WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic animals evolution

  1. Pain in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  2. Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Klaus; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Akamatsu, Tomonari; André, Michel; Branstetter, Brian K; Lammers, Marc; Radford, Craig A; Stansbury, Amanda L; Aran Mooney, T

    2016-06-01

    A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking effects of man-made sounds on the detection of biologically important sounds; the question how internal state, motivation, context, and previous experience affect their behavioral responses; and the long-term and cumulative effects of sound exposure. If we are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound we must concentrate research on these questions. In order to assess population level and ecological community impacts new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

  3. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals.

  4. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  5. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  6. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples.

  7. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  8. Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  9. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  10. Aquatic animal telemetry: A panoramic window into the underwater world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussey, Nigel E.; Kessel, Steven T.; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    providing unprecedented ecological insights by connecting animal movements with measures of their physiology and environment. These developments are revolutionizing the scope and scale of questions that can be asked about the causes and consequences of movement and are redefining how we view and manage......The distribution and interactions of aquatic organisms across space and time structure our marine, freshwater, and estuarine ecosystems. Over the past decade, technological advances in telemetry have transformed our ability to observe aquatic animal behavior and movement. These advances are now...

  11. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis, chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity, biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases, and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  12. 5种水产动物血红细胞形态显微观察比较及进化分析%Comparison of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals and their evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪青; 包永波; 林志华; 刘浩明

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the morphological characteristics and microstructure of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals, in order to study the morphological diversity and evolution of erythrocytes. The blood smears of five aquatic animals, bloody clam (Tegillarca granosa, Scapharca subcrenata), Carassius auratus, Rana catesbeiana and Pelodiscus sinensis, were stained by Hemacolor stain. The surface structure and morphological characteristics of erythrocytes were examined by light microscope (LM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The erythrocytes of bloody clams (Tegillarca granosa & Scapharca subcrenata) had basophil granular or/and eosinophilic granular, but none was found in vertebrates erythrocytes. The size of erythrocytes increased from the two bloody clams to Bull frog (Rana catesbeiana); while the size decreased afterwards; the variation of aspect ratio and nucleocytoplasmic ratio of erythrocytes follow this trend in a similar way. The undulate fold and depression on the erythrocytes of the two bloody clams were observed apparently, and the depression was deep and wide. The surface depression was also obvious in the erythrocytes of vertebrates, although the depression faded away gradually, and no distinct surface fold was examined. These results indicated that the changes of animal erythrocytes resulted from the evolution of animals, activities and habitats, in order to obtain the biggest gas exchange efficiency and the stability of the cells.%采用Hemacolor染料对泥蚶(Tegillarca granosa)、毛蚶(Scapharca subcrenata)、鲫鱼(Carassiusauranus)、牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)、中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)等5种水产动物血细胞涂片进行染色,利用光镜和扫描电镜两种方法对5种动物的血红细胞的表面结构和形态特征进行观察。结果发现:泥蚶、毛蚶两种蚶科贝类血红细胞具有嗜酸性或嗜碱性颗粒,而鲫鱼、牛蛙、中华鳖3种水产脊椎动物

  13. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology and aquatic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Alexis M; Spyropoulos, Demetri D

    2014-06-01

    Aquatic animal species are the overall leaders in the scientific investigation of tough but important global health issues, including environmental toxicants and climate change. Historically, aquatic animal species also stand at the forefront of experimental biology, embryology and stem cell research. Over the past decade, intensive and high-powered investigations principally involving mouse and human cells have brought the generation and study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to a level that facilitates widespread use in a spectrum of species. A review of key features of these investigations is presented here as a primer for the use of iPSC technology to enhance ongoing aquatic animal species studies. iPSC and other cutting edge technologies create the potential to study individuals from "the wild" closer to the level of investigation applied to sophisticated inbred mouse models. A wide variety of surveys and hypothesis-driven investigations can be envisioned using this new capability, including comparisons of organism-specific development and exposure response and the testing of fundamental dogmas established using inbred mice. However, with these new capabilities, also come new criteria for rigorous baseline assessments and testing. Both the methods for inducing pluripotency and the source material can negatively impact iPSC quality and bourgeoning applications. Therefore, more rigorous strategies not required for inbred mouse models will have to be implemented to approach global health issues using individuals from "the wild" for aquatic animal species.

  14. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel

    2016-09-20

    This paper presents a self-powered underwater acoustic transmitter using a piezoelectric beam to harvest the mechanical energy from fish swimming. This transmitter does not require a battery and is demonstrated in live fish. It transmits an acoustic waveform as the implanted fish swims. It enables long-term monitoring of aquatic animals.

  15. Biosecurity in aquatic animal facilities: concepts and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosecurity includes measures to minimize the risk of introduction and spread of infectious organisms within or between aquatic animal populations. Biosecurity measures at the site level include bioexclusion, within-site infectious disease control and biocontainment. This talk will focus on bioexclu...

  16. The role of "the aquatic" in human evolution: constraining the aquatic ape hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2014-01-01

    Few things show the distinctiveness of human evolution research better than the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH). On one hand, we have "orthodox" research into human evolution, firmly based on land; on the other, we have the aquatic ape community, convinced not only that our ancestors went through an aquatic phase, but that the professional scientific community ignores their work and keeps it out of the mainstream. How many fields of science have two entirely parallel communities that essentially are hermetically sealed from each other?

  17. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic telemetry is the primary method to actively track aquatic animals for behavioral studies. However, the small storage capacities of the batteries used in the transmitters limit the time that the implanted animals can be studied. In this research, we developed and implemented a battery-free acoustic transmitter that uses a flexible piezoelectric beam to harvest energy from fish swimming as the power source. The transmitter sends out a unique identification code with a sufficiently strong signal (150 dB, ref: 1 μPa at 1 meter) that has a detection range of up to 100 meters. Two prototypes, 100 mm and 77 mm long, respectively, weighing only about 1 gram or less in air, were sub-dermally implanted in two species of live fish. Transmissions were successfully detected as the fish swam in a natural manner. This represents the first known implanted energy-harvesting transmitter demonstrated in vivo. Successful development of this transmitter greatly expands the potential for long-term studies of the behaviors of aquatic animals and for subsequently developing strategies to mitigate the environmental impacts of renewable energy systems.

  18. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry is the primary method to actively track aquatic animals for behavioral studies. However, the small storage capacities of the batteries used in the transmitters limit the time that the implanted animals can be studied. In this research, we developed and implemented a battery-free acoustic transmitter that uses a flexible piezoelectric beam to harvest energy from fish swimming as the power source. The transmitter sends out a unique identification code with a sufficiently strong signal (150 dB, ref: 1 μPa at 1 meter) that has a detection range of up to 100 meters. Two prototypes, 100 mm and 77 mm long, respectively, weighing only about 1 gram or less in air, were sub-dermally implanted in two species of live fish. Transmissions were successfully detected as the fish swam in a natural manner. This represents the first known implanted energy-harvesting transmitter demonstrated in vivo. Successful development of this transmitter greatly expands the potential for long-term studies of the behaviors of aquatic animals and for subsequently developing strategies to mitigate the environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. PMID:27647426

  19. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  20. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in aquatic animals: signaling pathways, expressions and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauta, Pradipta R; Samanta, Mrinal; Dash, Hirak R; Nayak, Bismita; Das, Surajit

    2014-01-01

    The innate system's recognition of non-self and danger signals is mediated by a limited number of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single, non-catalytic, membrane-spanning PRRs present in invertebrates and vertebrates. They act by specifically recognizing PAMPs of a variety of microbes and activate signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. A large number of TLRs have been identified in various aquatic animals of phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. TLRs of aquatic and warm-blooded higher animals exhibit some distinctive features due to their diverse evolutionary lineages. However, majority of them share conserve signaling pathways in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Functional analysis of novel TLRs in aquatic animals is very important in understanding the comparative immunology between warm-blooded and aquatic animals. In additions to innate immunity, recent reports have highlighted the additional roles of TLRs in adaptive immunity. Therefore, vaccines against many critical diseases of aquatic animals may be made more effective by supplementing TLR activators which will stimulate dendritic cells. This article describes updated information of TLRs in aquatic animals and their structural and functional relationship with warm-blooded animals.

  1. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  2. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Edmund J; Taylor, Nicholas G H

    2011-08-11

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture.

  3. The scaling and structure of aquatic animal wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Muller, UK; van Duren, LA

    2002-01-01

    Animal generated water movements are visualized and quantified using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). The resulting vector flow fields allow for the study of the distribution of velocity, vorticity and vortices. Structural and temporal aspects of animal-induced flows covering a rang

  4. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  5. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  6. AQUATIC ANIMAL RESPIRATION AND COUGH RESPONSE APPLIED TO INNOVATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL BIOMONITORING: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This bibliography encompasses a body of in-depth technical information on the mechanics and physiology of respiration in aquatic animals (vertebrate and invertebrate). In compiling the bibliography, special emphasis was given to identifying studies that deal with responses of thi...

  7. Shape of Aquatic Animals and Their Swimming Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nesteruk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best swimmers have a streamlined shape that ensures an attached flow pattern and a laminar boundary layer at rather large values of the Reynolds number. Simple expressions may be obtained for the volumetric drag coefficient of an ideal body of revolution under laminar unseparated flow conditions together with estimations of a critical value of the Reynolds number. A measure, the capacity-efficiency factor, calculated for different organisms and underwater vehicles, shows that information about animal shapes and locomotion is of utmost biological interest and could be useful to improve robot fish and underwater vehicles as well.

  8. Occurrence of antibiotics in water, sediments, aquatic plants, and animals from Baiyangdian Lake in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the presence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, in the water, sediments, and biota samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 132 samples were collected in 2008 and 2010, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the lake. Sulfonamides were the dominant antibiotics in the water (0.86-1563 ng L(-1)), while quinolones were prominent in sediments (65.5-1166 μg kg(-1)) and aquatic plants (8.37-6532 μg kg(-1)). Quinolones (17.8-167 μg kg(-1)) and macrolides [from below detection limit (BDL) to 182 μg kg(-1)] were often found in aquatic animals and birds. Salvinia natans exhibited the highest bioaccumulation capability for quinolones among three species of aquatic plants. Geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were greatly due to anthropogenic activities. Sewage discharged from Baoding City was likely the main source of antibiotics in the lake. Risk assessment of antibiotics on aquatic organisms suggested that algae and aquatic plants might be at risk in surface water, while animals were likely not at risk.

  9. From aquatic to terrestrial life: evolution of the mechanisms for water acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that ancient fishes first experienced freshwater (FW), and then variably by lineage moved onto the land or re-entered the seas during evolution. As both land and sea are desiccating environments, animals must change their strategies for body fluid regulation from protecting against overhydration in FW to coping with dehydration in seawater (SW) or on land. The evolution of the mechanisms for acquisition of water surely must have accompanied these dramatic environmental changes. The major route for water acquisition is by oral drinking in terrestrial tetrapods (represented here by mammals) and in SW fishes (represented by teleosts as they are dehydrated in SW), but the regulation is contrasting between the two groups; mechanisms inducing thirst have developed in mammals, whereas inhibitory mechanisms are dominant in marine teleosts as observed in FW teleosts. Thus, the apparent difference was found not between hydrating and dehydrating habitat, but rather between terrestrial and aquatic habitats. This contrast is also reflected in regulatory hormones; dipsogenic hormones such as angiotensin II play pivotal roles in water homeostasis in mammals, whereas antidipsogenic hormones such as atrial natriuretic peptide are essential in teleosts. Imbibed water becomes body fluid only after absorption by the intestine, and there is a distinct difference in the mechanisms for water absorption between mammals and teleosts. Like regulation of drinking, we found that the inhibitory mechanisms are dominant for intestinal water absorption in teleosts. In the initial part of this short review, interesting differences in the body fluid regulation between mammals and teleosts are introduced, particularly with regard to water acquisition (drinking and intestinal absorption). Then an attempt was made to discuss the evolution of the mechanisms from the two perspectives; transitions from aquatic to terrestrial habitats and from hydrating (FW) to dehydrating (land

  10. Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson,; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E

    2016-01-01

    Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.

  11. Control of breathing in African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi): A comparison of aquatic and cocooned (terrestrialized) animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, S.F.; Euverman, R.; Wang, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi exhibited constant rates of O2 consumption before (0.95 ± 0.07 mmol kg-1 h-1), during (1.21 ± 0.32 mmol kg-1 h-1) and after (1.14 ± 0.14 mmol kg-1 h-1) extended periods (1-2 months) of terrestrialization while cocooned. Although a breathing event...... in terrestrialized fish consisted of multiple bouts of inspiration and expiration in rapid succession, the mean frequency of pulmonary breathing events was unaltered in the terrestrialized fish (16.7 ± 1.4 h-1 versus 20.1 ± 4.9 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively). Hypoxia ( 20 mmHg) increased...... the frequency of breathing events by 16 and 23 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively. Hyperoxia ( 550 mmHg) decreased breathing event frequency by 10 and 15 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized animals. Aquatic hypercapnia ( 37.5 mmHg) increased pulmonary breathing frequency (from 15...

  12. Advantages of using aquatic animals for biomedical research on reproductive toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottet, N.K.; Landolt, M.L.

    1987-04-01

    Major advantages of the use of aquatic animals, such as trout, English sole, or sea urchins, for studying the mechanisms of reproductive toxicology are discussed. The remarkable synchrony of differentiation of gametes in large quantities for detailed morphologic and biochemical measurements enables research not readily done on mammalian nonseasonal breeders. Structural differences such as the absence of a fibrous sheath in the more simple structure of fish and sea urchin sperm flagella facilitates comparative study of the mechanism of action of microtubules in flagella movement and the coupling of mitochondrial energy production to microtubules movement.

  13. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  14. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeler Edmund J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated. A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease

  15. [Meta-analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic enrichment factors for aquatic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Sun, Cui-ping; Ren, Wei-zheng; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Jian-iun; Hu, Liana-liang; Chen, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Isotopic enrichment factor (Δ, the difference between the δ value of food and a consumer tissue) is an important parameter in using stable isotope analysis (SIA) to reconstruct diets, characterize trophic relationships, elucidate patterns of resource allocation, and construct food webs. Isotopic enrichment factor has been considered as a constancy value across a broad range of animals. However, recent studies showed that the isotopic enrichment factor differed among various types of animals although the magnitude of variation was not clear. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize and compare Δ13C and Δ15N among four types of aquatic animals (teleosts, crustaceans, reptiles and molluscs). We searched for papers published before 2014 on Web of Science and CNKI using the key words "stable isotope or isotopic fractionation or fractionation factor or isotopic enrichment or trophic enrichment". Forty-two publications that contain 140 studies on Δ13C and 159 studies on Δ15N were obtained. We conducted three parallel meta-analyses by using three types of weights (the reciprocal of variance as weights, the sample size as weights, and equal weights). The results showed that no significant difference in Δ13C among different animal types (teleosts 1.0 per thousand, crustaceans 1.3 per thousand, reptiles 0.5 per thousand, and molluscs 1.5 per thousand), while Δ15N values were significantly different (teleosts 2.4 per thousand, crustaceans 3.6 per thousand, reptiles 1.0 per thousand and molluscs 2.5 per thousand). Our results suggested that the overall mean of Δ13C could be used as a general enrichment factor, but Δ15N should be chosen according to the type of aquatic animals in using SIA to analyze trophic relationships, patterns of resource allocation and food webs.

  16. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  17. Morphological evolution from aquatic to terrestrial in the genus Oreolalax (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wei; Bin Wang; Ning Xu; Zizhong Li; Jianping Jiang

    2009-01-01

    A phylogeny of 17 species in the genus Oreolalax is reconstructed based on 21 morphological characters from adult specimens, skeleton specimens, tadpoles and eggs. Four species groups are recognized, of which the O. rugosus species group is the most primitive, the O. weigoldi species group is the second, the O. omeimontis species group is the third and the O. pingii species group is the most recently diversified. Based on the evolutional tendency of the morphological characters on the phylogenetic tree, it is proposed that the evolution of tympanum, tympanic annulus, columella, spoon-like cartilage and the web between toes reflect the habit changes from aquatic to terrestrial. Thus, Oreolalax is regarded as one important representative genus to study further the evolution of morphological characters from aquatic to terrestrial.

  18. Arsenic toxicity in mammals and aquatic animals: a comparative biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Monserrat, José M

    2011-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread pollutant in the world and its toxicity is related to its chemical form, with inorganic forms being considered more toxic than the organic form, and huge differences in effects and processes of metabolism. This paper reviews the potential biochemical mechanisms of uptake of arsenic by aquaporins, capacity for metabolism and cellular efflux of As. It is known that As can affect signaling pathways since it can activate proteins such as ERK2, p38 and JNK, as shown in mammals. A comparison between phosphorylation sites of these proteins is presented in order to determine whether the same effect triggered by As in mammals might be observed in aquatic animals. The toxicity resulting from As exposure is considered to be linked to an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis that results in oxidative stress. So, present review analyzes examples of oxidative stress generation by arsenic. Biotransformation of As is a process where firstly the arsenate is converted into arsenite and then transformed into mono-, di-, and trimethylated products. In the methylation process, the role of the omega isoform of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is discussed. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for aquaporin proteins of different species, including aquatic animals, taking into account their importance in trivalent arsenic uptake.

  19. Remote in vivo stress assessment of aquatic animals with microencapsulated biomarkers for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Bedulina, Daria; Baduev, Boris; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Meglinski, Igor; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Remote in vivo scanning of physiological parameters is a major trend in the development of new tools for the fields of medicine and animal physiology. For this purpose, a variety of implantable optical micro- and nanosensors have been designed for potential medical applications. At the same time, the important area of environmental sciences has been neglected in the development of techniques for remote physiological measurements. In the field of environmental monitoring and related research, there is a constant demand for new effective and quick techniques for the stress assessment of aquatic animals, and the development of proper methods for remote physiological measurements in vivo may significantly increase the precision and throughput of analyses in this field. In the present study, we apply pH-sensitive microencapsulated biomarkers to remotely monitor the pH of haemolymph in vivo in endemic amphipods from Lake Baikal, and we compare the suitability of this technique for stress assessment with that of common biochemical methods. For the first time, we demonstrate the possibility of remotely detecting a change in a physiological parameter in an aquatic organism under ecologically relevant stressful conditions and show the applicability of techniques using microencapsulated biomarkers for remote physiological measurements in environmental monitoring.

