriteria analysis is surveyed and difficulties in weighting procedure are outlined. To resolve the difficulties, applicability of risk concepts for health and ecological issues is examined. After clarifying relationships between farming practic...

  7. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  8. Effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim and linuron on the ecology of a small indoor aquatic microcosm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2007-01-01

    To validate the use of small indoor microcosms for the risk assessment of pesticides, the fate and effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, and linuron were studied in 8.5¿liter indoor freshwater microcosms. Functional and structural responses to selected concentrations were evaluated and compared with

  9. Aquatic beetles of the alpine lakes: diversity, ecology and small-scale population genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čiamporová-Zaovičová Z.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we summarize water beetle fauna of the alpine lakes and ponds of the Tatra Mountains. The literature and recent data were used to assess species diversity. Out of around 95 studied alpine water bodies, beetles were found in 61. Altogether, 54 taxa from six families were identified. The different altitudinal zones and lake areas were compared with species richness and species incidence concerning the sites sampled. Besides faunistics, some ecological notes on Agabus bipustulatus are provided. The seasonal dynamics of this species is influenced by its life cycle. The larvae and adults comprised a regular part of the samples during the whole period of the study with a decrease in density from June to the late fall. During the summer and the early fall, fast growth of the larvae was observed. The adults reached their abundance peak in September–October. For the first time, analysis is provided of the genetic diversity of the macroinvertebrate species of the alpine lakes. We used a 345bp fragment of cytochrome b in two dytiscids, Agabus bipustulatus and A. guttatus. Seven and eight haplotypes were identified, respectively, with slightly different distribution patterns of genetic diversity across the study area in both species. A high proportion of the lakes was characterized by a single haplotype and the majority of the haplotypes were restricted to only one of the sampled valleys.

  10. Heavy metals in estuarine surface sediments of the Hai River Basin, variation characteristics, chemical speciation and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pei; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Lv, Shucong; Tang, Wenzhong

    2016-04-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to the high regional population density and rapid economic development. The estuaries of the HRB, which receive pollutants from terrestrial rivers, may subsequently suffer potential pollution and result in ecological risk of heavy metals. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in estuarine surface sediments from 10 estuaries of the HRB to investigate their variation characteristics and ecological risks. The spatial difference of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sediments was higher than that of the rest two elements. The Yongdingxin Estuary (YDX) and Ziyaxin Estuary (ZYX) in the Northern Hai River System (NHRS) were the most severe in terms of heavy metal contamination. According to the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) classification, Cd associated with the exchangeable and carbonate fraction (the average of 21.3 %) indicated medium risk to high risk. More than 50 % of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn on average were associated with the residual fraction. Based on the sum of the first three fractions (exchangeable and carbonate + reducible + oxidizable), the mobility order of these heavy metals was Cd >Pb > Zn ≈ Cu > Ni > Cr. Compared to the background values of cinnamon soil, the potential ecological risk index (RI) values ranged from 25.6 to 168, with an average of 91.2, indicating a low ecological risk in estuarine sites of the HRB. Cd and Pb were the dominant contributors to the toxic-response factor (45.8 and 25.5 %, respectively). The results give insight into the different control measures pertaining to heavy metal pollution and risk for both relatively clean estuaries and urban seriously polluted areas, respectively, for the formation of protect strategies of aquatic environment in the HRB. PMID:26758307

  11. Effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim and linuron on the ecology of a small indoor aquatic microcosm

    OpenAIRE

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den, R.B.A.

    2007-01-01

    To validate the use of small indoor microcosms for the risk assessment of pesticides, the fate and effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, and linuron were studied in 8.5¿liter indoor freshwater microcosms. Functional and structural responses to selected concentrations were evaluated and compared with responses observed in larger-scale model ecosystem studies. Overall, the microcosms adequately displayed the chain of effects resulting from the application, although they did not always predict t...

  12. Environmental risk assessment of combined effects in aquatic ecotoxicology: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jonny; Petersen, Karina; Song, You; Ruus, Anders; Grung, Merete; Bakke, Torgeir; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-05-01

    Environmental regulatory edicts within the EU, such as the regulatory framework for chemicals REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), the Water Framework Directive (WFD), and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) focus mainly on toxicity assessment of individual chemicals although the effect of contaminant mixtures is a matter of increasing concern. This discussion paper provides an overview of the field of combined effects in aquatic ecotoxicology and addresses some of the major challenges related to assessment of combined effects in connection with environmental risk assessment (ERA) and regulation. Potentials and obstacles related to different experimental, modelling and predictive ERA approaches are described. On-going ERA guideline and manual developments in Europe aiming to incorporate combined effects of contaminants, the use of different experimental approaches for providing combined effect data, the involvement of biomarkers to characterize Mode of Action and toxicity pathways and efforts to identify relevant risk scenarios related to combined effects are discussed.

  13. Ecological predictors of extinction risks of endemic mammals of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-Hua

    2014-07-01

    In this brief report, we analyzed ecological correlates of risk of extinction for mammals endemic to China using phylogenetic eigenvector methods to control for the effect of phylogenetic inertia. Extinction risks were based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and ecological explanatory attributes that include range size and climatic variables. When the effect of phylogenetic inertia were controlled, climate became the best predictor for quantifying and evaluating extinction risks of endemic mammals in China, accounting for 13% of the total variation. Range size seems to play a trivial role, explaining ~1% of total variation; however, when non-phylogenetic variation partitioning analysis was done, the role of range size then explained 7.4% of total variation. Consequently, phylogenetic inertia plays a substantial role in increasing the explanatory power of range size on the extinction risks of mammals endemic to China. Limitations of the present study are discussed, with a focus on under-represented sampling of endemic mammalian species.

  14. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    ALUNNO-BRUSCIA, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main sci...

  15. Assessing Ecological Flow Needs and Risks for Springs and Baseflow Streams With Growth and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. E.; Stevens, L. E.

    2008-12-01

    Ecological flow needs assessments are beginning to become an important part of regulated river management, but are more challenging for unregulated rivers. Water needs for ecosystems are greater than just consumptive use by riparian and aquatic vegetation and include the magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of flows and the depth and annual fluctuations of groundwater levels of baseflow supported streams. An ecological flow needs assessment was adapted and applied to an unregulated, baseflow dependent river in the arid to semi-arid Southwestern U.S. A separate process was developed to determine groundwater sources potentially at risk from climate, land management, or groundwater use changes in a large regional groundwater basin in the same semi-arid region. In 2007 and 2008, workshops with ecological, cultural, and physical experts from agencies, universities, tribes, and other organizations were convened. Flow-ecology response functions were developed with either conceptual or actual information for a baseflow dependent river, and scoring systems were developed to assign values to categories of risks to groundwater sources in a large groundwater basin. A reduction of baseflow to the river was predicted to lead to a decline in cottonwood and willow tree abundance, decreases in riparian forest diversity, and increases in non-native tree species, such as tamarisk. These types of forest vegetation changes would likely cause reductions or loss of some bird species. Loss of riffle habitat through declines in groundwater discharge and the associated river levels would likely lead to declines in native fish and amphibian species. A research agenda was developed to develop techniques to monitor, assess and hopefully better manage the aquifers supporting the baseflow dependent river to prevent potential threshold responses of the ecosystems. The scoring system for categories of risk was applied to four systems (aquifers, springs, standing water bodies, and streams) in

  16. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site

  17. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site.

  18. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution. PMID:24881399

  19. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: Analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; CAI Xue-fen; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level(LEL)and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  20. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins and its relationship with the aquatic macroinvertebrate community status

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović, Maja; Julio C. López-Doval; Castro-Català, Núria de; Guasch i Padró, Helena; Petrović, Mira; Muñoz, Isabel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barceló i Cullerés, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins (Llobregat, Ebro, Júcar and Guadalquivir) was performed. The data set included more than 200 emerging and priority compounds measured at 77 sampling sites along four river basins studied. The toxic units (TU) approach was used to assess the risk of individual compounds and the concentration addition model (CA) to assess the site specific risk. Link between chemical pollution and aquatic macroinvertebrate commu...

  1. Soil-ecological risks for soil degradation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid; Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation includes the processes of soil properties and quality worsening, primarily from the point of view of their productivity and decrease of ecosystem services quality. Complete soil cover destruction and/or functioning termination of soil forms of organic life are considered as extreme stages of soil degradation, and for the fragile ecosystems they are normally considered in the network of their desertification, land degradation and droughts /DLDD/ concept. Block-model of ecotoxic effects, generating soil and ecosystem degradation, has been developed as a result of the long-term field and laboratory research of sod-podzol soils, contaminated with waste, containing heavy metals. The model highlights soil degradation mechanisms, caused by direct and indirect impact of ecotoxicants on "phytocenosis- soil" system and their combination, frequently causing synergistic effect. The sequence of occurring changes here can be formalized as a theory of change (succession of interrelated events). Several stages are distinguished here - from heavy metals leaching (releasing) in waste and their migration downward the soil profile to phytoproductivity decrease and certain phytocenosis composition changes. Phytoproductivity decrease leads to the reduction of cellulose content introduced into the soil. The described feedback mechanism acts as a factor of sod-podzolic soil self-purification and stability. It has been shown, that using phytomass productivity index, integrally reflecting the worsening of soil properties complex, it is possible to solve the problems dealing with the dose-reflecting reactions creation and determination of critical levels of load for phytocenosis and corresponding soil-ecological risks. Soil-ecological risk in "phytocenosis- soil" system means probable negative changes and the loss of some ecosystem functions during the transformation process of dead organic substance energy for the new biomass composition. Soil-ecological risks estimation is

  2. Ecological risk assessment of pesticides in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette;

    2015-01-01

    . As we followed the advocacy coalition framework, our findings focus on stakeholders’ processes, interrelations and values behind the ERA policy change. The main challenges emerging from our analysis turned out to be the slow uptake of scientific developments into ERA and very broadly defined protection......-protectiveness lies deep in the perception of stakeholders and depends greatly on their priorities. Academics strive for better ecological relevance as a priority. They have concerns that ERA is oversimplified. Regulators worry that ERA relies too much on risk mitigation and is possibly not protective enough...

  3. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  4. Using the expert model PERPEST to translate measured and predicted pesticide exposure dat into ecological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Brown, C.D.; Dubus, I.G.

    2006-01-01

    An important topic in the registration of pesticides and the interpretation of monitoring data is the estimation of the consequences of a certain concentration of a pesticide for the ecology of aquatic ecosystems. Solving these problems requires predictions of the expected response of the ecosystem

  5. Prospective ecological risk assessment of sediment resuspension in an estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Diego; Beiras, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This study assesses potential ecological risk of resuspended sediment in the water column during the construction of a viaduct in the estuary of the Ulla river (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula), a shellfish production area. Chemical analyses and toxicity bioassays with elutriates were performed with sediments from the area where the three pillars of the viaduct will be located (CT1, CT2 and CT3) and a reference sediment (A2). Acute toxicity of the elutriate was evaluated in five species of three trophic levels (Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Venerupis pullastra and Siriella armata). The sediments of the pillars showed moderate levels of contamination by trace elements (Cu, Cr). Clam and sea urchin embryo-larval toxicity tests showed slightly higher sensitivity than mussel embryo tests, and toxicity was not detected for phytoplankton and mysid bioassays. The predicted no-effect environmental concentration (PNEC) was calculated from the arithmetic mean of the lowest calculated EC(50)s for each sampling site. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated from a simple dilution model and the PEC/PNEC ratio was calculated according to different scenarios of resuspension. Negligible ecological risk in the water column is expected during construction of the pillars.

  6. Adaptive economic and ecological forest management under risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Mo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Background:Forest managers must deal with inherently stochastic ecological and economic processes. The future growth of trees is uncertain, and so is their value. The randomness of low-impact, high frequency or rare catastrophic shocks in forest growth has significant implications in shaping the mix of tree species and the forest landscape. In addition, the fluctuations of wood prices influence greatly forest revenues. Methods: Markov decision process models (MDPs) offer a rigorous and practical way of developing optimum management strategies, given these multiple sources of risk. Results: Examples illustrate how such management guidelines are obtained with MDPs for combined ecological and economic objectives, including diversity of tree species and size, landscape diversity, old growth preservation, and carbon sequestration. Conclusions:The findings il ustrate the power of the MDP approach to deal with risk in forest resource management. They recognize that the future is best viewed in terms of probabilities. Given these probabilities, MDPs tie optimum adaptive actions strictly to the state of the forest and timber prices at decision time. The methods are theoretically rigorous, numerically efficient, and practical for field implementation.

  7. Arsenic concentrations in water, sediment, and aquatic animals from the Pearl River estuaries and its distribution characteristics and ecological risk evaluation%珠江口水、沉积物及生物体As含量分布特征及生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婉玲; 庞世勋; 王超; 高原; 曾艳艺; 赖子尼

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic in water, sediments, and aquatic animals from the Pearl River estuaries were studied in February, May, August, and November 2008. The results showed that the average arsenic concentration in water was 2.88µg ·L-1, which was lower than the Class I standard for sea water quality. The arsenic concentration in water was significantly higher in November than in the other three months according to ANOVA (P 0.05). However, the arsenic concentration in shrimp was 0.314 mg·kg-1, which was lower than the permitted limits. The average arsenic concentration in the environment and in aquatic organisms from the Pearl River estuaries has increased in recent years, and the estuaries have a higher degree of contamination compared with other estuaries in China.%  于2008年2、5、8及11月对珠江口进行了水、沉积物和生物体As含量的调查,分析其分布特征以及进行生态评价。结果表明:珠江口水体中As含量平均值为2.88µg·L-1,符合一类海水水质标准;其中,11月份显著高于其它3个月份(P 0.05)。受检生物样品虾的含量为0.314 mg·kg-1,符合水产品中有毒有害物质限量要求。与历年比较发现珠江口水、沉积物和生物体中As含量有上升的趋势,与其它河口相比较发现珠江口As污染在对比的河口和海湾中受污染程度较高。

  8. Development of a risk assessment for BSE in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Young, C; Stanfield, G; Oakes, D

    1998-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is believed to be transmitted by the ingestion of proteinaceous agents called prions which accumulate in the brain and spinal cord of infected bovines. Concern has been expressed about the risks of transmission of BSE to humans through BSE prions discharged to the aquatic environment from rendering plants, abattoirs and landfills. The disease-related form of the prion protein is relatively resistant to degradation, and infectivity decays rather slowly in the environment. Levels of disinfection used for drinking water treatment would have little effect. This paper presents the assumptions which were used to model the risks from a rendering plant disposing of cull cattle carcasses in the catchment of a chalk aquifer which is used for a drinking water abstraction. The risk assessment approach focused on identifying the hydrogeological and physical barriers which would contribute to preventing BSE infectivity gaining entry to the aquifer. These barriers included inactivation of BSE agent by the rendering process, removal from the effluent by treatment at the plant, filtration and adsorption in the clay and chalk, and dilution in the ground water. The importance in environmental risk assessment of the cow-to-man species barrier is considered. Two key conclusions about the environmental behaviour of the BSE agent are that prion proteins are 'sticky' and bind to particulates, and that the millions of BSE prion molecules comprising a human oral ID50 are subject to some degree of dispersion and hence dilution in the environment. Assuming the rendering plant processes 2000 cull cattle carcasses per week, the risks to drinking water consumers were estimated to be remote. Indeed, even using worst case assumptions an individual would have to consume 21 d-1 of tap water for 45 million years to have a 50% chance of infection through drinking water drawn from the aquifer.

  9. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  10. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment. Part 1: Reflections of stakeholder values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G

    2006-01-01

    The selection of appropriate assessment endpoints is a basic element of an ecological risk assessment, especially at regional or watershed scales. Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and feature of ecological risk assessments. The first item is a discussion of the replacement of population-level risk assessment with the construct of a population-scale assessment endpoint. Next, the criteria that are currently used for assessment endpoints are reviewed and evaluated for utility in an ecological risk assessment. Following this examination, assessment endpoints from a number of regional-scale ecological risk assessments are compared. The outcome of this evaluation is that population-scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. Finally, a few recommendations for the selection of assessment endpoints at a population scale are listed. PMID:16640323

  11. 78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... AGENCY Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's draft human health and ecological risk assessments for the registration review of... comprehensive draft risk assessments for each of the subject chemicals and is making them available for...

  12. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city.

  13. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  14. Method and Approaches to the Estimation of Ecological Risks of Urban Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Negative environmental factors (chemical, physical, biological) may cause significant negative influence both over environment and the health of the population. Maximal number of sources of negative impact is located in industrial regions. Factors and existing methods of the estimation of ecological risks of urban territories are discussed. The main steps of estimation of ecological risks of urban territories are described. New approaches to estimation of ecological risks of urban territories...

  15. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  16. Ecological risk assessment of the antibiotic enrofloxacin applied to Pangasius catfish farms in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Margot; Rico, Andreu; Phu, Tran Minh; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics applied in aquaculture production may be released into the environment and contribute to the deterioration of surrounding aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, we assessed the ecological risks posed by the use of the antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENR), and its main metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP), in a Pangasius catfish farm in the Mekong Delta region, Vietnam. Water and sediment samples were collected in a stream receiving effluents from a Pangasius catfish farm that had applied ENR. The toxicity of ENR and CIP was assessed on three tropical aquatic species: the green-algae Chlorella sp. (72 h - growth inhibition test), the micro-invertebrate Moina macrocopa (48 h - immobilization test), and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The toxic effects on O. niloticus were evaluated by measuring the cholinesterase (ChE) and catalase (CAT) activities in the fish brain and muscles, respectively, and by considering feed exposure and water exposure separately. Ecological risks were assessed by comparing maximum exposure concentrations with predicted no effect concentrations for cyanobacteria, green algae, invertebrates and fish derived with available toxicity data. The results of this study showed that maximum antibiotic concentrations in Pangasius catfish farm effluents were 0.68 μg L(-1) for ENR and 0.25 μg L(-1) for CIP (dissolved water concentrations). Antibiotics accumulated in sediments down-stream the effluent discharge point at concentrations up to 2590 μg kg(-1) d.w. and 592 μg kg(-1) d.w. for ENR and CIP, respectively. The calculated EC50 values for ENR and CIP were 111000 and 23000 μg L(-1) for Chlorella sp., and 69000 and 71000 μg L(-1) for M. macrocopa, respectively. Significant effects on the ChE and CAT enzymatic activities of O. niloticus were observed at 5 g kg(-1) feed and 400-50000 μg L(-1), for both antibiotics. The results of the ecological risk assessment performed in this study indicated only minor risks for cyanobacteria

  17. An ecological risk assessment of the exposure and effects of 2,4-D acid to rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous state and federal agencies are increasingly concerned with the rapid expansion of invasive, noxious weeds across the United States. Herbicides are frequently applied as weed control measures in forest and rangeland ecosystems that frequently overlap with critical habitats of threatened and endangered fish species. However, there is little published chronic toxicity data for herbicides and fish that can be used to assess ecological risk of herbicides in aquatic environments. We conducted 96-h flowthrough acute and 30-day chronic toxicity studies with swim-up larvae and juvenile rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) exposed to the free acid form of 2,4-D. Juvenile rainbow trout were acutely sensitive to 2,4-D acid equivalent at 494 mg/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 334-668 mg/L; 96-h ALC50). Accelerated life-testing procedures, used to estimate chronic mortality from acute data, predicted that a 30-day exposure of juvenile rainbow trout to 2,4-D would result in 1% and 10% mortality at 260 and 343 mg/L, respectively. Swim-up larvae were chronically more sensitive than juveniles using growth as the measurement end point. The 30-day lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of 2,4-D on growth of swim-up larvae was 108 mg/L, whereas the 30-day no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 54 mg/L. The 30-day maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) of 2,4-D for rainbow trout, determined as the geometric mean of the NOEC and the LOEC, was 76 mg/L. The acute:chronic ratio was 6.5 (i.e., 494/76). We observed no chronic effects on growth of juvenile rainbow trout at the highest concentration tested (108 mg/L). Worst-case aquatic exposures to 2,4-D (4 mg/L) occur when the herbicide is directly applied to aquatic ecosystems for aquatic weed control and resulted in a 30-day safety factor of 19 based on the MATC for growth (i.e., 76/4). Highest nontarget aquatic exposures to 2,4-D applied following terrestrial use is calculated at 0.136 mg/L and resulted in a

  18. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  19. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.;

    to the biotechnologically inserted or modified trait. Furthermore, reference to relevant test methods must be made for each type of information required. The present guidelines cover the need for information relevant to ecological risk assessment, raised in EU directive 90/220/EEC, including new issues raised...... and weediness of the transgenic crop plants as well as biogeochemical and environmental impacts ascribed to altered management should be considered separately. At present, no accepted test guideline exists for the issues mentioned above. However, it is agreed that a tiered approach is desirable...... it is necessary to proceed to Tier IIIA. Contrary, if the GMHP is unable to reproduce and survive for example winter conditions the Tier IIIA tests are not necessary, and so forth for the other issues raised. In any new case, it is obligatory to establish a monitoring program when the test programme has been...

  20. Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research; project: hazardous materials in aquatic environments; subproject: biomarkers and risk assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established in 1989 as the umbrella organization to coordinate environmental research at both universities. CBR projects funded by the DOE under the Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments grant are defining the following: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants through wetlands environments, (2) the actual and potential impact of contaminants on ecological systems and health, (3) the mechanisms and new technologies through which these impacts might be remediated, and (4) new programs aimed at educating and training environmental workers of the future. The subproject described in this report, 'Biomarkers and Risk Assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LN', is particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program aimed at solving problems related to hazard monitoring and clean-up prioritization at sites with aquatic pollution problems in the DOE complex

  1. Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research; project: hazardous materials in aquatic environments; subproject: biomarkers and risk assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, C.

    1996-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established in 1989 as the umbrella organization to coordinate environmental research at both universities. CBR projects funded by the DOE under the Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments grant are defining the following: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants through wetlands environments, (2) the actual and potential impact of contaminants on ecological systems and health, (3) the mechanisms and new technologies through which these impacts might be remediated, and (4) new programs aimed at educating and training environmental workers of the future. The subproject described in this report, `Biomarkers and Risk Assessment in Bayou Trepagnier, LN`, is particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program aimed at solving problems related to hazard monitoring and clean-up prioritization at sites with aquatic pollution problems in the DOE complex.

  2. A heteroskedastic error covariance matrix estimator using a first-order conditional autoregressive Markov simulation for deriving asympotical efficient estimates from ecological sampled Anopheles arabiensis aquatic habitat covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githure John I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoregressive regression coefficients for Anopheles arabiensis aquatic habitat models are usually assessed using global error techniques and are reported as error covariance matrices. A global statistic, however, will summarize error estimates from multiple habitat locations. This makes it difficult to identify where there are clusters of An. arabiensis aquatic habitats of acceptable prediction. It is therefore useful to conduct some form of spatial error analysis to detect clusters of An. arabiensis aquatic habitats based on uncertainty residuals from individual sampled habitats. In this research, a method of error estimation for spatial simulation models was demonstrated using autocorrelation indices and eigenfunction spatial filters to distinguish among the effects of parameter uncertainty on a stochastic simulation of ecological sampled Anopheles aquatic habitat covariates. A test for diagnostic checking error residuals in an An. arabiensis aquatic habitat model may enable intervention efforts targeting productive habitats clusters, based on larval/pupal productivity, by using the asymptotic distribution of parameter estimates from a residual autocovariance matrix. The models considered in this research extends a normal regression analysis previously considered in the literature. Methods Field and remote-sampled data were collected during July 2006 to December 2007 in Karima rice-village complex in Mwea, Kenya. SAS 9.1.4® was used to explore univariate statistics, correlations, distributions, and to generate global autocorrelation statistics from the ecological sampled datasets. A local autocorrelation index was also generated using spatial covariance parameters (i.e., Moran's Indices in a SAS/GIS® database. The Moran's statistic was decomposed into orthogonal and uncorrelated synthetic map pattern components using a Poisson model with a gamma-distributed mean (i.e. negative binomial regression. The eigenfunction

  3. Geochemical background and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground of East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Hu, Gang; Kong, Xianghuai

    2015-12-01

    Surface sediment grain size as well as the spatial distribution, pollution status, and source identification of heavy metals in the west Zhoushan Fishing Ground (ZFG) of the East China Sea were analyzed to study the geochemical background concentrations of heavy metals and to assess their potential ecological risk. Our results show that surface sediments in the eastern part of study area were mainly composed of sand-sized components. Spatial distributions of heavy metals were mainly controlled by grain size and terrigenous materials, and their concentrations in the coarsest grain sediments formed primarily during the Holocene transgressive period could represent the element background values of our study area. Contamination factor suggests that there was no pollution of Pb, Zn, and Cr generally in our study area and slight pollution of Cu, Cd, and As (especially Cu) at some stations. In addition, ecological harm coefficient indicates that the ecological risk of each heavy metal, except for Cd, at two stations was low as well. These results are consistent with the pollution load index and ecological risk index, which suggest both the overall level of pollution and the overall ecological risk of six studied metals in sediment were relatively low in our study area. Enrichment factor indicates that the heavy metals came mostly from the natural source. Summarily, the quality level of sediment in our study area was relatively good, and heavy metals in sediments could not exert threat to aquatic lives in the ZFG until now.

  4. Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, mass balance and ecological risks of antibiotics in subtropical shallow Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Wu, Qinglong L; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Bi-Ying

    2016-04-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, mass balance and ecological risks of 43 commonly used human and veterinary antibiotics in both aqueous and sedimentary phases in a large subtropical shallow lake, Lake Taihu. In the aqueous phase, sulfonamides (2.64-344 ng L(-1)), lincomycin (ND to 53.8 ng L(-1)) and florfenicol (0.15-963 ng L(-1)) were the main compounds with high concentrations and detection frequencies. In the sedimentary phase, fluoroquinolones (ND to 174 ng g(-1), dry weight) and tetracyclines (ND to 39.6 ng g(-1), dry weight) were the predominant compounds. Antibiotic concentrations in Lake Taihu were generally lower relative to data documented in previous studies on China and other countries. The composition of antibiotics showed that livestock wastewater might be the main source of antibiotics in Lake Taihu, followed by domestic wastewater. Antibiotics in the lake water showed slight spatial variation in summer and significant spatial variation in winter; whereas, antibiotic concentrations in the sediments varied obviously, with high concentrations found in the sites close to potential pollution sources. Mass balance showed that sediments are an important sink and potential source for fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines. In addition to antibiotics' physicochemical properties, the spatiotemporal distribution of antibiotics in the lake was influenced by both pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics. The environmental risk assessment results showed that sulfamethoxazole could pose high risks on the algae in the aquatic ecosystem, followed by tetracyclines (algae) and fluoroquinolones (bacteria). Overall, our study reveals complex compositions and clear spatiotemporal dynamics in Lake Taihu, which were the consequence of pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics. PMID:27048777

  5. Analysis of the economy of farms with ecological agriculture in the light of profitability and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kopta; Jindřiška Kouřilová

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the assessment of profitability and risks of agricultural holdings with the ecological agriculture. The first part deals with the rate of profitability. These results indicated improving economic situation for both ecological and organic agricultural holdings. The values for ecological holdings started to overreach the values for conventional farms approximately in 2003. Overall accrued revenue reached 8.2% for ecological and 4.3 for conventional farm during...

  6. Conceptual Framework for Trait-Based Ecological Risk Assessment for Wildlife Populations Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between screening level risk assessments and complex ecological models, a need exists for practical identification of risk based on general information about species, chemicals, and exposure scenarios. Several studies have identified demographic, biological, and toxicological fa...