  20. [Semi-aquatic animals as a source of water contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Paziewska, Anna; Romanowski, Jerzy; Siński, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. are parasitic protozoa localized in the alimentary tract of many animal species and humans. Each of these parasite species produces very resistant invasive forms (cysts and oocysts) excreted to the environment with feces of infected hosts. Water contaminated with cysts/oocysts constitutes one of the main transmission routes and is responsible for the majority of infections in humans. Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. were found in many different species of animals, including livestock, pets and free living animals. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of these protozoa in selected species of semi-aquatic mammals and to estimate their role in water contamination. In years 1996-98 the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections was high in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) (58 and 87%, respectively). The origin of animals (farmed or free living) affected the prevalence of both parasites in European beavers (Castor fiber). The prevalence of infection increased in second period of study and was 4 and 19% for Cryptosporidium and 0 and 8% for Giardia spp. in the two studied periods, respectively. Both parasite species were also identified in water vole (Arvicola terrestris) and rat (Rattus norvegicus).

  1. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: A framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Coletti, Janaine Z.; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Brookes, Justin D.

    2015-09-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchment management, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientists and policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are required that are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiple stressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this challenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observation networks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions. The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensor networks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model is assessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinary nature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and integrate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to model assessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore the theory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry, and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  2. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna).

  3. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: how submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that aquatic plants can mitigate the toxicity of insecticides to sensitive aquatic animals. The current paradigm is that this ability is driven primarily by insecticide sorption to plant tissues, especially for hydrophobic compounds. However, recent work shows that submerged plants can strongly mitigate the toxicity of the relatively hydrophilic insecticide malathion, despite the fact that this compound exhibits a slow sorption rate to plants. To examine this disparity, we tested the hypothesis that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity is driven primarily by the increased water pH from plant photosynthesis causing the hydrolysis of malathion, rather than by sorption. To do this, we compared zooplankton (Daphnia magna) survival across five environmentally relevant malathion concentrations (0, 1, 4, 6, or 36 μg L(-1)) in test containers where we chemically manipulated water pH in the absence of plants or added the submerged plant (Elodea canadensis) but manipulated plant photosynthetic activity via shading or no shading. We discovered that malathion was equally lethal to Daphnia at all concentrations tested when photosynthetically inactive (i.e. shaded) plants were present (pH at time of dosing=7.8) or when pH was chemically decreased (pH=7.7). In contrast, when photosynthetically active (i.e. unshaded) plants were present (pH=9.8) or when pH was chemically increased (pH=9.5), the effects of 4 and 6 μg L(-1) of malathion on Daphnia were mitigated strongly and to an equal degree. These results demonstrate that the mitigating effect of submerged plants on malathion's toxicity can be explained entirely by a mechanism of photosynthesizing plants causing an increase in water pH, resulting in rapid malathion hydrolysis. Our findings suggest that current ecotoxicological models and phytoremediation strategies may be overlooking a critical mechanism for mitigating pesticides.

  4. Advances in vitellogenin research of aquatic animals%水生动物卵黄蛋白原研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海峰; 孟彦; 肖汉兵

    2014-01-01

    Vitellogenins(VTG)are precursors of major components of female yolk proteins in oviparous animals. The paper briefly re-views the VTG gene characterization in aquatic animals such as fish,amphibian and crustaceans as well as the classification and evolu-tion of their gene families,introduces the new physiological functions of VTG,and summarizes their usages as biomarker in monitoring environmental endocrine disruption,predictive factor of gonad maturity and effective marker in gender discrimination. Thus,the re-view provides references for researches on VTG in aquatic animals and breeding of aquatic animals.%卵黄蛋白原(vitellogenin,VTG)是卵生动物卵黄中主要成分的前体。文章简述了水产动物如鱼类、两栖类及甲壳类动物中卵黄蛋白原基因的鉴定及其基因家族的分类及进化研究,介绍了 VTG 分子的生物学新功能,以及 VTG 作为标记分子在环境雌激素监测、反映雌性动物性腺成熟度、区分雌雄性别等方面的应用,以期为 VTG在水产动物中的研究以及繁殖中的应用提供参考。

  5. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  6. Aquatic environment, housing, and management in the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: additional considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Timothy J; Matthews, Monte

    2012-05-01

    The eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recognizes the widespread use of aquatic and semiaquatic research animals by including, among other references, an entire section on aquatic animals in its chapter on environment, housing, and management. Recognizing the large number of aquatic and semiaquatic species used in research and the inherent diversity in animal needs, the Guide refers the reader to texts and journal reviews for specific recommendations and suggests consultations with persons experienced in caring for aquatic species. Here we present considerations that may add to the basic information presented in the Guide and offer some recommendations that may be useful for aquatic animal model caregivers and researchers.

  7. Microbes Drive Evolution of Animals and Plants: the Hologenome Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Rosenberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hologenome concept of evolution postulates that the holobiont (host plus symbionts with its hologenome (host genome plus microbiome is a level of selection in evolution. Multicellular organisms can no longer be considered individuals by the classical definitions of the term. Every natural animal and plant is a holobiont consisting of the host and diverse symbiotic microbes and viruses. Microbial symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of methods, including via cytoplasmic inheritance, coprophagy, direct contact during and after birth, and the environment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that these symbionts contribute to the anatomy, physiology, development, innate and adaptive immunity, and behavior and finally also to genetic variation and to the origin and evolution of species. Acquisition of microbes and microbial genes is a powerful mechanism for driving the evolution of complexity. Evolution proceeds both via cooperation and competition, working in parallel.

  8. Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

    2008-04-01

    Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward.

  9. A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Deng, Z. D.; Li, H.; Myjak, M. J.; Martinez, J. J.; Xiao, J.; Brown, R. S.; Cartmell, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the behavior of aquatic animals and assessing the environmental impact of structures such as hydropower facilities. However, the physical size, signal intensity, and service life of off-the-shelf transmitters are presently insufficient for monitoring certain species. In this study, we developed a small, long-life acoustic transmitter with an approximate length of 24.2 mm, diameter of 5.0 mm, and dry weight of 0.72 g. The transmitter generates a coded acoustic signal at 416.7 kHz with a selectable source level between 159 and 163 dB relative to 1 μPa at 1 m, allowing a theoretical detection range of up to 500 m. The expected operational lifetime is 1 yr at a pulse rate interval of 15 s. The new technology makes long-term acoustic telemetry studies of small fish possible, and is being deployed for a long-term tracking of juvenile sturgeon.

  10. The cell's view of animal body-plan evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Deirdre C; Martindale, Mark Q; Srivastava, Mansi

    2014-10-01

    An adult animal's form is shaped by the collective behavior of cells during embryonic development. To understand the forces that drove the divergence of animal body-plans, evolutionary developmental biology has focused largely on studying genetic networks operating during development. However, it is less well understood how these networks modulate characteristics at the cellular level, such as the shape, polarity, or migration of cells. We organized the "Cell's view of animal body plan evolution" symposium for the 2014 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting with the explicit goal of bringing together researchers studying the cell biology of embryonic development in diverse animal taxa. Using a broad range of established and emerging technologies, including live imaging, single-cell analysis, and mathematical modeling, symposium participants revealed mechanisms underlying cells' behavior, a few of which we highlight here. Shape, adhesion, and movements of cells can be modulated over the course of evolution to alter adult body-plans and a major theme explored during the symposium was the role of actomyosin in coordinating diverse behaviors of cells underlying morphogenesis in a myriad of contexts. Uncovering whether conserved or divergent genetic mechanisms guide the contractility of actomyosin in these systems will be crucial to understanding the evolution of the body-plans of animals from a cellular perspective. Many speakers presented research describing developmental phenomena in which cell division and tissue growth can control the form of the adult, and other presenters shared work on studying cell-fate specification, an important source of novelty in animal body-plans. Participants also presented studies of regeneration in annelids, flatworms, acoels, and cnidarians, and provided a unifying view of the regulation of cellular behavior during different life-history stages. Additionally, several presentations highlighted technological

  11. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  12. Earth's oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Erwin, Douglas H.

    2016-08-01

    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth’s oxygen cycle—the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism’s life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (˜1.8-0.8 billion years ago).

  13. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Cymbopogon Nardus Citronella Essential Oil Against Systemic Bacteria of Aquatic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Seong Wei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21, Vibrio spp. (n = 6, Aeromonas spp. (n = 2, Escherichia coli (n = 2, Salmonella spp. (n = 2, Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1, Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1 and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1 isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods: The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results: A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%. The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use.

  14. Impact of hypoxia on hemolymph contamination by uranium in an aquatic animal, the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Damien [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)], E-mail: d.tran@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr; Massabuau, Jean-Charles [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)], E-mail: jc.massabuau@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat. 186, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance, Cedex (France)], E-mail: Jacqueline.Garnier-Laplace@irsn.fr

    2008-12-15

    Multi-stress situations are a major question and low-oxygenated waters (hypoxia) are a growing problem. Importantly, hypoxia stimulates the ventilatory flow rate in aquatic animals and this increases gill exposure to contaminants. Surprisingly, in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea, this is associated with increased bioaccumulation of uranium in gills but not in deep tissues. We searched for an explanation by analyzing hemolymph U-transport in Corbicula exposed to 0.36 {mu}M dissolved uranium at various O{sub 2}-levels for 10 days. In hypoxia, one observed an increased U concentration in the arterial hemolymph flowing from gills to tissues but this was not associated with an increased U concentration in the venous hemolymph nor in the other tissues. We conclude that the cardiac flow rate must have decreased to explain this absence of over-accumulation. In addition to its already known deleterious effects, uranium can thus deeply impair cardiac flow rate in exposed aquatic animals during multi-stress exposures. - Uranium contamination enhanced by hypoxia can deeply impair circulatory hemolymph flow in aquatic animals.

  15. Has an aquatic diet been necessary for hominin brain evolution and functional development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, John H

    2006-07-01

    A number of authors have argued that only an aquatic-based diet can provide the necessary quantity of DHA to support the human brain, and that a switch to such a diet early in hominin evolution was critical to human brain evolution. This paper identifies the premises behind this hypothesis and critiques them on the basis of clinical literature. Both tissue levels and certain functions of the developing infant brain are sensitive to extreme variations in the supply of DHA in artificial feeding, and it can be shown that levels in human milk reflect maternal diet. However, both the maternal and infant bodies have mechanisms to store and buffer the supply of DHA, so that functional deficits are generally resolved without compensatory diets. There is no evidence that human diets based on terrestrial food chains with traditional nursing practices fail to provide adequate levels of DHA or other n-3 fatty acids. Consequently, the hypothesis that DHA has been a limiting resource in human brain evolution must be considered to be unsupported.

  16. Contrasting on Hydrocarbon Generation Model and Characteristics of Pyrolysis of Modern Aquatic Plant (Gloeocapsa) vs Marine Animal (Mantis Shrimp)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A hydrocarbon model of the modern aquatic plant Gloeocapsa and the aquatic animal mantis shrimp was found in thermal simulating experiment. The results show that the modern aquatic plant Gloeocapsa is characterized by late generation, late termination and a long duration of oil generation, while the aquatic animal mantis shrimp is characterized by early generation, early termination and a short duration of oil generation. The n-alkanes from Gloeocapsa and mantis shrimp are characterized by peak carbon C15-C17. With increasing thermal simulating temperature, the peak carbon changes from C17 to C15, and the odd-even predominance of n-allanes becomes less clear. The products from Gloeocapsa contain abundant phenanthrene and naphthalene compounds,and even a little retene, while those from mantis shrimp are dominated by naphthalene compounds, and are poor in phenanthrene compounds. Gloeocapsa and mantis shrimp are rich in C27sterane, relatively rich in tricyclic terpones (C1,-C2,) and hopanes (C27-C35), poor in 5α,14β17β sterane, and coprostane does not disappear until 450 ℃. The tricyclic terpanes in Gloeocapsaare characterized by peak carbon C23 and C2>C21, and in mantis shrimp by C21 and C21>C23. The content of pregnanes is very low at low temperature of thermal simulation, while above 360 ℃,high levels of pregnane series compounds and even degraded C2s and C26 steranes occur in thermal simulation products.

  17. GLOBAL CLIMATE AND LARGE-SCALE INFLUENCES ON AQUATIC ANIMAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last 3 decades have witnessed numerous large-scale mortality events of aquatic organisms in North America. Affected species range from ecologically-important sea urchins to commercially-valuable American lobsters and protected marine mammals. Short-term forensic investigation...

  18. Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henikoff Steven

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centromeres represent the last frontiers of plant and animal genomics. Although they perform a conserved function in chromosome segregation, centromeres are typically composed of repetitive satellite sequences that are rapidly evolving. The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone (CenH3, which evolves rapidly and adaptively in Drosophila and Arabidopsis. Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C, that is characterized by a single 24 amino-acid motif (CENPC motif. Results Whereas we find no evidence that mammalian CenH3 (CENP-A has been evolving adaptively, mammalian CENP-C proteins contain adaptively evolving regions that overlap with regions of DNA-binding activity. In plants we find that CENP-C proteins have complex duplicated regions, with conserved amino and carboxyl termini that are dissimilar in sequence to their counterparts in animals and fungi. Comparisons of Cenpc genes from Arabidopsis species and from grasses revealed multiple regions that are under positive selection, including duplicated exons in some grasses. In contrast to plants and animals, yeast CENP-C (Mif2p is under negative selection. Conclusions CENP-Cs in all plant and animal lineages examined have regions that are rapidly and adaptively evolving. To explain these remarkable evolutionary features for a single-copy gene that is needed at every mitosis, we propose that CENP-Cs, like some CenH3s, suppress meiotic drive of centromeres during female meiosis. This process can account for the rapid evolution and the complexity of centromeric DNA in plants and animals as compared to fungi.

  19. AquaResp® - free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Resp" is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up to four input ports......Resp was developed with the intention of automating data acquisition and control by programming in commonly-available software (Microsoft Excel) and allowing customization by the user without restrictions. The program has been tested in different laboratories for an extended period Email addressforcorrespondence...

  20. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.

    AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up...... manufacturers. AquaResp was developed with the intention of automating data acquisition and control by programming in commonly-available software (Microsoft Excel) and allowing customization by the user without restrictions. The program has been tested in different laboratories for an extended period...

  1. ZOONET: perspectives on the evolution of animal form. Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Antje H L; Arboleda, Enrique; Egger, Bernhard; Hilbrant, Maarten; McGregor, Alistair P; Cole, Alison G; Daley, Allison C

    2009-11-15

    What drives evolution? This was one of the main questions raised at the final ZOONET meeting in Budapest, Hungary, in November 2008. The meeting marked the conclusion of ZOONET, an EU-funded Marie-Curie Research Training Network comprising nine research groups from all over Europe (Max Telford, University College London; Michael Akam, University of Cambridge; Detlev Arendt, EMBL Heidelberg; Maria Ina Arnone, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Napoli; Michalis Averof, IMBB Heraklion; Graham Budd, Uppsala University; Richard Copley, University of Oxford; Wim Damen, University of Cologne; Ernst Wimmer, University of Göttingen). ZOONET meetings and practical courses held during the past four years provided researchers from diverse backgrounds--bioinformatics, phylogenetics, embryology, palaeontology, and developmental and molecular biology--the opportunity to discuss their work under a common umbrella of evolutionary developmental biology (Evo Devo). The Budapest meeting emphasized in-depth discussions of the key concepts defining Evo Devo, and bringing together ZOONET researchers with external speakers who were invited to present their views on the evolution of animal form. The discussion sessions addressed four main topics: the driving forces of evolution, segmentation, fossils and phylogeny, and the future of Evo Devo.

  2. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals and its prevention and control%水产动物源细菌耐药性与预防控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国烈; 李林桂; 房文红

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is the ability of a disease-causing bacterium to resist being killed by antibiotics. The formation of bacterial resistance is the result of the development of bacterial evolution and the manifest of bacterial adaptability; however, it threatens the development of aquaculture and human health. Firstly, this paper summarized the research progress on the bacterial resistance in aquatic animals in recent years, including plasmid-mediated resistance of bacteria, resistance gene of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals, and the genetic mechanism of antibiotic resistance and so on. Secondly, the paper analyzed the harm of bacterial resistance, which included the pathogen of bacterial resistance that caused epidemics and the antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals that threatened public health. Finally, from rational and standardized use of drugs, speeding up the development and application of aquatic vaccines and new antimicrobial drugs alternatives, strengthening of the surveillance about pathogen isolates from aquatic animals and so on, the paper provided some valuable methods and strategies on the prevention and control for bacterial resistance in aquatic animals.%细菌耐药性是指细菌对于抗菌药物作用的耐受性。细菌耐药性的形成,是细菌进化发展的结果,是细菌适应性的表现,但它却给养殖业的发展和人类的健康带来威胁。本文首先综述了水产动物源细菌耐药性研究现状,主要包括质粒介导的水产动物源细菌耐药性、细菌耐药基因、细菌耐药性遗传学机制等;其次,从病原菌耐药性会导致水产疾病流行爆发和水产细菌耐药性对人类公共卫生安全的影响两方面,分析了水产动物源细菌耐药性的危害;最后,从合理、规范用药,加快水产疫苗和新型抗菌药物替代品的研制与应用,加强水产动物致病菌耐药性监测等方面,提出了预防和控制

  3. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Metabolic Theory of Eco...

  4. The use of models in the analysis and management of aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.; Udo, H.M.J.; Densen, van W.L.T.

    1994-01-01

    Modelling of animal production systems as a whole is mainly used for extensively managed systems, such as fishing and hunting natural animal populations. This type of modelling is widely used in fisheries management, but has as yet found limited application in the modelling of extensive cultivation

  5. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved.

  6. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  7. Development of an Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis skin cell line displaying differential cytopathic effects to three aquatic animal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Tong; Lei, Xiao-Ying; He, Li-Bo; Zhou, Feng-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2014-08-30

    An Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis skin (UCS) cell line was developed and subcultured for more than 60 passages. UCS cells consisted of mostly epithelial-like cells and multiplied well in TC199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 25°C. Chromosome analysis revealed that most UCS cells had a normal diploid karyotype with 2n=52. UCS cells showed differential cytopathic effects (CPEs) after inoculation of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV, a negative-strand RNA virus), grass carp reovirus (GCRV, a multi-segmented double-stranded RNA virus) and Rana grylio virus (RGV, a large double-stranded DNA virus), and were indicative of high sensitivities to these three aquatic animal viruses by a virus titration study. The CPE caused by SVCV appeared as rounded and granular cells, grape-like clusters and small lytic plaques. Characteristic CPE containing plaque-like syncytia was induced by GCRV. RGV-infected cells produced typical CPE characterized by cells shrinkage and aggregation, formation of clear plaques and cell sheet detachment. Furthermore, significant fluorescent signals were observed after UCS cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein reporter plasmids, and the development of CPE induced by a recombinant RGV, ΔTK-RGV, in UCS cells was illustrated using a combination of light and fluorescence microscopy. The data from this study suggested that UCS cell line can potentially serve as a useful tool for the comparison study of different aquatic animal viruses and the isolation of some newly emerging viruses in Ussuri catfish farming.

  8. sAC from aquatic organisms as a model to study the evolution of acid/base sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is poised to play multiple physiological roles as an acid/base (A/B) sensor in aquatic organisms. Many of these roles are probably similar to those in mammals; a striking example is the evolutionary conservation of a mechanism involving sAC, carbonic anhydrase and vacuolar H⁺-ATPase that acts as a sensor system and regulator of extracellular A/B in shark gills and mammalian epididymis and kidney. Additionally, the aquatic environment presents unique A/B and physiological challenges; therefore, sACs from aquatic organisms have likely evolved distinct kinetic properties as well as distinct physiological roles. sACs from aquatic organisms offer an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of A/B sensing at both the molecular and whole organism levels. Moreover, this information could help understand and predict organismal responses to environmental stress based on mechanistic models.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease," guest edited by J. Buck and L. R. Levin.

  9. The FAO/NACA Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals: lessons learned from their development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, R P; Bondad-Reantaso, M G

    2008-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward.

  10. The magnitude of innovation and its evolution in social animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-08

    Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation, to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude). Using mathematical modelling and evolutionary computer simulations, we explored how aspects of social interaction, cognition and natural selection affect the frequency and magnitude of innovation. We show that high-magnitude innovations are likely to arise regularly even if the frequency of innovation is low, as long as this frequency is relatively constant, and that the selectivity of social learning and the existence of social rewards, such as prestige and royalties, are crucial for innovative behaviour to evolve. We suggest that consideration of the magnitude of innovation may prove a useful tool in the study of the evolution of cognition and of culture.

  11. Adaptive evolution and functional constraint at TLR4 during the secondary aquatic adaptation and diversification of cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Tong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises are a group of adapted marine mammals with an enigmatic history of transition from terrestrial to full aquatic habitat and rapid radiation in waters around the world. Throughout this evolution, the pathogen stress-response proteins must have faced challenges from the dramatic change of environmental pathogens in the completely different ecological niches cetaceans occupied. For this reason, cetaceans could be one of the most ideal candidate taxa for studying evolutionary process and associated driving mechanism of vertebrate innate immune systems such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs, which are located at the direct interface between the host and the microbial environment, act at the first line in recognizing specific conserved components of microorganisms, and translate them rapidly into a defense reaction. Results We used TLR4 as an example to test whether this traditionally regarded pattern recognition receptor molecule was driven by positive selection across cetacean evolutionary history. Overall, the lineage-specific selection test showed that the dN/dS (ω values along most (30 out of 33 examined cetartiodactylan lineages were less than 1, suggesting a common effect of functional constraint. However, some specific codons made radical changes, fell adjacent to the residues interacting with lipopolysaccharides (LPS, and showed parallel evolution between independent lineages, suggesting that TLR4 was under positive selection. Especially, strong signatures of adaptive evolution on TLR4 were identified in two periods, one corresponding to the early evolutionary transition of the terrestrial ancestors of cetaceans from land to semi-aquatic (represented by the branch leading to whale + hippo and from semi-aquatic to full aquatic (represented by the ancestral branch leading to cetaceans habitat, and the other to the rapid diversification and radiation of oceanic dolphins. Conclusions This

  12. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  13. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log Kow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models.

  14. Morphological evolution and reconstruction of silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: The roles of natural organic matter and light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: hwzhang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Research Center for Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In the dark, AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM. • NOM decelerated the photoreaction of AgNPs but did not stop the photoconversion. • Under extended irradiation, NOM substituted for citrate as a stabilizer. • In different aquatic systems AgNPs would suffer distinct environmental behavior. - Abstract: With the proliferation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their potential entry into the environment has attracted increasing concern. Although photochemical transformation is an important fate of AgNPs in aquatic environments due to their strong light absorption, little is known about the evolution and transformation mechanisms of AgNPs. This study investigated the morphological evolution and reconstruction of AgNPs during photoconversion in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In the dark, the AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L, and the proportion of Ag{sup +} in solution in the presence of 10 mg/L NOM was reduced by roughly half compared with that in the absence of NOM. Under irradiation, NOM participated in the photoreaction of AgNPs and can decelerate the photoreaction of AgNPs via several mechanisms, including light attenuation, the formation of a NOM coating, and competing with Ag for photons. Additionally, NOM can substitute for citrate as a stabilizing agent to compensate for the loss of AgNP stability due to citrate mineralization under extended irradiation, producing stable triangular nanosilver in aquatic environments. This study sheds light on the behavioral differences of AgNPs in different aquatic systems, which create uncertainties and difficulties in assessing the environmental risks of AgNPs.

  15. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...

  16. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  17. A new paradigm for ammonia excretion in aquatic animals: role of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2009-08-01

    Ammonia excretion at the gills of fish has been studied for 80 years, but the mechanism(s) involved remain controversial. The relatively recent discovery of the ammonia-transporting function of the Rhesus (Rh) proteins, a family related to the Mep/Amt family of methyl ammonia and ammonia transporters in bacteria, yeast and plants, and the occurrence of these genes and glycosylated proteins in fish gills has opened a new paradigm. We provide background on the evolution and function of the Rh proteins, and review recent studies employing molecular physiology which demonstrate their important contribution to branchial ammonia efflux. Rhag occurs in red blood cells, whereas several isoforms of both Rhbg and Rhcg occur in many tissues. In the branchial epithelium, Rhcg appears to be localized in apical membranes and Rhbg in basolateral membranes. Their gene expression is upregulated during exposure to high environmental ammonia or internal ammonia infusion, and may be sensitive to synergistic stimulation by ammonia and cortisol. Rhcg in particular appears to be coupled to H(+) excretion and Na(+) uptake mechanisms. We propose a new model for ammonia excretion in freshwater fish and its variable linkage to Na(+) uptake and acid excretion. In this model, Rhag facilitates NH(3) flux out of the erythrocyte, Rhbg moves it across the basolateral membrane of the branchial ionocyte, and an apical "Na(+)/NH (+)(4) exchange complex" consisting of several membrane transporters (Rhcg, V-type H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE-2 and/or NHE-3, Na(+) channel) working together as a metabolon provides an acid trapping mechanism for apical excretion. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA-2) and basolateral Na(+)/HCO (-)(3) cotransporter (NBC-1) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase play indirect roles. These mechanisms are normally superimposed on a substantial outward movement of NH(3) by simple diffusion, which is probably dependent on acid trapping in boundary layer water by H(+) ions created by

  18. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  19. Possible evolution of mobile animals in association with microbial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Murray; Hagadorn, James W.; Seilacher, Adolf; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Pecoits, Ernesto; Petrash, Daniel; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2011-06-01

    Complex animals first evolved during the Ediacaran period, between 635 and 542 million years ago, when the oceans were just becoming fully oxygenated. In situ fossils of the mobile forms of these animals are associated with microbial sedimentary structures, and the animal's trace fossils generally were formed parallel to the surface of the seabed, at or below the sediment-water interface. This evidence suggests the earliest mobile animals inhabited settings with high microbial populations, and may have mined microbially bound sediments for food resources. Here we report the association of mobile animals--insect larvae, oligochaetes and burrowing shore crabs--with microbial mats in a modern hypersaline lagoon in Venezuela. The lagoon is characterized by low concentrations of dissolved O2 and pervasive biomats dominated by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria, both analogous to conditions during the Ediacaran. We find that, during the day, O2 levels in the biomats are four times higher than in the overlying water column. We therefore conclude that the animals harvest both food and O2 from the biomats. In doing so, the animals produce horizontal burrows similar to those found in Ediacaran-aged rocks. We suggest that early mobile animals may have evolved in similar environments during the Ediacaran, effectively exploiting oases rich in O2 that formed within low oxygen settings.

  20. Cognitive Phenotypes and the Evolution of Animal Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamra C; Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Hauber, Mark E; Pence, Charles H; Rodríguez, Rafael L; Safran, Rebecca J; Stern, Caitlin A; Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-01

    Despite the clear fitness consequences of animal decisions, the science of animal decision making in evolutionary biology is underdeveloped compared with decision science in human psychology. Specifically, the field lacks a conceptual framework that defines and describes the relevant components of a decision, leading to imprecise language and concepts. The 'judgment and decision-making' (JDM) framework in human psychology is a powerful tool for framing and understanding human decisions, and we apply it here to components of animal decisions, which we refer to as 'cognitive phenotypes'. We distinguish multiple cognitive phenotypes in the context of a JDM framework and highlight empirical approaches to characterize them as evolvable traits.

  1. Research Progress of HSP90 in Aquatic Animals and Plants%HSP90及其在水生动植物中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向红

    2011-01-01

    The classification, structure and transcription regulation of HSP90s were briefly reviewed. Special attention was paid to inducing expression and physiological function of HSP90s in aquatic animals and plants.%简要介绍了HSP90的分类、结构和转录调控,重点讨论了HSP90在水产动植物中的诱导表达与生理功能.

  2. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of animal complex life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2010-02-27

    Metazoan life cycles can be complex in different ways. A number of diverse phenotypes and reproductive events can sequentially occur along the cycle, and at certain stages a variety of developmental and reproductive options can be available to the animal, the choice among which depends on a combination of organismal and environmental conditions. We hypothesize that a diversity of phenotypes arranged in developmental sequence throughout an animal's life cycle may have evolved by genetic assimilation of alternative phenotypes originally triggered by environmental cues. This is supported by similarities between the developmental mechanisms mediating phenotype change and alternative phenotype determination during ontogeny and the common ecological condition that favour both forms of phenotypic variation. The comparison of transcription profiles from different developmental stages throughout a complex life cycle with those from alternative phenotypes in closely related polyphenic animals is expected to offer critical evidence upon which to evaluate our hypothesis.

  3. Animated Autoethnographies: Stop Motion Animation as a Tool for Self-Inquiry and Personal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jeremy Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article will present the autoethnographic animations and processes from three select preservice art educators that enrolled in the Applications of Technology in Art Education course. These students created stop motion animations using small objects, toys, and their bodies; accessing culturally constructed fears, investigating impactful…

  4. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  5. Research Advance of Myo-Inositol Nutrition in Aquatic Animals%水生动物肌醇营养研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 杨奇慧; 谭北平; 董晓慧; 迟淑艳; 刘泓宇; 章双

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol is an essential nutrient for most aquatic animals to stay healthy and promote growing, and it plays an important role in the synthesis of the membrance phospholipids, neurotransmission, and liver lipid transfer. Dietary myo-inositol deficiency in aquatic animals leads to symptoms such as a sharp decrease on the rate of growth, surface hyperemia, fin erosion, black body color, fatty liver disease. This study reviewed the myo-inositol physicochemical properties and its physiological function, requirement and influencing factors in aquatic nutrition, meanwhile, it described the sources of myo-inositol and detection methods, and proposed prospects for further research and application direction of myo-inositol in aquatic nutrition.%肌醇是大多数水生动物保持健康、促进生长发育必需的营养素,它在细胞膜磷脂合成、神经递质传递和肝脏脂质转运等方面发挥重要作用。饲料中肌醇缺乏导致水生动物生长不良、体表充血、鳍条糜烂、体色发黑、脂肪肝等症状。本文综述了肌醇的理化性质,肌醇在水生动物营养中营养生理作用、需要量及影响因素等,同时还介绍了肌醇的来源和测定方法,并展望了肌醇在水生动物营养中进一步的研究和应用方向。

  6. Kin selection and the evolution of social information use in animal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher C M; Dall, Sasha R X; Rankin, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Animals often use social information about conspecifics in making decisions about cooperation and conflict. While the importance of kin selection in the evolution of intraspecific cooperation and conflict is widely acknowledged, few studies have examined how relatedness influences the evolution of social information use. Here we specifically examine how relatedness affects the evolution of a stylised form of social information use known as eavesdropping. Eavesdropping involves individuals escalating conflicts with rivals observed to have lost their last encounter and avoiding fights with those seen to have won. We use a game theoretical model to examine how relatedness affects the evolution of eavesdropping, both when strategies are discrete and when they are continuous or mixed. We show that relatedness influences the evolution of eavesdropping, such that information use peaks at intermediate relatedness. Our study highlights the importance of considering kin selection when exploring the evolution of complex forms of information use.

  7. Molecular evolution of dentin phosphoprotein among toothed and toothless animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Larry W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP is the largest member of the SIBLING family and is the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin. DSPP is also expressed in non-mineralized tissues including metabolically active ductal epithelia and some cancers. Its function, however, is poorly defined. The carboxy-terminal fragment, dentin phosphoprotein (DPP is encoded predominantly by a large repetitive domain that requires separate cloning/sequencing reactions and is, therefore, often incomplete in genomic databases. Comparison of DPP sequences from at least one member of each major branch in the mammalian evolutionary tree (including some "toothless" mammals as well as one reptile and bird may help delineate its possible functions in both dentin and ductal epithelia. Results The BMP1-cleavage and translation-termination domains were sufficiently conserved to permit amplification/cloning/sequencing of most species' DPP. While the integrin-binding domain, RGD, was present in about half of species, only vestigial remnants of this tripeptide were identified in the others. The number of tandem repeats of the nominal SerSerAsp phosphorylation motif in toothed mammals (including baleen whale and platypus which lack teeth as adults, ranged from ~75 (elephant to >230 (human. These repeats were not perfect, however, and patterns of intervening sequences highlight the rapidity of changes among even closely related species. Two toothless anteater species have evolved different sets of nonsense mutations shortly after their BMP1 motifs suggesting that while cleavage may be important for DSPP processing in other tissues, the DPP domain itself may be required only in dentin. The lizard DSPP had an intact BMP1 site, a remnant RGD motif, as well as a distinctly different Ser/Asp-rich domain compared to mammals. Conclusions The DPP domain of DSPP was found to change dramatically within mammals and was lost in two truly toothless animals. The

  8. The evolution of animal 'cultures' and social intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; van Schaik, Carel P

    2007-04-29

    Decades-long field research has flowered into integrative studies that, together with experimental evidence for the requisite social learning capacities, have indicated a reliance on multiple traditions ('cultures') in a small number of species. It is increasingly evident that there is great variation in manifestations of social learning, tradition and culture among species, offering much scope for evolutionary analysis. Social learning has been identified in a range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, yet sustained traditions appear rarer, and the multiple traditions we call cultures are rarer still. Here, we examine relationships between this variation and both social intelligence--sophisticated information processing adapted to the social domain--and encephalization. First, we consider whether culture offers one particular confirmation of the social ('Machiavellian') intelligence hypothesis that certain kinds of social life (here, culture) select for intelligence: 'you need to be smart to sustain culture'. Phylogenetic comparisons, particularly focusing on our own study animals, the great apes, support this, but we also highlight some paradoxes in a broader taxonomic survey. Second, we use intraspecific variation to address the converse hypothesis that 'culture makes you smart', concluding that recent evidence for both chimpanzees and orangutans support this proposition.

  9. Characterization and evolution of natural aquatic biofilm communities exposed in vitro to herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Hennequin, Claire; Coffe, Gérard; Donnadieu, Florence; Portelli, Christophe; Bohatier, Jacques; Forestier, Christiane

    2013-02-01

    River biofilms are assemblies of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms that can be affected by pollutants such as those found in watersheds and wastewater treatment plants. In the laboratory, experimental biofilms were formed from river water, and their overall composition was investigated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cytometry were used to assess the richness and diversity of these communities. The software Cytostack (available on request) was developed to treat and analyze the cytometric data. Measurements of chlorophyll-a and carotenoids were used to assess the global composition of the photoautotrophic community, whereas proteins, polysaccharides (PS) content, and esterase activities were used to assess overall changes in the mixed communities. We evaluated the effects that 3 weeks of treatment with the herbicides diuron and glyphosate (10 μg L(-1)) had on these biofilms. Exposed to diuron, bacterial communities adapted, changing their composition. Glyphosate inhibited growth of one autotrophic community but caused no chlorophyll deficit. As a whole, the biofilm acted as a micro-ecosystem, able to regulate and maintain a constant level of photosynthetic pigment through the structural adaptation of the autotrophic community. These results are one more proof that microbial diversity of aquatic biofilms is influenced by chemical stresses, potentially leading to disturbances within the ecosystems.

  10. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Duarte

    Full Text Available Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers.

  11. Evolution of animal models in cancer vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Zen; Jones, Richard F; Juhasz, Csaba; Gibson, Heather; Veenstra, Jesse

    2015-12-16

    Advances in cancer vaccine development are facilitated by animal models reflecting key features of human cancer and its interface with host immunity. Several series of transplantable preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary lesions have been used to delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. Mimicking immune tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) such as HER2/neu, transgenic mice developing spontaneous mammary tumors are strong model systems for pre-clinical vaccine testing. In these models, HER2 DNA vaccines are easily administered, well-tolerated, and induce both humoral and cellular immunity. Although engineered mouse strains have advanced cancer immunotherapy, basic shortcomings remain. For example, multiple mouse strains have to be tested to recapitulate genetic regulation of immune tolerance in humans. Outbred domestic felines more closely parallel humans in the natural development of HER2 positive breast cancer and their varying genetic background. Electrovaccination with heterologous HER2 DNA induces robust adaptive immune responses in cats. Importantly, homologous feline HER2 DNA with a single amino acid substitution elicits unique antibodies to feline mammary tumor cells, unlocking a new vaccine principle. As an alternative approach to targeted vaccination, non-surgical tumor ablation such as cryoablation induces anti-tumor immunity via in situ immunization, particularly when combined with toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist. As strategies for vaccination advance, non-invasive monitoring of host response becomes imperative. As an example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning following administration of tryptophan metabolism tracer [11C]-alpha-methyl-tryptophan (AMT) provides non-invasive imaging of both tumor growth and metabolic activities. Because AMT is a substrate of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that produces the immune regulatory molecule kynurenine, AMT imaging can provide

  12. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Veer, Henk van der; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years’ project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs ...

  13. [From animal communication to the human language and cognition: evolution or revolution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskaia, T V

    2008-09-01

    The paper discusses the problem of language and cognitive specificity in humans as compared to other species. The main hypotheses of human evolution and the emergence of language seem to be well researched on genetic basis of higher functions. Cognitive abilities of other animals and their communication signals and the main views on basic principles of brain underlying these functions are described.

  14. Evolution of homeobox gene clusters in animals: the Giga-cluster and primary versus secondary clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellard Keith Ferrier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hox gene cluster has been a major focus in evolutionary developmental biology. This is because of its key role in patterning animal development and widespread examples of changes in Hox genes being linked to the evolution of animal body plans and morphologies. Also, the distinctive organisation of the Hox genes into genomic clusters in which the order of the genes along the chromosome corresponds to the order of their activity along the embryo, or during a developmental process, has been a further source of great interest. This is known as Colinearity, and it provides a clear link between genome organisation and the regulation of genes during development, with distinctive changes marking evolutionary transitions. The Hox genes are not alone, however. The homeobox genes are a large super-class, of which the Hox genes are only a small subset, and an ever-increasing number of further gene clusters besides the Hox are being discovered. This is of great interest because of the potential for such gene clusters to help understand major evolutionary transitions, both in terms of changes to development and morphology as well as evolution of genome organisation. However, there is uncertainty in our understanding of homeobox gene cluster evolution at present. This relates to our still rudimentary understanding of the dynamics of genome rearrangements and evolution over the evolutionary timescales being considered when we compare lineages from across the animal kingdom. A major goal is to deduce whether particular instances of clustering are primary (conserved from ancient ancestral clusters or secondary (reassortment of genes into clusters in lineage-specific fashion. The following summary of the various instances of homeobox gene clusters in animals, and the hypotheses about their evolution, provides a framework for the future resolution of this uncertainty.