  7. Environmental Risk of Climate Change and Groundwater Abstraction on Ecological Conditions in a Danish Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaby, L. P.; Boegh, E.; Jensen, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Danish drinking water supply is sourced almost entirely from groundwater. Balancing water abstraction demands and the ecological conditions in streams is one of the major challenges for water resource managers. With projected climate change, characterised by increased annual temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration rates for Denmark, the impact to low flows and groundwater levels are especially of interest, as they relate to aquatic habitat and nitrate leaching, respectively. On the island Sjælland, which includes urban and agricultural regions, a doubling of groundwater abstraction rates has been proposed in selected areas to meet water resource demands. This study evaluates the risk to stream ecological conditions for a lowland Danish catchment under multiple scenarios of climate change and groundwater abstraction. Projections of future climate (i.e. precipitation, temperature, reference evapotranspiration) come from the ENSEMBLES climate modelling project. Climate variables from 11 climate models are first bias corrected with a distribution based scaling (DBS) method (Seaby et al., 2013) and then used to force hydrological simulations of stream discharge, groundwater recharge, and nitrate leaching from the root zone under present (1991-2010) and future (2071-2100) climate conditions. Hydrological modelling utilises a sequential coupling methodology with DAISY, a one dimensional crop model describing soil water dynamics in the root zone, and MIKE SHE, a distributed groundwater-surface water model which the National Water Resources Model (DK-model) is set up in (Henriksen et al., 2003). We find low flow and annual discharge to be most impacted by scenarios of climate change, with high variation across climate models (+/- 40% change). Doubling of current groundwater abstraction rates reduces annual discharge by approximately 20%, with higher reductions to low flows seen around 40%. The combined effects of climate change and increased groundwater

  8. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  9. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species

  10. Ecological models for regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: Developing a strategy for the future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorbek, P.; Forbes, V.; Heimbach, F.; Hommen, U.; Thulke, H.H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that p

  11. 区域生态风险评价%REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付在毅; 许学工

    2001-01-01

    生态风险评价是伴随着环境管理目标和环境观念的转变而逐渐兴起并得到发展的一个新的研究领域,它区别于生态影响评价的重要特征在于其强调不确定性因素的作用,区域生态风险评价所涉及的风险源以及评价受体等都在区域内具有空间异质性,因而比一般生态风险评价更复杂。通过讨论区域生态风险评价的特点和方法论基础,对有关概念和评价的方法步骤进行了理论探讨。%Ecological risk assessment is a new study field that appliestheories and me thods of ecology, geography, environmental science and traditional risk assessme nt. Its objective is to estimate the possibility and magnitude that some undesir ed ecological events will occur by using mathematics, probability and other risk analysis techniques. These undesired ecological events are ecological endpoints brought by uncertain disasters or environmental accidents. In fact, ecological risk assessment is a method of drawing risk concept into ecological impact asses sment. Regional ecological risk assessment is one branch of ecological risk assessm ent. It adapts to assess the possibility and magnitude of those undesired events affected on a regional scale. Compared with general ecological risk assessment, both the receptors and the sources of risk must be regional, the exposure and e ffects assessment must account their uncertainty and spatial heterogeneity. So, regional ecological risk assessment may be more complex. This paper inquires int o the theory of regional ecological risk assessment and a set of assessment meth od. The main method steps of regional ecological risk assessment include regiona l definition and background analysis, risk receptor analysis, risk sources analy sis, exposure and hazard analysis and integrated risk assessment. Then, regional risk management countermeasure can be put forward according to the assessmentr esult.

  12. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems. Ecological effects of lithium and beryllium on important aquatic organisms and associted communities. Teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing studies of the sublethal effects of tritium on freshwater species emphasize the potential for genetic transmission of suppressed immune competence in offspring of parental rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to tritium (0, 0.04, 0.4, 40.0 rads) during embryogenesis. We plan to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta irradiation when compared to 60Co gamma irradiation using the relatively radiosensitive immune process of rainbow trout. During FY 1979, we concluded genetic effects studies and prepared a manuscript for open literature publication summarizing FY 1977 and FY 1978 studies on the permanence of suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout sublethally irradiated during embryogenesis. We are also studying the potential effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems. Because of mining and refining subsequent to the use of these metals in the construction of fusion reactors, increased levels of each are likely to be encountered in surface waters. Studies included an evaluation of potential toxicity of lithium on embryological life stages of rainbow trout and an assessment of fate and effects in artificial stream habitats. Levels of lithium necessary to cause an observed effect would have to be at least three orders of magnitude above observed background. Studies initiated in FY 1978 include evaluation of effects of low-level magnetic fields on embryologic development of rainbow trout. The objective of these studies to provide data useful in assessing potentially harmful effects of low-level magnetic fields encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. This approach is less costly than using mammalian systems, provides large numbers of experimental organisms for meaningful statistical analysis and permits examination of potential latent effects in a representative vertebrate

  13. Sources of heavy metals in surface sediments and an ecological risk assessment from two adjacent Plateau reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Wu

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and arsenic (As in surface water and sediments were investigated in two adjacent drinking water reservoirs (Hongfeng and Baihua Reservoirs on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Southwest China. Possible pollution sources were identified by spatial and statistical analyses. For both reservoirs, Cd was most likely from industrial activities, and As was from lithogenic sources. For the Hongfeng Reservoir, Pb, Cr and Cu might have originated from mixed sources (traffic pollution and residual effect of former industrial practices, and the sources of Hg included the inflows, which were different for the North (industrial activities and South (lithogenic origin Lakes, and atmospheric deposition resulting from coal combustion. For the Baihua Reservoir, the Hg, Cr and Cu were primarily derived from industrial activities, and the Pb originated from traffic pollution. The Hg in the Baihua Reservoir might also have been associated with coal combustion pollution. An analysis of ecological risk using sediment quality guidelines showed that there were moderate toxicological risks for sediment-dwelling organisms in both reservoirs, mainly from Hg and Cr. Ecological risk analysis using the Hakanson index suggested that there was a potential moderate to very high ecological risk to humans from fish in both reservoirs, mainly because of elevated levels of Hg and Cd. The upstream Hongfeng Reservoir acts as a buffer, but remains an important source of Cd, Cu and Pb and a moderately important source of Cr, for the downstream Baihua Reservoir. This study provides a replicable method for assessing aquatic ecosystem health in adjacent plateau reservoirs.

  14. Development of aquatic plant bioassays for rapid screening and interpretive risk assessments of metal mining liquid waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of non-photosynthetic organisms alone to describe environmental impact has been recognized by regulatory agencies, industry and academia as being totally inadequate both in Europe and North America. Lack of adequate testing methods for photosynthetic aquatic organisms has been recognized as a major impediment to the successful regulation and safe use of pesticides and waste water discharges and is of even more concern to the metal mining industry due to the non-biodegradable nature of its waste streams. This work shows that the chemical effluent limits set in the 'Metal mining liquid effluent regulations and guidelines' provide variable protection of aquatic photosynthetic organisms and aquatic effects of the more toxic metals (e.g., copper, nickel, and zinc) may occur at levels that are one to two orders of magnitude lower than present limits. To establish adequate protection of receiving water bodies it may be necessary to establish site-specific criteria taking into consideration toxicity modifying factors of individual sites. If the establishment of such criteria is determined with a host of ecologically relevant organisms, it will be possible to design effective environmental protection at the least possible cost. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Progress in the evaluation of transgenic fish for possible ecological risk and its containment strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Wei; WANG; YaPing; ZHU; ZuoYan

    2007-01-01

    Genetically improved transgenic fish possess many beneficial economic traits; however, the commercial aquaculture of transgenic fish has not been performed till date. One of the major reasons for this is the possible ecological risk associated with the escape or release of the transgenic fish. Using a growth hormone transgenic fish with rapid growth characteristics as a subject, this paper analyzes the following: the essence of the potential ecological risks posed by transgenic fish; ecological risk in the current situation due to transgenic fish via one-factor phenotypic and fitness analysis, and mathematical model deduction. Then, it expounds new ideas and the latest findings using an artificially simulated ecosystem for the evaluation of the ecological risks posed by transgenic fish. Further, the study comments on the strategies and principles of controlling these ecological risks by using a triploid approach. Based on these results, we propose that ecological risk evaluation and prevention strategies are indispensable important components and should be accompanied with breeding research in order to provide enlightments for transgenic fish breeding, evaluation of the ecological risks posed by transgenic fish, and development of containment strategies against the risks.

  16. Are we going about chemical risk assessment for the aquatic environment the wrong way?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrew C.; Sumpter, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of protecting the aquatic environment through testing thousands of chemicals against hundreds of aquatic species with thousands of endpoints while also considering mixtures is impossible given the present resources. Much of the impetus for studies on micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, came from the topic of endocrine disruption in wild fish. But despite concern over reductions in fish fertility, there is little evidence that fish populations are in peril. Indeed, fish biologis...

  17. Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwiese, J.T.; Ryti, R.T.; Hooten, M.M.; Michael, D.I.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    2001-02-01

    This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems.

  18. Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems

  19. Assessment of metals contamination and ecological risk in ait Ammar abandoned iron mine soil, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to assess the pollution intensity and corresponding ecological risk of phosphorus and metals including Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe using various indices like geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, pollution and ecological risk index. In all, 20 surface soil samples were collected from the Ait Ammar iron mine of Oued Zem city, province of Khouribga, in central Morocco. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were used to assess their potential ecological risks. According to the results of potential ecological risk index (RI, pollution index (PI, geo-accumulation index (Igeo, enrichment factor (EF, potential contamination index (Cp, contaminant factor (Cf and degree of contamination (Cd, based on the averages, considerable pollution of metals in soils of study area was observed. The consequence of the correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and P mainly originated from natural sources and Cd and Pb are mostly derived from anthropogenic sources. The results showed that these metals in soil were ranked by severity of ecological risk as Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Zn, based on their single-element indexes. In view of the potential ecological risk (RI, soils from all soil samples showed a potential ecological risk. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention in Ait Ammar.

  20. Comparative studies of the global ecological state variation of the aquatic environment in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space between 2007 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Sion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study regarding the evolution across time of the quality of aquatic eco-systems in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space (CHS, between 2007 and 2009. Having as a goal a real and complete image of the quality of the environment in the CHS, the ecological monitoringconducted was meant to observe the structure of the aquatic communities (macrozoobenthos, microphytobenthos, phytoplankton and the biotope characteristics (physical and chemical parameters of water: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CBO5, CCO-Mn, CCO-Cr, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, amonium, chlorophyll “a”, chlorides, sulphates, fix residues, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, phenols, detergents etc. The choosing of the monitoring sections, their identification and geographical position were accomplished in 2006. The basic criterion in the choice of the monitoring sections was the identification of all aspects that can influence the quality state of the waters. The monitoring of the quality state of the waters in the CHS was conducted in 40 sections, both on the main courses and their affluents, over a 3-year period. After the results of the analyses of physico-chemical and biological samples were obtained, the categorization of the prelevation sections in quality classes followed; depending on these classes, the modelation of the global ecological states of the watercourses in the CHS was realized by means of mapping techniques (GIS. Most of the monitoring sections were in the good ecological state category. The very good ecological state was determined only for those sections upstream all polluting sources. Nevertheless, some of the prelevation points exceeded both physico-chemically and biologically the limits of the good quality state, entering the category of moderate quality state. No watercourse in the CHS was determined for poor or bad quality state. Generally, a “preservation” of the quality state of the waters from one year to the following was

  1. Ecological Dose Modeling of Aquatic and Riparian Receptors to Strontium-90 with an Emphasis on Radiosensitive Organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Traub, Richard J.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2011-07-20

    The 100-NR-2 site is the location of elevated releases of strontium-90 to the Columbia River via contaminated groundwater. The resulting dose to aquatic and riparian receptors was evaluated in 2005 (DOE 2009) and compared to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) dose guidance values. We have conducted additional dose assessments for a broader spectrum of aquatic and riparian organisms using RESRAD Biota and specific exposure scenarios. Because strontium-90 accumulates in bone, we have also modeled the dose to the anterior kidney, a blood-forming and immune system organ that lies close to the spinal column of fish. The resulting dose is primarily attributable to the yttrium-90 progeny of strontium-90 and very little of the dose is associated with the beta emission from strontium-90. All dose modeling results were calculated with an assumption of secular equilibrium between strontium-90 and yttrum-90.

  2. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Simon; Charles Morris; Joseph Robb; William McCoy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and...

  3. Ecological subsidies: a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem and exposure studies in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecology and ecotoxicology share common goals - tracing and quantifying material flux in the environment. Bridging these disciplines is challenging because their practitioners have slightly different methods, terminologies and objectives. For example, ecologists strive to identify...

  4. Ecological risks of biological control agents: impacts on IPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokkanen, H.M.T.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Menzler-Hokkanen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early days of integrated pest management a sound ecological foundation has been considered essential for the development of effective systems. From time to time, there have been attempts to evaluate the ways in which ecological theory is exploited in pest control, and to review the lessons

  5. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Ye; Gengping Zhu; Jakob Damgaard; Xin Chen; Pingping Chen; Wenjun Bu

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + IT...

  6. Content and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment in Weishan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the content of heavy metals in surface sediment in Weishan Lake and further assess its ecological risk.[Method] Heavy metal pollution in surface sediment in Weishan Lake was studied,and the pollution indices and potential ecological risk indices of Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd and Cr were calculated to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metal pollution.[Result] In surface sediment in Weishan Lake,the average contents of Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd,Cr and Ni were 64.78,185.05,78.76,0.17,37.76 an...

  7. Evaluating chemical exposure and effect models for aquatic species with a focus on crude oil constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, L. de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to evaluate a suite of exposure and effect models on their applicability in ecological risk assessment for aquatic species and ecosystems. The focus is on oil constituents, as it is largely unknown whether current ecological models are applicable to crude oil and its co

  8. The ecological risks of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; Montforts MHMM; SEC

    2008-01-01

    Bacterien die resistent zijn voor antibiotica verspreiden zich via het watermilieu, waaronder riool- en oppervlaktewater. De ecologische gevolgen zijn echter nog niet in te schatten, zo blijkt uit een literatuurstudie van het RIVM in opdracht van de Waterdienst. Het RIVM beveelt aan mogelijke e

  9. BIOTOXIN-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY: AN EMERGING RISK FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing incidence of human illness associated with exposure to biotoxins from harmful algal blooms (HABs) in aquatic environments, and fungi and bacteria on land, may indicate an emerging human-health risk. HABs are reported to be increasing worldwide in frequency, duratio...

  10. Ecological Risk Assessment with MCDM of Some Invasive Alien Plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guowen; Chen, Weiguang; Lin, Meizhen; Zheng, Yanling; Guo, Peiguo; Zheng, Yisheng

    Alien plant invasion is an urgent global issue that threatens the sustainable development of the ecosystem health. The study of its ecological risk assessment (ERA) could help us to prevent and reduce the invasion risk more effectively. Based on the theory of ERA and methods of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), and through the analyses of the characteristics and processes of alien plant invasion, this paper discusses the methodologies of ERA of alien plant invasion. The assessment procedure consisted of risk source analysis, receptor analysis, exposure and hazard assessment, integral assessment, and countermeasure of risk management. The indicator system of risk source assessment as well as the indices and formulas applied to measure the ecological loss and risk were established, and the method for comprehensively assessing the ecological risk of alien plant invasion was worked out. The result of ecological risk analysis to 9 representative invasive alien plants in China shows that the ecological risk of Erigeron annuus, Ageratum conyzoides, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Mikania midrantha is high (grade1-2), that of Oxalis corymbosa and Wedelia chinensis comes next (grade3), while Mirabilis jalapa, Pilea microphylla and Calendula officinalis of the last (grade 4). Risk strategies are put forward on this basis.

  11. Risk-informed approaches to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingenious risk-informed methods to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste are proposed in the paper. Probabilistic norms on lethal outcomes and reliability of safety barriers are used as safety criteria. Based on the probability measures, it is established that ecological safety conditions are met for the standard criterion of lethal outcomes

  12. An Ecological Risk/Protective Factor Approach to Understanding Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan; Goddard, H. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    We applied an ecological multiple risk/protective factor model to study factors related to depressive symptoms among adolescents. Participants were 39,740 adolescents who self-reported risk factors, protective factors, and depressive symptoms on a school-based survey. Results indicate that an index of multiple risk was related to increased…

  13. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  14. Ecological risk assessment of soil pollution based on a triad approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagelmans, M.H.A.B.; Waarde, J. van der [Bioclear bv, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    In the field of soil remediation the demand for site-specific risk assessment of soil pollution is increasing. In traditional risk assessment of soil, chemical analyses are used in a model to calculate potential ecological risks. This method does not take biological availability of compounds nor combination toxicity into account. Therefore a new instrument has been developed for the assessment of ecological risks; the TRIAD approach. The TRIAD approach combines chemical data, toxicity testing and ecological data from a site, to give a complete and actual description of ecological effects of soil and sediment contaminants. In this article three examples of the application of the TRIAD approach are given: reclaimed land with contaminated harbour sludge, a clay pigeon shooting ground, and former sedimentation basins for waste water from textile industry. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of ecological and economic risks of us in gland resources

    OpenAIRE

    Николюк, Ольга Миколаївна; Князєва, Ольга Петрівна; Залевський, Роман Антонович

    2015-01-01

    The classification of risk of land use for agricultural production, the peculiarities of assessing ecological and economic risksof land use for agricultural production have been considered, a quantitativerisk assessmentof land useshortfallof agriculturalproductsbyrelationof norms ofthe land valueandthe insufficiently ball are performed

  16. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  17. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-11-09

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution-severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  18. 75 FR 74007 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... analysis. Language used in the NANPCA differentiates between a non-indigenous species and a nuisance... published in the Federal Register on August 31, 2010 (75 FR 53273). The period of public comment expired on..., and implementing the Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act. The National...

  19. Microplastics in aquatic food chain : sources, measurement, occurrence and potential health risks

    OpenAIRE

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Bouwmeester, H.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with plastics is a growing problem, and is expected to persist for hundreds to thousands of years. As a result microplastics, plastic particles with size smaller than 5 mm, are ubiquitously present in the aquatic food chain. The present literature review shows that the information needed for such an evaluation is not available yet

  20. Microplastics in aquatic food chain : sources, measurement, occurrence and potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Bouwmeester, H.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with plastics is a growing problem, and is expected to persist for hundreds to thousands of years. As a result microplastics, plastic particles with size smaller than 5 mm, are ubiquitously present in the aquatic food chain. The present literature review shows that the i

  1. Recording of ecological half-lives of 90Sr and 137Cs in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this project, the long-term behaviour of 90Sr and 137Cs in foods, feeds and a variety of environmental was analysed. The long-term behaviour is quantified by means of the ecological half-life which integrates all processes that cause a decrease of activity in a given medium as leaching, fixation and erosion. The following results were achieved: - For plant and animal food products, the ecological half-lives are in the range of 4 to 6 and 10 to 20 years for cesium and strontium respectively. The ecological half-lives for the period 1965 to 1985 are slightly shorter than those derived from monitoring measurements performed after 1987, due to the ongoing deposition in the post weapons' fallout period. - According to the German radioecological model that is applied during licensing of nuclear installations to assess radiation exposures to the general due to planned releases, the ecological half-lives for plant food products are 26 and 13 a for cesium and strontium respectively. In radioecological model that is used within the decision support system RODOS, the ecological half-lives are 8 years for Cesium and 14 years for strontium, which agrees well with the finding of this study. - For roe deer, deer, wild boar and forest plants (including mushrooms), under Middle European conditions, the ecological half-lives are about 12 years for cesium. However, in Ukraine, the cesium levels in forest products are much more persistent; in some cases the decrease of activity is only caused by the radioactive decay. - The variability of the long-term behaviour of 137Cs and 90Sr in freshwater ecosystems is much more pronounced than for terrestrial systems. It depends strongly on the sitespecific characteristics. The observed ecological half-lives for 137Cs and 90Sr cover a wide range from several days to several years. - The data to derive ecological half-lives of cesium in soil is relatively poor. For the upper soil layer of 0-10 cm, ecological half-lives were derived ranging

  2. Ecological risks of an old wood impregnation mill: application of the Triad approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Anne-Mari; Kilpi-Koski, Johanna; Väisänen, Ari O; Penttinen, Sari; van Gestel, Cornelius A M; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Although many studies deal with the distribution and mobility of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) metals in soil, the ecotoxicity of CCA-contaminated soils is rarely studied. The Triad approach was applied to determine the ecological risks posed by a CCA mixture at a decommissioned wood impregnation mill in southern Finland. A combination of (1) chemical analyses; (2) toxicity tests with plants (aquatic: Lemna minor; terrestrial: Lactuca sativa), earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus albidus) conducted on contaminated soils, their aqueous extracts, and well water collected from the site; and (3) determination of the abundance of enchytraeids and nematodes and the bioaccumulation of metals in plants (horsetail) collected from the field were used to assess the actual risk. Although metal concentrations were low, L. minor growth appeared to be reduced by As contamination of the well water. In soil, metals were heterogeneously distributed with total concentrations of 14.8 to 4360 mg As/kg, 15.2 to 1740 mg Cr/kg, and 4.83 to 790 mg Cu/kg. In several samples, concentrations were above Finnish regulatory guideline values and exceeded the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) or 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values for the toxicity of the individual metals to earthworms and enchytraeids, indicating hazards to the ecosystem. (Bio)availability of metals was high, as indicated by weak electrolyte extractions and body residues in L. rubellus and E. albidus exposed in bioassays. Earthworm survival correlated significantly with body metal concentrations, but not with soil total metal concentrations. Enchytraeid responses in the soil bioassays were less sensitive to CCA metal exposure. Plant growth was affected by CCA pollution, with L. sativa root elongation correlating significantly with total and available As concentrations and L. minor development being significantly reduced in H2O extracts of the most contaminated soil sample. Abundance of

  3. The maximization of the productivity of aquatic plants for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. G.

    Lemna minor (common duckweed) and a Wolffia sp. were grown in submerged growth systems. Submerged growth increased the productivity/unit volume (P/UV) of the organisms and may allow these plants to be used in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS).

  4. Nutrient dynamics, transfer and retention along the aquatic continuum from land to ocean: Towards integration of ecological and biogeochemical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.F.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Griffioen, J.; Hefting, M.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Middelkoop, H.; Slomp, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    In river basins, soils, groundwater, riparian zones and floodplains, streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs act as successive filters in which the hydrology, ecology and biogeochemical processing are strongly coupled and together act to retain a significant fraction of the nutrients transported. This

  5. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M.; Quinn, Laura P.; Polder, Anuschka

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT levels reported this century; 13 000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 n...

  6. A Blueprint for the Problem Formulation Phase of EPA-Type Ecological Risk Assessments for 316(b Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Van Winkle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between management objectives focused on sustainability of fish populations and the indigenous aquatic community, and a management objective focused on minimizing entrainment and impingement losses accounts for much of the ongoing controversy surrounding §316(b. We describe the EPA’s ecological risk assessment framework and recommend that this framework be used to more effectively address differences in management objectives and structure §316(b determinations. We provide a blueprint for the problem formulation phase of EPA-type ecological risk assessments for cooling-water intake structures (CWIS at existing power plant facilities. Our management objectives, assessment endpoints, conceptual model, and generic analysis plan apply to all existing facilities. However, adapting the problem formulation process for a specific facility requires consideration of the permitting agency’s guidelines and level of regulatory concern, as well as site-specific ecological and technical differences. The facility-specific problem formulation phase is designed around the hierarchy of biolo gical levels of organization in the generic conceptual model and the sequence of cause-effect events and risk hypotheses represented by this model. Problem formulation is designed to be flexible in that it can be tailored for facilities where §316(b regulatory concern is low or high. For some facilities, we anticipate that the assessment can be completed based on consideration of susceptibility alone. At the other extreme, a high level of regulatory concern combined with the availability of extensive information and consideration of costly CWIS mitigation options may result in the ecological risk assessment relying on analyses at all levels. Decisions on whether to extend the ecological risk assessment to additional levels should be based on whether regulatory or generator concerns merit additional analyses and whether available information is adequate to

  7. Ecological Risk Assessment of a Metal-Contaminated Area in the Tropics. Tier II: Detailed Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Júlia Carina Niemeyer; Matilde Moreira-Santos; Rui Ribeiro; Michiel Rutgers; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Eduardo Mendes da Silva; José Paulo Sousa

    2015-01-01

    This study presents data on the detailed evaluation (tier 2) of a site-specific ecological risk assessment (ssERA) in a former smelter area contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil). Combining information from three lines of evidence (LoE), chemical (ChemLoE), ecotoxicological (EcotoxLoE) and ecological (EcoLoE), in the Triad approach, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites and confirm the potential risk disclosed with tier 1. Risk values were calculated for the habi...

  8. Landscape Ecological Risk Responses to Land Use Change in the Luanhe River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Li; Suiliang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change by the landscape ecological risk index method. Using the Luanhe River Basin as a case study, we simulated future land use change from 2010 to 2030 under 3 scenarios (i.e., trend, high economic growth, and ecological security), and...

  9. The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule: Behaviour of an Artificial Aquatic Ecological System During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Andriske, M.; Paris, F.; Voeste, D.

    The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule, a closed aquatic ecosystem integrated into a middeck locker and consisting of a Zoological (animal tanks), a Botanical (plant bioreactor), a Microbial (bacteria filter) and an Electronic Component (data acquisition/control system) was flown on the STS-89 spaceshuttle mission in January 1998 for 9 days. Preflight the plant bioreactor was loaded with 53 g of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) and the animal tanks with 4 adult pregnant females of the fish, Xiphophorus helleri (sword-tails), 200 juveniles of the same species less than 1 week of age, 38 large and 30 juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata water snails. The filter compartment was filled with 200 g of lava grain inoculated with laboratory strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. A ground reference was undertaken with the same biological setup with a delay of 4 d. After an adaptation period of 5 d the system was closed and integrated into the spaceshuttle one day before launch. Video recordings of the animals were automatically taken for 10 minutes in 2-hour periods; the tapes were changed daily by the astronauts. The chemical and physical data for the aquatic system were within the expected range and were closely comparable in comparison to the ground reference. After 9 d under space conditions, the plant biomass increased to 117 g. The plants were all found in very good condition. All 4 adult female fish were retrieved in a good physiological condition. The juvenile fishes had a survival rate of about 33 %. Almost 97 % of the snails had survived and produced more than 250 neonates and 40 spawning packs. All samples were distributed according to a defined schedule and satisfied all scientific needs of the involved 12 principal investigators. This was the first successful spaceflight of an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing vertebrates, invertebrates, higher plants and microorganisms self-sustained by its inhabitants only. C.E.B.A.S. in a modified form and biological setup is a

  10. Calculating background levels for ecological risk parameters in toxic harbor sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, C.J.; McDonnell, T.R.; Lear, J.; Barclift, D.

    2007-01-01

    Establishing background levels for biological parameters is necessary in assessing the ecological risks from harbor sediment contaminated with toxic chemicals. For chemicals in sediment, the term contaminated is defined as having concentrations above background and significant human health or ecological risk levels. For biological parameters, a site could be considered contaminated if levels of the parameter are either more or less than the background level, depending on the specific parameter. Biological parameters can include tissue chemical concentrations in ecological receptors, bioassay responses, bioaccumulation levels, and benthic community metrics. Chemical parameters can include sediment concentrations of a variety of potentially toxic chemicals. Indirectly, contaminated harbor sediment can impact shellfish, fish, birds, and marine mammals, and human populations. This paper summarizes the methods used to define background levels for chemical and biological parameters from a survey of ecological risk investigations of marine harbor sediment at California Navy bases. Background levels for regional biological indices used to quantify ecological risks for benthic communities are also described. Generally, background stations are positioned in relatively clean areas exhibiting the same physical and general chemical characteristics as nearby areas with contaminated harbor sediment. The number of background stations and the number of sample replicates per background station depend on the statistical design of the sediment ecological risk investigation, developed through the data quality objective (DQO) process. Biological data from the background stations can be compared to data from a contaminated site by using minimum or maximum background levels or comparative statistics. In Navy ecological risk assessments (ERA's), calculated background levels and appropriate ecological risk screening criteria are used to identify sampling stations and sites with contaminated

  11. 水产养殖对水生生态系统的影响%The Effect of Aquaculture on Aquatic Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海彦; 狄瑜; 宋迁红; 邴旭文

    2011-01-01

    China was the largest aquaculture producer in the world with many cultured species, accounting for almost 70% of the world aquaculture production. However, some problems about ecology and environment were gradually emerging. The effect of enclosure aquaculture, cage aquaculture, pond aquaculture and the invasion of foreign species on aquatic ecology was discussed and some suggestions about the developmental aim of aquaculture were put forward.%我国是水产养殖大国,养殖品种众多,养殖产量占世界水产养殖总量的70%左右.但在现有的养殖环境下,一些生态环境问题也逐渐显现出来.围绕围网养殖、网箱养殖、池塘养殖、外来物种入侵等4个方面阐述了水产养殖对水生生态系统的影响以及对我国水产养殖将来的发展方向提出了几点看法.