  15. Insights into the early evolution of animal calcium signaling machinery: a unicellular point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinjiang; Wang, Xiangbing; Patel, Sandip; Clapham, David E

    2015-03-01

    The basic principles of Ca(2+) regulation emerged early in prokaryotes. Ca(2+) signaling acquired more extensive and varied functions when life evolved into multicellular eukaryotes with intracellular organelles. Animals, fungi and plants display differences in the mechanisms that control cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. The aim of this review is to examine recent findings from comparative genomics of Ca(2+) signaling molecules in close unicellular relatives of animals and in common unicellular ancestors of animals and fungi. Also discussed are the evolution and origins of the sperm-specific CatSper channel complex, cation/Ca(2+) exchangers and four-domain voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Newly identified evolutionary evidence suggests that the distinct Ca(2+) signaling machineries in animals, plants and fungi likely originated from an ancient Ca(2+) signaling machinery prior to early eukaryotic radiation.

  16. Cytonuclear Interactions in the Evolution of Animal Mitochondrial tRNA Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2015-06-27

    The evolution of mitochondrial information processing pathways, including replication, transcription and translation, is characterized by the gradual replacement of mitochondrial-encoded proteins with nuclear-encoded counterparts of diverse evolutionary origins. Although the ancestral enzymes involved in mitochondrial transcription and replication have been replaced early in eukaryotic evolution, mitochondrial translation is still carried out by an apparatus largely inherited from the α-proteobacterial ancestor. However, variation in the complement of mitochondrial-encoded molecules involved in translation, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs), provides evidence for the ongoing evolution of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Here, we investigate the evolution of the mitochondrial translational machinery using recent genomic and transcriptomic data from animals that have experienced the loss of mt-tRNAs, including phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, as well as some representatives of all four classes of Porifera. We focus on four sets of mitochondrial enzymes that directly interact with tRNAs: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase, tRNA(Ile) lysidine synthetase, and RNase P. Our results support the observation that the fate of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins is influenced by the evolution of molecules encoded in mitochondrial DNA, but in a more complex manner than appreciated previously. The data also suggest that relaxed selection on mitochondrial translation rather than coevolution between mitochondrial and nuclear subunits is responsible for elevated rates of evolution in mitochondrial translational proteins.

  17. Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-10-22

    Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content

  18. [Determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal and aquatic products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hailuan; Wu, Congming; Cheng, Linli; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in animal tissues and aquatic products. The analyte was extracted with 0.2 mol/L hydrochloric acid. The extract was cleaned up on a Bond Elut C18 cartridge. Then the eluate was collected and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen gas at 35 degrees C. The residue was redissolved in acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. The identification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization. The quantification was done by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 2-500 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) of MQCA in pork, swine liver, pig kidney, fish, prawn, and crab were 0.90, 1.51, 0.94, 1.04, 1.62 and 1.80 microg/kg, respectively; and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 3.00, 5.02, 3.13, 3.46, 5.40 and 6.00 microg/kg, correspondingly. The recoveries of MQCA in animal tissues and aquatic products were 73.6%-89.0% at the spiked levels of 3-100 microg/kg. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) were less than 15%, and inter-day RSDs (n = 3) were less than 20%. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were fit for the requirements of veterinary drug residue analysis.

  19. The cytochrome P450 genesis locus: the origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R; Goldstone, Jared V; Stegeman, John J

    2013-02-19

    The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the 'cytochrome P450 genesis locus', where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution.

  20. Earth’s oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Erwin, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth’s oxygen cycle—the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism’s life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (∼1.8–0.8 billion years ago). PMID:27457943

  1. Bienestar de los animales acuáticos, con fines de control sanitario (Welfare of the aquatic animals, with ends of sanitary control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Limonta, Manuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara introducir las prácticas y el concepto de bienestar de losanimales acuáticos, la OIE, (2006 ha propuesto trabajar los temasreferidos al transporte por las vías vía terrestre y marítima, y delsacrificio para el consumo humano y el control sanitario. En eltrabajo se refieren las prácticas que pueden ser empleadas en laindustria acuícola, para el sacrificio humanitario de animalesacuáticos describiendo métodos de eutanasia mecánicos, eléctricos,químicos y físicos con fines de control sanitario teniendo en cuenta su bienestar.SummaryTo introduce the practices and the concept of well-being of theaquatic animals, the OIE, (2006 has intended the topics referred tothe transport to work (via terrestrial and marine, and of the sacrifice (I consummate human and for the sanitary control. In the work we refer the common practices that can be employees in the aquaculture industry, for the sacrifice of aquatic animals describing the methods of slaughter mechanic, electric, chemical, physical with ends of sanitary control keeping in mind its welfare.

  2. Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James A; Diezmann, Stephanie; Subaran, Ryan L; Allen, Andria; Lengeler, Klaus B; Dietrich, Fred S; Heitman, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT) loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

  3. Enzyme-coding genes as molecular clocks: the molecular evolution of animal alpha-amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, D A; Benkel, B F; Boer, P H; Genest, Y; Abukashawa, S; Ben-David, G

    1987-01-01

    We constructed a cDNA library for the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. This library was screened using a cloned amylase gene from Drosophila melanogaster as a molecular probe. Beetle amylase cDNA clones were isolated from this bank, and the nucleotide sequence was obtained for a cDNA clone with a coding capacity for 228 amino acids. Both the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence were compared to our recent results for D. melanogaster alpha-amylases, along with published sequences for other alpha-amylases. The results show that animal alpha-amylases are highly conserved over their entire length. A broader comparison, which includes plant and microbial alpha-amylase sequences, indicates that parts of the gene are conserved between prokaryotes, plants, and animals. We discuss the potential importance of this and other enzyme-coding genes for the construction of molecular phylogenies and for the study of the general question of molecular clocks in evolution.

  4. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  5. Conceptual shifts in animal systematics as reflected in the taxonomic history of a common aquatic snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea stagnalis (L., 1758 is among the most widespread and well-studied species of freshwater Mollusca of the northern hemisphere. It is also notoriously known for its huge conchological variability. The history of scientific exploration of this species may be traced back to the end of the 16th century (Ulisse Aldrovandi in Renaissance Italy and, thus, L. stagnalis has been chosen as a proper model taxon to demonstrate how changes in theoretical foundations and methodology of animal taxonomy have been reflected in the practice of classification of a particular taxon, especially on the intraspecific level. In this paper, I depict the long story of recognition of L. stagnalis by naturalists and biologists since the 16th century up to the present day. It is shown that different taxonomic philosophies (essentialism, population thinking, tree thinking led to different views on the species’ internal structure and its systematic position itself. The problem of how to deal with intraspecific variability in the taxonomic arrangement of L. stagnalis has been a central problem that made systematists change their opinion following conceptual shifts in taxonomic theory.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishanu; Bürglin, Thomas R

    2007-08-01

    TALE homeodomain proteins are an ancient subgroup within the group of homeodomain transcription factors that play important roles in animal, plant, and fungal development. We have extracted the full complement of TALE superclass homeobox genes from the genome projects of seven protostomes, seven deuterostomes, and Nematostella. This was supplemented with TALE homeobox genes from additional species and phylogenetic analyses were carried out with 276 sequences. We found 20 homeobox genes and 4 pseudogenes in humans, 21 genes in mouse, 8 genes in Drosophila, and 5 genes plus one truncated gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apart from the previously identified TALE classes MEIS, PBC, IRO, and TGIF, a novel class is identified, termed MOHAWK (MKX). Further, we show that the MEIS class can be divided into two families, PREP and MEIS. Prep genes have previously only been described in vertebrates but are lacking in Drosophila. Here we identify orthologues in other insect taxa as well as in the cnidarian Nematostella. In C. elegans, a divergent Prep protein has lost the homeodomain. Full-length multiple sequence alignment of the protostome and deuterostome sequences allowed us to identify several novel conserved motifs within the MKX, TGIF, and MEIS classes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed fast-evolving PBC class genes; in particular, some X-linked PBC genes in nematodes are subject to rapid evolution. In addition, several instances of gene loss were identified. In conclusion, our comprehensive analysis provides a defining framework for the classification of animal TALE homeobox genes and the understanding of their evolution.

  7. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ANIMAL EFFECTIVES IN EU – 25 AND IN ROMANIA IN THE PERIOD 2002 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ANDA MILIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study will analyze the evolution of the animal production and the animal effectives in the period 2002 – 2004 in EU and in Romania. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the differences between the Romanian and EU zootechnics according to the in formation supplied by the EU and national statistics. We analyzed the zoo-technical production, its percentage from the total agricultural production, the evolution of the animal effectives comparing the present situation in EU – 15, EU – 25 and Romania.

  9. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  10. The apoptotic initiator caspase-8: its functional ubiquity and genetic diversity during animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kouhei; Iwata, Hiroaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Satou, Yutaka; Funayama, Noriko; Nozaki, Masami; Yajima, Mamiko; Nishimura, Osamu; Higuchi, Mayura; Chiba, Kumiko; Yoshimoto, Michi; Kimura, Haruna; Gracey, Andrew Y; Shimizu, Takashi; Tomii, Kentaro; Gotoh, Osamu; Akasaka, Koji; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    The caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play multiple roles in apoptosis, inflammation, and cellular differentiation. Caspase-8 (Casp8), which was first identified in humans, functions as an initiator caspase in the apoptotic signaling mediated by cell-surface death receptors. To understand the evolution of function in the Casp8 protein family, casp8 orthologs were identified from a comprehensive range of vertebrates and invertebrates, including sponges and cnidarians, and characterized at both the gene and protein levels. Some introns have been conserved from cnidarians to mammals, but both losses and gains have also occurred; a new intron arose during teleost evolution, whereas in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the casp8 gene is intronless and is organized in an operon with a neighboring gene. Casp8 activities are near ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Exogenous expression of a representative range of nonmammalian Casp8 proteins in cultured mammalian cells induced cell death, implying that these proteins possess proapoptotic activity. The cnidarian Casp8 proteins differ considerably from their bilaterian counterparts in terms of amino acid residues in the catalytic pocket, but display the same substrate specificity as human CASP8, highlighting the complexity of spatial structural interactions involved in enzymatic activity. Finally, it was confirmed that the interaction with an adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein, is also evolutionarily ancient. Thus, despite structural diversity and cooption to a variety of new functions, the ancient origins and near ubiquitous distribution of this activity across the animal kingdom emphasize the importance and utility of Casp8 as a central component of the metazoan molecular toolkit.

  11. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy...

  12. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  13. Is our heart a well-designed pump? The heart along animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettex, Dominique A; Prêtre, René; Chassot, Pierre-Guy

    2014-09-07

    A carrier system for gases and nutrients became mandatory when primitive animals grew larger and developed different organs. The first circulatory systems are peristaltic tubes pushing slowly the haemolymph into an open vascular tree without capillaries (worms). Arthropods developed contractile bulges on the abdominal aorta assisted by accessory hearts for wings or legs and by abdominal respiratory motions. Two-chamber heart (atrium and ventricle) appeared among mollusks. Vertebrates have a multi-chamber heart and a closed circulation with capillaries. Their heart has two chambers in fishes, three chambers (two atria and one ventricle) in amphibians and reptiles, and four chambers in birds and mammals. The ventricle of reptiles is partially divided in two cavities by an interventricular septum, leaving only a communication of variable size leading to a variable shunt. Blood pressure increases progressively from 15 mmHg (worms) to 170/70 mmHg (birds) according to the increase in metabolic rate. When systemic pressure exceeds 50 mmHg, a lower pressure system appears for the circulation through gills or lungs in order to improve gas exchange. A four-chamber heart allows a complete separation of systemic and pulmonary circuits. This review describes the circulatory pumping systems used in the different classes of animals, their advantages and failures, and the way they have been modified with evolution.

  14. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  15. ASAS Centennial Paper: Animal breeding research and the Journal of Animal Science: A century of co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    2009-01-01

    Animal breeding reports in the Journal of Animal Science (JAS) and in its predecessor, Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, were counted and categorized. In 22 volumes of the Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Production, 155 articles had animal breeding content, of which 54% were research reports, 17% extension communications, and 28% syntheses or reviews. Several of the latter featured advice from the livestock industry to the scientific community. Thirty-one percent of articles concerned swine, whereas beef cattle, dairy cattle, and sheep each accounted for an additional 20%. In the 67 yr of JAS publication, 3,045 research papers were identified with animal breeding content, nearly half of them published since 1990. Growth in publication output was modest during the 1950s, robust in the 1960s through 1980s, moderate in the 1990s, and static in the 2000s. Important topics included genetic resource evaluation (a subject in 55% of all manuscripts), genetic parameter estimation, selection programs, and nonrandom mating systems. Maternal effects and genotype x environment interactions were featured in 17 and 15% of all manuscripts, respectively, whereas 6% dealt with a simply inherited trait. Only 4% of manuscripts included economic analysis of a breeding program or intervention. Interest in molecular biology and biometry has surged in the 1990s and 2000s. Approximately 50% of all papers involved cattle, a fifth of which concerned dairy cattle or beef x dairy crossbreds. A quarter of papers concerned swine, 15% concerned sheep, and 3% considered laboratory rodents, with the proportional contribution of sheep research decreasing across time. Authors from the Midwestern and Southern sections of the American Society of Animal Science had greater proportional contributions than Western and Northeastern section authors, and contributions of university and state experiment station authors outnumbered those of USDA-ARS authors. The

  16. Measurement in Learning Games Evolution: Review of Methodologies Used in Determining Effectiveness of "Math Snacks" Games and Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Karen; Chamberlin, Barbara; Wiburg, Karin; Armstrong, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article captures the evolution of research goals and methodologies used to assess the effectiveness and impact of a set of mathematical educational games and animations for middle-school aged students. The researchers initially proposed using a mixed model research design of formative and summative measures, such as user-testing,…

  17. Studying phenotypic evolution in domestic animals: a walk in the footsteps of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin used domesticated plants and animals as proof of principle for his theory on phenotypic evolution by means of natural selection. Inspired by Darwin's work, we developed an intercross between the wild boar and domestic pigs to study the genetic basis for phenotypic changes during domestication. The difference in coat color is controlled by two major loci. Dominant white color is due to two consecutive mutations in the KIT gene: a 450-kb duplication and a splice mutation. Black spotting is caused by the combined effect of two mutations in MC1R: a missense mutation for dominant black color and a 2-bp insertion leading to a frameshift. A major discovery made using this pedigree is the identification of a single-nucleotide substitution in intron 3 of the gene for insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) that is underlying a quantitative trait locus affecting muscle growth, size of the heart, and fat deposition. The mutation disrupts the interaction with a repressor and leads to threefold increased IGF2 expression in postnatal muscle. In a recent study, we have identified the IGF2 repressor, and this previously unknown protein, named ZBED6, is specific for placental mammals and derived from a domesticated DNA transposon.

  18. The Semi-Aquatic Theory: Semi-Aquatic Evolutionary Phase and Environment, Language Development of Modern Humans. With a Short Epilog on Conceptualized Evolution, Social Ecology and the Quintuple Helix

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Campbell; David F.J. Campbell

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the semi-aquatic theory motivated to provide an explanation for why or how did language of the modern humans develop? Key propositions of this theory are early hominids went through a semi-aquatic evolutionary phase and that this semi-aquatic environment exposed the early hominids to frequent visual reflections of their own image, thus transforming a “potential sense of self†to an “active sense of self†, which supported the language development of early hominids....

  19. Physiological and Nutrient Metabolic Functions of Potassium in Aquatic Animals%钾在水产动物中的生理作用和营养代谢功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟星; 雎敏; 何亚丁; 陈晓明; 钟国防; 华雪铭

    2014-01-01

    钾是水产动物机体内的常量元素,也是维持生命不可或缺的必需物质。它在生物体的生理活动方面起着十分重要的作用,包括维持细胞电压、改变细胞膜电位和产生神经冲动。另外,钾还在氧化还原调节、酸碱平衡和新陈代谢过程中扮演着关键的角色。不同水产动物对钾的需求量不同,钾缺乏或者过量都会对动物机体产生不利的影响。本文主要针对钾在水产动物中的生理作用和营养代谢方面的功能展开综述。%Potassium is a constant element in aquatic animals and also essential to sustain life.Potassium is not only an important factor in physiological activities such as maintaining cell voltage, changing cell membrane potential and generating nerve impulse, but also plays a critical role in redox regulation, acid-base balance and metabolic process.Requirement of potassium differs among aquatic animals.Either dearth or surfeit will have deleterious impact.This article summarized the functions of potassium on physiological processes and nutrient metabolism in aquatic animals.

  20. Application of BIOLOG Automatic Microbiological Assay Systemin the Detection of Aquatic Animals Pathogen%BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统在水产动物病原菌检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童桂香; 韦信贤; 黎小正; 吴祥庆; 庞燕飞

    2011-01-01

    [ ObjectiVe ] The aim was to know the reliability of BIOLOG automatic microbiological assay system in the detection of aquatic animals' pathogen ,providing references for the diagnosis of aquatic animals' bacteriosis. [ Method] 9 strains pathogen isolated from diseased aquatic animals were identified by BIOLOG automatic microbiological assay system,while 4 strains of them were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis,then two identification results of them were compared. [ Result] The results of the 9 strains identified by BIOLOG automatic microbiological assay system were very satisfactory, and the results of the 4 strains which were identified simultaneously by above two methods were coincident completely. [ Conclusion] It was rapid,accurate and convenient to detect pathogen in aquatic animals with the application of BIOLOG automatic microbiologieal assay system.%[目的]了解BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统对水产动物病原菌鉴定结果的可靠性,为水产动物细菌性疾病的诊断提供参考.[方法]选用BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统对9株分离自发病水产动物的病原菌进行鉴定,同时采用16S rDNA序列分析对其中的4株进行鉴定,比较2种鉴定结果的符合率.[结果]采用自动微生物鉴定系统对9株病原菌进行鉴定均取得良好结果,采用16S rDNA序列分析对4株病原菌进行鉴定的结果与应用自动微生物鏊定系统所得结果完全一致,二者符合率为100%.[结论]应用BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统对水产动物病原菌进行鉴定具有操作简便、快速、准确等特点,是实验室鉴定水产动物病原菌的一种可行方法.

  1. Review on visual characteristic measurement research of aquatic animals based on computer vision%基于计算机视觉的水产动物视觉特征测量研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段延娥; 李道亮; 李振波; 傅泽田

    2015-01-01

    In aquaculture, visual attribute information of aquatic animals is the basis of determining growth condition, feed conversion, medication dosage, harvesting date and grading for aquaculture farmers and managers. For improving the quality of aquatic products, the automatic and non-destructive measurement of visual attributes is becoming more and more important in modern fishery. For decades, computer vision, as a non-destructive, rapid, economic, consistent, reliable and objective inspection tool based on image analysis and processing with a variety of applications, has been gradually used in visual quality detection of aquatic animals. Quite a number of researches have highlighted its potential application in aquaculture. Underwater or overwater video/image measurement systems based on image processing technologies have been used widely for automatically counting and measuring fish in aquaculture, fisheries and conservation management. However, the application of computer vision technologies in aquaculture is very challenging because the inspected objects are sensitive, easily stressed and free to move in an environment in which lighting, visibility and stability are generally not controllable, and the camera must be operated underwater or in a wet environment. This review updates and summarizes recent representative researches and industrial solutions proposed in order to evaluate the general trends of computer vision and image processing in the visible range applied for inspection of aquatic animals. On the basis of introducing the mode of operation and the components of a computer vision detection system, this paper presents a review of the overseas and domestic research status in visual attribute measurement of aquatic animals according to inspection tasks that are common to almost all visual attribute detection systems of aquatic animal: measurement of size and shape parameters, estimation of mass and quantification of color, etc. Specially, the techniques

  2. Review of "Animal Models in the Light of Evolution" by Niall Shanks, Ph.D., and C. Ray Greek, M.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolpert Lewis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal Models in the Light of Evolution provides persuasive evidence that animal models should be used with great caution when applying the results to human diseases. Mice and other model animals are both similar and different, in their biology, to humans.

  3. Physiology and evolution of voltage-gated calcium channels in early diverging animal phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium (Cav channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling, gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling, pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling, regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca2+-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when many of these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it.

  4. Physiology and Evolution of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Early Diverging Animal Phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Adriano; Raiss, Hamad; Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca2+-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: Ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera, and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it. PMID:27867359

  5. The evolution of animal welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries-Brazil, China and India-with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise.

  6. Teaching Reform Practice and Exploration on Aquatic Special Animals Culture%《特种水产动物养殖学》课程教学探索与改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 姜宏波; 于业辉; 白文林; 何剑斌

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic Special Animals Culture is an important professional course in aquaculture major. Due to the special geographical regions and practical characters, it is difficult to teach special skill for students in classroom teaching. In order to strengthen the teaching reform of the course of Aquatic Special Animals Culture and cultivate high-quality talents in aquaculture major, the teaching content, teaching method, practical teaching and evaluation mode were explored and reformed. By taking the above measures, the high-quality teaching effect were obtained.%特种水产动物养殖学是水产养殖学专业的重要课程之一,但是,受地理区域性和较强的实践性限制,其课堂教学难度较大。为深化特种水产动物养殖学教学的改革,课程组教师从教学内容、教学方式、实践环节及考核方式等方面进行了大量的探索和改革,并取得了较好的教学效果。

  7. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms.

  8. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a ‘two-speed’ mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species–the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia–the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in

  9. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-10-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in shaping animal

  10. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes. By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections

  11. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal S. Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Picobirnavirus (PBV which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains.

  12. Animal deoxyribonucleoside kinases: 'forward' and 'retrograde' evolution of their substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Sandrini, Michael; Knecht, Wolfgang;

    2004-01-01

    specificity. Recent studies suggest that in the animal lineage one of the brogenitor kinases, the so-called dCK/dGK/TK2-like gene, was duplicated prior to separation of the insect and mammalian lineages. Thereafter, insects lost all but one kinase, dNK (EC 2.7.1.145), which subsequently, through remodelling...

  13. Something gone awry: unsolved mysteries in the evolution of asymmetric animal genitalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The great diversity in genital shape and function across and within the animal phyla hamper the identification of specific evolutionary trends that stretch beyond the limits of the group under study. Asymmetry might be a trait in genital morphology that could play a unifying role in the evolutionary

  14. Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M.; Van Doorn, G.S.; Leimar, O.; Weissing, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years evidence has been accumulating that personalities are not only found in humans(1) but also in a wide range of other animal species(2-8). Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural tendencies and the behaviour in one context is correlated with the behaviour in multiple other

  15. An empiricist guide to animal personality variation in ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha R.X. Dall

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality variation promises to provide significant new insight into the way that behaviour evolves in animals, along with its ecological and evolutionary influences. We strongly advocate more empirical work in this exciting and rapidly expanding research area, but hope that new studies adopt a more hypothesis-driven and/or experimental approach than seems to be usual at the moment. Here we outline what we feel is good practice to the many empiricists that are keen on pursuing work in this field. We highlight the substantial body of theoretical work that exists for providing well-reasoned hypotheses, which new empirical studies should be designed to test. Furthermore, using a brief review of existing work on the behavioural ecology of animal personality variation in the zebra finch - one of the more widely used model systems in this field - we stress the importance of understanding the ecology of the chosen study animal, and the problems that are likely to arise by neglecting to identify or account for the structure of behavioural variation that is often likely to occur.

  16. “水产动物疾病学”实践教学的安全隐患与防范%Hidden Danger and Precaution Measures in Practice Teaching of"Diseases of Aquatic Animals"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈言峰

    2014-01-01

    Much hidden danger in practice teaching of"Diseases of Aquatic Animals" in the university was elaborated and many precaution measures were brought out in this article. These could provide security guarantee for the practice teaching of this course and avoid some dispensable harm and losses.%本文对高等院校“水产动物疾病学”实践教学中存在的诸多安全隐患进行了阐述,并提出了相应的防范措施,旨在为今后该课程的实践教学提供安全保障,力求避免一些不必要的伤害和损失。

  17. 部分水产动物性别决定基因的研究进展%Research Progress of Sex-Determining Genes in Some Aquatic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔培; 金诗语; 李建; 陈师; 王雪; 李永仁(通信作者)

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the sex-determining gene SRY, a number of genes have been identified which are involved with sex determination and gonads development (sex-linked gene, aromatases gene, ZFY, H-Y antigen, Sox, DMRT1, DMY). These findings lay a foundation and provide potential tools for further studies aiming at elucidation of the mechanism of sex determination, but there are still some questions that need further researches. In this review, the progress in the recent decades on sex-determining related genes of aquatic animals was summarized and the application prospects of these results were also discussed. This paper is expected to provide some references for systematic studies on mechanism of aquatic animal sex determination.%继在哺乳动物中发现了性别决定基因SRY后,相关学者还发现了诸如性别连锁基因、芳香化酶基因、锌指结构基因、H-Y抗原、Sox、DMRT1、DMY等许多与性别控制和性腺发育相关的基因,为进一步阐明鱼类性别决定机制提供了基础和手段,但仍存在一些问题有待探索。本文概述了近年来部分水产动物性别决定基因方面的研究动态和进展,并对其应用前景做了简述,以期为系统研究鱼类性别决定机制提供参考。

  18. The role of natural enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in hermaphroditic plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steets, Janette A; Wolf, Diana E; Auld, Josh R; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2007-09-01

    Although a large portion of plant and animal species exhibit intermediate levels of outcrossing, the factors that maintain this wealth of variation are not well understood. Natural enemies are one relatively understudied ecological factor that may influence the evolutionary stability of mixed mating. In this paper, we aim for a conceptual unification of the role of enemies in mating system expression and evolution in both hermaphroditic animals and plants. We review current theory and detail the potential effects of enemies on fundamental mating system parameters. In doing so, we identify situations in which consideration of enemies alters expectations about the stability of mixed mating. Generally, we find that inclusion of the enemy dimension may broaden conditions in which mixed mating systems are evolutionarily stable. Finally, we highlight avenues ripe for future theoretical and empirical work that will advance our understanding of enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in their hosts/victims, including examination of feedback cycles between victims and enemies and quantification of mating system-related parameters in victim populations in the presence and absence of enemies.

  19. The influence of body size and net diversification rate on molecular evolution during the radiation of animal phyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch John J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular clock dates, which place the origin of animal phyla deep in the Precambrian, have been used to reject the hypothesis of a rapid evolutionary radiation of animal phyla supported by the fossil record. One possible explanation of the discrepancy is the potential for fast substitution rates early in the metazoan radiation. However, concerted rate variation, occurring simultaneously in multiple lineages, cannot be detected by "clock tests", and so another way to explore such variation is to look for correlated changes between rates and other biological factors. Here we investigate two possible causes of fast early rates: change in average body size or diversification rate of deep metazoan lineages. Results For nine genes for phylogenetically independent comparisons between 50 metazoan phyla, orders, and classes, we find a significant correlation between average body size and rate of molecular evolution of mitochondrial genes. The data also indicate that diversification rate may have a positive effect on rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution. Conclusion If average body sizes were significantly smaller in the early history of the Metazoa, and if rates of diversification were much higher, then it is possible that mitochondrial genes have undergone a slow-down in evolutionary rate, which could affect date estimates made from these genes.

  20. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development.

  1. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  3. Acute Toxic Effect of Abamectin on Fresh-water Aquatic Animals%阿维菌素对几种淡水水生动物的急性毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡珍; 陆宏达

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the acute toxicity of abamectin to several aquatic animals, it can provide reference for formulating safety concentration value of abamectin on fresh-water aquatic animals. Methods The method of changing solution was used for Cladocera Crustacea with 48 h,and Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling (fry),Gambusia affinis,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry,Macrobrachium nipponense ,Eriocheir sinensis, Cipangopaludina chincasis with 96 h in this experiment. For the experimental animals, every kind of animal was randomly divided into 11 groups(495 animals in each), including nine treatment groups, one control group and one ethanol (hydrotropy agent) group (15 animals in each). The clinic symptoms were observed and mortalities were recorded;median-lethal concentration with 24,48,72,96 h and safety concentration were calculated. Results During the experiment,the mortalities of all animals increased with increase of time and concentration of abamectin. As for Cladocera Crustacea,48 h LC_(50), and safety concentration were 0.000 37 and 0.000 037 mg/L,for Allogynogenetic crucian carp fry, Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling,Gambusia affinis,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry,Macrobrachium nipponense, Eriocheir sinensis,Cipangopaludina chincasis,the values of 96 h LC_(50) were 0.018,0.06,0.08,0.02,0.52,0.25,0.57 mg/L and safety concentrations were 0.001 8,0.006,0.008, 0.002,0.052,0.025,0.057 mg/L,respectively. The results showed that the toxicity of abamectin to seven fresh-water aquatic animals ranked as Cladocera Crustacea,Allogynogenetic crucian carp fry,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry, Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling,Gambusia affinis, Eriocheir sinensis,Macrobrachium nipponense, Cipangopaludina chincasis. Conclusion Abamectin has higher toxicity to fresh-water aquatic animals.%目的 探讨阿维菌素对几种水生动物的急性毒性作用,为制订阿维菌素对淡水水生动物安全浓度的阈值提供参考依据.方法 采用

  4. The evolution and functional diversification of animal microRNA genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Katsutomo Okamura; David M Tyler; Michael D Phillips; Wei-Jen Chung; Eric C Lai

    2008-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of ~22 nucleotide (nt) regulatory RNAs that are pervasive in higher eukaryotic genomes.In order to fully understand their prominence in genomes,it is necessary to elucidate the molecu lar mechanisms that can diversify miRNA activities.In this review,we describe some of the many strategies that allow novel miRNA functions to emerge,with particular emphasis on how miRNA genes evolve in animals.These mechanisms include changes in their sequence,processing,or expression pattern;acquisition of miRNA* functionality or antisense processing;and de novo gene birth.The facility and versatility of miRNAs to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of higher genomes.

  5. Conservation of miRNA-mediated silencing mechanisms across 600 million years of animal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Marta; Kirchner, Marieluise; Aharoni, Reuven; Ciolli Mattioli, Camilla; van den Bruck, David; Gutkovitch, Nadya; Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Selbach, Matthias; Moran, Yehu; Chekulaeva, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay. Further, similarly to bilaterians, GW182 in Nematostella is recruited to the miRNA repression complex via interaction with Argonaute proteins, and functions downstream to repress mRNA. Thus, our work suggests that this mechanism of miRNA-mediated silencing was already active in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. PMID:27604873

  6. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  7. Simultaneous Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V .cholerae from Aquatic Animals by Dulplex PCR%水生动物副溶血弧菌、霍乱弧菌的PCR同步检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    V ibrio parahaemolyticus and V . cholerae were known to be responsible not only for aquatic animals ,but also to be recognized as pathogenic bacteria for human .In this study ,two pairs of specific primers were designed based on toxR gene for V . parahaemolyticus and lolB gene for V .cholerae ,and simultaneous detection of the both V ibrio was established by a dulplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) , amplification of 368 bp and 519 bp gene fragments .The results showed that two purposed gene fragments from mixed chromosomal DNA of V . parahaemolyticus and V . cholerae in one PCR reaction were simultaneously amplified by two PCR primers ,and no positive reaction was detected in 5 other controlled pathogenic bacteria , showing strong specificity , and no interference between the two primers . The sensitivity test of the dulplex PCR revealed that the two primers detected V .parahaemolyticus at a level of as few as 1 .75 × 102 cfu/mL ,and V .cholerae at a level of as few as 1 .25 × 102 cfu/mL .The positive amplified results were observed in the 8 aquatic products infected artificially ,and negative amplifi cation in the no-infected 8 aquatic products . The findings prove that the dulplex PCR is a specific and sensitive method for simultaneous detection of the both V ibrio in one PCR reaction ,and can be used as the detection of food safety ,and diagnose of aquatic animals diseases caused by the both V ibrio .%  副溶血弧菌和霍乱弧菌((non-O1/non-O139型),不仅对水产动物具有广泛和强的致病作用,而且危害人类的健康,是人和水产动物共患病的病原菌。以副溶血弧菌的 toxR 基因及霍乱弧菌的lolB 基因设计2对引物,建立了副溶血弧菌和霍乱弧菌的 PCR 同步检测方法,相应的扩增目的片段分别为368 bp 和519 bp 。在 PCR 反应体系中副溶血弧菌和霍乱弧菌可扩增出目的基因片段,5株对照菌无任何扩增条带,表明所建立的双重 PCR 检测方

  8. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems - is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to mine the reality of free ranging fish in their natural environment. This opens important opportunities to advance several fields of study such as movement ecology and animal social networks in the wild. It is recommended that thorough performance tests are conducted in any study utilizing APTs...... system accuracy (acc) and precision (prec) were Lake1: acc = 3.1 m, prec = 1.1 m; Lake2: acc = 1.0 m, prec = 0.2 m. System performance was negatively affected by structural complexity, i.e., open water habitats yielded far better performance than structurally complex vegetated habitats. Post...

  9. The Effect of Abiotic Factors on Marine Animal Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Wong, W.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    While there is evidence of a general increase in body size over time, there has been no comprehensive attempt to determine the influence of abiotic factors on body size. Although an increase in maximum body size has been observed during and after the Precambrian oxidation events in the Late Archean and at the onset of the Cambrian, these observations took into account the appearance of eukaryotic life and multicellular life respectively. Using a database of marine animal body sizes spanning the Phanerozoic, we conducted a series of Pearson product-moment correlation tests with igneous rock weathering (Strontium-87: Strontium-86), rate of carbon cycle (δ13C), temperature (δ18O), CO2 concentration, sulfate mineral weathering (δ34S), atmospheric oxygen concentration, and sea level as independent variables, and mean body size as the dependent variable. Our test yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.81 between δ18O and body size, and -0.78 between rCO2 and body size; since δ18O is inversely correlated with temperature, these results indicate that both temperature and CO2 have strong inverse relationships with body size. Atmospheric oxygen yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.09, demonstrating that it ceased to play an influential role in shaping body sizes following the start of the Phanerozoic.

  10. Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Economic Aquatic Animals in Huaihe River Segment of Bengbu Sampling Points%淮河蚌埠段采样点鱼虾贝类重金属的富集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明松; 王松; 鲍方印; 崔峰; 康健

    2011-01-01

    应用WFX - 110型原子吸收分光光度法测定淮河蚌埠段污染较重采样点鱼虾贝类不同组织中重金属(Cu,Mn,Zn,Fe,Ni,Cd和Pb)的含量.结果表明:在同一组织中w(Fe),w(Zn),w(Cu),w(Mn)和w(Ni)高于w(Cd)和w(Pb),变化趋势为日本沼虾>河蚌>鱼;鱼虾贝类不同组织重金属含量变化趋势为w(Fe)>w(Mn)>w(Zn)>w(Ni)>w(Cu)>w(Pb)>w(Cd).w(Cu),w(Mn),w(Zn)和w(Fe)在肠、鳃、肝胰脏等组织中较高,在精巢、肌肉等组织中较低;w(Ni),w(Cd)和w(Pb)在肝胰脏、鳃等组织中较高,在肌肉、脑等组织中较低.其中,日本沼虾和河蚌对重金属元素的富集能力明显强于淡水鱼类;而肝胰脏和鳃是鱼虾贝类体内重金属富集的主要部位;其食用部分w(Cd)和w(Pb)均超过无公害食品水产品中有害物质限量( NY 5073-2006)和人体卫生消费标准,因此不宜食用,表明淮河蚌埠段采样点附近生物受重金属影响明显.%The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd and Pb) were measured by WFX-110 atomic absorption spectrophotometry in different tissues of economic aquatic animals from sampling points of the Bengbu segment of the Huaihe River. The results showed that the concentrations of the seven heavy metals were different in the same tissues of different animals. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni were higher than those of Cd and Pb. The variation tendency of heavy metals was in the order of Macrobrachium nipponense >A. Woodiana woodiana > fishes. The content sequence of the seven heavy metals in fish and shellfish was Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd. Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe were mainly accumulated in the intestines, gills, hepatopancreas, etc. , but were lower in the testes, muscles, etc. Tissue of the fish and shellfish. The concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb were higher in the hepatopancreas, gills, etc. , but lower in the muscles, brain and other tissues of the tested animals. Enrichment of heavy metals in

  11. Linking the evolution of habitat choice to ecosystem functioning: direct and indirect effects of pond-reproducing fire salamanders on aquatic-terrestrial subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Timm; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Paetzold, Achim; Weitere, Markus

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in life history traits and in the behaviour of species can potentially alter ecosystem functioning. The reproduction of the central European fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), which usually deposits its larvae in first-order streams, in small pool and pond-like habitats, is an example of a recent local adaptation in this species. Here we aimed to quantify the direct and indirect effects of the predatory larvae on the aquatic food webs in the ponds and on the flux of matter between the ponds and adjacent terrestrial habitats. Our estimates are based on biomass data of the present pond fauna as well as on the analysis of stomach content data, growth rates and population dynamics of the salamander larvae in pond habitats. By their deposition of larvae in early spring, female fire salamanders import between 0.07 and 2.86 g dry mass m(-2) larval biomass into the ponds. Due to high mortality rates in the larval phase and the relatively small size at metamorphosis of the pond-adapted salamanders compared to stream-adapted ones, the biomass export of the metamorphosed salamanders clearly falls below the initial biomass import. Catastrophic events such as high water temperatures and low oxygen levels may even occasionally result in mass mortalities of salamander larvae and thus in a net 100 % import of the salamander biomass into the pond food webs. Indirect effects further accelerate this net import of matter into the aquatic habitat, e.g. the feeding of salamanders on aquatic insect larvae with the emergence of terrestrial adults-thus preventing export-and on terrestrial organisms that fall on the water surface (supporting import). This study demonstrates that the adaptation of salamanders to pond reproduction can alter food web linkages across ecosystem boundaries by enhancing the flux of materials and energy from terrestrial (i.e. forest) to the aquatic (i.e. pond) habitat.