  12. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  13. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Gong; Jianxin Yang; Wenwu Tang

    2015-01-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced b...

  14. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  15. [Risk assessment of ecological disasters in Jilin Province based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Quan; Liang, Jing-Dan; Zhou, Dao-Wei

    2007-08-01

    Based on the principles of natural disasters risk formation, and considering the natural and social features of Jilin Province, relevant indices were selected from the aspects of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and emergency responses, and recovery capability, and Natural Disaster Risk Index method, Weighted Comprehensive Analysis, and Analytic Hierarchy Process were used to build the risk assessment model of ecological disasters in this Province. The contribution of each index was assessed, and the regionalization map of the ecological disasters risk in Jilin Province was built based on GIS, which would provide scientific references in accurately understanding the risk level of ecological disasters and in decision-making of eco-environment restoration and management in Jilin Province. PMID:17974242

  16. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process

  17. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

  18. Case Study of Marine Ecological Compensation Criteria Based on Environmental Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-wei; YANG Zhi-feng; TANG Jun-jian; CHEN Chu-han

    2009-01-01

    This paper forecasted and identified the environmental risks and ecological effect caused by chemical spill by simulating the xylene spill in Xiamen waters. The evaluation objects of ecological damage include four parts: marine ecosystem services, sea water quality, marine biological resources (plankton, benthos, nekton, etc.), and beach habitat. The ecological compensation criterion was confirmed as 1.73 million Yuan per year in the short term and 8.09 million Yuan in the long term. And an ecological compensation mode was suggested to be that if the chemical spill does not occur this year, the compensation will return to the enterprise next year; while if chemical spill occurs, the compensation will not be returned. The encouragement mechanism "returning compensation if no spill" might motivate enterprises to improve the environmental risk management and avoid the risks.

  19. The Impact of Ecological Risk and Perceived Discrimination on the Psychological Adjustment of African American and European American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Pulgiano, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of cumulative ecological risk (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage and ecologically salient stressful events) and perceived discrimination on the psychological adjustment of urban African American and European American youth. Findings indicated that both cumulative ecological risk and perceived…

  20. 75 FR 53273 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... the ANSTF website, http://anstaskforce.gov/documents.php . To obtain a hard copy of the draft revised... the ecological stability of infested waters, or commercial, agricultural, aquacultural or...

  1. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sediments of the luan river source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, B.; Cao, J.; Cao, Z.; Domagalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of heavy metals enrichment in sediment were surveyed including the bio-available form analyzed for assessment of the Luan River source water quality. The approaches of sediment quality guidelines (SQG), risk assessment code and Hakanson potential ecological risk index were used for the ecological risk assessment. According to SQG, The results show that in animal bodies, Hg at the sampling site of Wuliehexia was 1.39 mg/kg, Cr at Sandaohezi was 152.37 mg/kg and Cu at Hanjiaying was 178.61 mg/kg exceeding the severe effect screening level. There were 90% of sampling sites of Cr and Pb and 50% sites of Cu exceeded the lowest effect screening level. At Boluonuo and Wuliehexia, the exchangeable and carbonate fractions for above 50% of sites were at high risk levels and that for above 30% of sites at Xiahenan and Wulieheshang were also at high risk levels. Other sites were at medium risk level. Compared to soil background values of China, Hg and Cd showed very strong ecological risk, and the seven heavy metals of Hg, Cd, Cu, As, Pb, Cr, Zn at ecological risk levels were in the descending order. The results could give insight into risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision-making for water source security. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 2: insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Geest, van G.J.

    2000-01-01

    A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with insecticides was performed to assess the NOEC ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were judg

  3. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services (ES) are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future, and include the production of food and drinking water, purification of air and water, pollination, and nutrient cycling. The n...

  4. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of the work: foundation for principles of planning protection measures, that provide safety for population activity on the territories, contaminated with radio-nuclides, by analysing radio-chemical situation, using risk assessment methods. Problems set in the work: -) Analyses of radiation risk in the structure of ecological risk in the territory of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident; -) Investigation of chemical risk level, connected with air pollution from stationary objects exhausts, for the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides; -) Modelling of the combined impact of ionising radiation and chemical carcinogen for the possible ecological risk assessment; -) Involving modern geo informational systems in the radio-ecological risk assessment process; -) Foundation for the assessment methodology of the complex influence of negative factors in the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides. The problems are solved by carrying out specific experiments and by analysing published and own data on radioactive and chemical contamination of some regions of Belarus. Major findings: Radiation input to the really registered carcinogens is estimated to app. 10 %. In case of multiple factors influence of different contaminators of industrial and natural origin (i.e. radiation is not the only negative factor), ignorance of non-radiation origin factors may seriously distort estimation of radiation risk, when it is related to the registered effects. Radiation should be in no way treated as the major factor of real ecological risk in Belarus. Method for comparative analysis of territories' ecological risk level is developed and implemented. A GIS segment, that includes subsystem of the real and forecasted radio-ecological mapping, is created. The authors grounded the experimental model for study the complex influence of radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical carcinogen) factors. Revealed dependencies 'dose

  5. Biological diversity, ecological health and condition of aquatic assemblages at national wildlife refuges in southern indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Robb, Joseph R; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  6. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  7. Plankton diversity and aquatic ecology of a freshwater lake (L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Bharti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Larsemann Hills range is an ice-free oasis on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, which includes Bharti Island, Fisher Island, McLeod Island, Broknes Peninsula, Stornes Peninsula, and several other islands, promontories, and nunataks. The Larsemann Hills is an ice-free area of approximately 50 km2, located halfway between the Vestfold Hills and the Amery Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The ice-free area consists of two major peninsulas (Stornes and Broknes, four minor peninsulas, and approximately 130 near shore islands. The Larsemann Hills area contains more than 150 lakes at different Islands and peninsulas. Bharti Island of Larsemann Hills in east Antarctica was selected as a sampling site for the present study. Water sample was collected from a freshwater lake during XXXth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA and analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters, major elements, trace metals and major plankton diversity in surface lake water by following standard methodology. The concentrations of metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were also assessed in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills over east Antarctica. Psychrophillic bacteria were found 71 cfu in lake water, while total bacterial count was found to be 5.4 × 102cfu.

  8. Ethinyl Estradiol and Other Human Pharmaceutical Estrogens in the Aquatic Environment: A Review of Recent Risk Assessment Data

    OpenAIRE

    Laurenson, James P.; Bloom, Raanan A.; Page, Stephen; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2014-01-01

    Interest in pharmaceuticals in the environment has increased substantially in recent years. Several studies in particular have assessed human and ecological risks from human pharmaceutical estrogens, such as 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2). Regulatory action also has increased, with the USA and other countries developing rules to address estrogens and other pharmaceuticals in the environment. Accordingly, the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the US Food and Drug Administration has condu...

  9. Simulating pesticides in ditches to assess ecological risk (SPIDER): I. Model description.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrice G. Renaud; Bellamy, Patricia H.; Brown, Colin D.

    2008-01-01

    Risk assessment for pesticides in the aquatic environment relies on a comparison between estimated exposure concentrations in surface water bodies and endpoints from a series of effect tests. Many field- and catchment-scale models have been developed, ranging from simple empirical models to comprehensive, physically- based, distributed models that require complex parameterisation, often through inverse modelling methods. Routine use of catchment models for assessment and man...

  10. Landscape Ecological Risk Responses to Land Use Change in the Luanhe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change by the landscape ecological risk index method. Using the Luanhe River Basin as a case study, we simulated future land use change from 2010 to 2030 under 3 scenarios (i.e., trend, high economic growth, and ecological security, and identified the hotspots of land use change. Afterward, we quantitatively investigated the degree of land use development and landscape ecological risk patterns that have occured since 2000 and that are expected to occur until 2030. Results revealed that, under the three scenarios, construction land and forest are expanding mainly at the expense of agriculture land and grassland. The hotspots of land use change are located in the vicinity of Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District of Chengde City in the midstream of the Luanhe River Basin, where urbanization has been strong since 2000 and is projected to continue that way until 2030. During this time period, hotspots of land use development have been gradually transferring from the downstream to the midstream since 2000 and, again, is expected to continue that way until 2030, which will impact the spatial distribution of landscape ecological risk. We found that the landscape ecological risk of the entire basin has shown a negative trend. However, a few areas still have serious ecological risk, which are mainly located in the east of upstream (Duolun County and Weichang County, the middle region (Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District, Chengde County, and Xinglong County, and the downstream (Qinglong County. These can provide key information for land use management, and for helping to prepare future eco-environmental policies in the Luanhe River Basin.

  11. Regional multi-compartment ecological risk assessment: Establishing cadmium pollution risk in the northern Bohai Rim, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajuan; Wang, Ruoshi; Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Johnson, Andrew C; Sweetman, Andrew; Jones, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) has been widely applied in characterizing the risk of chemicals to organisms and ecosystems. The paucity of toxicity data on local biota living in the different compartments of an ecosystem and the absence of a suitable methodology for multi-compartment spatial risk assessment at the regional scale has held back this field. The major objective of this study was to develop a methodology to quantify and distinguish the spatial distribution of risk to ecosystems at a regional scale. A framework for regional multi-compartment probabilistic ecological risk assessment (RMPERA) was constructed and corroborated using a bioassay of a local species. The risks from cadmium (Cd) pollution in river water, river sediment, coastal water, coastal surface sediment and soil in northern Bohai Rim were examined. The results indicated that the local organisms in soil, river, coastal water, and coastal sediment were affected by Cd. The greatest impacts from Cd were identified in the Tianjin and Huludao areas. The overall multi-compartment risk was 31.4% in the region. The methodology provides a new approach for regional multi-compartment ecological risk assessment. PMID:27286039

  12. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of effluent toxicity of a wastewater reclamation plant based on process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Siyu; Huang, Yunqing; Sun, Fu; Li, Dan; He, Miao

    2016-09-01

    The growing use of reclaimed wastewater for environmental purposes such as stream flow augmentation requires comprehensive ecological risk assessment and management. This study applied a system analysis approach, regarding a wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) and its recipient water body as a whole system, and assessed the ecological risk of the recipient water body caused by the WRP effluent. Instead of specific contaminants, two toxicity indicators, i.e. genotoxicity and estrogenicity, were selected to directly measure the biological effects of all bio-available contaminants in the reclaimed wastewater, as well as characterize the ecological risk of the recipient water. A series of physically based models were developed to simulate the toxicity indicators in a WRP through a typical reclamation process, including ultrafiltration, ozonation, and chlorination. After being validated against the field monitoring data from a full-scale WRP in Beijing, the models were applied to simulate the probability distribution of effluent toxicity of the WRP through Latin Hypercube Sampling to account for the variability of influent toxicity and operation conditions. The simulated effluent toxicity was then used to derive the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) in the recipient stream, considering the variations of the toxicity and flow of the upstream inflow as well. The ratio of the PEC of each toxicity indicator to its corresponding predicted no-effect concentration was finally used for the probabilistic ecological risk assessment. Regional sensitivity analysis was also performed with the developed models to identify the critical control variables and strategies for ecological risk management.

  13. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of effluent toxicity of a wastewater reclamation plant based on process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Siyu; Huang, Yunqing; Sun, Fu; Li, Dan; He, Miao

    2016-09-01

    The growing use of reclaimed wastewater for environmental purposes such as stream flow augmentation requires comprehensive ecological risk assessment and management. This study applied a system analysis approach, regarding a wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) and its recipient water body as a whole system, and assessed the ecological risk of the recipient water body caused by the WRP effluent. Instead of specific contaminants, two toxicity indicators, i.e. genotoxicity and estrogenicity, were selected to directly measure the biological effects of all bio-available contaminants in the reclaimed wastewater, as well as characterize the ecological risk of the recipient water. A series of physically based models were developed to simulate the toxicity indicators in a WRP through a typical reclamation process, including ultrafiltration, ozonation, and chlorination. After being validated against the field monitoring data from a full-scale WRP in Beijing, the models were applied to simulate the probability distribution of effluent toxicity of the WRP through Latin Hypercube Sampling to account for the variability of influent toxicity and operation conditions. The simulated effluent toxicity was then used to derive the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) in the recipient stream, considering the variations of the toxicity and flow of the upstream inflow as well. The ratio of the PEC of each toxicity indicator to its corresponding predicted no-effect concentration was finally used for the probabilistic ecological risk assessment. Regional sensitivity analysis was also performed with the developed models to identify the critical control variables and strategies for ecological risk management. PMID:27219046

  14. The persistence of subsistence: qualitative social-ecological modeling of indigenous aquatic hunting and gathering in tropical Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subsistence remains critical to indigenous people in settler-colonial states such as Australia, providing key foundations for indigenous identities and for wider state recognition. However, the drivers of contemporary subsistence are rarely fully articulated and analyzed in terms of likely changing conditions. Our interdisciplinary team combined past research experience gained from multiple sites with published literature to create two generalized qualitative models of the socio-cultural and environmental influences on indigenous aquatic subsistence in northern Australia. One model focused on the longer term (inter-year to generational persistence of subsistence at the community scale, the other model on shorter term (day to season drivers of effort by active individuals. The specification of driver definitions and relationships demonstrates the complexities of even generalized and materialist models of contemporary subsistence practices. The qualitative models were analyzed for emergent properties and for responses to plausible changes in key variables: access, habitat degradation, social security availability, and community dysfunction. Positive human community condition is shown to be critical to the long-term persistence of subsistence, but complex interactions of negative and positive drivers shape subsistence effort expended at the individual scale and within shorter time frames. Such models enable motivations, complexities, and the potential management and policy levers of significance to be identified, defined, causally related, and debated. The models can be used to augment future models of human-natural systems, be tested against case-specific field conditions and/or indigenous perspectives, and aid preliminary assessments of the effects on subsistence of changes in social and environmental conditions, including policy settings.

  15. IMPROVED VALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH AQUATIC LIVING RESOURCES: DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDICATOR-BASED STATED PREFERENCE VALUATION AND TRANSFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to development and systematic qualitative/quantitative testing of indicator-based valuation for aquatic living resources, the proposed work will improve interdisciplinary mechanisms to model and communicate aquatic ecosystem change within SP valuation—an area...

  16. Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Water from Desert Locust Area in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Ilboudo; Adama Makoum Toé; Richard Ouédraogo; Moustapha Ouédraogo; Innocent Pierre Guissou

    2014-01-01

    Locust control requires sometimes an important use of pesticides in infested area with concomitant environment contaminations. Using the Gas Chromatography (GC) technical, pesticide residues were determined in water samples collected from locust outbreak areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The risk quotient method coupled with probabilistic risk assessment model was used for ecological risk assessment of pesticide detected in water. For ten pesticides belonging to Organophosphates, Pyrethroid...

  17. Categories of risk and damage in context of innovative ecological-economic activity’s theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Prokopenko O. V.; Petrushenko M.M.; Shevchenko H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the necessity of environmental risks problem’s actualization in the course of the innovative ecological-economic activities is grounded. Nature and content of damage’s categories arising from increased risk of environmentally relevant conflict situations and accordingly ineffective risk management in the context of innovative ecological-economic activity’s theoretical analysis are details researched.

  18. Surveillance and evaluation of the infection risk of free-living amoebae and Legionella in different aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wen-Tsai; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Kao, Po-Min; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Tsai, Shiou-Feng; Huang, Yu-Li; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2014-11-15

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous in various aquatic environments. Several amoebae species are pathogenic and host other pathogens such as Legionella, but the presence of FLA and its parasites as well as the related infection risk are not well known. In this study, the presence of pathogenic FLA and Legionella in various water bodies was investigated. Water samples were collected from a river, intake areas of drinking water treatment plants, and recreational hot spring complexes in central and southern Taiwan. A total of 140 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, and Legionella. In addition, phylogenetic characteristics and water quality parameters were also assessed. The pathogenic genotypes of FLA included Acanthamoeba T4 and Naegleria australiensis, and both were abundant in the hot spring water. In contrast, Legionella pneumophila was detected in different aquatic environments. Among the FLA assessed, V. vermiformis was most likely to coexist with Legionella spp. The total bacteria level was associated with the presence of FLA and Legionella especially in hot spring water. Taken together, FLA contamination in recreational hot springs and drinking water source warrants more attention on potential legionellosis and amoebae infections.

  19. Assessment of Ecological Risk to Land Use in Liaoning Province Based on Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the climatic data and other statistics of climatic data of 54 meteorological stations from 1956 to 2005 in Liangning Province,the annual and seasonal light,heat and water and the like major elements of climatic resources are diagnosed and analyzed by using the method of linear climate trend rate. The results show that warming trend is 0.25 ℃/10 a,the precipitation decrease gradually by 2.2 mm/a and the decreasing trend of solar radiation and hours of sunshine is not dramatic. The overall climate change trend is warming and drying,featuring "significantly increased temperature,the decreased precipitation and sunshine". These features are significant in autumn,thus leading to the trend of moving west and retreating east of the phenology boundaries. The results of scenario analysis on ecological security show that the ecological risk is spreading rapidly from the northwest to the east and to the south and form the southeastern and southern coastal line to the inland;different ecological land-use system have different ecological fragility. Specifically,the bare land and low coverage grassland have highest ecological vulnerability,while the forest and paddy filed have lowest ecological vulnerability. Therefore,suggestions on the ecological land use are put forward in terms of maintaining the overall ecological land use balance,saving water and adapting to climate change.

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of EDTA-Assisted Phytoremediation of Cd Under Different Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Gu, X W Sophie; Hou, Tao; Lin, Lihong

    2016-02-01

    A long-term field experiment was designed to assess remediation efficiency and ecological risk of phytoremediation of Cd under different cultivation systems with or without ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA can significantly improve the phytoremediation effectiveness of a historically polluted e-waste dismantling site through enhancing Cd uptake by plants in all cultivation systems along with higher ecological risks to different receptors especially in the presence of Cicer arietinum (chickpea). Moisture content at each layer of soil profile under Eucalyptus globules L. cultivated sites was consistently lower than under chickpea monoculture as a result of E. globules' high water use efficiency. Besides low soil moisture, E. globules can intercept more Cd-rich leachate than chickpea regardless of the presence of EDTA. E. globules could be used for Cd phytoremediation as they can take full advantage of EDTA and decrease ecological risk caused by the chelator.

  1. Preliminary study of some environmental and ecological aspects of the communities of fish and aquatic macro-invertebrates in the Tutunendo River, Choco, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From June to October 2003 studies related to environmental and ecological aspects of fishes and macro-invertebrates in three sampling stations of Tutunendo River located in the Department of Choco, Colombia, were carried out. Abiotic factors like conductivity, pH, oxygen and temperature were also measured. Eighty one hundred fish specimens, belonging to three orders, seven families and twelve species were collected. The order Siluriformes presented the greatest abundance (70.72%) with three families, seven species and 128 specimens, followed by Characiformes with three families, three species and 43 specimens (23.53%). At the same time 1.211 aquatic macro-invertebrates were collected represented by the orders Ephemeroptera (50.28%), Odonata (11.40%), Coleoptera (8.67%), Hemiptera (8.42%), Trichoptera (7.30%), Plecoptera (5.7%), Megaloptera (3.3%), Lepidoptera (2.31%), Diptera (0.37%) and Haplotaxida (0.08%). The families Leptophlebiidae (37.24%), followed by Naucoridae (8.42%) and Baetidae (8%) were the most represented. Relationship between fishes and macro invertebrates as food items in Geophagus pellegrini and Astyanaxfasciatus were also studied. G. pellegrini was zooplanctophage with preference for Baetidae, Leptohyphidae, Hydrobiosidae, Leptoceridae and Naucoridae. Finally, the present work indicated that Tutunendo town does not have potential fishery; the economy is supported in productive traditional systems based in the agriculture, complemented with fishery and extractive activities

  2. A Screening-Level Approach for Comparing Risks Affecting Aquatic Ecosystem Services over Socio-Environmental Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Conde, D.; Villamizar, S. R.; Reid, B.; Escobar, J.; Rusak, J.; Hoyos, N.; Scordo, F.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; Velez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing risks to aquatic ecosystems services (ES) is challenging and time-consuming, and effective strategies for prioritizing more detailed assessment efforts are needed. We propose a screening-level risk analysis (SRA) approach that scales ES risk using socioeconomic and environmental indices to capture anthropic and climatic pressures, as well as the capacity for institutional responses to those pressures. The method considers ES within a watershed context, and uses expert input to prioritize key services and the associated pressures that threaten them. The SRA approach focuses on estimating ES risk affect factors, which are the sum of the intensity factors for all hazards or pressures affecting the ES. We estimate the pressure intensity factors in a novel manner, basing them on the nation's (i) human development (proxied by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, IHDI), (ii) environmental regulatory and monitoring state (Environmental Performance Index, EPI) and (iii) the current level of water stress in the watershed (baseline water stress, BWS). Anthropic intensity factors for future conditions are derived from the baseline values based on the nation's 10-year trend in IHDI and EPI; ES risks in nations with stronger records of change are rewarded more/penalized less in estimates for good/poor future management scenarios. Future climatic intensity factors are tied to water stress estimates based on two general circulation model (GCM) outcomes. We demonstrate the method for an international array of six sites representing a wide range of socio-environmental settings. The outcomes illustrate novel consequences of the scaling scheme. Risk affect factors may be greater in a highly developed region under intense climatic pressure, or in less well-developed regions due to human factors (e.g., poor environmental records). As a screening-level tool, the SRA approach offers considerable promise for ES risk comparisons among watersheds and regions so that

  3. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  4. Study on Aquatic Vegetation and Its Ecological Effect in Lake Lihu of Lake Xinghu%星湖里湖区水生植被及其生态效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学年; 郭玉娟

    2011-01-01

    The species, distribution and biomass of 6 representative aquatic vegetation and water quality, such as water body, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and NH3 -N in Lake Iihu were investigated and studied, the ecological effect of aquatic vegetation were analyzed. The results showed that aquatic flora in the lake covers Vallisneria densesemdate ,Myriophyllum spicatum ,Limnanthemum indicium and Nelumbo nucifera 4 species. The community structure was simple and the dominant of community was Vallisneria densesemdate. Aquatic vegetation biomass and nutrient content were negatively correlated, conversely, aquatic vegetation biomass and water transparency were positively correlated. The results show that aquatic vegetation could purify water,reduce N,P nutrients content and inhibit algae growth. The study provided scientific basis for comprehensive adjustment and ecological restoration of the environment of Lake Xinghu.%对星湖里湖区6个具有代表性的水生植被种类、分布、生物量以及水体TN、TP、叶绿素a、NH3-N等水质指标进行调查研究,探讨了里湖区水生植被的生态效应.结果表明,共采集到密齿苦草、穗花狐尾藻、金银莲花、莲等4种植物,优势种为密齿苦草;水生植物生物量与水体营养盐含量呈负相关,与水体透明度呈正相关;水生植物可净化水质,有效降低水体N、P营养盐,克制藻类生长.该研究为星湖环境的综合治理和生态修复提供了科学依据.

  5. Toward Guidelines for Population-level Ecological Risk Assessment: Results of a U.S. EPA Risk Assessment Forum Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The choice of levels of biological organization reflected in ecological risk assessment (ERA) is receiving increasing attention. Most ERAs conducted for chemicals by the U.S. EPA, and indeed by most organizations worldwide, focus on organism-level attributes (e.g., survival, gro...

  6. Comparison between three different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicity and a product Environmental Risk Assessment – Insights from a Detergent Case Study within OMNIITOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Rana; Van Hoof, Geert; Feijtel, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Background and Objective. In the OMNIITOX project 11 partners have the common objective to improve environmental management tools for the assessment of (eco)toxicological impacts. The detergent case study aims at: i) comparing three Procter & Gamble laundry detergent forms (Regular Powder......) with results from an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA). Material and Methods. The LCIA has been conducted with EDIP97 (chronic aquatic ecotoxicity) [1], USES-LCA (freshwater and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity, sometimes referred to as CML2001) [2, 3] and IMPACT 2002 (covering freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity......) [4]. The comparative product ERA is based on the EU Ecolabel approach for detergents [5] and EUSES [6], which is based on the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) of the EU on Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of chemicals [7]. Apart from the Eco-label approach, all calculations are based on the same...

  7. Relevance of risk predictions derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution with cadmium to aquatic populations and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Criteria to protect aquatic life are intended to protect diverse ecosystems, but in practice are usually developed from compilations of single-species toxicity tests using standard test organisms that were tested in laboratory environments. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) developed from these compilations are extrapolated to set aquatic ecosystem criteria. The protectiveness of the approach was critically reviewed with a chronic SSD for cadmium comprising 27 species within 21 genera. Within the data set, one genus had lower cadmium effects concentrations than the SSD fifth percentile-based criterion, so in theory this genus, the amphipod Hyalella, could be lost or at least allowed some level of harm by this criteria approach. However, population matrix modeling projected only slightly increased extinction risks for a temperate Hyalella population under scenarios similar to the SSD fifth percentile criterion. The criterion value was further compared to cadmium effects concentrations in ecosystem experiments and field studies. Generally, few adverse effects were inferred from ecosystem experiments at concentrations less than the SSD fifth percentile criterion. Exceptions were behavioral impairments in simplified food web studies. No adverse effects were apparent in field studies under conditions that seldom exceeded the criterion. At concentrations greater than the SSD fifth percentile, the magnitudes of adverse effects in the field studies were roughly proportional to the laboratory-based fraction of species with adverse effects in the SSD. Overall, the modeling and field validation comparisons of the chronic criterion values generally supported the relevance and protectiveness of the SSD fifth percentile approach with cadmium. ?? 2009 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Ecological risk of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage plant effluent and reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Huang, Huang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Chao; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Hong-Ying; Kameya, Takashi; Fujie, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    The long-term ecological risk of micropollutants, especially endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has threatened reclaimed water quality. In this study, estrogenic activity and ecological risk of eight typical estrogenic EDCs in effluents from sewage plants were evaluated. The estrogenic activity analysis showed that steroidal estrogens had the highest estrogenic activity (ranged from 10(-1) to 10(3) ng-E2/L), phenolic compounds showed weaker estrogenic activity (mainly ranged from 10(-3) to 10 ng-E2/L), and phthalate esters were negligible. The ecological risk of the estrogenic EDCs which was characterized by risk quotient ranged from 10(-4) to 10(3), with an order in descending: steroids estrogens, phenolic compounds and phthalate esters. The eight estrogenic EDCs were scored and sorted based on the comparison of the estrogenic activity and the ecological risk, suggesting that 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) should be the priority EDCs to control in municipal sewage plants. PMID:23735815

  9. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  10. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  11. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  12. Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-05-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies have been proposed as renewable, environmentally preferable alternatives to fossil fuels for generation of electricity. Hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of water in motion, either from waves, tides or from river currents. For energy capture from free-flowing rivers, arrays of rotating devices are most commonly proposed. The placement of hydrokinetic devices in large rivers is expected to increase the underwater structural complexity of river landscapes. Moore and Gregory (1988) found that structural complexity increased local fish populations because fish and other aquatic biota are attracted to structural complexity that provides microhabitats with steep flow velocity gradients (Liao 2007). However, hydrokinetic devices have mechanical parts, blades, wings or bars that move through the water column, posing a potential strike or collision risk to fish and other aquatic biota. Furthermore, in a setting with arrays of hydrokinetic turbines the cumulative effects of multiple encounters may increase the risk of strike. Submerged structures associated with a hydrokinetic (HK) project present a collision risk to aquatic organisms and diving birds (Cada et al. 2007). Collision is physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism that may result in an injury to that organism (Wilson et al. 2007). Collisions can occur between animals and fixed submerged structures, mooring equipment, horizontal or vertical axis turbine rotors, and structures that, by their individual design or in combination, may form traps. This report defines strike as a special case of collision where a moving part, such as a rotor blade of a HK turbine intercepts the path of an organism of interest, resulting in physical contact with the organism. The severity of a strike incidence may range from minor physical contact with no adverse effects to the organism to severe strike resulting in injury or death of the organism. Harmful effects

  13. Use of ecotoxicological screening action levels in ecological risk assessment at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory drivers found in several environmental statutes require that ecological risk assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment be performed to assess potential environmental impact from contaminated sites and from proposed remedial alternatives. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the initial phase of the ecological risk assessment process required preliminary evaluation of contaminated sites to determine whether potential for ecological impact exists. The preliminary evaluations were made using Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALS) calculated as a function of reference toxicity dose, body weight, food/water/air intake, and fraction of soil intake with food. Reference toxicity doses were derived from the Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) toxicology databases. Other parameters required for ESAL calculations were derived from physiological, metabolic, and behavioral data available in the literature. The Los Alamos ESALs were derived for guilds of animals with similar behavioral patterns, which were identified from natural resource survey data collected at Los Alamos. Subsequent to development of Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, Hazard Quotients, which are ratios of soil concentrations to Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, were calculated for potential contaminants of concern. The Hazard Quotients were used to identify which potential contaminants of concern should be evaluated further for ecological impact. There is potential for ecological impact when the Hazard Quotient is equal to or greater than one

  14. Lanthanide ecotoxicity: First attempt to measure environmental risk for aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical cycles of lanthanides are being disrupted by increasing global production and human use, but their ecotoxicity is not fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity of Aliivibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata to lanthanides increased with atomic number, while Daphnia magna, Heterocypris incongruens, Brachionus calyciflorus and Hydra attenuata were equally sensitive to the tested elements. In some cases, a marked decrease in exposure concentrations was observed over test duration and duly considered in calculating effect concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for hazard and risk assessment. Comparison of PNEC with measured environmental concentrations indicate that, for the present, environmental risks deriving from lanthanides should be limited to some hotspots (e.g., downstream of wastewater treatment plants). However, considering the increasing environmental concentrations of lanthanides, the associated risks could become higher in the future. Ecotoxicological and risk assessment studies, along with monitoring, are required for properly managing these emerging contaminants. - Highlights: • For alga and bacteria, ecotoxicity increases with increasing atomic number. • Interspecies differences and exposure condition strongly influenced ecotoxicity. • Current environmental risk for lanthanides appears limited to some hotspots. - Current environmental risk for lanthanides appears limited to some hotspots, but increasing human use could promote a more widespread risk in the future

  15. [Distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Zhalong Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hua-Xiang; Zang, Shu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Zhalong Wetland using ICP-MS, analyzed their spatial distributions, evaluated the potential ecological risk, and explored the pollution sources and environmental influencing factors. The results can be summarized as the followings: (1) The concentrations of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were 0.065, 0.155, 10.26, 18.20, 21.35, 52.08 and 46.47 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were all above the soil background values of the Songnen Plain. Their spatial distributions were distinctly different. The concentration of heavy metals in the north was higher than that in the south, and the east was higher than the west. Particularly in the eastern region, the concentrations of Hg and Cd were 20.8 and 32.4 times the minimum values of the whole area. And in the core zone, the concentration was relatively low. (2) The sequence of the potential ecological risk posed by the metals was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) of the Zhalong Wetland was 171.9 (ranged from 76.9-473.5), suggesting a moderate ecological risk. However, the potential ecological risk was extremely high in the east which should be treated as the major heavy metal pollution prevention site in the future. (3) Except for Hg and Pb, the concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly correlated to each other, indicating that those heavy metals had homology. (4) Organic matter was the major environmental influencing factor. However, the trend of land salinization in the Zhalong Wetland has been intensified, indicating a higher risk of heavy metal releasing from the sediments, to which the local authorities should pay enough attention. PMID:23798110

  16. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Gulachenski; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Amy E. Lesen; Michael J Blum

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission...