  12. Interactions of aquatic animals with the ORPC OCGen® in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring behavior change and assessing the probability of encounter with a deployed MHK device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). School of Marine Sciences; Staines, Garrett [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viehman, Haley [Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada); Shen, Haixue [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Altenritter, Megan [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Commercial viability of the marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry is contingent on numerous and diverse factors. A major factor is the effects deployed devices have on animals. This factor is multi-faceted since it is dependent on the availability of appropriate scientific approaches to detect these effects. One of the animal groups with overlapping distributions of MHK devices are fishes. As such, individual fish behavior is likely to be influenced by the presence and operation of MHK devices. Depending on the scale of deployment there are implications for changes to essential fish habitat and effects that can be explored during deployment of a single device yet most changes are likely to be realized when multiple devices are deployed over large areas. It is not only important to document these effects and examine the need for mitigation, but also determine whether the methods involved can be used within the economic constraints of this nascent industry. The results presented in this report benefit the MHK industry by providing transferrable environmental monitoring approaches for MHK projects, specifically related to the interactions between static and dynamic tidal turbines and fish. In addition, some of the data can be used to generalize conditions (e.g., the temporal periodicity of fish presence in tidal regions and probability of fish encountering a device) at other MHK sites with similar physical conditions and fish assemblages. Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) deployed and tested a prototype OCGen® tidal module in Cobscook Bay, Maine, in the summer of 2014. University of Maine researchers proposed an approach to inform other researchers, regulators, and industry members of the effects of this deployment on fish. While the approach was specifically applied to the OCGen® module, results are applicable to other pilot projects and inform future array deployments. Research funded under this grant allowed us to quantify fish presence as well as

  13. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  14. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; Iwaniec, U. T.; McNamra, A. J.; Turner, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  15. A review on the effects of hypoxia on aquatic animals in estuaries%河口及近岸海域低氧环境对水生动物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾孝连; 徐兆礼

    2009-01-01

    水体溶解氧浓度低于2 mg/L时,通常称水体为低氧或缺氧(hypoxia).目前,中国的长江口等许多河口及近岸海域的底层水体出现了季节性低氧区,这些低氧区对鱼类等水生动物及海洋生态环境的影响目前仍不十分清楚,这应引起政府及研究部门的关注.本文综述了低氧区的成因,分析了低氧对水生动物的影响,特别是近年来研究较多的水生动物对低氧的分子响应研究进展,最后综述了低氧对海洋生态系统的影响.我国未来的研究应注重低氧区海洋物理、海洋生物等基础数据的收集,同时,要加强低氧区对我国主要渔场影响的研究.%Hypoxia is defined as dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L in the water. In recent years, due to excessive anthropogenic input of nutrients, organic matters, and global warming, hypoxia zones have been expanding year by year all over the world. Hypoxia has threatened the survival of marine animals, destroyed marine ecosystem and reduced fishing production. In this paper, we analyzed the causes of hypoxia and its' effects on marine animals and ecosystem. Hypoxia mainly results from the accumulative oxygen consumption of organism and density stratification of the water column, which restricts water exchange and oxygen supply. However, in more cases hypoxia is due to excessive anthropogenic input of nutrients and organic matters into water bodies where there is poor circulation. This paper also reviewed the effects of hypoxia on marine animals. Hypoxia affects survival, growth, reproduction, behavior, physiology and some gene expression of aquatic animals. Hypoxia changes the composition and structure of marine benthic community, and also alters the structure of food chain and energy flow of marine ecosystem. Finally, we prospected the research development tendency.

  16. Animal lectins as self/non-self recognition molecules. Biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding their biological roles and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, G R; Ahmed, H; Fink, N E; Elola, M T; Marsh, A G; Snowden, A; Odom, E W

    1994-04-15

    In recent years, the significant contributions from molecular research studies on animal lectins have elucidated structural aspects and provided clues not only to their evolution but also to their multiple biological functions. The experimental evidence has suggested that distinct, and probably unrelated, groups of molecules are included under the term "lectin." Within the invertebrate taxa, major groups of lectins can be identified: One group would include lectins that show significant homology to membrane-integrated or soluble vertebrate C-type lectins. The second would include those beta-galactosyl-specific lectins homologous to the S-type vertebrate lectins. The third group would be constituted by lectins that show homology to vertebrate pentraxins that exhibit lectin-like properties, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Finally, there are examples that do not exhibit similarities to any of the aforementioned categories. Moreover, the vast majority of invertebrate lectins described so far cannot yet be placed in one or another group because of the lack of information regarding their primary structure. (See Table 1.) Animal lectins do not express a recombinatorial diversity like that of antibodies, but a limited diversity in recognition capabilities would be accomplished by the occurrence of multiple lectins with distinct specificities, the presence of more than one binding site, specific for different carbohydrates in a single molecule, and by certain "flexibility" of the binding sites that would allow the recognition of a range of structurally related carbohydrates. In order to identify the lectins' "natural" ligands, we have investigated the interactions between those proteins and the putative endogenous or exogenous glycosylated substances or cells that may be relevant to their biological function. Results from these studies, together with information on the biochemical properties of invertebrate and vertebrate lectins, including their structural

  17. Upper Secondary and First-Year University Students' Explanations of Animal Behaviour: To What Extent Are Tinbergen's Four Questions about Causation, Ontogeny, Function and Evolution, Represented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Rianne; Desclée, Mathieu; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Niko Tinbergen proposed a framework for the scientific study of animal behaviour by outlining four questions that should be answered to have a complete understanding: causation, ontogeny, function and evolution. At present, Tinbergen's framework is still considered the best way to guide animal…

  18. Study on the mercury evolution in a laboratory multi specific aquatic system by using instrumental neutron activation analysis; Estudio de la evolucion del mercurio en un sistema acuatico de laboratorio multiespecifico utilizando analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubach, Debora; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Analisis por Activacion Nautronica; Pechen de d`Angelo, Ana; Ferrari, Ana; Venturino, Andres [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary study on the evolution of mercury in the organisms of a laboratory multi specific aquatic system was performed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Some of the possible effects of mercury toxicity were monitored by analyzing early biochemical indicators. The system consisted of an aquarium with bed sediments, aquatic macrophytes (Myriophyllum sp.), bivalves (Diplodom sp.) and exotic fish, simulating a long term contamination situation of unknown causes, where the sediments are the contaminant reservoir. Samples of the abiotic components of the system were analyzed at the beginning of the experiment, and again when the organisms were sampled. Fish carcass, kidney and liver samples, bivalve hepatopancreas, and whole macrophytes were extracted ana analyzed for mercury and other elements by INAA at the beginning of the experiment, and after 48 and 96 hours. Since some crustal elements such as Sc and La were detected in the hepatopancreas and macrophyte samples, enrichment factors for mercury, with respect to the <63 {mu}m sediment fraction, were computed to discriminate the metabolized Hg content from that associated to the particulate. The hepatopancreas index, some indicators of oxidative stress ({gamma}-Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine content and lipid peroxidation) and brain acetilcolinesterasa were measured as early indicators of toxicity. (author) 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Evolution of bright colours in animals: worlds of prohibition and oblivion [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir J. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the ability to hide in plain sight provides a major selective advantage to both prey and predator species, the emergence of the striking colouration of some animal species (such as many coral reef fish represents an evolutionary conundrum that remains unsolved to date. Here I propose a framework by which conspicuous colours can emerge when the selective pressures for camouflage are relaxed (1 because camouflage is not essential under specific prey/predator conditions or (2 due to the impossibility of reducing the signal-to-background noise in the environment. The first case is found among non-predator-species that possess effective defences against predators (hence a “Carefree World”, such as the strong macaws’ beaks and the flight abilities of hummingbirds. The second case is found in diurnal mobile fish of coral reef communities, which swim in clear waters against highly contrasting and unpredictable background (hence an "Hyper-Visible World”. In those contexts the selective pressures that usually come secondary to camouflage (such as sexual, warning, species recognition or territorial display are free to drive the evolution of brilliant and diverse colouration. This theoretical framework can also be useful for studying the conditions that allow for conspicuousness in other sensory contexts (acoustic, chemical, electrical, etc..

  20. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Underwater plants are a valuable part of the Great Lakes ecosystem, providing food and shelter for aquatic animals. Aquatic plants also help stabilize sediments, thereby reducing shoreline erosion. Annual fall die-offs of underwater plants provide food and shelter for overwintering small aquatic animals such as insects, snails, and freshwater shrimp.

  1. 西北地区名特水产动物养殖学实践课程的改革探索%Reform Practice Courses of Aquatic Special Animals Culture in Northwest Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊冬梅; 李杨; 凌飞

    2014-01-01

    名特水产动物养殖学是水产养殖专业教育中一门重要的专业课,而实践课程是对学生专业技能和动手能力培养的关键环节。为了提高教学质量,让学生更好地掌握名特经济鱼类的人工繁育、苗种培育和人工养殖技术,本文结合秦岭地域特色对该课程实践部分的项目设置和教学方式方法进行了一些改革和探索,使地处西北的水产专业本科生学到过硬的名优鱼类的增养殖技术。%The course of Aquatic Special Animals Culture in aquaculture is an important professional course ,and the practice part is the key to train professional skills and manipulative ability for students .In order to improve the quality of teaching effect and make the students better grasp the ar‐tificial breeding ,larval rearing and artificial breeding technology of special economic fishes ,the aim of this paper is to discuss how to reform the teaching methods of practical part of the course ,adapting to geographical features of Qinling area .The undergraduate students located in the northwest will learn excellent aquaculture technology by means of the reform .

  2. Development and evaluation of a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip LAMP) for rapid and simultaneous detection of ten pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian-Jin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jiong; Wang, Rui-Na; Shi, Yu-Hong; Li, Chang-Hong; Zhang, De-Min; Yan, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Rapid, low-cost, and user-friendly strategies are urgently needed for early disease diagnosis and timely treatment, particularly for on-site screening of pathogens in aquaculture. In this study, we successfully developed a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip LAMP), which was capable of simultaneously detecting 10 pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, i.e., Nocardia seriolae, Pseudomonas putida, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio rotiferianus, and Vibrio vulnificus. The assay provided a nearly-automated approach, with only a single pipetting step per chip for sample dispensing. This technique could achieve limits of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.40 to 6.42pg per 1.414μL reaction in less than 30 min. The robust reproducibility was demonstrated by a little variation among duplications for each bacterium with the coefficient of variation (CV) for time to positive (Tp) value less than 0.10. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of this on-chip LAMP assay in detecting field samples were 96.2% and 93.8% by comparison with conventional microbiological methods. Compared with other well-known techniques, on-chip LAMP assay provides low sample and reagent consumption, ease-of-use, accelerated analysis, multiple bacteria and on-site detection, and high reproducibility, indicating that such a technique would be applicable for on-site detection and routine monitoring of multiple pathogens in aquaculture.

  3. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  4. Cetacean brains: how aquatic are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2007-06-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to a fully aquatic lifestyle represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Two of the most salient features of modern cetaceans are their fully aquatic lifestyle and their large brains. This review article will offer an overview of comparative neuroanatomical research on aquatic mammals, including analyses of odontocete cetacean, sirenian, pinniped, and fossil archaeocete brains. In particular, the question of whether a relationship exists between being fully aquatic and having a large brain is addressed. It has been hypothesized that the large, well-developed cetacean brain is a direct product of adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. The current consensus is that the paleontological evidence on brain size evolution in cetaceans is not consistent with this hypothesis. Cetacean brain enlargement took place millions of years after adaptation to a fully aquatic existence. Neuroanatomical comparisons with sirenians and pinnipeds provide no evidence for the idea that the odontocete's large brain, high encephalization level, and extreme neocortical gyrification is an adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. Although echolocation has been suggested as a reason for the high encephalization level in odontocetes, it should be noted that not all aquatic mammals echolocate and echolocating terrestrial mammals (e.g., bats) are not particularly highly encephalized. Echolocation is not a requirement of a fully aquatic lifestyle and, thus, cannot be considered a sole effect of aquaticism on brain enlargement. These results indicate that the high encephalization level of odontocetes is likely related to their socially complex lifestyle patterns that transcend the influence of an aquatic environment.

  5. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  6. USE OF CONCRETE TANKS AS A PATTERN FOR RESEARCH WITH AQUATIC ANIMALS ESTUDO DE UMA SÉRIE DE TANQUES DE ALVENARIA COMO MODELO PARA CONDUÇÃO DE EXPERIMENTOS COM ORGANISMOS AQUÁTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Machado Cantisani Pádua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Water quality determines the success or failure of fish researches. A series of rectangular concrete tanks covered with nylon nets were evaluated as a pattern for conduction essay with aquatic animals, when environment conditions must be the same. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were observed. The tanks were populated with ten juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus which were fed ad libitum twice a day. The experiment was carried out between November and February 1992/1993. In the middle of experiment five fishes were slaughtered in order to keep the biomass adequate until the end (87 days. Unsuitable limnologic conditions were detected in the lower waterflow tanks. The increased biomass and decreased waterflow were related to increased mortality and diseases. This kind of serial tanks building allows homogeneous environmental conditions and the waterflow was the parameter which must be carefully monitored.

    KEY-WORDS: Tanks; water quality; fish.

    Avaliou-se uma série de tanques de alvenaria, cobertos com tela de nylon, como modelo para ensaios com animais aquáticos, em que são exigidas igualdades das condições ambientais. Foram observados alguns parâmetros físicos e químicos da água. Os tanques foram povoados com dez juvenis de pacu, e a ração fornecida ad libitum duas vezes ao dia. O experimento foi conduzido entre novembro e fevereiro de 1992/1993. Na metade do experimento cinco peixes foram retirados para se manter a biomassa adequada até o final, aos 87 dias. Condições limnológicas inadequadas foram observadas nos tanques com menor taxa de renovação de água. O aumento da biomassa e o decréscimo da circulação de água foram relacionados com o aumento da mortalidade e doenças. Este

  7. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment.

  8. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from various aquatic animals in Guangdong Province%广东省水产动物源气单胞菌对抗菌药物的耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅丽; 邓玉婷; 姜兰; 谭爱萍; 薛慧娟; 王伟利; 罗理; 赵飞

    2013-01-01

    为了解广东地区水产动物源气单胞菌的耐药情况,采用K-B纸片法测定了112株1995-2012年来源于不同种类患病水产动物的气单胞菌对20种抗菌药的耐药性,数据用WHONET 5.6耐药监测软件分析.结果显示,气单胞菌对氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率分别高达85.7%和79.5%,其次对利福平、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、链霉素、萘啶酸、磺胺类、头孢西丁、四环素和磺胺甲基异恶唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率分别达57.1%、51.8%、49.1%、44.6%、31.2%、28.6%、28.6%和21.4%;对氟喹诺酮类(氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、环丙沙星)、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、亚胺培南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因、氯霉素和多西环素相对敏感.比较不同来源气单胞菌的耐药情况,结果显示爬行、两栖动物和观赏鱼来源的分离菌株对氟喹诺酮类、头孢类等药物的耐药率比养殖鱼、虾类的高;气单胞菌对常用抗菌药呈现不同程度的耐药,不同来源的气单胞菌的耐药率亦不尽相同.水产动物源气单胞菌存在多重耐药菌株应引起重视,今后在气单胞菌疾病防治方面要慎重用药,并且有必要开展水产动物源的细菌耐药性监测,以指导水产养殖合理用药.%112 Aeromonas strains were isolated from various aquatic animals at different time in Guangdong province. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to detect the resistance of 112 strains against 20 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Resistance rates were analyzed by WHONET 5. 6 software. The overall resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (85. 7%) and cephalothin (79. 5%) followed by rifampicin (57.1% ) ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (51. 8% ) .streptomycin (49. 1% ) ,sulfonamides (31. 2% ) ,cefoxitin (28. 6% ) , tetracycline (28.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (21.4%). Aeromonas isolates were suseptible to most of antimicrobial agents and a low incidence ( < 10% ) of resistance to imipenem (0

  10. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  11. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  12. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  13. Introduction to the Symposium-Unsteady Aquatic Locomotion with Respect to Eco-Design and Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank E; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    The importance of unsteadiness in the aquatic environment has come to the forefront in understanding locomotor mechanics in nature. The impact of unsteadiness, starting with control of posture and trajectories during aquatic locomotion, is ultimately expressed in energy costs, morphology, and fitness. Unsteadiness from both internal and external perturbations for aquatic animals is important at scales ranging from micro to macro to global.

  14. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic Invertebrate Species... endemic species of fish, plants, mollusks, and crustaceans, including the six endemic aquatic invertebrate... flowing by 1962 (Brune 1981, p. 358), eliminating all aquatic-dependent plants and animals (Scudday...

  15. Unexpected skeletal histology of an ichthyosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia: implications for evolution of bone microstructure among secondary aquatic tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevi, Marianella; Fernández, Marta S.

    2012-03-01

    During the Mesozoic, one of the most significant evolutionary processes was the secondary adaptation of tetrapods to life in water. Several non-related lineages invaded from the terrestrial realms and from the oceans of the entire world. Among these lineages, ichthyosaurs were particularly successful. Advance parvipelvian ichthyosaurs were the first tetrapods to evolve a fish-shaped body profile. The deep skeletal modifications of their bodies, as well as their biology, depict advance ichthyosaurs as the paradigm of secondary adaptation of reptiles to marine life. Functional inferences point to them as off-shore cruising forms, similar to a living tuna, and some of them were capable of deep diving. Bone histology of some genera such as Temnodontosaurus, Stenopterygius, Ichthyosaurus, and Caypullisaurus, characterized by overall cancellous bone, is consistent with the idea of a fish-shaped ichthyosaurs as fast and far cruisers. Here, we provide histological examination of the ribs of the Middle Jurassic parvipelvian Mollesaurus. Contrasting with the bone histology of other parvipelvian, Mollesaurus ribs are characterized by a compact and thick cortex. Our data indicate that the rib cage was heavy and suggest that not all advanced ichthyosaurs were fast cruisers. The compact and dense ribs in these parvipelvian show that advance ichthyosaurs were ecologically more diverse than previously thought and that the lightening of the skeleton reversed, as also occurred in the evolution of cetacean, at least once along the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs.

  16. Animal Mitochondrial DNA as We Do Not Know It: mt-Genome Organization and Evolution in Nonbilaterian Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Dennis V; Pett, Walker

    2016-09-26

    Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is commonly described as a small, circular molecule that is conserved in size, gene content, and organization. Data collected in the last decade have challenged this view by revealing considerable diversity in animal mitochondrial genome organization. Much of this diversity has been found in nonbilaterian animals (phyla Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Porifera), which, from a phylogenetic perspective, form the main branches of the animal tree along with Bilateria. Within these groups, mt-genomes are characterized by varying numbers of both linear and circular chromosomes, extra genes (e.g. atp9, polB, tatC), large variation in the number of encoded mitochondrial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) (0-25), at least seven different genetic codes, presence/absence of introns, tRNA and mRNA editing, fragmented ribosomal RNA genes, translational frameshifting, highly variable substitution rates, and a large range of genome sizes. This newly discovered diversity allows a better understanding of the evolutionary plasticity and conservation of animal mtDNA and provides insights into the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms shaping mitochondrial genomes.

  17. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Adam; Kim, Myungjin; Juarez, Michelle T; Brody, Stuart; McGinnis, William

    2012-01-01

    The Grainy head (GRH) family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl). We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2) mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  18. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paré

    Full Text Available The Grainy head (GRH family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl. We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2 mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  19. Summary Report Panel 3: Gap Analysis from the Perspective of Animal Biology: Results of the Panel Discussion from the Third International Conference on the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jill; Luczkovich, Joseph; Cato, Douglas; Dunlop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is little disagreement among regulators, scientists, and other interested parties as to the complexity surrounding our understanding of the potential and realized impacts of anthropogenic noise on marine life. Given the challenges of research in an aquatic environment, the breadth of species of interest and the range of human-made noise-producing activities, it is difficult at best to identify the most important science needs that improve our understanding and ultimately regulation of the issue.

  20. Edaphics, active tectonics and animal movements in the Kenyan Rift - implications for early human evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Rucina, Stephen; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2014-05-01

    The quality of soils (edaphics) and the associated vegetation strongly controls the health of grazing animals. Until now, this has hardly been appreciated by paleo-anthropologists who only take into account the availability of water and vegetation in landscape reconstruction attempts. A lack of understanding the importance of the edaphics of a region greatly limits interpretations of the relation between our ancestors and animals over the last few million years. If a region lacks vital trace elements then wild grazing and browsing animals will avoid it and go to considerable length and take major risks to seek out better pasture. As a consequence animals must move around the landscape at different times of the year. In complex landscapes, such as tectonically active rifts, hominins can use advanced group behaviour to gain strategic advantage for hunting. Our study in the southern Kenya rift in the Lake Magadi region shows that the edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of an early hominin site at Mt. Olorgesailie. We carried out field analysis based on studying the relationship between the geology and soil development as well as the tectonic geomorphology to identify 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We further sampled different soils that developed on the volcanic bedrock and sediment sources of the region and interviewed the local Maasai shepherds to learn about present-day good and bad grazing sites. At the Olorgesailie site the rift valley floor is covered with flood trachytes; basalts only occur at Mt. Olorgesailie and farther east up the rift flank. The hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. The lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by basalt flows from Mt. Olorgesailie

  1. Evolution of the cooperation between the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlingieri, F; Bruno, A; Njeumi, F; Cavirani, S

    2007-12-01

    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization recognises the international standards adopted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in matters of animal health and zoonoses and those adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the Commission) in matters of food safety. The importance of the production phase in ensuring food safety has been acknowledged and the OIE and the Commission have been working to strengthen their cooperation since 2001, with the intent of promoting a holistic approach to the food chain. Procedures for exchanging information are in place, communication has improved and there is cross-referencing between the respective international standards of the two organisations. Good examples of collaboration in the development of standards include the texts produced by the two organisations regarding meat inspection and animal/product identification and traceability. At the same time, there is still room for improving cooperation and the legal services of the OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization are expected to work together to find options for closer collaboration between the OIE and the Commission.

  2. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  3. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  4. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  5. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  6. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and tra...

  7. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  8. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zo Young-Gun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx, the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic

  9. The oldest known priapulid-like scalidophoran animal and its implications for the early evolution of cycloneuralians and ecdysozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhuan; Xiao, Shuhai; Shao, Tiequan; Broce, Jesse; Zhang, Huaqiao

    2014-05-01

    Morphological phylogenetic analyses suggest that scalidophorans (priapulids, loriciferans, and kinorhynchs) and nematoids (nematodes and nematomorphs) form the ecdysozoan clade Cycloneuralia, which is a sister group to panarthropods. It has been proposed that extant priapulids and Cambrian priapulid-like scalidophorans, because of their conserved evolution, have the potential to illuminate the ancestral morphology, ecology, and developmental biology of highly derived ecdysozoans such as nematods and arthropods. As such, Cambrian fossils, particularly Markuelia and possibly olivooids, can inform the early evolution of scalidophorans, cycloneuralians, and ecdysozoans. However, the scalidophoran Markuelia is known exclusively as embryo fossils, and the olivooids have been alternatively interpreted as cnidarians or cycloneuralians. Here, we describe a post-embryonic scalidophoran fossil Eopriapulites sphinx new genus and species, which represents the oldest known scalidophoran, from the early Cambrian Period (∼535 Ma) in South China. E. sphinx is similar to modern scalidophorans in having an introvert armed with hollow scalids, a collar with coronal scalids, and a pharynx with pharyngeal teeth, but its scalids and pharyngeal teeth are arranged in a hexaradial pattern. Phylogenetically resolved as a stem-group scalidophoran, E. sphinx shares a hexaradial pattern with the hexaradial arrangement of certain anatomical structures in kinorhynchs, loriciferans, nematoids, and Cambrian fossils such as Eolympia pediculata, which could also be a scalidophoran. Thus, the bodyplan of ancestral cycloneuralians may have had a component of hexaradial symmetry (i.e., some but not necessarily all anatomical parts are hexaradially arranged). If panarthropods are nested within paraphyletic cycloneuralians, as several molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest, the ancestral ecdysozoans may have been a legless worm possibly with a component of hexaradial symmetry.

  10. Light entrained rhythmic gene expression in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: the evolution of the animal circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Reitzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology are the observable phenotypes from cycles in expression of, interactions between, and degradation of the underlying molecular components. In bilaterian animals, the core molecular components include Timeless-Timeout, photoreceptive cryptochromes, and several members of the basic-loop-helix-Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS family. While many of core circadian genes are conserved throughout the Bilateria, their specific roles vary among species. Here, we identify and experimentally study the rhythmic gene expression of conserved circadian clock members in a sea anemone in order to characterize this gene network in a member of the phylum Cnidaria and to infer critical components of the clockwork used in the last common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified homologs of circadian regulatory genes in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, including a gene most similar to Timeout, three cryptochromes, and several key bHLH-PAS transcription factors. We then maintained N. vectensis either in complete darkness or in a 12 hour light: 12 hour dark cycle in three different light treatments (blue only, full spectrum, blue-depleted. Gene expression varied in response to light cycle and light treatment, with a particularly strong pattern observed for NvClock. The cryptochromes more closely related to the light-sensitive clade of cryptochromes were upregulated in light treatments that included blue wavelengths. With co-immunoprecipitation, we determined that heterodimerization between CLOCK and CYCLE is conserved within N. vectensis. Additionally, we identified E-box motifs, DNA sequences recognized by the CLOCK:CYCLE heterodimer, upstream of genes showing rhythmic expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals conserved molecular and functional components of the circadian clock that were in place at the divergence of the Cnidaria and Bilateria, suggesting

  11. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Comet assay is a novel biological analysis, which is a sensitive, flexible, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to assess aquatic genotoxicant. Since Singh and co-workers developed the method in 1988, its use has increased exponentially in various fields. This review discourses on the application of this assay in aquatic ecosystems. Various types of cells from various aquatic organisms have been tested by various genotoxicant both direct- and indirect-acting using the comet assay. The applications of this assay suggest that it is a useful assay to assess aquatic genotoxicants. However, there are some factors, which should be taken into account when using this assay as aquatic ecotoxicological assessment device such as inter-animal and cell variability.

  12. Quality of mixing in a stired bioreactor used for animal cells culture: heterogeneities in a lab scale bioreactor and evolution of mixing time with scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon, ML.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal cells are industrially cultivated inside stirred bioreactors to produce proteinic compounds. Due to the use of mild agitation conditions in order to limit mechanical constraints, the homogeneity of the culture medium can be far from perfect. This study has therefore two objectives: the global characterization of the mixing via the mixing time and the local description of concentration fields. The mixing time is measured by conductimetry inside 20 l, 80 l, 600 l tanks. The Grenville correlation is adjusted on these experimental measurements to improve the prediction of the mixing time during the scale-up of the process. The concentration fields are visualized by the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (P.L.I.F. technique in the 20 l tank. This part of the study is focused on the time evolution of the maximum value of the tracer concentration inside measurement planes and of the numerical distribution of theses concentration fields.

  13. Genetic characterization of flea-derived Bartonella species from native animals in Australia suggests host-parasite co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; McInnes, Linda M; Burmej, Halina; Bennett, Mark D; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Fleas are important arthropod vectors for a variety of diseases in veterinary and human medicine, and bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are among the organisms most commonly transmitted by these ectoparasites. Recently, a number of novel Bartonella species and novel species candidates have been reported in marsupial fleas in Australia. In the present study the genetic diversity of marsupial fleas was investigated; 10 species of fleas were collected from seven different marsupial and placental mammal hosts in Western Australia including woylies (Bettongia penicillata), western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville), mardos (Antechinus flavipes), bush rats (Rattus fuscipes), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), feral cats (Felis catus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 18S rRNA genes from these fleas was performed. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of the COI and 18S rRNA genes revealed a close genetic relationship between marsupial fleas, with Pygiopsylla hilli from woylies, Pygiopsylla tunneyi from western barred bandicoots and Acanthopsylla jordani from mardos, forming a separate cluster from fleas collected from the placental mammals in the same geographical area. The clustering of Bartonella species with their marsupial flea hosts suggests co-evolution of marsupial hosts, marsupial fleas and Bartonella species in Australia.

  14. Anthropometric evolution and classification of pre-scholar and scholar students from public education: Relation to food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Pissaia Savitsky

    2012-12-01

    decrease on the stature deficit on children from 0 to 6 years old (p<0.01 and a decrease on low weight (p<0.01, of weight and height of children from 6 to 12 years old (p=0.97. Results show an increase on children´s weight, especially on children under 6 years old, where there is a need for preventive attitudes, in order to reduce the DCNT. In this context the increase on quality and/or quantity of animal origin products in the children´s diet at school must be evaluated and reformulated substituting carbohydrates for animal food from several sources (poultry, fish, bovine meat, eggs, milk, etc. Sustainability of public education has to deal with nutritional factors and the end of the animal food chain to aim better education and better citizens.

  15. Evolution of protein N-glycosylation process in Golgi apparatus which shapes diversity of protein N-glycan structures in plants, animals and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Hong; Gai, Jiangtao; Tian, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Yongzhi; Jian, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Protein N-glycosylation (PNG) is crucial for protein folding and enzymatic activities, and has remarkable diversity among eukaryotic species. Little is known of how unique PNG mechanisms arose and evolved in eukaryotes. Here we demonstrate a picture of onset and evolution of PNG components in Golgi apparatus that shaped diversity of eukaryotic protein N-glycan structures, with an emphasis on roles that domain emergence and combination played on PNG evolution. 23 domains were identified from 24 known PNG genes, most of which could be classified into a single clan, indicating a single evolutionary source for the majority of the genes. From 153 species, 4491 sequences containing the domains were retrieved, based on which we analyzed distribution of domains among eukaryotic species. Two domains in GnTV are restricted to specific eukaryotic domains, while 10 domains distribute not only in species where certain unique PNG reactions occur and thus genes harboring these domains are supoosed to be present, but in other ehkaryotic lineages. Notably, two domains harbored by β-1,3 galactosyltransferase, an essential enzyme in forming plant-specific Lea structure, were present in separated genes in fungi and animals, suggesting its emergence as a result of domain shuffling. PMID:28074929

  16. Comparative Genomics Including the Early-Diverging Smut Fungus Ceraceosorus bombacis Reveals Signatures of Parallel Evolution within Plant and Animal Pathogens of Fungi and Oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Riess, Kai; Bauer, Robert; Thines, Marco

    2015-08-27

    Ceraceosorus bombacis is an early-diverging lineage of smut fungi and a pathogen of cotton trees (Bombax ceiba). To study the evolutionary genomics of smut fungi in comparison with other fungal and oomycete pathogens, the genome of C. bombacis was sequenced and comparative genomic analyses were performed. The genome of 26.09 Mb encodes for 8,024 proteins, of which 576 are putative-secreted effector proteins (PSEPs). Orthology analysis revealed 30 ortholog PSEPs among six Ustilaginomycotina genomes, the largest groups of which are lytic enzymes, such as aspartic peptidase and glycoside hydrolase. Positive selection analyses revealed the highest percentage of positively selected PSEPs in C. bombacis compared with other Ustilaginomycotina genomes. Metabolic pathway analyses revealed the absence of genes encoding for nitrite and nitrate reductase in the genome of the human skin pathogen Malassezia globosa, but these enzymes are present in the sequenced plant pathogens in smut fungi. Interestingly, these genes are also absent in cultivable oomycete animal pathogens, while nitrate reductase has been lost in cultivable oomycete plant pathogens. Similar patterns were also observed for obligate biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens. Furthermore, it was found that both fungal and oomycete animal pathogen genomes are lacking cutinases and pectinesterases. Overall, these findings highlight the parallel evolution of certain genomic traits, revealing potential common evolutionary trajectories among fungal and oomycete pathogens, shaping the pathogen genomes according to their lifestyle.

  17. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  19. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  20. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Kurtović

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system. Parasitic diseases occur most frequently as a result of human role in parasites life cycles. The prevalence is further increased by consuming raw fish and shellfish. The main feature of bacterial infections is facultative pathogenicity of most ethiological agents. In most cases disease occures as a result of decreased immunoreactivity. Several bacteria are, however, hightly pathogenic and capable of causing high morbidity and mortality in human. To date it has not been reported the case of human infection with viruses specific for aquatic organisms. Human infections are caused with human viruses and aquatic organisms play role only as vechicles. The greatest risk in that respect present shellfish. Fish and particularly shellfish are likely to cause food poisoning in humans. In most cases the cause are toxins of phithoplancton origins accumulating in shellfish and fish.

  1. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  2. 动物中microRNA的保守性和进化历程%Conservation and Evolution of microRNAs in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 张群; 梁宇君; 张士璀

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs,~22 nucleotides in length, which have been found in diverse animals and function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs play versatile and important roles in the ontogeny of developmental timing, cell differentiation and nervous system development. Recent evidence has suggested that miRNAs have huge impacts on animal phylogeny. Many of miRNAs are phylogenetically conserved among different animals. In addition, the miRNAs innovation appears to be associated with the advent of major lineages of metazoans. This review summarizes conservations of miRNAs in their biogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, the phylogenetic distribution and functions in the ontogeny. We also discuss evolutionary histories of miRNAs and how they impact on the animal evolution.%microRNA是一类长度约为22个核苷酸的内源性非编码单链RNA,在后生动物中普遍存在,在转录后过程调控基因表达.miRNA在个体发育过程中发挥着各种功能,如发育时序调控和细胞分化、神经发育等.miRNA在各种后生动物中具有保守性,而且多个关键类群的出现皆伴随着大量新miRNA的产生,这些现象都表明miRNA与动物的系统发生密切相关.本文从miRNA的产生和作用机制、在后生动物中的分布格局及其在个体发育中的调控功能3个方面论述了miRNA的保守性,并结合miRNA的发生和发展历程,探讨了miRNA在动物进化中起到的重要作用.

  3. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  4. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  5. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Nakanishi

    Full Text Available In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B. In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B, during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  6. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  7. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  8. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs.

  9. Research of aquatic organism addition influence on the reproduction of yeast cells in the dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Павлович Крамаренко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the research results of influence of various amounts of aquatic organism additions on the reproduction of yeast cells is given. A positive impact of aquatic organism addition of animal and plant origin in investigated quantities on the reproduction of yeast cells is revealed. The influence of the chemical composition of the aquatic organism additives on the reproduction of yeast cells is proved

  10. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, P.

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal......-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen...... that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and transport of nitrogen....

  11. Elucidating the diversity of aquatic microdochium and trichoderma species and their activity against the fish pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, De Irene

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security

  12. Demo project initiated to protect Yangtze's aquatic wildlife

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A demonstration project on aquatic wildlife protection and sustainable exploitation in the Yangtze Valley was launched by CAS Institute of Hydrobiology (IOH) in cooperation with several local administrative and research bodies on 21 December, 2007 in Wuhan, capital of central China's Hubei Province CAS geologists achieve advances in lithosphere evolution.

  13. Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation of Metal-Based Engineered Nanomaterials in Aquatic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luoma, Samuel; Khan, Farhan R.; Croteau, Marie-Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Bioavailability of Me-ENMs to aquatic organisms links their release into the environment to ecological implications. Close examination shows some important differences in the conceptual models that define bioavailability for metals and Me-ENMs. Metals are delivered to aquatic animals from Me-ENMs...

  14. 文化是人类独有的吗?——动物的文化行为及其起源与演化%Is Culture Unique to Humanity? Animal Cultural Behavior and Its Origin and Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春兴; 林震

    2012-01-01

    文化曾长期被认为是区分人类与动物的主要标准,但近年来越来越多的科学证据表明其他动物也有文化行为。依起源的先后顺序,动物文化可分为简单社会学习、群体持久传统、累积文化行为和符号文化行为4个类别,其演化序列与动物社会智力的演化有密切关系。厘清人类文化的独特性及其与动物文化的连续性,认识基因演化与文化演化在人类演化史中的相互作用,对于更深入地理解人类社会现象具有重要意义。%Culture has long been regarded as a key criterion to separate humanity from animal. Recent years, however, more and more scientific evidence suggests that there are cultural behaviors in the rest of animal kingdom. Arranged in order of origin, animal culture comprises simple social learning, sustained group tradition, cumulative culture and symbol culture, whose evolutionary sequence is closely related to the evolution of animal social intelligence. It is of great significance for a deep understanding of human society to distinguish the peculiarity and continuity between human and animal culture and to recognize the reciprocal function of genetic evolution and cultural evolution in the human evolution.