  17. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Oliveira, R.; McDonough, S.; Matser, A.; Khatikarn, J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Domingues, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxy

  18. Social Ecological Model of Illness Management in High-Risk Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Ellis, Deborah A.; Frey, Maureen A.; Templin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested a social ecological model of illness management in high-risk, urban adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. It was hypothesized that management behaviors would be associated with individual adolescent characteristics as well as family, peer, and provider relationships. Questionnaires were collected from 96 adolescents…

  19. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS)

  20. A PROBABALISTIC ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE ECOLOGICAL RISK DRIVERS, 10TH VOLUME ASTM STP 1403

    Science.gov (United States)

    A probabilistic analysis of exposure and effect data was used to identify chemicals most likely responsible for ecological risk. The mean and standard deviation of the natural log-transformed chemical data were used to estimate the probability of exposure for an area of concern a...

  1. Towards Sustaining Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems: Forecasting Watershed Risks to Current and Future Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Newburn, D.; Opperman, J. J.; Brooks, C.; Merenlender, A.

    2005-05-01

    development in a watershed significantly reduced the odds of observing low embeddedness. Our 2010 forecasts highlight the sensitivity of watersheds to small changes in exurban growth. In previously unimpaired watersheds, small increases in future exurban growth resulted in cumulative impacts on substrate quality not predicted by models lacking this land use type. Because most previous analyses have characterized land use at a resolution that cannot capture exurban development, these results suggest that many such models may be missing an important type of development that can adversely impacting aquatic ecosystems. We suggest that parcel level data may be the fundamental unit for land use change analysis because it represents the economic decision unit for land owners and resolves issues of geographical scale and boundary issues that have long hampered progress in ecological forecasting.

  2. Ecological risk assessment of nitrobenzene in main rivers of China%中国主要河流中硝基苯生态风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立群; 郑新梅; 刘红玲; 于红霞; 张效伟

    2011-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment (ERA) of nitrobenzene exposed to aquatic ecosystem was conducted by quotient method and a probabilistic approach based on the observed nitrobenzene concentrations in different rivers in China. The aquatic toxicity data of nitrobenzene were acquired from USEPA AQUIRE database. The results showed that the potential ecological risk of nitrobenzene in main rivers of China is quite low: hazard quotients (HQ) are all much less than unity; while the probabilities at 1% and 5% of the affected aquatic organisms in the worst case are 1.49% and 0.22%, respectively. However, at the maximum allowable concentrations of nitrobenzene by the national wastewater discharge standard class Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, 35.57%, 48.38% and 64.59% of the aquatic organisms could be adversely affected, respectively.%基于文献报道的中国主要河流中硝基苯(NB)的浓度数据,结合USEPA毒性数据库中NB对水生生物的毒性数据.运用商值法和概率风险评价法对中国主要河流中NB的水生生态风险进行评价分析.结果表明,中国主要河流中NB的潜在生态风险相对较小:风险熵(HQ)均<1,极端情况(环境中最大暴露浓度)下,影响1%和5%的水生生物的概率分别为1.49%和0.22%.然而,按照我国污水综合排放标准中硝基苯类的一级、二级、三级最高允许排放标准,将分别有35.57%、48.38%和64.59%的生物受到影响.

  3. Ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution - Ecological risk assessment for the biota on regional radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyeva, G.V.; Synzynys, B.I.; Shoshina, R.R.; Mirzeabasov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Ecology, Studgorodok,1, 249040 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Now the methods of ecological regulation of a radiation factor from risk assessment are developed poorly. The paper attempts to assess and forecast the terrestrial ecosystem conditions under chronic ionizing radiation by calculating the critical loads. The paper is aimed at developing a methodology to assess the ecological risk for a terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution in a biotope of a regional radioactive waste storage. Objects and Methods: Biotope monitoring of a radioactive waste storage makes clear that the radioecological situation in this territory is stipulated by technogenic {sup 90}Sr found in soil, ground water and biota. Terrestrial mollusks of a shrubby Snail type (Bradybaena fruticum) were chosen as reference species due to their activity to accumulate {sup 90}Sr in shells and the number of colony-forming soil units (CFU) as reference indices. The number of CFU was determined by inoculation of solid medium. Soil and mollusk samples have been collected at most representative sites identified in the previous studies. To assess {sup 90}Sr content in the samples collected, radiochemical separation was used with further radionuclide activity measurements by a 'BETA-01C' scintillation beta-ray spectrometer according to a standard procedure of {sup 90}Sr content assessment from beta-radiation of its daughter radionuclide {sup 90}Y. Ecological risk was calculated from analyzed critical loads using a 'dose-effect' dependence. Statistical data processing was realized with Excell 2007 and R software programs [R Development Core Team, 2010]. The software R was also used for GIS creation. Results and Discussion: A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment

  4. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area.

  5. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area. PMID:26832722

  6. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in the ambient air using a new bio-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad; Allahabadi, Ahmad; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Fathabadi, Zeynab Abaszadeh; Raisi, Zahra; Rezai, Mehrab; Aval, Mohsen Yazdani

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this descriptive-analytical study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in the leaf and bark of Ulmus carpinifolia as new biological indicators, and the ecological risk assessment of these metals in the ambient air. To achieve these goals, 48 sampling locations were selected in the city and concentration of four HMs-zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)-was measured in the mentioned indicator using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After this, ecological risk assessment, source appointment, and spatial distribution were conducted. In this regard, the enrichment factor (EF), potential ecological risk factor (E r), potential ecological risk index (RI), correlation coefficient (r), and other indices were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of HMs in the leaf and bark in ascending order is as Cdheavy metals in the ambient air and ecological risk imposed by them. PMID:27053049

  7. Ecological risk assessment and natural resource management on the Outer Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1988 beginning with the Drilling Impact Assessment Task Force, Minerals Management Service (MMS) has used formal risk analysis methodologies in the Gulf of Mexico to determine the potential impact of gas and oil activities son natural resources. In the process, a list of assumptions, critical for the assessment of potential impacts, was generated. These assumptions were incorporated into a scenario where several levels of certainty described the hazards in terms of expected frequency of effects and the seriousness of the consequences. A risk matrix was generated from these assumptions and was used to generate a risk assessment for the various impact-producing factors on ecological endpoints. Recommendations for risk management were also provided so that decision-makers were given insight into acceptable/unacceptable levels of risk. This process insured that those issues with the highest potential impact were given the highest priority in terms of resources. One of the most important aspect so f the development of a risk assessment was determining the frequency of effects of the impact-producing factors. A paucity of data concerning the effects of impact-producing factors on estuarine and marine ecosystems remains the primary limiting factor in the development of ecological risk assessments. Presented here is a broad outline of the risk assessment methodology using chemosynthetic communities found in the Gulf of Mexico as an example

  8. Ecological risk assessment of boreal sediments affected by metal mining: Metal geochemistry, seasonality, and comparison of several risk assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Kristiina; Kauppila, Tommi; Mäkinen, Jari; Leppänen, Matti T; Lyytikäinen, Merja; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2016-10-01

    The mining industry is a common source of environmental metal emissions, which cause long-lasting effects in aquatic ecosystems. Metal risk assessment is challenging due to variations in metal distribution, speciation, and bioavailability. Therefore, seasonal effects must be better understood, especially in boreal regions in which seasonal changes are large. We sampled 4 Finnish lakes and sediments affected by mining for metals and geochemical characteristics in autumn and late winter, to evaluate seasonal changes in metal behavior, the importance of seasonality in risk assessment, and the sensitivity and suitability of different risk assessment methods. We compared metal concentrations in sediment, overlying water, and porewater against environmental quality guidelines (EQGs). We also evaluated the toxicity of metal mixtures using simultaneously extracted metals and an acid volatile sulfides (SEM-AVS) approach together with water quality criteria (US Environmental Protection Agency equilibrium partitioning benchmarks). Finally, site-specific risks for 3 metals (Cu, Ni, Zn) were assessed using 2 biotic ligand models (BLMs). The metal concentrations in the impacted lakes were elevated. During winter stratification, the hypolimnetic O2 saturation levels were low (89%) and neutral pH (6.1-7.5) were found after the autumnal water overturn. Guidelines were the most conservative benchmark for showing an increased risk of toxicity in the all of the lakes. The situation remained stable between seasons. On the other hand, SEM-AVS, equilibrium partition sediment benchmarks (ESBs), and BLMs provided a clearer distinction between lakes and revealed a seasonal variation in risk among some of the lakes, which evidenced a higher risk during late winter. If a sediment risk assessment is based on the situation in the autumn, the overall risk may be underestimated. It is advisable to carry out sampling and risk assessment during periods in which metals are assumed to be the most

  9. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-03-01

    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and predict the trend of soil heavy metal pollution around a~coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in an order of E(Cd) > E(Pb) > E(Cu) > E(Cr) > E(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor led to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, and the fixed number of years exceeding standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metal, and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provide some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent and decrease heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump in Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  10. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Zhao, H. Q.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and trend of soil heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy-metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in the order of ER(Cd) > ER(Pb) > ER(Cu) > ER(Cr) > ER(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor leading to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, then the fixed number of years exceeding the standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metals and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provided some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in the Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  11. A tiered approach for probabilistic ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a tiered methodology for probabilistic ecological risk assessment. The proposed approach starts from deterministic comparison (ratio) of single exposure concentration and threshold or safe level calculated from a dose-response relationship, goes through comparison of probabilistic distributions that describe exposure values and toxicological responses of organisms to the chemical of concern, and finally determines the so called distribution-based quotients (DBQs). In order to illustrate the proposed approach, soil concentrations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4- TCB) measured in an industrial contaminated site were used for site-specific probabilistic ecological risks assessment. By using probabilistic distributions, the risk, which exceeds a level of concern for soil organisms with the deterministic approach, is associated to the presence of hot spots reaching concentrations able to affect acutely more than 50% of the soil species, while the large majority of the area presents 1,2,4- TCB concentrations below those reported as toxic

  12. Analysis of marine ecological compensation for environmental risk caused by chemical spill based on game theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiwei; Yang Zhifeng; Huang Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    The problem of marine environmental risk is ultimately the result of game theory between the marine environmental managers and the enterprise of potential environmental risk.This paper analyzes the internal economic relationship that whether the "protection" policy is applied between the protection action of marine environmental managers and the chemical enterprise, The result shows that the key factor whether the enterprise adopt the "protection" policy or not is the amount of penalty and the government's cost of execution, and the compulsive ecological compensation is obligatory from the angle of stimulating the enterprise of canontcal action and adopting the "protection" policy.To build the ecological compensation mechanism based on the environmental risk will effectively improve the level of management in sea area and decrease the probability of chemical spill.

  13. 农药生态风险评价述评%Review of Insecticide Ecological Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来有鹏

    2012-01-01

    风险一般指遭受损失、损伤或毁坏的可能性。生态风险是生态系统及其组分所承受的风险。生态风险评价是对产生不利的生态效应的可能性进行评价的过程。农药生态风险评价是采用生态风险评价技术评价农药给整个生态环境带来的风险。本文就农药生态风险评价的基本概念、过程和模型、内容和方法以及农药生态风险的评价研究现状进行了述评。%The risk generally refer to suffer from the possibility of loss, hurt or destroy. The ecological risk was ecological system and its components bearing risk. The ecological risk assessment was the procces that evaluate the possibility of produced negative ecological effect. Insecticide ecological risk refer to employ insecticide ecological risk technology for estimating the insecticide effect on ecological environment. The basic concept, procces and model, content and method, the study situation on insecticide ecological risk assessment were reviewed in this paper.

  14. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas;

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level...... effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.e...

  15. COMBINING CLIMATE MODEL PREDICTIONS, HYDROLOGICAL MODELING, AND ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING ALGORITHMS TO PREDICT THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this research will provide a broad taxonomic and regional assessment of the impacts of climate change on aquatic species in the United States by producing predictions of current and future habitat quality for aquatic taxa based on multiple climate change scen...

  16. Improving ecological risk assessment of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals by using an integrated modeling system - An example assessing chloroparaffins in riverine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical risk assessment (CRA) is primarily carried out at the screening level relying on empirical relationships between chemical properties and tested toxicity effects. Ultimately, risk to aquatic ecosystems is strongly dependent on actual exposure, which depends on chemical pr...

  17. Emerging contaminants in wastewater and river water: Risks for human water security and aquatic ecosystem sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Elke; Mahjoub, Olfa; Mahjoub, Borhane; Klasmeier, Jörg; Bahadir, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    International audience In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the environmental risks of the so called "emerging contaminants (ECs) "in conventional and non conventional water resources. According to the EU NORMAN network ECs are "substances that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in routine monitoring programs at EU level and whose fate, behavior and (eco)toxicological effects are not well understood." ECs originate from a variety...

  18. Proceedings of the 35. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop on aquatic and environmental toxicology covered topics from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring and protecting the health of aquatic ecosystems. It addressed issues regarding the development of regulations and guidelines, and the development of sediment and water quality criteria. The workshop emphasized an informal exchange of ideas and knowledge on the topics among interested persons from industry, governments and universities. The principles, current problems and approaches in aquatic toxicology and the biological effect on biota were also discussed. The sessions were entitled: environmental effects monitoring; endocrine modulating substances; metal, coal and diamond mining; mechanistic aspects of metal toxicity; genomics, proteomics and metabolomics in aquatic ecotoxicology; northern and Arctic ecosystems; oil sands research; general aquatic toxicology; barriers to biological recovery in metal contaminated sites; pesticides and other agricultural stressors; tools to assess toxicity and bioavailability in support of risk assessment; pharmaceuticals and personal care products; novel biological test methods; ecological risk assessment; national agri-environmental standards initiative; corroborating, extrapolating and predicting adverse effects between laboratory and field; cumulative effects assessment; advances in environmental chemistry; nanotoxicology; and sensory systems. The workshop featured 195 presentations, of which 31 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  19. Proceedings of the 35. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, K.; Janz, D.M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre; Burridge, L.E. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB (Canada)] (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This workshop on aquatic and environmental toxicology covered topics from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring and protecting the health of aquatic ecosystems. It addressed issues regarding the development of regulations and guidelines, and the development of sediment and water quality criteria. The workshop emphasized an informal exchange of ideas and knowledge on the topics among interested persons from industry, governments and universities. The principles, current problems and approaches in aquatic toxicology and the biological effect on biota were also discussed. The sessions were entitled: environmental effects monitoring; endocrine modulating substances; metal, coal and diamond mining; mechanistic aspects of metal toxicity; genomics, proteomics and metabolomics in aquatic ecotoxicology; northern and Arctic ecosystems; oil sands research; general aquatic toxicology; barriers to biological recovery in metal contaminated sites; pesticides and other agricultural stressors; tools to assess toxicity and bioavailability in support of risk assessment; pharmaceuticals and personal care products; novel biological test methods; ecological risk assessment; national agri-environmental standards initiative; corroborating, extrapolating and predicting adverse effects between laboratory and field; cumulative effects assessment; advances in environmental chemistry; nanotoxicology; and sensory systems. The workshop featured 195 presentations, of which 31 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  20. [Heavy metals distribution characteristics and ecological risk evaluation in surface sediments of dammed Jinshan lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Long-Mei; Chen, Xi; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Li, Yi-Min; Liu, Biao

    2014-11-01

    In order to reveal the pollution loading of heavy metals in Dammed Jinshan lake, six heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr) from 18 sediment samples were analyzed using ICP, and the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the sediment were comprehensively evaluated through concentration coefficient, geo-acumulation indexes, potential ecological risk evaluation and traceability analysis. The results showed that (1) the average contents of As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd were 23.22, 26.20, 24.42, 143.12, 245.30 and 0.67 mg x kg(-1), respectively, in the surface sediments of dammed Jinshan Lake. The average contents of Pb and Cu were lower than the primary standard and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of Zn and Cr were lower than the primary standard and higher than the secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of As and Cd were higher than the primary and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. From the spatial distribution, the contents of Pb and Zn were the highest at sampling site No. 1, which was located at the Beigushan Square. The contents of As,Cu, Cr, Cd were the highest at sampling sites Nos. 12, 3, 14, and 7, respectively; (2) The order of concentration coefficient was As > Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu, which indicated that the enrichment amount of As was the highest and that of Cu was the lowest; (3) Based on the geo-acumulation indexes, the Cu is clean and Pb, Zn, Cd is the light pollution and As, Cr moderate pollution; (4) The order of Potential ecological risk coefficient was Cd > As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn were of light ecological risk and As, Cd were of medium ecological risk. From the spatial distribution, the sampling sites Nos. 1, 6, 7 and 12 had medium potential ecological risk, and the rest sample points had slight potential ecological risk; (5) The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the main reason for the differences

  1. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. - Avian receptors are not universally appropriate surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment.

  2. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Scott M., E-mail: scott.weir@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States); Suski, Jamie G., E-mail: jamie.suski@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 43131, Lubbock, TX (United States); Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.salice@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. - Avian receptors are not universally appropriate surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment.

  3. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  4. Human health and ecological risk assessment of soil-borne arsenic and lead: A site-specific risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.; Epp, G.A.; Beukema, P. [Proctor and Redfern Ltd., Don Mills, Ontario (Canada); Nieboer, E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Screening level site specific human health and ecological risk assessments (ERA) were conducted at a historical (1908--1921) smelting and refining site in the Niagara Region, Ontario in accordance with the recently released provincial and federal risk assessment guidelines. The purpose of the assessment was to evaluate the risk associated with elevated levels of arsenic and lead in surface soils, and to assess alternative remediation options, prior to property transfer. Future intended land use will be parkland and for the site to remain forested. The identification of potential receptors, exposure pathways, and end-points was conducted at the biological community-level. The ERA involved a toxic cue inventory of the core smelting and refining site, adjacent lands and a reference site. Development of remediation options was based on hazard assessment and the prediction of risks associated with arsenic contamination. An evaluation of remediation options and the selection of a preferred option are discussed.

  5. Analysis, occurrence, fate and risks of proton pump inhibitors, their metabolites and transformation products in aquatic environment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Christina I; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2016-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) which include omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole, are extensively used for the relief of gastro-intestinal disorders. Despite their high worldwide consumption, PPIs are extensively metabolized in human bodies and therefore are not regularly detected in monitoring studies. Very recently, however, it has been shown that some omeprazole metabolites may enter and are likely to persist in aquatic environment. Hence, to fully assess the environmental exposures and risks associated with PPIs, it is important to better understand and evaluate the fate and behavior not only of the parent compound but also of their metabolites and their transformation products arising from biotic and abiotic processes (hydrolysis, photodegradation, biodegradation etc.) in the environment. In this light, the purpose of this review is to summarize the present state of knowledge on the introduction and behavior of these chemicals in natural and engineering systems and highlight research needs and gaps. It draws attention to their transformation, the increase contamination by their metabolites/TPs in different environmental matrices and their potential adverse effects in the environment. Furthermore, existing research on analytical developments with respect to sample treatment, separation and detection of PPIs and their metabolites/TPs is provided. PMID:27380396

  6. Natural variability of zooplankton and phytoplankton in outdoor aquatic microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Maise, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Increasing scrutiny on the ecological risk assessment of xenobiotics brings about an increasing demand for refined, higher tier investigations, which evaluate potential effects on aquatic ecosystems at the population or community level of organization. However, the use of test systems such as microcosms and mesocosms meets considerable difficulty in the regulatory context due to unresolved questions related to the design and interpretation of these complex studies and the natural variability ...

  7. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. PMID:26282752

  8. Baseline ecological risk assessment and remediation alternatives for a hydrocarbon-contaminated estuarine wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to a property transaction, the groundwater at an industrial refinery site in New Jersey was found to be contaminated with a variety of petroleum-based organic compounds. The highly built-up site included an on-site estuarine wetland and was located in a developed, industrialized area near ecologically important estuarine marshes. A preliminary ecological risk assessment was developed on the basis of available data on site contamination and ecological resources. The onsite wetland and its user fauna were identified as the sensitive receptors of concern and the primary contaminant pathways wee identified. The ecological significance of the contamination was assessed with regard to the onsite wetland and in the context of its position within the landscape and surrounding land uses. The wetland exhibited a combination of impact and vitality, i.e., there were clearly visible signs of contaminant impact as well as a relatively complex and abundant food web. Because of its position within the developed landscape, the onsite wetland appeared to function as a refugium for wildlife despite the level of disturbance. The feasibility of achieving regulatory compliance through natural remediation was also examined with respect to the findings of the risk assessment and the resultant conclusions are discussed

  9. Structural complexity, movement bias, and metapopulation extinction risk in dendritic ecological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Grant, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial complexity in metacommunities can be separated into 3 main components: size (i.e., number of habitat patches), spatial arrangement of habitat patches (network topology), and diversity of habitat patch types. Much attention has been paid to lattice-type networks, such as patch-based metapopulations, but interest in understanding ecological networks of alternative geometries is building. Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) include some increasingly threatened ecological systems, such as caves and streams. The restrictive architecture of dendritic ecological networks might have overriding implications for species persistence. I used a modeling approach to investigate how number and spatial arrangement of habitat patches influence metapopulation extinction risk in 2 DENs of different size and topology. Metapopulation persistence was higher in larger networks, but this relationship was mediated by network topology and the dispersal pathways used to navigate the network. Larger networks, especially those with greater topological complexity, generally had lower extinction risk than smaller and less-complex networks, but dispersal bias and magnitude affected the shape of this relationship. Applying these general results to real systems will require empirical data on the movement behavior of organisms and will improve our understanding of the implications of network complexity on population and community patterns and processes.

  10. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment for three chlorophenols in surface waters of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqun Xing; Hongling Liu; John P. Giesy; Xiaowei Zhang; Hongxia Yu

    2012-01-01

    Individual and combined assessment of risks of adverse effects to aquatic ecosystems of three chlorophenols (CPs),including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP),2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP),were conducted.A probabilistic approach based on the concentrations of CPs in surface waters of China was used to determine the likelihood of adverse effects.The potential risk of CPs in surface waters of China was determined to be of concern,especially PCP and mixtures of CPs.The risks of adverse effects were examined as the joint probabilities of exposure and response.The joint probability for PCP was 0.271 in the worst case and 0.111 in the median case,respectively.Based on the cumulative probability,5% of aquatic organisms included in the assessment would be affected 21.36% of the time in the worst case and 5.99% of the time in median case,respectively.For the mixtures of CPs,the joint probability were 0.171 in the worst case and 0.503 in median case,respectively and 5% of species would be affected 49.83% of the time for the worst case and 12.72% in the median case,respectively.Risks of effects of the individual CPs,2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP were deemed to be acceptable with a overlapping probability of < 0.1 with 5% of species being affected less than 4% of the time.

  11. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices

  12. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  13. Flocculation performance of a novel synthesized flocculant with low ecological risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai-song; ZHOU Qi-xing; XIAO Hong

    2004-01-01

    Combined flocculants with low ecological risk are urgently required in water supply and wastewater treatment in China. A novel flocculant was thus developed under the condition of low ecological risk(noted as CAS). The experiments to examine wastewater treatment performance of the new product showed that there was favourable performance in the flocculation process in contrast to commercial flocculants in treating kaolin suspensions, municipal effluent and domestic wastewater. Flocculation performance included the turbidity removal rate, sediment character and a decrease in COD(chemical oxygen demand). The sediment time of flocculation is short and the removal rate of turbidity treated by CAS is high compared with PAC(polyaluminum-chloride), PAM(polyacrylamide) and the combined addition of PAC and PAM. The optimal concentration required to affect flocculation processes is dependent on kaolin concentration and the character of the wastewater within the range examined. It also showed that CAS is effective to treat wastewater with high turbidity.

  14. Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-05-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies have been proposed as renewable, environmentally preferable alternatives to fossil fuels for generation of electricity. Hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of water in motion, either from waves, tides or from river currents. For energy capture from free-flowing rivers, arrays of rotating devices are most commonly proposed. The placement of hydrokinetic devices in large rivers is expected to increase the underwater structural complexity of river landscapes. Moore and Gregory (1988) found that structural complexity increased local fish populations because fish and other aquatic biota are attracted to structural complexity that provides microhabitats with steep flow velocity gradients (Liao 2007). However, hydrokinetic devices have mechanical parts, blades, wings or bars that move through the water column, posing a potential strike or collision risk to fish and other aquatic biota. Furthermore, in a setting with arrays of hydrokinetic turbines the cumulative effects of multiple encounters may increase the risk of strike. Submerged structures associated with a hydrokinetic (HK) project present a collision risk to aquatic organisms and diving birds (Cada et al. 2007). Collision is physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism that may result in an injury to that organism (Wilson et al. 2007). Collisions can occur between animals and fixed submerged structures, mooring equipment, horizontal or vertical axis turbine rotors, and structures that, by their individual design or in combination, may form traps. This report defines strike as a special case of collision where a moving part, such as a rotor blade of a HK turbine intercepts the path of an organism of interest, resulting in physical contact with the organism. The severity of a strike incidence may range from minor physical contact with no adverse effects to the organism to severe strike resulting in injury or death of the organism. Harmful effects

  15. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  16. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  17. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, M = 13.6 years, SD = 2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Controlling for religious community, age, and gender, youths' lower academic achievement was associated with family environments characterized...

  18. Entomological and ecological index for risk of infection causing lyme disease in territory of Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, of all the vector transmitted diseases, the occurrence of lyme disease is the one most often registered, and the most significant vector Borrelia burgdorferi is the tick Ixodes ricinus. Both humans and animals contract lyme disease. The risk of the occurrence of lyme disease is in correlation with potential exposure to tick bites and depends on the density of the tick population in the endemic area, the percentage of ticks infected with the cause of lyme disease, the duration and the nature of the activity of the susceptible population in a certain area. The objective of these investigations was to determine the entomological and the ecological risk index, as well as to assess the risk of transmission of the cause of lyme disease in the territory of Vojvodina Province in the Republic of Serbia. Ticks were collected at 12 locations in the South Bačka District of Vojvodina. A total of 1400 ticks were identified up to the level of species. After establishing the infection of ticks with the cause of lyme disease, the entomological and the ecological index was determined for the given regions using microscopic examination in a dark field. Two species of ticks aere identified in this geographic region (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus. Examining I. ricinus, the prevalence of infection B. burgdorferi was established, ranging up to 33.1%. The ecological risk index indicates that there is a potential risk of humans and animals becoming infected at 8 localities. It was determined for 3 localities that there is a definite actual risk of the transferrence of causes of lyme disease.

  19. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Atilola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood.

  20. ORIGINATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITY IN THE BASIN%流域水生态承载力研究的起源和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晨; 刘艳芳; 张万顺; 汤弟伟

    2011-01-01

    流域水生态承载力的研究是近几年来从水生态的角度解决流域可持续发展问题的有效手段.通过文献综述的方法,从流域水生态承载力的起源和发展入手,对流域水生态承载力的理论基础,与相关已有研究的区别和联系进行了探讨,并对流域水生态承载力的进一步研究进行了展望.从起源上看,承载力理论、可持续发展和生态足迹理论、流域生态学理论分别是流域水生态承载力研究的基础、落脚点和支撑.从发展上看,水生态承载力是水资源和水环境承载力的有机结合和深化.从测度和评价方法上看,第一生产者的净初级生产力方法,生态足迹法、可持续发展指标法和生态系统健康等生态承载力的测度方法为流域水生态承载力的评价奠定了基础.目前流域水生态承载力的研究尚处于初级阶段,今后不论是在理论探讨还是模型应用中均应进一步体现人类与自然和谐共存的根本目的以及水体质、量辩证统一的规律,通过物质、能量、信息、空间和时间五位一体的研究方法,使流域水生态承载力的研究更具有实践意义.%Research on the watershed ecological carrying capacity is an effective measure of settling sustainable development problem at basin scale from the perspective of water ecology in recent years. Through reviewing on previous literature, the origination and development of aquatic ecological carrying capacity in the basin are discussed;the theoretical foundation and previous related research are investigated;the further research is forecasted. Originally,the theory of carrying capacity is the foundation of the research;the theory of sustainable development and ecological footprint are the objectives; the theory of watershed ecology is the support. In the research progress, water ecological carrying capacity is the dynamic integration and deepening of water resource and environment carrying capacity

  1. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  2. Ecological risk assessment of Tomsk region groundwater used for drinking purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchakova, N. V.; Ushakova, N. S.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2016-03-01

    The present paper is devoted to the chemical composition analysis of Neogene-quaternary and Paleogene groundwater widely used for drinking in the territory of Tomsk region. It has been shown that groundwater under study contains iron and manganese in excessive concentration. Consequently, this water can negatively affect human health. The ecological and human health risk assessment of Tomsk region groundwater used for drinking has been conducted. According to the calculations, it has been defined that in the overwhelming majority of cases there is a great risk to use groundwater of Tomsk region for drinking purposes.

  3. [Spatial Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments in Shunde Waterway, Southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-min; Chen, Wei-ping; Peng, Chi; Wang, Tie-yu; Xiao, Rong-bo

    2016-05-15

    Environmental quality of soils and sediments around water source area can influence the safety of potable water of rivers. In order to study the pollution characteristics, the sources and ecological risks of heavy metals Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in water source area, surface soils around the waterway and sediments in the estuary of main tributaries were collected in Shunde, and ecological risks of heavy metals were assessed by two methods of potential ecological risk assessment. The mean contents of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the surface soils were 186.80, 65.88, 54.56, 32.47, 22.65 and 0.86 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except those of Cu and Ni. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the sediments were 312.11, 111.41, 97.87, 92.32, 29.89 and 1.72 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except that of Ni. The results of principal component analysis illustrated that the main source of Cr and Ni in soils was soil parent materials, and Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in soils mainly came from wastewater discharge of local manufacturing industry. The six heavy metals in sediments mainly originated from industry emissions around the Shunde waterway. The results of potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals showed that Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni had a slight potential ecological risk. Cd had a slight potential ecological risk in surface soils, but a moderate potential ecological risk in surfaces sediments. Because the potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals took the soil properties and heavy metal forms into account, its results of risks were lower than those of Hakanson methods, and it could avoid overestimating the potential risks of heavy metals.

  4. Fish fin-clips as a non-lethal approach for biomonitoring of mercury contamination in aquatic environments and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Daniel; Roje, Sara; Turek, Jan; Randak, Tomas

    2016-11-01

    Muscle tissue and pectoral fins of two important indicator fish species, frequently used in biomonitoring programs, were sampled and analysed for total mercury content (THg) at six localities within the Czech Republic. The relationship between mercury concentration in muscle and in fin-clips was described. Mean values of THg fin-clip concentration correlate significantly (p mercury contamination in aquatic environments as well as for human health risk assessment. PMID:27543678

  5. Assessment of ecological risks at former landfill site using TRIAD procedure and multicriteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Schultz, Eija; Haimi, Jari

    2013-02-01

    Old industrial landfills are important sources of environmental contamination in Europe, including Finland. In this study, we demonstrated the combination of TRIAD procedure, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), and statistical Monte Carlo analysis for assessing the risks to terrestrial biota in a former landfill site contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and metals. First, we generated hazard quotients by dividing the concentrations of metals and PHCs in soil by the corresponding risk-based ecological benchmarks. Then we conducted ecotoxicity tests using five plant species, earthworms, and potworms, and determined the abundance and diversity of soil invertebrates from additional samples. We aggregated the results in accordance to the methods used in the TRIAD procedure, conducted rating of the assessment methods based on their performance in terms of specific criteria, and weighted the criteria using two alternative weighting techniques to produce performance scores for each method. We faced problems in using the TRIAD procedure, for example, the results from the animal counts had to be excluded from the calculation of integrated risk estimates (IREs) because our reference soil sample showed the lowest biodiversity and abundance of soil animals. In addition, hormesis hampered the use of the results from the ecotoxicity tests. The final probabilistic IREs imply significant risks at all sampling locations. Although linking MCDA with TRIAD provided a useful means to study and consider the performance of the alternative methods in predicting ecological risks, some uncertainties involved still remained outside the quantitative analysis. PMID:22762796

  6. The role of culture in moderating the links between early ecological risk and young children's adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of risk on infant development within cultural contexts, 141 dual-earner Israeli and Palestinian couples and their first-born child were observed at 5 months and again at 34 months. Eight ecological determinants were examined as potential risk factors, including the infant's observed and parent-reported difficult temperament; the mother's depressive symptoms, work-family interference, and experience of childbirth; the parents' marital satisfaction and social support; and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity. Symbolic play and behavior problems were assessed at 34 months. Culture-specific effects of risk and protective factors were found. Parent sensitivity facilitated symbolic competence to a greater extent in the Israeli group. Culture moderated the effects of maternal depression and family social support on toddlers' behavior problems. Maternal depressive symptoms had a negative impact on the behavior adaptation of Israeli children and social support buffered against behavior problems in the Arab group. Implications for research on risk and resilience and the role of culture in moderating the effects of ecological risk are discussed.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (R{sub I}) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with R{sub I} value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

  8. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  9. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries of China: Distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinxia; Liu, Jingling; Shi, Xuan; You, Xiaoguang; Cao, Zhiguo

    2016-08-15

    The distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries in Hai River Basin of China, which has been suffering from different anthropogenic pressures, were investigated. In three estuaries, the average concentration of ΣPAHs was the lowest in Luan River estuary, followed by Hai River estuary, and the highest in Zhangweixin River estuary. There were significant seasonal variations in ΣPAHs, the concentrations of ΣPAHs were higher in November than in May and August. The composition profiles of PAHs in different sites were significantly different, and illustrated seasonal variations. Generally, 2-ring (Nap) and 3-ring PAHs (Acp, Fl and Phe) were the most abundant components at most sampling sites in three estuaries. The PAHs in three estuaries were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. A method based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and risk quotient (RQ) was proposed to assess the ecological risk of ΣPAHs, with the ecological risk of individual PAHs being considered separately. The results showed that the ecological risks caused by ΣPAHs were high in Hai River estuary and Zhangweixin River estuary, and moderate in Luan River estuary. The mean values of ecological risk in August were lower than those in November. The contributions of individual PAHs to ecological risk were different in May, August and November. 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs accounted for much more ecological risk than 2-ring, 5-ring and 6-ring, although the contributions of 5-ring and 6-ring to ecological risk were higher than these to PAHs concentrations. PMID:27209122

  11. An assessment of ecological and case-control methods for estimating lung cancer risk due to indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of underground miners indicate that indoor radon is an important cause of lung cancer. This finding has raised concern that exposure to radon also causes lung cancer in the general population. Epidemiological studies, including both case-control and ecological approaches, have directly addressed the risks of indoor residential radon; many more case-control studies are in progress. Ecological studies that associate lung-cancer rates with typical indoor radon levels in various geographic areas have not consistently shown positive associations. The results of purportedly negative ecological studies have been used as a basis for questioning the hazards of indoor radon exposure. Because of potentially serious methodologic flaws for testing hypotheses, we examined the ecological method as a tool for assessing lung-cancer risk from indoor radon exposure. We developed a simulation approach that utilizes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radon survey data to assign exposures to individuals within counties. Using the computer-generated data, we compared risk estimates obtained by ecological regression methods with those obtained from other regression methods and with the open-quotes trueclose quotes risks used to generate the data. For many of these simulations, the ecological models, while fitting the summary data well, gave risk estimates that differed considerably from the true risks. For some models, the risk estimates were negatively correlated with exposure, although the assumed relationship was positive. Attempts to improve the ecological models by adding smoking variables, including interaction terms, did not always improve the estimates of risk, which are easily affected by model misspecification. Because exposure situations used in the simulations are realistic, our results show that ecological methods may not accurately estimate the lung-cancer risk associated with indoor radon exposure

  12. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  13. A Social Ecological Model of Syndemic Risk affecting Women with and At-Risk for HIV in Impoverished Urban Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, A W; Gonzalez, J S; Palma, A; Schoenbaum, E; Lounsbury, D W

    2015-12-01

    Syndemic risk is an ecological construct, defined by co-occurring interdependent socio-environmental, interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants. We posited syndemic risk to be a function of violence, substance use, perceived financial hardship, emotional distress and self-worth among women with and at-risk for HIV in an impoverished urban community. In order to better understand these interrelationships, we developed and validated a system dynamics (SD) model based upon peer-reviewed literature; secondary data analyses of a cohort dataset including women living with and at-risk of HIV in Bronx, NY (N = 620); and input from a Bronx-based community advisory board. Simulated model output revealed divergent levels and patterns of syndemic risk over time across different sample profiles. Outputs generated new insights about how to effectively explore multicomponent multi-level programs in order to strategically develop more effective services for this population. Specifically, the model indicated that effective multi-level interventions might bolster women's resilience by increasing self-worth, which may result in decreased perceived financial hardship and risk of violence. Overall, our stakeholder-informed model depicts how self-worth may be a major driver of vulnerability and a meaningful addition to syndemic theory affecting this population. PMID:26370203

  14. Are standard tests sensitive enough to evaluate effects of human pharmaceuticals in aquatic biota? Facing changes in research approaches when performing risk assessment of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Martínez, G V; Owuor, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the presence of pharmaceutical products in aquatic environments is not only common, but is also of significant concern regarding the adverse effect they may produce to aquatic biota. In order to determine the adverse effects of caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), carbamazepine (CBZ) and novobiocin (NOV), at environmental occurring concentrations, standardized endpoints applied in current guidelines were evaluated in four organisms including bioluminescence response in Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition in Isochrysis galbana (marine water) and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (fresh water) and fertilization and embryo-larval development in Paracentrotus lividus. To reach this aim bioassays were implemented by exposing organisms to water spiked with drugs dissolved in DMSO (0.001% v/v). Risk characterization was performed, calculating the environmental impact of drugs by calculating environmental concentration and predicted no effect concentration ratio (MEC/PNEC). Results indicate that acute toxicity was found above environmental concentrations in the order of mg L(-1) for bacteria bioluminescence, microalgae growth inhibition and sea urchin fertilization. However, teratogenicity was observed on sea urchin after exposure to environmental concentrations of drugs at 0.00001 mg L(-1); at this concentration CBZ and IBU were found to reduce significantly the embryo-larval development compared to controls (p<0.01). The risk calculated for selected drugs suggested they are harmless for aquatic environment except when applying the embryo-larval development endpoint. Endpoints applied in this study showed the necessity of using more sensitive responses, when assessing risk of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments, since endpoints applied in current guidelines may not be suitable.

  15. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  16. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  17. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  18. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-testwater in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data should be generated to assess this fully. Thus future research is needed to investigate ecological effects of these HPCPs on

  19. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gulachenski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission, “greening” can elevate transmission risk by increasing movement of pathogen vectors between fragmented areas and by giving rise to novel human-wildlife interfaces. Idled and derelict infrastructure can further elevate disease risk from vector-borne and water-borne pathogens, which can build up in stagnant and unprotected water that maintenance and routine use of delivery or sanitation systems would otherwise eliminate. Thus, framing “greening” as inherently positive could result in policies and actions that unintentionally exacerbate inequalities by elevating risks rather than delivering benefits. As counter-urbanism is neither a minor pattern of urban development, nor a short-term departure from urban growth, homeowner and municipal management of abandoned areas should account for potential hazards to reduce health risks. Further socioecological assessments of public health risks following abandonment could better ensure the resilience and well-being of communities in shrinking cities.

  20. Risk, Networks, and Ecological Explanations for the Emergence of Cooperation in Commons Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Douglas Henry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commons literature increasingly recognizes the importance of contextual factors in driving collaboration in governance systems. Of particular interest are the ways in which the attributes of a resource system influence the dynamics of cooperation. While this may occur through many pathways, we investigate the mechanisms by which ecological factors influence both the risk of cooperation as well as the density of networks in which strategic interactions take place. Both of these factors influence the co-evolutionary dynamics of network structure and cooperative behavior. These dynamics are investigated through agent-based simulations, which provide preliminary evidence that: 1 low-density networks support higher levels of cooperation, even in high-risk Prisoner's Dilemma scenarios; and 2 in high-risk scenarios, networks that develop higher levels of clustering generally enjoy higher societal gains.

  1. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) was 14.46 ± 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 ± 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 ± 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 ± 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both the lake and river areas. Except for PFOS and PFUdA, the levels of TPFAAs and PFAAs were significantly related to the composition of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) but not related to total DOM expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The risk of PFOS determined by a species sensitivity distribution model was notably above that of PFOA. - The PFAAs' distributions were significantly related to the DOM composition, and the PFAAs' eco-risks were primarily determined by their toxicity to aquatic organisms

  2. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herva, Marta [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez, Antonio [Industrias de Diseno Textil, S.A., Edificio Inditex, Av. de la Diputacion s/n, Poligono de Sabon, 15142 Arteixo - A Coruna (Spain); Roca, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.roca@usc.es [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The ecological footprint (EF) is a suitable screening indicator to assist the assessment of the sustainability of an ecodesign proposal. {yields} The EF does not consider the risk derived from hazardous substances in its evaluation. {yields} Environmental risk assessment (ERA) successfully complemented the evaluation of the EF providing safety criteria. {yields} Options that exceeded the safety limits for Hazard Quotient and Cancer Risk where discarded, thus guaranteeing the protection of children. {yields} Trade-offs among criteria could be established by the application of fuzzy logic techniques to derive an ecodesign index. - Abstract: The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm{sup 2}) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm{sup 2}). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would

  3. 水生植物对水体重金属污染的监测和生态修复%Biomonitoring and Ecological Restoring Heavy Metal Polluted Water by Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠峰; 王良桂

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic plants have excellent ability in biomonitoring and ecological restoring heavy metal polluted water. Bryophytes are excellent biomonitors of heavy metal pollution, so they can be used to monitor and evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of the studied water. Moreover, four life forms of aquatic plants (including emergent, free-drifting, floating-leaved and submergent) all have certain accumulation capacity on heavy metals, so they are appropriate materials for ecological restoring of heavy metal polluted water. Using aquatic plants to treat heavy metal polluted water is a simple and low cost method, and won't bring secondary pollution. This phytoremediation method can not only restore heavy metal pollution, but also prettify the environment and bring direct and indirect economic benefits.%水生植物对水体重金属污染具有良好的监测和生态修复功能.苔藓植物是重金属污染良好的生物监测器,可用于水体重金属污染状况的监测和评价.同时,4种生活型的水生植物(挺水、浮叶、漂浮和沉水植物)对重金属都有一定的富集能力,对重金属污染水体有生态修复作用.利用水生植物对水体进行生态修复具有简便易行、成本较低、不易形成二次污染的优势,在修复水体重金属污染的同时还可以美化环境,并可产生直接或间接的经济效益.

  4. Ecological status classification of the Taizi River Basin, China: a comparison of integrated risk assessment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Juntao; Semenzin, Elena; Meng, Wei; Giubilato, Elisa; Zhang, Yuan; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Zhou, Yun; Ding, Sen; Wan, Jun; He, Mengchang; Lin, Chunye

    2015-10-01

    Integrated risk assessment approaches allow to achieve a sound evaluation of ecological status of river basins and to gain knowledge about the likely causes of impairment, useful for informing and supporting the decision-making process. In this paper, the integrated risk assessment (IRA) methodology developed in the EU MODELKEY project (and implemented in the MODELKEY Decision Support System) is applied to the Taizi River (China), in order to assess its Ecological and Chemical Status according to EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. The available dataset is derived by an extensive survey carried out in 2009 and 2010 across the Taizi River catchment, including the monitoring of physico-chemical (i.e. DO, EC, NH3-_N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5) and TP), chemical (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals), biological (i.e. macroinvertebrates, fish, and algae), and hydromorphological parameters (i.e. water quantity, channel change and morphology diversity). The results show a negative trend in the ecological status from the highland to the lowland of the Taizi River Basin. Organic pollution from agriculture and domestic sources (i.e. COD and BOD5), unstable hydrological regime (i.e. water quantity shortage) and chemical pollutants from industry (i.e. PAHs and metals) are found to be the main stressors impacting the ecological status of the Taizi River Basin. The comparison between the results of the IRA methodology and those of a previous study (Leigh et al. 2012) indicates that the selection of indicators and integrating methodologies can have a relevant impact on the classification of the ecological status. The IRA methodology, which integrates information from five lines of evidence (i.e., biology, physico-chemistry, chemistry, ecotoxicology and hydromorphology) required by WFD, allows to better identify the biological communities that are potentially at risk and the stressors that are most

  5. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  6. Ecological risk analysis of pesticides used on irrigated rice crops in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Danielle Cristina; Noldin, José Alberto; Deschamps, Francisco C; Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-11-01

    Based on studies conducted in the past decade in the southern region of Brazil to determine residue levels of the pesticides normally used on irrigated rice crops, changes can be observed in relation to the presence of pesticides in the waters of the main river basins in Santa Catarina State. In previous harvests, the presence of residues of 7 pesticides was determined, with the herbicide bentazon and the insecticide carbofuran being the products showing highest frequency. Following toxicological tests conducted with 8 different test organisms, deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis was performed to assess the situation of the river basins in areas used for the production of irrigated rice. Of the species tested, the herbicide bentazon showed greatest toxicity toward plants, but did not present an ecological risk because in the worst-case scenario the highest concentration of this pesticide in the environment is 37 times lower than the lowest EC50/LC50 value obtained in the tests. The insecticide carbofuran, which had the highest toxicity toward the organisms used in the tests, presented an ecological risk in the deterministic analysis, but without any associated probability. The results highlight the need for increased efforts in training farmers in crop management practices and for the continual monitor of water bodies for the presence of pesticide residues. PMID:27479455

  7. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  8. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Leutner, Benjamin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d'Ivoire using high- and moderate-resolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixel-based modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  9. Occurrence, fate and ecological risk of chlorinated paraffins in Asia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao-Ling; Liang, Xiao-Liang; Li, Ding-Qiang; Zhuo, Mu-Ning; Zhang, Si-Yi; Huang, Qiu-Xin; Liao, Yi-Shan; Xie, Zhen-Yue; Guo, Tai-Long; Yuan, Zai-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), complex mixtures of polychlorinated alkanes, are widely used in various industries and are thus ubiquitous in the receiving environment. The present study comprehensively reviewed the occurrence, fate and ecological risk of CPs in various environmental matrices in Asia. Releases from the production and consumption of CPs or CP-containing materials, wastewater discharge and irrigation, sewage sludge application, long-range atmospheric transport and aerial deposition have been found to be most likely sources and transport mechanisms for the dispersion of CPs in various environmental matrices, such as air, water, sediment, soil and biota. CPs can be bioaccumulated in biota and biomagnified through food webs, likely causing toxic ecological effects in organisms and posing health risks to humans. Inhalation, dust ingestion and dietary intake are strongly suggested as the major routes of human exposure. Research gaps are discussed to highlight the perspectives of future research to improve future efforts regarding the analysis of CPs, the environmental occurrence and elimination of CPs, the total environmental pressure, and the risks to organisms and populations. PMID:27132163

  10. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mohsen; Li, Loretta Y; Salmanzadeh, Mahdiyeh

    2012-08-15

    50 street dust samples from four major streets in eastern and southern Tehran, the capital of Iran, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn and Li). Hakanson's method was used to determine the Risk Index (RI) and ecological risks. Amongst these samples, 21 were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Correlation, cluster and principal component analyses identified probable natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants. The dust had elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and PAHs. Enrichment factors of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn showed that the dust is extremely enriched in these metals. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and PAHs and, to a lesser extent, Cr and Ni have common anthropogenic sources. While Mn and Li were identified to have natural sources, Cd may have different anthropogenic origins. All samples demonstrated high ecological risk. Traffic and related activities, petrogenic and pyrogenic sources are likely to be the main anthropogenic sources of heavy metals and PAHs in Tehran dust.

  11. Ecological Risk Assessment of Olaquindox Based on Model Prediction%基于模型预测的喹乙醇生态风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 单正军; 葛峰; 陈传斌; 焦少俊; 高士祥

    2012-01-01

    should be paid to lowering its aquatic ecological risk in the risk management of olaquindox. It is, therefore, concluded that the ecological risk assessment technology can be used to provide environmental administration of veterinary medicines with effective technical support.

  12. Nuclear and isotopic techniques underpinning probabilistic ecological risk analysis in coastal marine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The historical operation of manufacturing, chemical and other industries in the Sydney Harbour catchment over many decades has left a legacy of high chemical contamination in the surrounding catchment, such that a recent report describes Port Jackson as one of the most contaminated harbours in the world (Birch and Taylor, 2005). The legacy in Homebush Bay is amongst the worst in the harbour and presents a considerable management problem. Elucidation of environmental processes is the key to effective ecosystem management, however few tools are available to determine their inter-relationships, rates and directions. This study has four components: (1) determination of linkages between high trophic order species and different habitats resources using stable isotopic analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These studies identify trophic cascades forming the basis for selection of biota for contaminant transfer experiments; (2) short-term (weeks - months) chronology and geochemistry of sediment cores and traps in Homebush Bay to determine rates of sedimentation and resuspension (using environmental/cosmogenic Be). Models derived from these studies provide the contaminants levels against which risk is assessed; (3) biokinetic studies using proxy radiotracer isotopes (eg. 75Se and 109Cd for analogous stable metals) of the uptake and trophic transfer of contaminants by specific estaurine biota. Here we identify the rates and extent to which contaminants accumulated and transferred to predators/seafoods; and (4) application of a probabilistic ecological risk assessment model (AQUARISK) set to criteria determined by stakeholder consensus. In this study we analysed the distribution of natural isotopes and redistribution of artificial isotopes injected into ecological compartments to determine the key trophic linkages and contaminant pathways in an estuarine system and contribute to improving the accuracy and specificity of a probabilistic ecological risk assessment

  13. A site-specific ecological risk assessment for corn-associated insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    A site-specific ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to examine the simultaneous use of genetically modified corn (Bt corn) with a neonicotinoid seed coating, clothianidin, and use of a granular insecticide, tefluthrin, to protect crops from pest damage. A field study was conducted on site, and exposure data from the literature were summarized to determine the matrices and exposure concentrations that nontarget species could typically experience within an agricultural ecosystem. To determine ecological effects on nontarget species, acute toxicity bioassays were conducted on earthworms (Eisenia fetida), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and Elmid riffle beetle larvae (Ancyronyx spp.) in which the test species were exposed to single insecticides as well as the mixture of the 3 insecticides. In the risk characterization section of the ERA, stressor-response profiles for each species tested were compared with field distributions of the insecticides, and a margin of safety at the 10th percentile (MOS10) was calculated to estimate risk. No acute toxicity was observed in any of the 3 nontarget species after exposure to senescent Bt corn leaf tissue. Large MOS10 values were calculated for clothianidin to the nontarget species. When bioassays were compared with tefluthrin field distributions, very low MOS10 values were calculated for earthworms (0.06) and H. azteca (0.08) because the environmental concentrations often exceeded the stressor-response profile. No increased toxicity was observed when nontarget species were exposed to a mixture of the 3 insecticides. In summary, the genetically modified corn insecticidal proteins and clothianidin were not found at environmental concentrations exceeding benchmark values for ecological effects, but tefluthrin was consistently detected in the environment at levels that could be causing toxicity to nontarget species, especially if this pyrethroid is able to travel off site.

  14. [Contamination and Ecological Risk Assessment of Mercury in Hengshuihu Wetland, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nai-shan; Zhang, Man-yin; Cui, Li-juan; Ma, Mu-yuan; Yan, Liang; Mu, Yong-lin; Qin, Peng

    2016-05-15

    Investigation on the concentrations and the distribution characteristics of total mercury in atmosphere, water surface and soil/ sediments of Hengshuihu wetland was carried out based on a uniform set point sampling method. The geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods were simultaneously used to assess the mercury pollution in Hengshuihu wetland ecosystem. The results showed that: the total mercury content in Hengshuihu wetland atmosphere ranged from 1.0 to 5.0 ng · m⁻³, with an average of (2.9 ± 0.85) ng · m⁻³; the total mercury content in water surface ranged from 0.010 to 0.57 µg · L⁻¹, with the average value of (0.081 ± 0.053) µg · L⁻¹; the total mercury content in soil/sediment ranged from 0.001 0 to 0.058 mg · kg⁻¹, with an average of (0.027 ± 0.013) mg · kg⁻¹. The distribution features of total mercury in Hengshuihu wetland were as follows: the total mercury concentration in surface water of the shore was significantly higher than that in the center (P soil of shore had a consistent trend with that in the atmosphere; high concentrations of total mercury pollution were accompanied by severe human activities. The geoaccumulation index showed that mercury pollution in Hengshuihu wetland was at clean level; potential ecological risk index showed mercury contamination had a low ecological risk in Hengshuihu wetland. PMID:27506028

  15. [Temporal characteristics of ecological risk assessment indicators in coal-mining city with the application of LVQ method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Tao, Jing-Xian; Liu, Yan-xu

    2015-03-01

    Because the ability of selected indicators in assessing ecological risk at different temporal scales is not the same, it is necessary to clear the definite comparability of such indicators at temporal scale to explore a new method for dynamic assessing the ecological risk. In this case, five mining cities in Liaoning Province were selected as the study area, with the application of learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network, the significance of the indicators for the ecological risk assessment was quantitatively analyzed to clarify their characteristics at temporal scale. The expression with two-dimension (long-term and short-term) of temporal scale was put forward as a new method to assess the ecological risk for mining cities. The results showed that the amount of industrial SO2 removed per output value, the amount of industrial dust removed per output value, coverage rate of urban green space, precipitation, coordination degree among subsystems, percentage of mining practitioners, and current year investment on pollution abatement projects were effective at long-term temporal scale, while the other indicators acted at short-term temporal scale. With the combination of long-term and short-term temporal scales, the dynamic assessment of ecological risk for mining cities could be expressed on two-dimension of temporal scale. It was found that Fuxin City got the highest ecological risk in current status, with the risk increasing most in Fushun City at the short-term temporal scale as well as in Chaoyang City at the long-term temporal scale. The method adopted in this study might act as a significant guidance in dynamic controlling and integrative management of ecological risk for mining cities.