  15. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  16. Unifying Rules for Aquatic Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mehdi; Domel, August; di Santo, Valentina; Lauder, George; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Strouhal number, St (=fA/U) , a scaling parameter that relates speed, U, to the tail-beat frequency, f, and tail-beat amplitude, A, has been used many times to describe animal locomotion. It has been observed that swimming animals cruise at 0.2 experimental evidence of a self-propelled fish-like swimmer, we show that when cruising at minimum hydrodynamic input power, St is predetermined, and is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area. The narrow range for St, 0.2-0.4, has been previously associated with optimal propulsive efficiency. However, St alone is insufficient for deciding optimal motion. We show that hydrodynamic input power (energy usage to propel over a unit distance) in fish locomotion is minimized at all cruising speeds when A* (= A/L), a scaling parameter that relates tail-beat amplitude, A, to the length of the swimmer, L, is constrained to a narrow range of 0.15-0.25. Our analysis proposes a constraint on A*, in addition to the previously found constraint on St, to fully describe the optimal swimming gait for fast swimmers. A survey of kinematics for dolphin, as well as new data for trout, show that the range of St and A* for fast swimmers indeed are constrained to 0.2-0.4 and 0.15-0.25, respectively. Our findings provide physical explanation as to why fast aquatic swimmers cruise with relatively constant tail-beat amplitude at approximately 20 percent of body length, while their swimming speed is linearly correlated with their tail-beat frequency.

  17. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  18. Morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals: report on round table discussion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Barrett (Thomas); M. Blixenkrone-Mø ller; G. di Guardo; M. Domingo; P. Duignan; A. Hall; L. Mamaev; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA workshop was organised to ascertain the current situation with regard to morbillivirus infections in aquatic animals. The great interest generated by the discovery of these new virus infections in 1988 has to some extent abated but much high quality research has continued in this field

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Teaching Reform and Thinking of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science Course%《水产动物营养与饲料学》课程理论与实验教学的改革与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛

    2013-01-01

    In order to stimulate students′interest in learning Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science course and improve the teaching effect, the teaching content, teaching methods and assessment methods were reformed in teaching practice. Recent progress and new technologies were introduced in teaching content to stimulate the students′initiative. Multimedia and internet technology was comprehensively applied to enhance teaching intuitiveness. Opening experimental content was set to improve creative ability of students. Assessment methods were reformed to stimulate learning motivation.%为了激发学生对《水产动物营养与饲料学》课程的学习兴趣,提高教学效果,对该课程的教学内容、教学方法和考核方式进行了探索和教学实践。在教学内容上,引入该学科的研究进展和新技术,调动学生的主动性;应用多媒体网络技术,增强教学的直观性;开设开放性实验内容,提高学生的创新能力;改变考核方式,激发学生学习动力。

  20. Analysis of the FGF gene family provides insights into aquatic adaptation in cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Lee, Kyeong Won; Chung, Oksung; Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Lee, Sae-Won; Jun, JeHoon; Cho, Yun Sung; Bhak, Jong; Magalhães, João Pedro de; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Cetacean body structure and physiology exhibit dramatic adaptations to their aquatic environment. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of essential factors that regulate animal development and physiology; however, their role in cetacean evolution is not clearly understood. Here, we sequenced the fin whale genome and analysed FGFs from 8 cetaceans. FGF22, a hair follicle-enriched gene, exhibited pseudogenization, indicating that the function of this gene is no longer necessary in cetaceans that have lost most of their body hair. An evolutionary analysis revealed signatures of positive selection for FGF3 and FGF11, genes related to ear and tooth development and hypoxia, respectively. We found a D203G substitution in cetacean FGF9, which was predicted to affect FGF9 homodimerization, suggesting that this gene plays a role in the acquisition of rigid flippers for efficient manoeuvring. Cetaceans utilize low bone density as a buoyancy control mechanism, but the underlying genes are not known. We found that the expression of FGF23, a gene associated with reduced bone density, is greatly increased in the cetacean liver under hypoxic conditions, thus implicating FGF23 in low bone density in cetaceans. Altogether, our results provide novel insights into the roles of FGFs in cetacean adaptation to the aquatic environment. PMID:28074842

  1. Exposure assessment of veterinary medicines in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Boxall, Alistair; Fenner, Kathrin; Kolpin, Dana W.; Silberhorn, Eric; Staveley, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The release of veterinary medicines into the aquatic environment may occur through direct or indirect pathways. An example of direct release is the use of medicines in aquaculture (Armstrong et al. 2005; Davies et al. 1998), where chemicals used to treat fish are added directly to water. Indirect releases, in which medicines make their way to water through transport from other matrices, include the application of animal manure to land or direct excretion of residues onto pasture land, from which the therapeutic chemicals may be transported into the aquatic environment (Jørgensen and Halling-Sørensen 2000; Boxall et al. 2003, 2004). Veterinary medicines used to treat companion animals may also be transported into the aquatic environment through disposal of unused medicines, veterinary waste, or animal carcasses (Daughton and Ternes 1999, Boxall et al. 2004). The potential for a veterinary medicine to be released to the aquatic environment will be determined by several different criteria, including the method of treatment, agriculture or aquaculture practices, environmental conditions, and the properties of the veterinary medicine.

  2. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Ditsche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth.

  3. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  4. Causes of the increased nitrite concentrations in aquatic environments and their effects on the plant and animal survival%水环境中亚硝酸盐聚集的原因及其对动植物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫民; 戴树桂; 张清敏

    2011-01-01

    分析了水环境中亚硝酸盐含量升高的原因,综述了其对动植物的毒理作用机制.认为亚硝酸盐浓度的升高主要是因为人为排放的亚硝酸盐增加和环境因素变化引起的硝酸盐不完全还原与铵盐不完全氧化所致.亚硝酸盐对动物的毒害作用,主要是高铁血红蛋白的形成引起机体缺氧,和亚硝酸盐导致的器官损伤与体内离子浓度变化紊乱了机体正常的生理功能;对植物的损伤主要是细胞内氧自由基含量的增加,能量转化效率下降,光合作用和一些酶活性受到抑制.%The present paper is inclined to introduce our research on the causes of the increased nitrite concentrations in aquatic environments and their effects on the plant and animal survival. As a matter of fact, nitrite is a common pollutant in aquatic environment as a kind of intermediate product both of nitrification and denitrification in the nitrogen cycle. In healthy biological systems, it exists in a relatively floating form at low levels (μmo)/L), however, in certain conditions it can be accumulated due to the imbalance of the nitrification and denitrification processes or the influence of received agricultural effluents and industrial discharges with nitrite. It is for this reason that this paper thinks of it as a real need to make a general review of the broad range of parameters and environmental factors that involve the nitrite accumulation, such as the pH value, dissolved oxygen, temperature , phosphate and free ammonia, all of which are found to play their own role. In addition, nitrite accumulation can be said to be a potential problem in aquatic environment, in which freshwater creature actively takes up nitrite across the gills, leading to high internal concentrations. In fact, nitrite has rmiltiple physiological effects, for example, it helps to activate efflux of potassium from skeletal muscle and erythrocytes, disturbing intracellular and extracellular K+ levels. It

  5. Ataque por animales acuáticos (tiburón y cocodrilo: A propósito de dos casos fatales en la provincia de Bocas del Toro (Panamá Attack for aquatic animals (shark and alligator: Report of two fatal cases in the Bocas del Toro province (Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mendieta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques por animales acuáticos, y especialmente los producidos por tiburón y cocodrilo, son muy poco frecuentes. Se han descrito ataques por tiburón en países como Australia, Sudáfrica, Brasil, Bahamas, México y Puerto Rico, algunos con resultado fatal en los últimos cinco años. En Panamá, los casos descritos de ataques por escualo son escasos, siendo el último descrito con resultado no fatal en julio de 2008 en una playa de la localidad de San Carlos mientras que el último caso fatal se remonta al año 1964. Los ataques por cocodrilo, al igual que en el caso anterior, son poco frecuentes. A nivel mundial la mayor parte de los casos descritos proceden de Australia, Angola, India, Brasil y Florida. En Panamá, el último caso fatal ocurrió en el Lago de Miraflores en mayo de 2007, pero el cadáver no fue encontrado. En este artículo se describen dos casos de depredación animal, por tiburón y cocodrilo, en la provincia de Bocas del Toro (Panamá con el objetivo de reconocer el patrón de las lesiones por mordedura y las áreas anatómicas vulnerables afectadas.Attacks for aquatic animals, especially those due to shark and alligator, are very unusual. Shark attacks have been reported in countries such as Australia, South Africa, Brazil, Bahamas, Mexico and Puerto Rico, some with fatal consequences in the last five years. In Panama, reported cases from shark attack are scarce, being the last one in the city of San Carlos, while the last fatal case was reported in the year 1964. Alligator attacks, as in the previous case, are very scarce. Worldwide, the major part of the described cases are from Australia, Angola, India, Brazil and Florida. In Panama, the last fatal case occurred in the Miraflores lake in May 2007; however, the corpse was never found. In this paper, we described two cases of animal predation, from shark and alligator, occurred in the Bocas del Toro province (Panama with the aim to recognize the pattern of bite

  6. Molecular evidence of fungal signatures in the marine protist Corallochytrium limacisporum and its implications in the evolution of animals and fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, S.; Kasbekar, D.P.; Raghukumar, C.

    Corallochytrium limacisporum is an enigmatic marine protist of considerable interest in opisthokontan evolution. Several isolates of the organism were obtained from a coral reef lagoon in the Lakshadweep group of islands of the Arabian Sea. The capability...

  7. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  8. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  9. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  10. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  11. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  12. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  13. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  14. Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2003-01-01

    nitrite-induced vasodilation (possibly via nitric oxide generated from nitrite) that is countered by increased cardiac pumping to re-establish blood pressure. Nitrite can form and/or mimic nitric oxide and thereby interfere with processes regulated by this local hormone. Steroid hormone synthesis may...... be inhibited, while changes in ammonia and urea levels and excretion rates reflect an influence of nitrite on nitrogen metabolism. Detoxification of nitrite occurs via endogenous oxidation to nitrate, and elimination of nitrite takes place both via gills and urine. The susceptibility to nitrite varies between...

  15. Transfer of foreign DNA into aquatic animals by electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the principle, procedure and application of the electroporation method to produce various types of transgenic marine organisms including finfish, shellfish and marine algae. Electroporation utilizes a series of short electrical pulses to induce formation of short-lived pores ...

  16. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  17. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Effects of triclosan on various aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Teshima, Kenji; Kishi, Katsuyuki; Arizono, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in various industrial products, such as textile goods, soap, shampoo, liquid toothpaste and cosmetics, and often detected in wastewater effluent. However, there is a paucity of data on the toxicity of triclosan and its effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, the acute toxicity of triclosan to the Microtox bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), a microalga (Selenastrum capricornutum), a crustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes) was examined. As a result, the MicrotoxR bacterium, crustacean and fish had similar sensitivities towards triclosan toxicity (i.e., IC25 from 0.07 to 0.29 mg/L triclosan). In contrast, the microalga was about 30-80-fold (IC25 = 0.0034 mg/L triclosan) more sensitive to triclosan toxicity than the bacterium and fish. Therefore, triclosan is quite highly toxic to aquatic animals, and is particularly highly toxic to the green alga used as a test organism in this study. This result indicates that triclosan exerts a marked influence on algae, which are important organisms being the first-step producers in the ecosystem; therefore, the possible destruction of the balance of the ecosystem is expected if triclosan is discharged into the environment at high levels.

  19. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  20. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  1. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  2. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    altitudinal patterns in population densities, (ii) transplants of the five taxa upstream of their natural altitudinal limit to test the short-term (14days) effect on survival, and (iii) in situ experiments of locomotory activity as a proxy for animal response to relatively small differences in temperature (5...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits.......1. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions. However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. 2. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates...

  3. Plasma Vitellogenin and Hormone Levels in Common Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Ponds versus a Reference Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from land treated with animal manure may contaminate adjacent aquatic ecosystems and negatively impact organisms living in these environments. Of notable concern, influx of estrogens can result in endocrine disruption and affect reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Vitel...

  4. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, Julian E; Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH(3)Se(minus sign) which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. L-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of L-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that L-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. L-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of L-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of L-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of L-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of L-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when L-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing

  5. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  6. Study regarding the quantitative evolution of the game animals populations from 29 Surduc, Forest Domain- Faget, in 2010-2014 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the E.U. requires a special attention for to the game populations. The aim of the present paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the game for the 6 species during 2010-2015, on the hunting terrain 29 Surduc, from Forest Domain – Faget, with a total area of 15,500 ha. The study shows that from the 6 species monitored, one was not identified on this hunting terrain, Fallow Deer (Dama dama L. For the other species identified numerical evolution of the population demonstrated that there is a good correlation between the number of individuals and their biogenic capacity. We recommend carefully monitoring of the natural selection and the efficient use of artificial breeding especially for the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L. specie.

  7. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  8. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  9. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  10. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  11. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  12. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  13. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  14. Study regarding the quantitative evolution of the game animals populations from 66 Tolvadia, Forest Domain- Lunca Timisului, in 2008-2012 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the E.U., is imposing a special attention to game populations. The aim of the present paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13 species during 2008-2012, on the hunting terrain 66 Tolvadia, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of 12,557 ha. The study shows that form the 13 species monitored, 3 were not identified on this hunting terrain Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L., Fallow Deer (Dama dama L, European Pine Marten (Martes martes L.. For the other species identified the population evolution in number demonstrated that there is a god correlation between the number of individuals and its biogenic capacity. Also the study shows that a special attention to natural selection and the efficient use of artificial selection is needed, especially for the following 3 species: Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L. and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L..

  15. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture or ethical conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Vonne; Olsson, I Anna S

    2006-01-01

    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the other. Furthermore, animals are important in sustainable agriculture. They can increase efficiency by their ability to transform...

  16. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  17. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  18. Aquatic viruses induce host cell death pathways and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    Virus infections of mammalian and animal cells consist of a series of events. As intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the use of host cellular machinery. Through the use of cell culture and molecular approaches over the past decade, our knowledge of the biology of aquatic viruses has grown exponentially. The increase in aquaculture operations worldwide has provided new approaches for the transmission of aquatic viruses that include RNA and DNA viruses. Therefore, the struggle between the virus and the host for control of the cell's death machinery is crucial for survival. Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and, as such, must modulate apoptotic pathways to control the lifespan of their host to complete their replication cycle. This paper updates the discussion on the detailed mechanisms of action that various aquatic viruses use to induce cell death pathways in the host, such as Bad-mediated, mitochondria-mediated, ROS-mediated and Fas-mediated cell death circuits. Understanding how viruses exploit the apoptotic pathways of their hosts may provide great opportunities for the development of future potential therapeutic strategies and pathogenic insights into different aquatic viral diseases.

  19. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  20. Optimal Strouhal number for swimming animals

    CERN Document Server

    Eloy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the swimming performances of aquatic animals, an important dimensionless quantity is the Strouhal number, St = fA/U, with f the tail-beat frequency, A the peak-to-peak tail amplitude, and U the swimming velocity. Experiments with flapping foils have exhibited maximum propulsive efficiency in the interval 0.25 < St < 0.35 and it has been argued that animals likely evolved to swim in the same narrow interval. Using Lighthill's elongated-body theory to address undulatory propulsion, it is demonstrated here that the optimal Strouhal number increases from 0.15 to 0.8 for animals spanning from the largest cetaceans to the smallest tadpoles. To assess the validity of this model, the swimming kinematics of 53 different species of aquatic animals have been compiled from the literature and it shows that their Strouhal numbers are consistently near the predicted optimum.

  1. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCorno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of antibiotics (AB into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of ABresistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5-6 fold.These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of

  2. Two possible driving forces supporting the evolution of animal communication. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2016-03-01

    In the target paper [1], M.A. Arbib proposes a quite exhaustive review of the (often computational) models developed during the last decades that support his detailed scenario on language evolution (the Mirror System Hypothesis, MSH). The approach considers that language evolved from a mirror system for grasping already present in LCA-m (the last common ancestor of macaques and humans), to a simple imitation system for grasping present in LCA-c (the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans), to a complex imitation system for grasping that developed in the hominid line since that ancestor. MSH considers that this complex imitation system is a key evolutionary step for a language-ready brain, providing all the required elements for an open-ended gestural communication system. The transition from the gestural (bracchio-manual and visual) to the vocal (articulatory and auditory) domain is supposed to be a less important evolutionary step.

  3. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  4. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  5. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference Genetics Selection Evolution 2010, 42:29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg

    2010-01-01

    " or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (co)variance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean) being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative...... relationship matrix, but genetic (co)variance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents) only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents). Results When applied to simulated...

  6. Marine invasions by non-sea snakes, with thoughts on terrestrial-aquatic-marine transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C

    2012-08-01

    Few species of snakes show extensive adaptations to aquatic environments and even fewer exploit the oceans. A survey of morphology, lifestyles, and habitats of 2552 alethenophidian snakes revealed 362 (14%) that use aquatic environments, are semi-aquatic, or aquatic; about 70 (2.7%) of these are sea snakes (Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae). The ancient and aquatic family Acrochordidae contains three extant species, all of which have populations inhabiting brackish or marine environments, as well as freshwater. The Homalopsidae have the most ecologically diverse representatives in coastal habitats. Other families containing species exploiting saline waters with populations in freshwater environments include: the Dipsadidae of the western hemisphere, the cosmopolitan Natricidae, the African Grayinae, and probably a few Colubridae. Species with aquatic and semi-aquatic lifestyles are compared with more terrestrial (fossorial, cryptozoic, and arboreal) species for morphological traits and life histories that are convergent with those found in sea snakes; this may provide clues to the evolution of marine snakes and increase our understanding of snake diversity.

  7. Minimal selective concentrations of tetracycline in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sara V; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Rutgersson, Carolin; Thoudal, Malin; Sircar, Triranta; Blanck, Hans; Eriksson, K Martin; Tysklind, Mats; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-05-15

    Selection pressure generated by antibiotics released into the environment could enrich for antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, thereby increasing the risk for transmission to humans and animals. Tetracyclines comprise an antibiotic class of great importance to both human and animal health. Accordingly, residues of tetracycline are commonly detected in aquatic environments. To assess if tetracycline pollution in aquatic environments promotes development of resistance, we determined minimal selective concentrations (MSCs) in biofilms of complex aquatic bacterial communities using both phenotypic and genotypic assays. Tetracycline significantly increased the relative abundance of resistant bacteria at 10 μg/L, while specific tet genes (tetA and tetG) increased significantly at the lowest concentration tested (1 μg/L). Taxonomic composition of the biofilm communities was