  16. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  17. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk. PMID:26373302

  18. Risk assessment of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin in aquatic environment: are the current environmental concentrations safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Han, Sunyoung; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyunghee; Kho, Young-Lim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-10-01

    To understand potential risks of major pharmaceutical residues in waters, we evaluated ecotoxicities of five major veterinary pharmaceuticals, i.e., chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin, which have been frequently detected in freshwater environment worldwide. We conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests using two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and a fish (Oryzias latipes). In general, D. magna exhibited greater sensitivity than M. macrocopa, and chronic reproduction was the most sensitive endpoints for both organisms. The population growth rate was adversely influenced by exposure to chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, or sulfathiazole in water fleas, but reduction in population size was not expected. In O. latipes, the tested pharmaceuticals affected several reproduction related endpoints including time to hatch and growth. Based on the toxicity values from the present study and literature, algae appeared to be the most sensitive organism, followed by Daphnia and fish. Hazard quotients derived from measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for erythromycin and oxytetracycline exceeded unity, suggesting that potential ecological effects at highly contaminated sites cannot be ruled out. Long-term consequences of veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in the environment deserve further investigation. PMID:22711548

  19. Risk assessment of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin in aquatic environment: are the current environmental concentrations safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Han, Sunyoung; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyunghee; Kho, Young-Lim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-10-01

    To understand potential risks of major pharmaceutical residues in waters, we evaluated ecotoxicities of five major veterinary pharmaceuticals, i.e., chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin, which have been frequently detected in freshwater environment worldwide. We conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests using two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and a fish (Oryzias latipes). In general, D. magna exhibited greater sensitivity than M. macrocopa, and chronic reproduction was the most sensitive endpoints for both organisms. The population growth rate was adversely influenced by exposure to chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, or sulfathiazole in water fleas, but reduction in population size was not expected. In O. latipes, the tested pharmaceuticals affected several reproduction related endpoints including time to hatch and growth. Based on the toxicity values from the present study and literature, algae appeared to be the most sensitive organism, followed by Daphnia and fish. Hazard quotients derived from measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for erythromycin and oxytetracycline exceeded unity, suggesting that potential ecological effects at highly contaminated sites cannot be ruled out. Long-term consequences of veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in the environment deserve further investigation.

  20. Ecological risk and resilience perspective: a theoretical framework supporting evidence-based practice in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Joelle D

    2010-10-01

    Multidisciplinary school practitioners are clearly being called to use evidence-based practices from reputable sources such as their own professional organizations and federal agencies. In spite of this encouragement, most schools are not regularly employing empirically supported interventions. This paper further promotes the use of this approach by describing the theoretical support for evidence-based practice in schools. The ecological risk and resilience theoretical framework presented fills a gap in the literature and advocates for evidence-based practice in schools by illustrating how it can assist practitioners such as school social workers to better address problems associated with school failure. PMID:21082473

  1. Residues, Distributions, Sources, and Ecological Risks of OCPs in the Water from Lake Chaohu, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Xiu Liu; Wei He; Ning Qin; Xiang-Zhen Kong; Qi-Shuang He; Hui-Ling Ouyang; Bin Yang; Qing-Mei Wang; Chen Yang; Yu-Jiao Jiang; Wen-Jing Wu; Fu-Liu Xu

    2012-01-01

    The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lake...

  2. Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals and a Metalloid in Agricultural Soils in Tarkwa, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nesta Bortey-Sam; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; Osei Akoto; Yoshinori Ikenaka; Elvis Baidoo; Hazuki Mizukawa; Mayumi Ishizuka

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and a metalloid in agricultural soils in 19 communities in Tarkwa were analyzed to assess the potential ecological risk. A total of 147 soil samples were collected in June, 2012 and analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Mean concentrations (mg/kg dw) of heavy metals in the communities decreased in order of Zn (39) ˃ Cr (21) ˃ Pb (7.2) ˃ Cu (6.2) ˃ As (4.4) ˃ Ni (3.7) ˃ Co (1.8) ˃ Hg (0.32) ˃ Cd (0.050). Correlations among heavy metals and soil properties indicated t...

  3. Study on City Environment, Safety and Health from the Viewpoint of Ecological Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Qian-liang

    2011-01-01

    Urban ecological risk analysis is a relatively new study field.Rapid industrial moderni ation and urbanization have significantly improved the living standards of the city.However, as environmental, safety and health issues are causing widespread concern, these problems have potential serious threat on ecosystems and human health.So how to solve many problems arising from city has become a key to sustainable development of human civilization.The present article analyzed the major problems that the city confronts and pointed out the main measures from the aspects of urban environment, safety and health.

  4. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  5. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilking Hendrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and also a burden in the elderly in Germany. The results may help to generate more specific hypothesis for infectious disease transmission. Methods We analysed the spatial distribution of hospitalized patients with Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany. The association between the small area incidence and different socio-demographic and economic variables was investigated in order to identify spatial relations and risk factors. Our spatial analysis included 447 neighbourhood areas of similar population size in the city of Berlin. We included all laboratory-confirmed cases of patients hospitalized due to Rotavirus infections and notified between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2009. We excluded travel-associated and nosocomial infections. A spatial Bayesian Poisson regression model was used for the statistical analysis of incidences at neighbourhood level in relation to socio-demographic variables. Results Altogether, 2,370 patients fulfilled the case definition. The disease mapping indicates a number of urban quarters to be highly affected by the disease. In the multivariable spatial regression model, two risk factors were identified for infants ( Conclusions Neighbourhoods with a high unemployment rate and high day care attendance rate appear to be particularly affected by Rotavirus in the population of Berlin. Public health promotion programs should be developed for the affected areas. Due to the ecological study

  6. Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF) for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter II, G.W.

    2003-06-18

    The objective of this research is to provide the DoD with a framework based on a systematic, risk-based approach to assess impacts for management of natural resources in an ecosystem context. This risk assessment framework is consistent with, but extends beyond, the EPA's ecological risk assessment framework, and specifically addresses DoD activities and management needs. MERAF is intended to be consistent with existing procedures for environmental assessment and planning with DoD testing and training. The intention is to supplement these procedures rather than creating new procedural requirements. MERAF is suitable for use for training and testing area assessment and management. It does not include human health risks nor does it address specific permitting or compliance requirements, although it may be useful in some of these cases. Use of MERAF fits into the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process by providing a consistent and rigorous way of organizing and conducting the technical analysis for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) (Sigal 1993; Carpenter 1995; Canter and Sadler 1997). It neither conflicts with, nor replaces, procedural requirements within the NEPA process or document management processes already in place within DoD.

  7. A vibroseismic method for estimation of the ecological risk of powerful technogenic and natural explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairetdinov, Marat; Voskoboynikova, Gyulnara; Sedukhina, Galina

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of an original ecologically safe approach, proposed by the authors, to assessment of the geoecological risk from powerful mass explosions for the social and natural environment. In this approach, seismic vibrators are used as sources imitating explosions but having, in contrast to them, a much smaller power. Such sources can simultaneously excite in the medium seismic and acoustic (vibro-seismo-acoustic) oscillations with precision power and frequency-time characteristics. A comparative analysis of seismic and acoustic wave levels allows us to conclude that the major ecologically dangerous effect of ground-based test site explosions is due to acoustic waves whose energy is an order of magnitude greater than that of seismic waves. Calculated azimuthal dependencies of the focusing effect of acoustic waves in the infralow frequency range at different wind velocities and "source-receiver" distances by vibrator CV-40 were obtained . It was found that meteorological conditions have a greater influence on acoustic wave focusing in experiments that according to theoretical results. The effects of focusing of acoustic oscillations in space were revealed and estimated quantitatively. Specifically, it was proved that even at a weak wind of 2-4 m/s the ratio between the maximal and minimal acoustic wave levels depending on the azimuthal direction can reach 50. This can be a reason for great ecological hazard of technogenic explosions. The received results are new and original. The received results are new and original.

  8. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  9. Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

  10. Analysis on Landscape Ecological Risk of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateaus: A Case Study on Niyang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiaorong; ZHONG Xianghao; CHEN Xinwu

    2006-01-01

    Taking Niyang River Basin as an example,applying with the indices of landscape pattern,the indices of ecological risk of ecosystems are calculated in this paper,which takes the value of ecological loss of main ecosystem as the evaluation standard and takes into account the impacts of probability or the velocity of main hazards and event of the ecosystem.And the grades of ecological risk are assessed.According to the results of assessment,the ecological risk grades of the basin are divided into five classes.From the first grade risk to the fifth grade risk,the values of regional risk indices gradually reduce.The first grade risk areas mainly distribute in Niyang river and its branches downstream and the surrounding areas of main towns.And the basin area of non-valley region and the headstream regions of the branches are the fifth grades risk areas.This evaluation results provide the basis to the regional sustainable development.

  11. An approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk from natural disasters in a geographic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper proposes an approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk of a certain geographic region on the basis of quantitative and qualitative datum about the potential natural disasters. A fuzzy logic model is designed. The type of the threats, consequences and interdependencies between infrastructure objects are taken into account. The geographic region is considered as a complex system of interconnected and mutually influencing elements. The expected damages are directly and/or indirectly connected with life quality deterioration. Keywords: Risk, Geo-ecological risk, Damages, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Natural disasters

  12. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  13. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  14. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbin; Gao, Yongnian; Fan, Chengxin

    2011-10-01

    The distribution, sources and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu were studied. Results showed that the measured heavy metals had varied spatial distribution patterns, indicating that they had complex origins and controlling factors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the total phosphorus and the loss on ignition were positively correlated with the measured metals except Cd. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb might originate from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, whereas As predominantly originated from natural processes. Potential ecological risk indices indicated that sediment from Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay and the Northwest Area suffered high pollution, whereas other areas of Lake Taihu were moderately polluted. A comparison of metal levels with the effects range low (ERL) and effects range median (ERM) showed that metals exceeded their corresponding ERL limit at 13.6-72.3% (72.3% for As, 52.4% for Pb, 27.7% for Cu, 22.8% for Cd, 16.0 for Hg and 13.6% for Cr) of the sites investigated. Moreover, 3.90% and 0.50% of the sites sampled exceeded the ERM thresholds for Hg and Pb, respectively.

  15. An ecological risk assessment for heavy metals of the lead-zinc ore tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Huibing; Liu Yunguo; Li Jun; Liu Meiying

    2007-01-01

    The structure of Pb,Zn,Cu and Cd in lead zinc ore tailing soils in Yongzhou,Hunan is analyzed by the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure.The content and proportion of heavy metals of the mine are measured.Meanwhile,the ecological risks are evaluated with the Lars Hakanson's potential ecological risk exponential method.The analysis shows that the content of heavy metals is very high,reaching the level of serious pollution.The order of metal pollution degrees are Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn.On the other hand,it is very possible that the heavy metals may combine together as compounds or cling to the crystal form of clay.Since the form of soluble acid and free metals are very little,it is not an easy job for metal elating or restoration of plants.Yet it is possible to take out those heavy metals adopting the chemical extraction technology.DTPA and EDTA,indicated by a research,both have iterative value and strong conformity effect.So they are effective elutriants to restore the polluted soil.A chemical extraction method is put forward in this paper.

  16. Assessment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Mugoša

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples of urban parks and playgrounds is very important for the evaluation of potential risks for residents, especially children. Until recently, there has been very little data about urban parks pollution in Montenegro. To evaluate the sources of potential contamination and concentration of heavy metals, soil samples from coastal urban parks and kindergartens of Montenegro were collected. Based on the heavy metal concentrations, multivariate analysis combined with geochemical approaches showed that soil samples in coastal areas of Montenegro had mean Pb and Cd concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA, soil pollution with Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn is contributed by anthropogenic sources. Results for Cr in the surface soils were primarily derived from natural sources. Calculation of different ecological contamination factors showed that Cd is the primary contribution to ecological risk index (RI origins from anthropogenic, industry, and urbanization sources. This data provides evidence about soil pollution in coastal municipalities of Montenegro. Special attention should be paid to this problem in order to continue further research and to consider possible ways of remediation of the sites where contamination has been observed.

  17. Assessment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugoša, Boban; Đurović, Dijana; Nedović-Vuković, Mirjana; Barjaktarović-Labović, Snežana; Vrvić, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples of urban parks and playgrounds is very important for the evaluation of potential risks for residents, especially children. Until recently, there has been very little data about urban parks pollution in Montenegro. To evaluate the sources of potential contamination and concentration of heavy metals, soil samples from coastal urban parks and kindergartens of Montenegro were collected. Based on the heavy metal concentrations, multivariate analysis combined with geochemical approaches showed that soil samples in coastal areas of Montenegro had mean Pb and Cd concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), soil pollution with Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn is contributed by anthropogenic sources. Results for Cr in the surface soils were primarily derived from natural sources. Calculation of different ecological contamination factors showed that Cd is the primary contribution to ecological risk index (RI) origins from anthropogenic, industry, and urbanization sources. This data provides evidence about soil pollution in coastal municipalities of Montenegro. Special attention should be paid to this problem in order to continue further research and to consider possible ways of remediation of the sites where contamination has been observed. PMID:27043601

  18. Speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in Xiamen Bay surface sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cai; LIU Yang; LI Wenquan; SUN Xiuwu; JI Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey of surface sediment in Xiamen Bay in October 2011, the speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr) in this area were studied us-ing the sequential extraction method and ecological risk assessment method. The results indicated:(1) the total concentrations of these heavy metals were influenced by runoff, industrial wastewater, and sewage, and were all higher in the coastal area than the offshore area while the highest area of Pb was a little far-ther away from the coastal water due to atmosphere deposition;(2) sequential extractions suggested that Cu was mainly composed with residual and Fe/Mn-oxide bound fractions, Pb was bound to Fe/Mn-oxide, Zn and Cr were dominated by residual, and Cd bound to exchangeable and carbonate fractions; (3) the order of migration and transformation sequence was Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr and the degree of pollution was Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr;and (4) the ratios of the secondary and primary phases showed that Zn and Cr were both clean, Cu may be polluted, Pb was moderately polluted, while Cd was heavily polluted.

  19. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 5: Aerial insectivorous wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, L.A.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1999-04-01

    Risks to aerial insectivores (e.g., rough-winged swallows, little brown bats, and endangered gray bats) were assessed for the remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek (CR/PC) system. Adult mayflies and sediment were collected from three locations and analyzed for contaminants. Sediment-to-mayfly contaminant uptake factors were generated from these data and used to estimate contaminant concentrations in mayflies from 13 additional locations. Contaminants of potential ecological concern (COPECs) were identified by comparing exposure estimates generated using point estimates of parameter values to NOAELs. To incorporate the variation in exposure parameters and to provide a better estimate of the potential exposure, the exposure model was recalculated using Monte Carlo methods. The potential for adverse effects was estimated based on the comparison of exposure distribution and the LOAEL. The results of this assessment suggested that population-level effects to rough-winged swallows and little brown bats are considered unlikely. However, because gray bats are endangered, effects on individuals may be significant from foraging in limited subreaches of the CR/PC system. This assessment illustrates the advantage of an iterative approach to ecological risk assessments, using fewer conservative assumptions and more realistic modeling of exposure.

  20. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution, sources and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Taihu were studied. Results showed that the measured heavy metals had varied spatial distribution patterns, indicating that they had complex origins and controlling factors. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the total phosphorus and the loss on ignition were positively correlated with the measured metals except Cd. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb might originate from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater, whereas As predominantly originated from natural processes. Potential ecological risk indices indicated that sediment from Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay and the Northwest Area suffered high pollution, whereas other areas of Lake Taihu were moderately polluted. A comparison of metal levels with the effects range low (ERL) and effects range median (ERM) showed that metals exceeded their corresponding ERL limit at 13.6–72.3% (72.3% for As, 52.4% for Pb, 27.7% for Cu, 22.8% for Cd, 16.0 for Hg and 13.6% for Cr) of the sites investigated. Moreover, 3.90% and 0.50% of the sites sampled exceeded the ERM thresholds for Hg and Pb, respectively.

  1. Leveraging existing data for prioritization of the ecological risks of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicinal innovation has lead to the discovery and use of thousands of human and veterinary drugs. With this comes the potential for unintended effects on non-target organisms exposed to pharmaceuticals inevitably entering the environment. The impracticality of generating whole-o...

  2. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  3. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  4. Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

    2014-05-01

    This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous

  5. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  6. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from $9.45 to $21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species-the 'iconization' of species in two of the three surveys-had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be $10 to $25 per species or $10 to $20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk. PMID:27294723

  7. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansheng; Song, Jing; Li, Weifeng; Zheng, Maokun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and their ecological risks are key issues in soil security studies. This study investigated the concentrations of six heavy metals--copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) in Shenzhen's agricultural lands and examined the potential hazards and possible sources of these metals. Eighty-two samples from agricultural topsoil were collected. Potential ecological risk index was used to calculate the potential risk of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore pollution sources of the metals. Finally, Kriging was used to predict the spatial distribution of the metals' potential ecological risks. The concentrations of the heavy metals were higher than their background values. Most of them presented little potential ecological risk, except for the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Four districts (Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan, and Dapeng) exhibited some degree of potential risk, which tended to have more industries and road networks. Three major sources of heavy metals included geochemical processes, industrial pollutants, and traffic pollution. The heavy metal Cd was the main contributor to the pollution in agricultural land during the study period. It also poses the potential hazard for the future. High potential risk is closely related to industrial pollution and transportation. Since the 1980s, the sources of heavy metals have evolved from parent rock weathering, erosion, degradation of organics, and mineralization to human disturbances resulting in chemical changes in the soil.

  8. Extrapolating ecological risks of ionizing radiation from individuals to populations to ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches for protecting ecosystems from ionizing radiation are quite different from those used for protecting ecosystems from adverse effects of toxic chemicals. The methods used for chemicals are conceptually similar to those used to assess risks of chemicals to human health in that they focus on the protection of the most sensitive or most highly exposed individuals. The assumption is that if sensitive or maximally exposed species and life stages are protected, then ecosystems will be protected. Radiological protection standards, on the other hand, are explicitly premised on the assumption that organisms, populations and ecosystems all possess compensatory capabilities to allow them to survive in the face of unpredictable natural variation in their environments. These capabilities are assumed to persist in the face of at least some exposure to ionizing radiation. The prevailing approach to radiological protection was developed more than 30 years ago, at a time when the terms risk assessment and risk management were rarely used. The expert review approach used to derive radiological protection standards is widely perceived to be inconsistent with the open, participatory approach that prevails today for the regulation of toxic chemicals. The available data for environmental radionuclides vastly exceeds that available for any chemical. Therefore, given an understanding of dose-response relationships for radiation effects and exposures for individual organisms, it should be possible to develop methods for quantifying effects of radiation on populations. A tiered assessment scheme as well as available population models that could be used for the ecological risk assessment of radionuclides is presented. (author)

  9. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  10. Assessment of ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites generally focuses on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area. While appropriate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination, this approach is not adequate for sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites. These species may therefore be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a site (and therefore exposure and risk) by wildlife is dependent upon the availability of habitat. Availability and distribution of habitat on the ORR was determined using satellite imagery. The proportion of habitat within contaminated areas was then determined by overlaying boundaries of contaminated areas (Operable Units or OUs) on the ORR habitat map. The likelihood of contaminant exposure was estimated by comparing the habitat requirements for wildlife species to the proportion of suitable habitat within OUs. OU-specific contaminant concentrations in surface water, soil, or biota were used to estimate the magnitude of risk presented by each DU. The proportion of ORR-wide population likely to be exposed was estimated using literature-derived population density data for each endpoint. At present, due to major data gaps (i.e., lack of data for all OUs, site-specific population density or habitat use data, etc.) uncertainty associated with conclusions is high. Results of this assessment must therefore be considered to be preliminary

  11. Implementing fire history and fire ecology in fire risk assessment: the study case of Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    CONEDERA, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the ecological role of wildfires and the knowledge of its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems have been recognize as a prerequisite for a sustainable land and ecosystem management. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological approach for implementing the knowledge derived from studies of fire history, fire ecology, and fire suppression strategies in fire risk analyses in a low-to medium fire-prone region such as the Canton Ticino.

  12. Possible ecological risks of transgenic organism release when transgenes affect mating success: Sexual selection and the Trojan gene hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, William M.; Howard, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread interest in producing transgenic organisms is balanced by concern over ecological hazards, such as species extinction if such organisms were to be released into nature. An ecological risk associated with the introduction of a transgenic organism is that the transgene, though rare, can spread in a natural population. An increase in transgene frequency is often assumed to be unlikely because transgenic organisms typically have some viability disadvantage. Reduced viability is assumed...

  13. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  14. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys

  15. Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Kim, Myunghyun; Park, Jeongim; Boxall, Alistair B A; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-09-01

    Pharmaceutical residues may have serious impacts on nontarget biological organisms in aquatic ecosystems, and have therefore precipitated numerous investigations worldwide. Many pharmaceutical compounds available on the market need to be prioritized based on their potential ecological and human health risks in order to develop sound management decisions. We prioritized veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea by their usage, potential to enter the environment, and toxicological hazard. Twenty compounds were identified in the top priority class, most of which were antibiotics. Among these compounds, 8 were identified as deserving more immediate attention: amoxicillin, enramycin, fenbendazole, florfenicol, ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin. A limitation of this study is that we initially screened veterinary pharmaceuticals by sales tonnage for veterinary use only. However, this is the first attempt to prioritize veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea, and it provides important concepts for developing environmental risk management plans for such contaminants in aquatic systems. PMID:21783906

  16. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  17. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore;

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may......-driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world....

  18. Fatores ecológicos associados à colonização e ao desenvolvimento de macrófitas aquáticas e desafios de manejo Ecological factors associated to aquatic macrophyte colonization and growth and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Thomaz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As macrófitas constituem-se em uma importante assembléia de ecossistemas aquáticos continentais, mas seu crescimento excessivo pode provocar danos aos usos múltiplos de alguns ambientes. Durante o processo de sucessão ecológica, a maioria dos ecossistemas aquáticos é colonizada, em diferentes graus, pela vegetação aquática. No entanto, explosões populacionais são usualmente decorrentes de ações antrópicas, como introduções de espécies exóticas e alterações de habitats. O conhecimento da ecologia e biologia das espécies de macrófitas que colonizam ecossistemas tropicais ainda é escasso. Entretanto, esse conhecimento é fundamental para a predição do desenvolvimento da vegetação aquática e para subsidiar as medidas de manejo, quando estas forem necessárias. Os métodos de controle e manejo são eficazes em pequenos ambientes e sua aplicação pode ser acompanhada por uma série de impactos ecológicos, nem sempre avaliados apropriadamente. O desenvolvimento de métodos com reduzidos impactos ambientais e que sejam eficientes em grandes ecossistemas é um desafio. Deve-se ainda considerar que, embora em algumas situações o manejo seja necessário no sentido de reduzir uma parcela das populações de macrófitas, em outras ele deveria ser utilizado para estimular a colonização e o incremento desta vegetação.The aquatic macrophytes have been considered an important community in freshwater ecosystems. However, their excessive colonization and growth usually cause serious impacts on multiple use of these ecosystems. Most aquatic environments are colonized at different degrees by aquatic plants in some phase of ecological succession. Nevertheless, massive growth is usually associated with anthropogenic actions such as introduction of alien species and habitats of alterations. Knowledge about ecology and biology of the species that colonize tropical ecosystems is still scarce. This knowledge is fundamental to predict

  19. Perceptions of ecological risk associated with introduced marine species in marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Trenouth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The perception of ecological risks (impact and acceptability associated with introduced marine species (IMS, what demographic variablesinfluence those perceptions, respondent’s knowledge of IMS, and people’s support for controlling introduced marine species impacts on themarine environment was explored at three locations in Western Australia: Ningaloo Reef Marine Park, Rottnest Island Marine Reserve, andHamelin Bay. Recognition that introduced marine species are an issue at state, national and international levels exists; yet often marineprotected area management plans do not reflect this recognition. Therefore, we hypothesise that there is a lack of translation of concernregarding introduced marine species as a risk into tactical objectives within marine protected area management plans. This may be due to lowstakeholder perceptions of the risk posed by introduced marine species. Survey respondents had a high level (89% of self-rated awareness ofintroduced marine species and they also indicated (93% a willingness to support management interventions to prevent, or control the spreadof introduced marine species in Western Australia.Our results also indicate that gender (males and age (18–45 age group influenced respondents’ perception of risk (impact of IMS, yet noexamined demographic variables influenced respondents acceptability of risk. Furthermore, knowledge of introduced marine species,education level, and income variables did not influence respondents’ perception of risk (impact or acceptability. Understandingdemographic characteristics that influence participants perceptions related to introduced marine species can be useful for targeted,educational initiatives to reduce the likelihood of IMS incursions. This begins to smooth the way for management to proactively develop andimplement policies that are necessary to more fully protect the Western Australian marine environment.

  20. Heavy metals in sediments, soils, and aquatic plants from a secondary anabranch of the three gorges reservoir region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Min; Sun, Xiu-Qian; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Wei, Yun-Mei; Guo, Jin-Song; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Ke

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Znic (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and magnesium (Mg) in sediments, as well as in related soils and aquatic plants in the Liangtan River, a typical secondary anabranch of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. We found that sediments accumulated more metals than soils and aquatic plants. Concentrations of the nine metals in sediments and soils followed the same sequence, while their concentrations in aquatic plants followed a different sequence. Potential adverse effects of contaminated sediments on benthic fauna were evaluated, and the results showed that the toxic effect on benthic organisms followed the sequence Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Pb. The potential ecological risk index analysis indicated that Cd in sediments had considerable ecological risk, whereas Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb had low ecological risk. The potential ecological risk index (RI) of the heavy metals in sediments of the Liangtan River was 174.9, indicating moderate ecological risk. The transfer factor trend of metals for aquatic plants showed that Cd and Ni had the most and least accumulation, respectively. For Cu, Cd, Mg, Pb, and Cr, a significant positive correlation of the metal concentrations was observed between sediments and soils, but no correlations (excluding Cr) were detected between sediments and aquatic plants. Our study indicated that anthropogenic input may be the primary source of metal contamination in the Liangtan River, and that Zn and Cd pollution in the Liangtan River should be further explored. PMID:27055891

  1. Multi-phase partitioning, ecological risk and fate of acidic pharmaceuticals in a wastewater receiving river: The role of colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and multi-phase distribution of five pharmaceutical compounds were investigated in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving river by analysis of pharmaceuticals in sediment, particulate matter, conventional dissolved phase (> 0.7 μm), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 0.7 μm), and truly dissolved phase (< 5 kDa) water. Diclofenac was found in all samples, followed by clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen with the decreasing detection frequency. All targets in WWTP outfall site were higher than those in the upstream and downstream, indicating that the WWTP is an important input source of pharmaceuticals in the river. The colloidal phase contributed 10–14% of ketoprofen, 8–26% of naproxen, 17–36% of clofibric acid, 22–33% of diclofenac, and 9–28% of ibuprofen in the aquatic system, suggesting the colloids will play an important role as carrier to contaminants in the aquatic environment. Based on truly dissolved concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water, only the risk quotient (RQ) value for diclofenac towards fish was higher than 1, indicating it poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Finally, a Level III fugacity model was used to further assess the environmental fate of the selected pharmaceuticals (exemplified for clofibric acid and diclofenac). Both clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment with the percentage of 99.7% and 60.6%, respectively. Advection in river is a significant loss process for clofibric acid (56.4%) and diclofenac (54.4%). - Highlights: ► WWTP is the main source of pharmaceuticals to the receiving river in Shanghai. ► The colloids contribute 9–36% to the total pharmaceutical concentration in water. ► Truly dissolved diclofenac poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. ► Clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment

  2. Multi-phase partitioning, ecological risk and fate of acidic pharmaceuticals in a wastewater receiving river: The role of colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yan-Ping [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Meng, Xiang-Zhou, E-mail: xzmeng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wen, Zhi-Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ke, Run-Hui [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing 100027 (China); Chen, Ling [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence and multi-phase distribution of five pharmaceutical compounds were investigated in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving river by analysis of pharmaceuticals in sediment, particulate matter, conventional dissolved phase (> 0.7 μm), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 0.7 μm), and truly dissolved phase (< 5 kDa) water. Diclofenac was found in all samples, followed by clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen with the decreasing detection frequency. All targets in WWTP outfall site were higher than those in the upstream and downstream, indicating that the WWTP is an important input source of pharmaceuticals in the river. The colloidal phase contributed 10–14% of ketoprofen, 8–26% of naproxen, 17–36% of clofibric acid, 22–33% of diclofenac, and 9–28% of ibuprofen in the aquatic system, suggesting the colloids will play an important role as carrier to contaminants in the aquatic environment. Based on truly dissolved concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water, only the risk quotient (RQ) value for diclofenac towards fish was higher than 1, indicating it poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Finally, a Level III fugacity model was used to further assess the environmental fate of the selected pharmaceuticals (exemplified for clofibric acid and diclofenac). Both clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment with the percentage of 99.7% and 60.6%, respectively. Advection in river is a significant loss process for clofibric acid (56.4%) and diclofenac (54.4%). - Highlights: ► WWTP is the main source of pharmaceuticals to the receiving river in Shanghai. ► The colloids contribute 9–36% to the total pharmaceutical concentration in water. ► Truly dissolved diclofenac poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. ► Clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment.

  3. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  4. Heavy Metal Pollution, Fractionation, and Potential Ecological Risks in Sediments from Lake Chaohu (Eastern China and the Surrounding Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb pollution, fractionation, and ecological risks in the sediments of Lake Chaohu (Eastern China, its eleven inflowing rivers and its only outflowing river were studied. An improved BCR (proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate heavy metals within sediments, a geoaccumulation index was used to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution, and a risk assessment code was applied to evaluate potential ecological risks. Heavy metals in the Shuangqiao and Nanfei Rivers were generally higher than the other studied sites. Of the three Lake Chaohu sites, the highest concentrations were identified in western Chaohu. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risks in the lake’s only outflowing river were similar to those in the eastern region of the lake, to which the river is connected. Heavy metal concentrations occurred in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni ≈ Cr. Cr, Ni, and Cu made up the largest proportion of the residual fraction, while Cd was the most prominent metal in the exchangeable and carbonate-included fraction. Cd posed the greatest potential ecological risk; the heavy metals generally posed risks in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  5. Estimating functional connectivity of wildlife habitat and its relevance to ecological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.R.; Allen, C.R.; Simpson, K.A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to the viability of wildlife populations and the maintenance of biodiversity. Fragmentation relates to the sub-division of habitat intq disjunct patches. Usually coincident with fragmentation per se is loss of habitat, a reduction in the size of the remnant patches, and increasing distance between patches. Natural and anthropogenic processes leading to habitat fragmentation occur at many spatial scales, and their impacts on wildlife depend on the scales at which species interact with the landscape. The concept of functional connectivity captures this organism-based view of the relative ease of movement or degree of exchange between physically disjunct habitat patches. Functional connectivity of a given habitat arrangement for a given wildlife species depends on details of the organism's life history and behavioral ecology, but, for broad categories of species, quantities such as home range size and dispersal distance scale allometrically with body mass. These relationships can be incorporated into spatial analyses of functional connectivity, which can be quantified by indices or displayed graphically in maps. We review indices and GIS-based approaches to estimating functional connectivity, presenting examples from the literature and our own work on mammalian distributions. Such analyses can be readily incorporated within an ecological risk framework. Estimates of functional connectivity may be useful in a screening-level assessment of the impact of habitat fragmentation relative to other stressors, and may be crucial in detailed population modeling and viability analysis.

  6. Environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium pollution in Panzhihua mining and smelting area, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Yanguo; NI Shijun; ZHANG Chengjiang; WANG Jinsheng; LIN Xueyu; HUANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Naturally high levels of vanadium are recognized mainly in basic rocks and minerals, particularly in titaniferous magnetite. And the anthropogenic sources of vanadium include fossil fuel combustion and wastes including steel-industry slags. In the last few years, the authors have made investigations and assessments on the environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium in the Panzhihua mining and smelting area. In the study area, anthropogenic vanadium resulted from mining, extracting and smelting of V-Ti magnetite; vanadium pollution of topsoil and sediments occurs mainly in the mining and extracting area, smelting area, slag dumping area, tailing dam and coal mining area. In the soil, the chemical speciation of vanadium shows: insoluble residue>organically bound>Fe (amorphous) oxide-bound>Mn oxide-bound>soluble component. Vanadium pollution can cause potential harmful effects on ecological systems, and lead to animal poisoning and human disease. So vanadiam pollution should be monitored on a regular basis in the Panzhihua area.

  7. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Álvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-09-15

    The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm(2)) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm(2)). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would ensure safety conditions during the use stage.

  8. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Álvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-09-15

    The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm(2)) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm(2)). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would ensure safety conditions during the use stage. PMID:21802845

  9. Lead bioaccessibility in food web intermediates and the influence on ecological risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Claire A; Bennett, Joseph R; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2007-08-15

    Models simulating gastric conditions of mammalian (eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus; short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and avian (American robin, Turdus migratorius) receptors were used to investigate the proportion of lead (Pb) mobilized into the digestive juices (the bioaccessible fraction) from soil, earthworms, and vegetation collected at a rifle and pistol (RP) range in eastern Ontario, Canada. Pb concentrations averaged 5044 mg kg(-1) in RP range surface soils, 727 mg kg(-1) in earthworm tissue, and 2945 mg kg(-1) in unwashed vegetation. For mammalian gastric models, the bioaccessible fraction of Pb in soils was 66 +/- 22%, in earthworm tissue was 77 +/- 14%, and in unwashed vegetation was 50 +/- 37%. For the avian gastric model, the bioaccessible fraction of Pb in soil was 53 +/- 43% and in earthworm tissue was 73 +/- 13%. The incorporation of soil and food web intermediate bioaccessibility data into standard risk calculations resulted in predicted risk being reduced for all receptors. The inclusion of bioaccessibility during ecological risk assessment affords a more realistic estimate of contaminant exposure, and is a valuable tool for use in contaminated sites management. PMID:17874804

  10. 辽宁北部典型流域水生态功能三级分区与水生态服务功能评价%The third level aquatic ecological function regionalization and ecological function assessment in typical watersheds of northern Liaoning province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金龙; 李法云; 吕纯剑; 魏冉; 李崇

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic ecological regionalization of watershed is an important foundation for integrated management of water ecology and water resource protection.According to investigation results of natural environment,hydrological data and GIS data in the typical Liaohe river watershed of northern Liaoning province,division indexes of the third level were determined by results of the first and second levels,and the third ecological regionalization was obtained in Qinghe and Fanhe river basins.The results indicate that it can be divided into seven and four aquatic ecological regionalizations of the third level in Qinghe and in Fanhe river basins.Ecological service function can be divided into five categories,namely,maintaince of biodiversity and habitat safety,product supply and agricultural produc-tion,water conservation and regulation,human settlements protection and urban development,soil conservation and ecological restoration.The results of third level aquatic ecological regionalization could provide scientific references for comprehensive prevention of water pollution and the integrated management of aquatic ecological regionaliza-tion.%流域水生态功能区划是水生态和水资源综合保护的重要前提和基础。在综合调查分析辽河流域辽北地区典型流域自然环境特征、水文数据和地理信息数据的基础上,结合辽河流域水生态功能一级、二级分区结果,建立水生态功能三级分区指标体系,对辽宁省辽河流域清河、凡河流域进行水生态功能三级分区。结果表明:清河流域可分为7个水生态功能三级区,凡河流域可分为4个水生态功能三级区;水生态服务功能类型共划分为5类:生物多样性与生物栖息地维持功能、产品提供与农业生产功能、水源涵养与水文调蓄功能、人居保障与城市发展功能和水土保持与生态修复功能。水生态功能三级分区结果为辽河流域实施水生态综合管理提供了

  11. Effects of environmental change on zoonotic disease risk: an ecological primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ostfeld, Richard S; Peterson, A Townsend; Poulin, Robert; de la Fuente, José

    2014-04-01

    Impacts of environmental changes on zoonotic disease risk are the subject of speculation, but lack a coherent framework for understanding environmental drivers of pathogen transmission from animal hosts to humans. We review how environmental factors affect the distributions of zoonotic agents and their transmission to humans, exploring the roles they play in zoonotic systems. We demonstrate the importance of capturing the distributional ecology of any species involved in pathogen transmission, defining the environmental conditions required, and the projection of that niche onto geography. We further review how environmental changes may alter the dispersal behaviour of populations of any component of zoonotic disease systems. Such changes can modify relative importance of different host species for pathogens, modifying contact rates with humans.

  12. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Congdon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care areas.

  13. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in urban soils in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chutian; Yang, Yong; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Zhang, Ruoxi; Mei, Yang; Liao, Xiangsen; Liu, Yingying

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil samples from 467 sample sites were collected in urban area of Wuhan City in 2013, and total concentrations of five trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) were measured. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses showed that concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu are higher along Yangtze River in the northern area of Wuhan, gradually decrease from city center to suburbs, and are mainly controlled by anthropogenic activities, while those of Cr and Cd are relatively spatially homogenous and mainly controlled by soil parent materials. Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have generally higher concentrations in roadsides, industrial areas, and residential areas than in school areas, greenbelts, and agricultural areas. Areas with higher road and population densities and longer urban construction history usually have higher trace metal concentrations. According to estimated results of the potential ecological risk index and Nemero synthesis pollution index, almost the whole urban area of Wuhan is facing considerable potential ecological risk caused by soil trace metals. These results reveal obvious trends of trace metal pollution, and an important impact of anthropogenic activities on the accumulation of trace metals in soil in Wuhan. Vehicular emission, industrial activities, and household wastes may be the three main sources for trace metal accumulation. Increasing vegetation cover may reduce this threat. It should be pointed out that Cd, which is strongly accumulated in soil, could be the largest soil pollution factor in Wuhan. Effective measures should be taken as soon as possible to deal with Cd enrichment, and other trace metals in soil should also be reduced, so as to protect human health in this important large city.

  15. Ecological Niche Modeling of Risk Factors for H7N9 Human Infection in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Li, Qun; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    China was attacked by a serious influenza A (H7N9) virus in 2013. The first human infection case was confirmed in Shanghai City and soon spread across most of eastern China. Using the methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and ecological niche modeling (ENM), this research quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the H7N9 occurrence and the main environmental factors, including meteorological variables, human population density, bird migratory routes, wetland distribution, and live poultry farms, markets, and processing factories. Based on these relationships the probability of the presence of H7N9 was predicted. Results indicated that the distribution of live poultry processing factories, farms, and human population density were the top three most important determinants of the H7N9 human infection. The relative contributions to the model of live poultry processing factories, farms and human population density were 39.9%, 17.7% and 17.7%, respectively, while the maximum temperature of the warmest month and mean relative humidity had nearly no contribution to the model. The paper has developed an ecological niche model (ENM) that predicts the spatial distribution of H7N9 cases in China using environmental variables. The area under the curve (AUC) values of the model were greater than 0.9 (0.992 for the training samples and 0.961 for the test data). The findings indicated that most of the high risk areas were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta. These findings have important significance for the Chinese government to enhance the environmental surveillance at multiple human poultry interfaces in the high risk area. PMID:27322296

  16. Ecological Niche Modeling of Risk Factors for H7N9 Human Infection in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available China was attacked by a serious influenza A (H7N9 virus in 2013. The first human infection case was confirmed in Shanghai City and soon spread across most of eastern China. Using the methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and ecological niche modeling (ENM, this research quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the H7N9 occurrence and the main environmental factors, including meteorological variables, human population density, bird migratory routes, wetland distribution, and live poultry farms, markets, and processing factories. Based on these relationships the probability of the presence of H7N9 was predicted. Results indicated that the distribution of live poultry processing factories, farms, and human population density were the top three most important determinants of the H7N9 human infection. The relative contributions to the model of live poultry processing factories, farms and human population density were 39.9%, 17.7% and 17.7%, respectively, while the maximum temperature of the warmest month and mean relative humidity had nearly no contribution to the model. The paper has developed an ecological niche model (ENM that predicts the spatial distribution of H7N9 cases in China using environmental variables. The area under the curve (AUC values of the model were greater than 0.9 (0.992 for the training samples and 0.961 for the test data. The findings indicated that most of the high risk areas were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta. These findings have important significance for the Chinese government to enhance the environmental surveillance at multiple human poultry interfaces in the high risk area.

  17. Ecological Niche Modeling of Risk Factors for H7N9 Human Infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Li, Qun; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    China was attacked by a serious influenza A (H7N9) virus in 2013. The first human infection case was confirmed in Shanghai City and soon spread across most of eastern China. Using the methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and ecological niche modeling (ENM), this research quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the H7N9 occurrence and the main environmental factors, including meteorological variables, human population density, bird migratory routes, wetland distribution, and live poultry farms, markets, and processing factories. Based on these relationships the probability of the presence of H7N9 was predicted. Results indicated that the distribution of live poultry processing factories, farms, and human population density were the top three most important determinants of the H7N9 human infection. The relative contributions to the model of live poultry processing factories, farms and human population density were 39.9%, 17.7% and 17.7%, respectively, while the maximum temperature of the warmest month and mean relative humidity had nearly no contribution to the model. The paper has developed an ecological niche model (ENM) that predicts the spatial distribution of H7N9 cases in China using environmental variables. The area under the curve (AUC) values of the model were greater than 0.9 (0.992 for the training samples and 0.961 for the test data). The findings indicated that most of the high risk areas were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta. These findings have important significance for the Chinese government to enhance the environmental surveillance at multiple human poultry interfaces in the high risk area. PMID:27322296

  18. Study on Ecological Risk of Land Use in Urbanization Watershed Based on RS and GIS:A Case Study of Songhua River Watershed in Harbin Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; YUAN; Wenfeng; GONG; Yongfeng; DANG; Zexu; LONG

    2013-01-01

    By using RS and GIS technology,the ecological risk index ( ERI) was constructed based on the analysis of land use change and structural characteristics in urbanization watershed of Songhua River in Harbin section. Afterwards,the spatial distribution and change characteristics maps of ERI obtained by using block Kriging were analyzed to reveal the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics,change rules and formation mechanisms of ecological risk based on land use under the background of urbanization,and to minimize land use risk during urbanization process. The results showed that during the past 18 years,moderate ecological risk level was major,while proportion of high ecological risk was the lowest,and the area of higher and lower ecological risk region changed most greatly; high and higher ecological risk were focused on urban region and the transition zone from urban to suburban region,while low and lower ecological risk mainly distributed in forestland with higher vegetation coverage,water bodies,grassland,shrub land and so on. Meanwhile,the transition zone from high to low ecological risk was very obvious. In addition,ecological risk became slightly worse in some region due to the transformation from cropland to residential and urban land,while it became slightly better in other regions because of the transformation from cropland to forestland; the center of gravity in lower ecological risk region shifted most greatly,while the shift was the smallest in high ecological risk region,namely 12. 31 and 0. 57 km respectively.

  19. Bioaccumulation and human health risk assessment of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides in an apex aquatic predator from a premier conservation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ruan; Smit, Nico J; Van Vuren, Johan H J; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Wepener, Victor

    2016-04-15

    With the second highest gross domestic product in Africa, South Africa is known to have a high pesticide usage, including the highly persistent and banned group of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). South Africa is also one of few countries to still actively spray DDT as malaria vector control. The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which aquatic biota in selected rivers of the world renowned Kruger National Park (KNP) are exposed to by use of OCPs in the catchments outside the KNP and how this exposure relates to human health. Tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) are economically important apex predators and was selected as bioindicator for this study. Fish were sampled from the KNP sections of the Luvuvhu, Letaba and Olifants rivers during the high and low flow periods from 2010 to 2011 within the KNP and 19 OCPs were determined in muscle tissue using GC-ECD techniques. Significant flow related and spatial OCP bioaccumulation was observed. Tigerfish from the Luvuvhu River displayed the highest OCP bioaccumulation. Concentrations of the majority of the OCPs including the DDTs were the highest levels ever recorded from South African freshwater systems and in many cases the concentrations were higher than most contaminated areas from around the world. The concentrations found in H. vittatus muscle also exceeded maximum residue levels in edible fat as set by the European Union. The health risk assessment also demonstrated that the levels of OCPs pose very high cancer risks to the local populations consuming tigerfish, as high as 2 in 10 increased risk factor. This is of concern not only when managing the water resources of the conservation area but also for surrounding communities consuming freshwater fish. Contaminants enter the park from outside the borders and pose potential risks to the mandated conservation of aquatic biota within the KNP.

  20. Bioaccumulation and human health risk assessment of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides in an apex aquatic predator from a premier conservation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ruan; Smit, Nico J; Van Vuren, Johan H J; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Wepener, Victor

    2016-04-15

    With the second highest gross domestic product in Africa, South Africa is known to have a high pesticide usage, including the highly persistent and banned group of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). South Africa is also one of few countries to still actively spray DDT as malaria vector control. The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which aquatic biota in selected rivers of the world renowned Kruger National Park (KNP) are exposed to by use of OCPs in the catchments outside the KNP and how this exposure relates to human health. Tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) are economically important apex predators and was selected as bioindicator for this study. Fish were sampled from the KNP sections of the Luvuvhu, Letaba and Olifants rivers during the high and low flow periods from 2010 to 2011 within the KNP and 19 OCPs were determined in muscle tissue using GC-ECD techniques. Significant flow related and spatial OCP bioaccumulation was observed. Tigerfish from the Luvuvhu River displayed the highest OCP bioaccumulation. Concentrations of the majority of the OCPs including the DDTs were the highest levels ever recorded from South African freshwater systems and in many cases the concentrations were higher than most contaminated areas from around the world. The concentrations found in H. vittatus muscle also exceeded maximum residue levels in edible fat as set by the European Union. The health risk assessment also demonstrated that the levels of OCPs pose very high cancer risks to the local populations consuming tigerfish, as high as 2 in 10 increased risk factor. This is of concern not only when managing the water resources of the conservation area but also for surrounding communities consuming freshwater fish. Contaminants enter the park from outside the borders and pose potential risks to the mandated conservation of aquatic biota within the KNP. PMID:26845188

  1. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

  2. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-02-01

    Mass balance models of chemical fate and transport can be applied in ecological risk assessments for quantitative estimation of concentrations in air, water, soil and sediment. These concentrations can, in turn, be used to estimate organism exposures and ultimately internal tissue concentrations that can be compared to mode-of-action-based critical body residues that correspond to toxic effects. From this comparison, risks to the exposed organism can be evaluated. To illustrate the practical utility of fate models in ecological risk assessments of commercial products, the EQC model and a simple screening level biouptake model including three organisms, (a bird, a mammal and a fish) is applied to gasoline. In this analysis, gasoline is divided into 24 components or ''blocks'' with similar environmental fate properties that are assumed to elicit ecotoxicity via a narcotic mode of action. Results demonstrate that differences in chemical properties and mode of entry into the environment lead to profound differences in the efficiency of transport from emission to target biota. We discuss the implications of these results and insights gained into the regional fate and ecological risks associated with gasoline. This approach is particularly suitable for assessing mixtures of components that have similar modes of action. We conclude that the model-based methodologies presented are widely applicable for screening level ecological risk assessments that support effective chemicals management.

  3. Use of Sediment Risk and Ecological/Conservation Value for Strategic Management of Estuarine Environments: Sydney Estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Gavin F.; Hutson, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Sediment mantling the floor of Sydney estuary contains a wide range of chemicals at highly elevated concentrations over extensive areas. Appropriate sediment management decisions are urgently required to prevent further degradation of sediment quality and to minimize resulting adverse ecological effects. The objective of the present work was to provide a systematic, estuary-wide assessment of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value throughout the harbor to guide sediment management decisions. Sediment risk is the likelihood of sediment chemistry causing adverse biological effects to bottom-dwelling animals and was conducted using national sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for single contaminants and the mean SQG quotient approach to assess chemical mixtures. Sediment risk was negligible at the mouth of the estuary, but increased strongly landwards. The ecological/conservation value assessment was conducted to identify sites that warrant different levels of protection and was conducted using the value of ecological communities and priority waterway use. Consideration of these two parameters combined enabled the estuary to be prioritized for management attention. The prioritization and identification of appropriate management strategies were determined through the use of management matrices also based on sediment risk and ecological/conservation value. A computer package is being developed to provide managers with information on sediment risk, ecological/conservation value, the urgency and the type of management intervention required for any location in Sydney estuary, in real-time. This approach to estuarine management is unique and will greatly improve effective management of Sydney estuary, and other harbors in urgent need of management action and protection.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will

  5. Incorporating biomarkers in ecological risk assessment of chemical contaminants of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important but complex natural resource which is increasingly used as sink for chemicals. The monitoring of soil quality and the assessment of risks posed by contaminants have become crucial. This study deals with the potential use of biomarkers in the monitoring of soils and the assessment of risk resulting from contamination. Apart from an overview of the existing literature on biomarkers, the results of various of our field experiments in South African soils are discussed. Biomarkers may have potential in the assessment of risk because they can indicate at an early stage that exposure has taken place and that a toxic response has been initiated. It is therefore expected that early biomarkers will play an increasing role as diagnostic tools for determining exposure to chemicals and the resulting effects. They may have predictive value that can assist in the prevention or minimising of risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of using our results on biomarker responses of soil dwelling organisms to predict changes at higher organisational levels (which may have ecological implications. Our recent experimental results on the evaluation of various biomarkers in both the laboratory and the field are interpreted and placed in perspective within the broader framework of response biology. The aim was further to contribute to the development and application of biomarkers in regulatory risk assessment schemes of soils. This critical review of our own and recent literature on biomarkers in ecotoxicology leads to the conclusion that biomarkers can, under certain conditions, be useful tools in risk assessment. Clear relationships between contamination loads in soil organisms and certain biomarker responses were determined in woodlice, earthworms and terrestrial snails. Clear correlations were also established in field experiments between biomarker responses and changes at the population level. This indicated that, in

  6. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M Samy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM. For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  7. Ecological risk assessments for protected migratory birds and marine species at Midway Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scatolini, S.; Hope, B.; Lees, D.

    1995-12-31

    In June 1997, the US Navy plans to close its Naval Air Facility on Sand Island and transfer the atoll to the US Fish and Wildlife Service for use as a National Wildlife Refuge. Midway provides breeding and feeding habitat for migratory seabirds, terrestrial and marine mammals, sea turtles and other reptiles, and a variety of reef fishes and invertebrates. As part of the base closure and transfer process, 36 sites of potential environmental concern were identified on Sand and Eastern islands. These sites include landfills and uncontrolled disposal areas, hazardous materials storage areas, abandoned transformers, sewer outfalls, and other potential hazardous waste sites. Potential contaminants include pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and heavy metals. A screening ecological risk assessment was performed at each site with a goal of determining whether contaminants could pose any current or future risks to protected migratory bird or marine mammal wildlife species. Specific exposure pathways investigated were dermal and inhalation routes for ground-nesting and burrowing seabirds; incidental soil ingestion for shore birds; consumption for monk seals and sea turtles. Exposure analysis involved sediment and soil chemistry, marine invertebrate tissue chemistry, bioassays (bioavailability), and food web modeling. Effects analysis involved benthic infauna community analysis, acute and chronic invertebrate sediment bioassays, and extensive literature reviews. Risk characterization used both toxicity quotient methods and weight-of-evidence analysis. Because work by other investigators suggests that birds and perhaps marine wildlife acquire significant contaminant loads while feeding away from the atoll, on-atoll risk investigations had to consider whether atoll sites made significant marginal contributions to existing contaminant loads, particularly with respect to PCBs.

  8. Socio-ecological risk factors for prime-age adult death in two coastal areas of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok Ryun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years adult death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam.

  9. A combined approach of experiments and modelling for the implementation of freshwater copepods in ecological risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Devdutt

    2014-01-01

    Standardized test guidelines used in ecological risk assessment (ERA) consider a relatively small set of test species. For instance in most standard risk assessments, Daphnia magna is the only required species representing freshwater invertebrates which assumes that tests with such standard species in combination with relatively large assessment factors are protective for other species in the field. Standard test species are usually selected based on intrinsic sensitivity as well as practicab...

  10. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Shi; Jun Xiao; Yafeng Wang; Liding Chen

    2014-01-01

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used ...

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution, Fractionation, and Potential Ecological Risks in Sediments from Lake Chaohu (Eastern China) and the Surrounding Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; Qianjiahua Liao; Shiguang Shao; Nan Zhang; Qiushi Shen; Cheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) pollution, fractionation, and ecological risks in the sediments of Lake Chaohu (Eastern China), its eleven inflowing rivers and its only outflowing river were studied. An improved BCR (proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate heavy metals within sediments, a geoaccumulation index was used to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution, and a risk assessment code was applied to eva...

  12. Ecological risks of polycyclic musk in soils irrigated with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Peng, Chi; Chen, Weiping; Markert, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-c-2-benzopyrane) and AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) are found in reclaimed municipal wastewater. They may accumulate in soils receiving long-term application of reclaimed water thus adversely impact the soil biota. We evaluated the extent of their accumulation in receiving soils using HYDRUS-1D based on reclaimed municipal wastewater irrigation data at a public park in Beijing. The potential for ecological harms were assessed according to tested and reported outcomes of acute toxicity tests using wheat (Triticum aetivum L), earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and springtail (Bourletiella hortensis) as target organisms. Results of comparison among EC50 values from wheat, earthworm and springtail showed the EC50 value for root elongation inhibition of wheat germination was the least. Based on the least EC50, predicted no effect concentration in soils were 290 and 320ng /g for HHCB and ATHN, respectively. Comparable results from simulation to experimental and field investigating date validated the using of HYDRUS-1D in the work. Results of risk prediction showed it would take 243 and 666 years for HHCB and AHTN accumulated in soils at current irrigation practice to reach the levels for the resulting risk characterization ratios (RCRs) to cause potential ecosystem harms. PMID:23978598

  13. Application of ecological risk indicators for the assessment of Greek surficial sediments contaminated by toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John Ν; Vasilaki, Georgia; Smaragdaki, Eleftheria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-05-01

    Τhe present research investigates the partitioning of six selected toxic metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, and As) in eight sediment samples; half of them were collected from Elefsis Gulf, and the other half were taken from Koumoundourou Lake, Athens, Greece. Each one of them was treated by applying Tessier's five-step sequential extraction procedure. Regarding gulf sediments, the results indicated that Cu exhibits a strong affinity to the organic matter with percentages ranging from 65 to 78 %. Considerable amount of Zn (32-40 %) is bound to the Fe-Mn fraction and the non-residual fraction, while Cr and Ni are bound to the organic fraction, an observation that suits all toxic metals examined. Regarding lake sediments, Pb is the predominant metal bound to Fe-Mn (48-51 %). It is also noteworthy that the percentage of Zn bound to carbonated fraction (5-15 %), indicating biological availability. In conclusion, the application of several ecological risk indicators demonstrated that Elefsis Gulf sediments correspond to a moderate pollution level, with Pb and Ni being less bioavailable than in the lake's samples, in contrast to Zn which is more bioavailable. Finally, Koumoundourou Lakes' basin is characterized of "low risk." PMID:27052348

  14. Phenol removal efficiencies of sewage treatment processes and ecological risks associated with phenols in effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-05-30

    Phenols pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Phenols found in rivers mainly originate from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this paper, analytical procedures, based on deconvolution technology and retention time locking technology, were investigated to simultaneously identify and determine the concentrations of fifty different phenols in sewage water and effluents. Seventeen different phenols were found in sewage and five - including two regulated phenols (phenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and three un-regulated phenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol) - were identified in effluents of five STPs. A number of processes undertaken in five STPs were also investigated. These processes can be used to remove phenols at efficiency levels of between 88.95% and 99.97%. Among the processes tested, a combination of anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O), continuous microfiltration (CMF), ozone oxidation (O(3)), and chlorination, appeared to be the best option for the removal of key phenols. Among the five phenols identified in effluents, 2,5-dichlorophenol (1.89 μg/L) and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol (22.6 μg/L) pose the greatest ecological risk to receiving waters.

  15. Coordinating ecological risk assessment with natural resource damage assessment: A panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brenda; Ammann, Mike; Hoff, Rebecca; Huston, Mark; Jenkins, Kenneth; Palagyi, Tony; Pelto, Karen; Rettig, Todd; Wagner, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Contaminated sites in the United States undergo remediation and restoration through regulatory programs that lead the 2 processes through independent but often parallel pathways with different objectives. The objective of remediation is to reduce risk to human health and the environment, whereas that of restoration is to restore injured resources and compensate the public for lost use of the services that natural resources provide. More complex sites, such as those associated with large river systems and urban waterways, have resulted in increasingly larger-scale ecological risk assessments (ERAs) and natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) that take many years and involve diverse practitioners including scientists, economists, and engineers. Substantial levels of effort are now frequently required, creating a need for more efficient and cost-effective approaches to data collection, analyses, and assessments. Because there are commonalities in the data needs between ERAs and NRDAs, coordination of the design and implementation of site-specific studies that meet the needs of both programs could result in increased efficiency and lower costs. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation convened a panel of environmental practitioners from industry, consulting, and regulatory bodies to examine the benefits and challenges associated with coordinating ERA and NRDA activities in the context of a broad range of regulatory programs. This brief communication presents the opinions and conclusions of the panelists on these issues and reports 2 case studies for which coordinated ERA and NRDA activities produced a positive outcome. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:616-621. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Incremental ecological exposure risks from contaminated sediments in an urban estuarine river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David F; Iannuzzi, Timothy J

    2005-11-01

    Estuaries in urban regions present unique environmental management challenges. Ecosystems in urban estuaries are typically impacted by habitat loss and degradation, watershed modification, and nonpoint and point sources of many chemicals. Restoring such systems requires an understanding of the relative contribution of various stressors to overall ecological conditions and an understanding of shifting patterns of stress over time. In this article, we present the results of a multiparameter environmental assessment of a quintessential urbanized waterway: the lower Passaic River in the vicinity of Newark, New Jersey, USA. To provide the foundation for effective management decision making, we quantified baseline conditions (habitat losses and degradation), chemical concentrations in sediment and biota relative to published toxic effect levels, direct toxicity of sediments to benthic organisms, and food-web mediated risks to fish-eating birds. Habitat losses have been severe (greater than 85% of wetlands, nearly 100% of the total length of tidal and nontidal tributaries, and 100% of natural shoreline habitat have been lost), resulting in substantial habitat constraints on biota. Despite this, biological communities are present in the lower Passaic. In general, concentrations of toxic chemicals in surface sediments have fallen with time, and natural recovery processes are proceeding. Chemical concentrations remain high enough to impair survival of amphipods, but not amphipod growth or polychaete growth or survival as measured in laboratory bioassays using field-collected sediment. Fish and blue crab body burdens of some metals, PCBs, and the pesticide, DDT, are at concentrations sufficiently high to exceed toxicity thresholds. The resident fish-eating bird--the belted kingfisher--is at exposure risk from some metals, PCBs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo furans (PCDD/Fs). Migratory waders--the herons and egrets--are not at risk from chemical exposure

  17. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…

  18. Genetic variation of Lymnaea stagnalis tolerance to copper: A test of selection hypotheses and its relevance for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of standardized monospecific testing to assess the ecological risk of chemicals implicitly relies on the strong assumption that intraspecific variation in sensitivity is negligible or irrelevant in this context. In this study, we investigated genetic variation in copper sensitivity of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, using lineages stemming from eight natural populations or strains found to be genetically differentiated at neutral markers. Copper-induced mortality varied widely among populations, as did the estimated daily death rate and time to 50% mortality (LT50). Population genetic divergence in copper sensitivity was compared to neutral differentiation using the QST-FST approach. No evidence for homogenizing selection could be detected. This result demonstrates that species-level extrapolations from single population studies are highly unreliable. The study provides a simple example of how evolutionary principles could be incorporated into ecotoxicity testing in order to refine ecological risk assessment. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in copper tolerance occurs between Lymnaea stagnalis populations. • We used the QST-FST approach to test evolutionary patterns in copper tolerance. • No evidence for uniform selection was found. • Results suggest that extrapolations to the species level are not safe. • A method is proposed to refine ecological risk assessment using genetic parameters. - Genetic variation in copper tolerance occurs in Lymnaea stagnalis. A method is proposed for considering evolutionary parameters in ecological risk assessment

  19. [Ecological risk assessment of rural-urban ecotone based on landscape pattern: A case study in Daiyue District of Tai' an City, Shandong Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao-Peng; Yu, Kai-Qin; Feng, Yong-jun

    2013-03-01

    Based on the remote sensing data in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the land use type and landscape pattern in Daiyue District of Tai' an City from 2000 to 2010. The ecological risk index was built, that of the District was re-sampled and spatially interpolated, and the spatiotemporal pattern of the ecological risk in the rural-urban ecotone of the District was analyzed. In 2000-2010, the main variation trend of the land use type in the District was the shift from natural landscape to artificial landscape. The intensity of human disturbance was larger in cultivated land, garden plot, and forestland than in other landscape types, while the human disturbance in water area was smaller. The ecological loss degree of cultivated land and water area decreased somewhat, while that of the other land use types presented an increasing trend. The ecological risk distribution in the District was discrete in 2000 and 2010, but most centralized in 2005. The ecological risk of each ecological risk sub-area had an increasing trend in 2000-2005, but was in adverse in 2005-2010. In 2000-2010, the ecological risk of the District was mainly at medium level. Spatially, the distribution of the ecological risk in the District had an obvious differentiation, with an overall diffusive increasing from forestland as the center to the surrounding areas. In the District, the ecological risk was mainly at medium and higher levels, the area with lower ecological risk had an obvious dynamic change, while that with the lowest and highest ecological risk had less change. PMID:23755484

  20. Ecological and human health risks from metal(loid)s in peri-urban soil in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin

    2014-06-01

    In order to investigate the ecological and human health risks of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, and As) in peri-urban soils, 43 surface soil samples were collected from the peri-urban area around Nanjing, a megacity in China. The average contents were 1.19, 67.8, 37.6, 105, 167, 44.6, 722, and 50.8 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and As, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As (p urban soil samples. Potential ecological risk indices show that the metal(loid)s in the soil could result in higher ecological risks. Cd is the main contributor to the risk, followed by As. The levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As in stomach and intestinal phases show a positive linear correlation with their total contents. Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb in stomach phase showed higher bioaccessibility, while in intestinal phase, Cu, Cr, and As had the higher bioaccessibility. The carcinogenic risk in children and adults posed by As, Pb, and Cr via ingestion was deemed acceptable. The non-carcinogenic risks posed by these metal(loid)s via ingestion to children are higher than to adults and mainly result from As.

  1. Characterization of the ecological interactions of Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean, MON 89788, for use in ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Eric W; Phillips, Samuel L; Kendrick, Daniel L; Carson, David; Clark, Pete L; Nickson, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ecological risk assessment, Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean (MON 89788) was compared to a conventional control soybean variety, A3244, for disease and arthropod damage, plant response to abiotic stress and cold, effects on succeeding plant growth (allelopathic effects), plant response to a bacterial symbiont, and effects on the ability of seed to survive and volunteer in a subsequent growing season. Statistically significant differences between MON 89788 and A3244 were considered in the context of the genetic variation known to occur in soybean and were assessed for their potential impact on plant pest (weed) potential and adverse environmental impact. The results of these studies revealed no effects of the genetic modification that would result in increased pest potential or adverse environmental impact of MON 89788 compared with A3244. This paper illustrates how such characterization studies conducted in a range of environments where the crop is grown are used in an ecological risk assessment of the genetically modified (GM) crop. Furthermore, risk assessors and decision makers use this information when deciding whether to approve a GM crop for cultivation in-or grain import into-their country. PMID:26177011

  2. Association of extinction risk of saproxylic beetles with ecological degradation of forests in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Sebastian; Brandl, Roland; Buse, Jörn; Hothorn, Torsten; Schmidl, Jürgen; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    To reduce future loss of biodiversity and to allocate conservation funds effectively, the major drivers behind large-scale extinction processes must be identified. A promising approach is to link the red-list status of species and specific traits that connect species of functionally important taxa or guilds to resources they rely on. Such traits can be used to detect the influence of anthropogenic ecosystem changes and conservation efforts on species, which allows for practical recommendations for conservation. We modeled the German Red List categories as an ordinal index of extinction risk of 1025 saproxylic beetles with a proportional-odds linear mixed-effects model for ordered categorical responses. In this model, we estimated fixed effects for intrinsic traits characterizing species biology, required resources, and distribution with phylogenetically correlated random intercepts. The model also allowed predictions of extinction risk for species with no red-list category. Our model revealed a higher extinction risk for lowland and large species as well as for species that rely on wood of large diameter, broad-leaved trees, or open canopy. These results mirror well the ecological degradation of European forests over the last centuries caused by modern forestry, that is the conversion of natural broad-leaved forests to dense conifer-dominated forests and the loss of old growth and dead wood. Therefore, conservation activities aimed at saproxylic beetles in all types of forests in Central and Western Europe should focus on lowlands, and habitat management of forest stands should aim at increasing the amount of dead wood of large diameter, dead wood of broad-leaved trees, and dead wood in sunny areas.

  3. Biological quality of soils containing hydrocarbons and efficacy of ecological risk reduction by bioremediation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Napolitano, G.E.; Sample, B.E.

    1996-06-01

    This project provides technical support to the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF; a consortium of petroleum companies) on environmentally acceptable endpoints that may be used to help assess the ecological risk of petroleum hydrocarbon residuals in soils. The project, was designed in consultation with PERF representatives and focuses on the relationship between {open_quotes}chemically available{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biologically available{close_quotes} measurements of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soils, a discrepancy of considerable interest to the petroleum industry. Presently, clean-up standards for soils contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) constituents are based on concentrations of TPH, as measured in solvent extracts of soil samples. Interestingly, TPH includes a complex mixture of compounds which differ from one another in molecular weight and toxicity. Based on various studies with insecticides, herbicides and metals, some compounds apparently can slowly permeate into soil particles. If this situation occurs, the particle-embedded compounds may be extractable by use of organic solvents, and yet be unavailable biologically. This hypothesis serves as the central focus for our study. If this hypothesis is correct, then soil clean-up standards based on solvent-extractable TPH data may be more stringent than necessary to achieve a desired level of environmental risk. The economic significance of this possibility is considerable, because clean-up costs to achieve a low-risk status would, in most cases, be lower than those needed to achieve a standard based on present limits, which are based on measurements of {open_quotes}extractable{close_quotes} TPH.

  4. Neighborhoods and adolescent health-risk behavior: an ecological network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an novel approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents' non-home routines may be conceptualized as ecological, or "eco"-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth's behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks--the neighborhood-level extent to which household dyads share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement--and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to "activity clusters," which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with dimensions of adolescent health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of intersecting conventional routines for

  5. Protection of the environment. How to position radioprotection in an ecological risk assessment perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a system capable of ensuring adequate protection of the environment from the harmful effects of ionising radiation is at present particularly debated. This need comes both from a restrictive consideration of the environment in the so far existing system for human radioprotection, and the planetary-wide growing concerns about man's technogenic influence on his environment which have yielded 'sustainability' and 'precaution' as guiding principles for environmental protection. Whilst evolving from the field of human radioprotection, the radioprotection of the environment needs to be discussed in a wider perspective, with particular emphasis on the most advanced concepts which emerge from the efforts to deriving improved approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment. For the sake of protection, the environment is traditionally addressed through its biota since these are the sensitive components of ecosystems. Similarities between man and biotas reflect the ubiquitous mechanistic effects of radiation on life which disrupt molecules. However, important differences also arise in a number of perspectives, from the large spectrum of different species of biotas to their hierarchical self-organisation as interacting populations within ecosystems. Altogether, these aspects are prone to promote complex arrays of different responses to stress which lie beyond the scope of human radioprotection due to its focus on individuals of a single species. By means of selected illustrations, this paper reviews and discusses the current challenges faced in proper identification of measurable effect endpoints (stochastic/deterministic, individual/population- or ecosystem-relevant), dose limits in chronic exposure (or levels of concern), and their consideration according to radiation type (RBE) and interactions with other contaminants (synergies/antagonisms) which represent critical gaps in knowledge. The system of human radioprotection has conceptually been targeted at limiting

  6. Integration of bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology by three lines of evidence into ecological risk indexes for contaminated soil assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenzin, Elena; Critto, Andrea; Rutgers, Michiel; Marcomini, Antonio

    2008-01-15

    A Weight of Evidence approach was applied to define three integrated effect indexes estimating the impairment on terrestrial ecosystems caused by the stressor(s) of concern. According to a Triad approach, the integrated effect indexes combined the information provided by the measurement endpoints of each line of evidence (chemistry/bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology) and allowed to analyse the impairment degree highlighted by each measurement endpoint as difference from the reference condition. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was used for the aggregation of the complementary Triad information, including expert judgement and a weighted procedure based on the endpoint sensitivity and the sensitivity of the test for ecosystem effects. The developed methodology was implemented in the DSS-ERAMANIA, Module 2, and is presented in this paper as "Integrated Effect Indexes" (IEI) sub-module. The latter has been preliminary applied to the Acna di Cengio (Italy) contaminated site; the results of this application are presented and discussed. PMID:17904618

  7. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation: 1994 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The tiered approach to ecological risk assessment has been implemented, generic conceptual models have been developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints has been agreed upon. The document also includes changes in terminology to agree with the terminology in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) framework for ecological risk assessment. Although ecological risks are equal in regulatory importance to human health risks, formal procedures for ecological risk assessment are poorly developed. This report will provide specific guidance and promote the use of consistent approaches for ecological risk assessments at individual sites on the ORR. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance and with relevant EPA guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it should be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  8. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1994 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The tiered approach to ecological risk assessment has been implemented, generic conceptual models have been developed, and a general approach for developing ecological assessment endpoints and measurement endpoints has been agreed upon. The document also includes changes in terminology to agree with the terminology in the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) framework for ecological risk assessment. Although ecological risks are equal in regulatory importance to human health risks, formal procedures for ecological risk assessment are poorly developed. This report will provide specific guidance and promote the use of consistent approaches for ecological risk assessments at individual sites on the ORR. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance and with relevant EPA guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it should be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources

  9. Effects of Urbanization Expansion on Landscape Pattern and Region Ecological Risk in Chinese Coastal City: A Case Study of Yantai City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km2 with average expansion area of 5.42 km2 y−1 from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004–2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974–1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment.

  10. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  11. Evaluating the risk to aquatic ecosystems posed by leachate from tire shred fill in roads using toxicity tests, toxicity identification evaluations, and groundwater modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Patrick J; Warmerdam, John M; Ogle, Scott; Humphrey, Dana N; Patenaude, Stacey M

    2006-02-01

    The risk to adjacent aquatic systems posed by leachates from scrap tires used in engineering applications has not been characterized adequately. Toxicity testing, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), and groundwater modeling were used to determine the circumstances under which tire shreds could be used as roadbed fill with negligible risk to aquatic organisms in adjacent water bodies. Elevated levels of iron, manganese, and several other chemicals were found in tire shred leachates. However, chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) showed no adverse effects caused by leachates collected from tire shreds installed above the water table. Exposure to leachates collected from tire shreds installed below the water table resulted in significant reductions to both survival and reproduction in C. dubia. The TIE results indicated that exposure to soluble metals (likely ferrous iron primarily) and the formation of iron hydroxide precipitates on this invertebrate species likely were the causes of the observed effects. The available chemistry data show that iron concentrations in the affected groundwater decreased substantially within a short distance (0.61 m) downgradient of tire shred fill. Based on geochemical modeling, the use of tire shreds in applications below the water table is appropriate in settings where dissolved oxygen is greater than 2.0 mg/L, pH is greater than 5.8, and a downgradient buffer of approximately 3.0 m exists between the fill and the surface water. For settings with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations or lower pH, results of groundwater modeling indicate that a greater buffer distance (approximately 11 m) is needed to dilute the leachate to nontoxic levels under various soil and groundwater conditions solely through advection and dispersion processes. PMID:16519300

  12. Proceedings of the 30. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided an opportunity for leaders in industry, governments and universities to exchange information and ideas on the current challenges and approaches to deal with aquatic toxicology and their biological effect on aquatic biota. The challenges range from dealing with the basics of aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring, regulation and guidelines, and the development of sediment and water quality criteria. The sessions were entitled as follows: (1) building a stronger bridge between laboratory and field, (2) de-mystifying mixtures, (3) environmental effects monitoring (EEM) in pulp and paper, (4) EEM in metal mining, (5) ecological risk assessment of metals in the environment, (6) exposure/effects and mechanistic models, (7) effects/impacts and ecological effects, (8) soil and sediment toxicity evaluation and current prospective practices, (9) source to tap, and tap to sewer, (10) management of effluents from municipal waste water treatment facilities in Canada, (11) fate and effects of pharmaceutical products, and, (12) fishy business in agriculture. The conference included 5 plenary sessions and 188 platform papers, of which 13 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Ecological risk analysis as a key factor in environmental safety system development in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to specific natural and climatic conditions combined with human intervention, the Arctic is regarded as a highly sensitive region to any environmental pressures. Arctic projects require continuous environmental monitoring. This poses for the government of the Russian Federation (RF) a tremendous task concerning the formation and implementation of sustainable nature management policy within the international framework. The current article examines the basic constraints to the effective ecological safety system implementation in the Arctic region of the RF. The ecological risks and their effects which influence the sustainable development of the region were analyzed. The model of complex environmental safety system was proposed

  14. Mercury in fishes from 21 national parks in the Western United States: inter- and intra-park variation in concentrations and ecological risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Willacker, James J.; Flanagan Pritz, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant and human activities have increased atmospheric Hg concentrations 3- to 5-fold during the past 150 years. This increased release into the atmosphere has resulted in elevated loadings to aquatic habitats where biogeochemical processes promote the microbial conversion of inorganic Hg to methylmercury, the bioavailable form of Hg. The physicochemical properties of Hg and its complex environmental cycle have resulted in some of the most remote and protected areas of the world becoming contaminated with Hg concentrations that threaten ecosystem and human health. The national park network in the United States is comprised of some of the most pristine and sensitive wilderness in North America. There is concern that via global distribution, Hg contamination could threaten the ecological integrity of aquatic communities in the parks and the wildlife that depends on them. In this study, we examined Hg concentrations in non-migratory freshwater fish in 86 sites across 21 national parks in the Western United States. We report Hg concentrations of more than 1,400 fish collected in waters extending over a 4,000 kilometer distance, from Alaska to the arid Southwest. Across all parks, sites, and species, fish total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 1,109 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww) with a mean of 77.7 ng/g ww. We found substantial variation in fish THg concentrations among and within parks, suggesting that patterns of Hg risk are driven by processes occurring at a combination of scales. Additionally, variation (up to 20-fold) in site-specific fish THg concentrations within individual parks suggests that more intensive sampling in some parks will be required to effectively characterize Hg contamination in western national parks. Across all fish sampled, only 5 percent had THg concentrations exceeding a benchmark (200 ng/g ww) associated with toxic responses within the fish themselves. However, Hg concentrations in 35 percent

  15. EM复合菌剂与水蕹菜对草鱼养殖池的净化效果研究%Purification of Water from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus Culture Pound by Ecological Microorganisms and Ipomoea Aquatic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康银; 王晓清; 肖光明; 杨虎城; 曾丹

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the water quality, the water from Ctenopharyngodon idellus culture pond was treated with Ecological Microorganisms ( EM), Ipomoea aquatica, alone or in combination.The effects of water purification were investigated.Results showed that the treatment performance is the best among the different meth-ods, when the water was purified by Ipomoea aquatic, and the performance can be enhanced when Ipomoea aquatic was combined with EM.The removal rates of ammonia nitrogen ( AN) , nitrite ( NIT) and total phosphorus ( TP) in water are 86.21%, 50% and 77.78%, respectively, after 15 days treating of Ipomoea aquatic.The removal rates of TN and TP treated by Ipomoea aquatica are much higher than those of EM.The removal rates of AN, NIT, TP treated by EM are much higher than the blank group.Meanwhile, the two methods can increase the content of dissolved oxygen and stabilize the pH value.%为改善草鱼养殖池塘水质,研究了EM复合菌剂与水蕹菜对草鱼养殖池的净化效果.结果表明:净化处理30 d后,水蕹菜处理组对草鱼养殖池的净化处理效果最好,且与EM菌剂联合使用有增强的效果,对氨氮、亚硝酸盐、总磷的去除率分别为86 .21%,50%,77 .78%,且氨氮和总磷的去除率显著高于EM菌剂处理组和对照组;EM菌处理组的氨氮、亚硝酸盐、总磷的去除率分别为36.08%,50%和54.29%,显著高于对照组.且两处理组均能提升草鱼养殖水体的溶氧量,并且能稳定pH值.

  16. Development of scientific tools for monitoring the health of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldararu, Aurelia; Voiculescu, Mirela; Georgescu, Lucian P.

    2010-05-01

    Humanity is faced nowadays with the major problem of water availability and quality which is a conseqquence of growing demand for water as well as the decline of water quality and quantity. It is not an exaggeration to claim that, without effective management of aquatic ecosystems, the future social and economic development of the world will suffer serious constraints or will be placed significantly at risk. Taking into consideration the fact that the world is rapidly changing, current practices of water management must also change. Developed and developing countries will have to adopt the most effective policies for the management of aquatic ecosystems. They will also have to start using the best techniques for water monitoring. The nature of future problems that could arise in aquatic ecosystems must be carefully anticipated and then objectively analysed in the light of the expected changes. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires a holistic knowledge of abiotic and biotic structure and processes that determine the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Ecological indicators are provided to monitor the ecosystem responses to anthropogenic pressures. We will summarize in this presentation ecological indices that can be used for effective and accurate monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. Different contexts where these indices can be used for environmental health monitoring will be also analysed.

  17. Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, P C; Guzy, M; Blaustein, K; Sow, M; Sarr, M; Mineau, P; Kegley, S

    2014-04-01

    We outline an approach to pesticide risk assessment that is based upon surveys of pesticide use throughout West Africa. We have developed and used new risk assessment models to provide, to our knowledge, the first detailed, geographically extensive, scientifically based analysis of pesticide risks for this region. Human health risks from dermal exposure to adults and children are severe enough in many crops to require long periods of up to three weeks when entry to fields should be restricted. This is impractical in terms of crop management, and regulatory action is needed to remove these pesticides from the marketplace. We also found widespread risks to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife throughout the region, and if these results were extrapolated to all similar irrigated perimeters in the Senegal and Niger River Basins, they suggest that pesticides could pose a significant threat to regional biodiversity. Our analyses are presented at the regional, national and village levels to promote regulatory advances but also local risk communication and management. Without progress in pesticide risk management, supported by participatory farmer education, West African agriculture provides a weak context for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production or for the adoption of new crop technologies.

  18. Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D W; Edson, R; Varela, M; Napier, B

    1999-11-15

    The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a {sup 90}Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as

  19. Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a 90Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as atmospheric

  20. The research progress and prospect of watershed ecological risk assessment%流域生态风险评价研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许妍; 高俊峰; 赵家虎; 陈炯锋

    2012-01-01

    Watershed ecological risk assessment is an important research subject of watershed eco-environmental protection and management, which also uses distinct watershed characteristics compared with regional ecological risk assessment. In this paper, we firstly present the concept and definition of watershed ecological risk assessment based on existing research. The watershed ecological risk assessment is a complicated dynamic process, taking eco-spatial pattern formed by physical landform differentiation and hydrological process as evaluation region, in order to assess the possibility and its harmful levels of the negative influence caused by natural hazard, artificial interference as well as some other risk sources on each ecosystem and its components in the watershed. The process of ecological risk assessment has great ambiguity, uncertainty and relativity. Thus, the focal point is to investigate the relationship and ecological risk effects among the water, soil, vegetation, biodiversity as well as human activity in different hydrologic compartments of the whole watershed.Secondly, we analyze its spatial-temporal characteristics, heterogeneity, regional correlation and integrity and discuss the research hotspot region at present. Based on the properties, the quantity and the extent of risk sources, ecological receptor and ecological endpoint( defined as the damage to ecological receptor) , we divide the ecological risk assessment into several types. Through an overview of the development and related research about the watershed ecological risk assessment, the main research subjects related to watershed ecological risk assessment are classified into three kinds. The first subject is about ecological risk of freshwater system, which concerns mainly about eco-toxicological research of one or more contaminants in different compartments of the hydrologic system. The second subject is about ecological risk of natural disasters in watershed, especially the risks of flood

  1. Fungidice Risk Assessment for Aquatic Ecosystems: Importance of Interspecific Variation, Toxic Mode of Action, and Exposure Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The risk assessment of fungicides in Europe uses information from ecotoxicity studies performed on vertebrates, invertebrates, and primary producers, but not nontarget fungi. But which toxicity data should be used to assess risk and how important are modes of action and exposure regimes? A data set

  2. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2001-01-12

    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  3. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  4. Environmental (Saprozoic Pathogens of Engineered Water Systems: Understanding Their Ecology for Risk Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Ashbolt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major waterborne (enteric pathogens are relatively well understood and treatment controls are effective when well managed. However, water-based, saprozoic pathogens that grow within engineered water systems (primarily within biofilms/sediments cannot be controlled by water treatment alone prior to entry into water distribution and other engineered water systems. Growth within biofilms or as in the case of Legionella pneumophila, primarily within free-living protozoa feeding on biofilms, results from competitive advantage. Meaning, to understand how to manage water-based pathogen diseases (a sub-set of saprozoses we need to understand the microbial ecology of biofilms; with key factors including biofilm bacterial diversity that influence amoebae hosts and members antagonistic to water-based pathogens, along with impacts from biofilm substratum, water temperature, flow conditions and disinfectant residual—all control variables. Major saprozoic pathogens covering viruses, bacteria, fungi and free-living protozoa are listed, yet today most of the recognized health burden from drinking waters is driven by legionellae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM and, to a lesser extent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In developing best management practices for engineered water systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP or water safety plan (WSP approaches, multi-factor control strategies, based on quantitative microbial risk assessments need to be developed, to reduce disease from largely opportunistic, water-based pathogens.

  5. Ecological risk assessment of irrigation drainage selenium to the endangered razorback sucker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.B. [Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The razorback sucker is an endangered species in the Colorado River Basin that is nearing extinction. A remnant population is threatened by contamination from irrigation drainage and other sources. Biomarkers and toxicity tests indicate reproductive impairment to adults and acute and chronic toxicity to larval fish. Adult fish are generally more than 20 years old, and no recruitment is occurring. The assessment evaluates all selenium sources, natural and man induced, to the Green River. Selenium discharged directly to the river as inorganic selenate represents a decrease in exposure compared to organic dietary sources introduced to a critical habitat. Fate and transport modeling, biotransformation, and profiling exposure at critical life history ecological boundaries are all important considerations in the risk analysis. Determining realistic safety factors for naturally occurring and essential but potentially toxic trace elements is also essential to formulate alternatives that make common sense. Establishing an obtainable cleanup criteria must consider natural background concentrations, cost effectiveness, and public acceptability. In this case it is more cost effective and provides a greater overall benefit to the river basin to remediate a non-irrigation selenium source. A multi-agency task force has been formed to select and implement remediation that is economically feasible, scientifically sound, politically acceptable, makes common sense, and that protects the razorback sucker.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  7. Ten-year assessment of agricultural management and land-use practices on pesticide loads and risk to aquatic biota of an oxbow lake in the Mississippi Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current chapter examined the combined influence of changing row crop production, implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and enrollment of 112 ha into Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on pesticide contamination and potential risk to lake aquatic biota in a 914-ha Beasl...

  8. Distribution, fraction, and ecological risk assesment of heavy metals in sediment-plant system in mangrove forest, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, R.; Shen, X.; Li, Y. H.; Chai, M. W.; Qiu, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. The RAC values of heavy metals indicated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk to the biota, especially for Cd. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations i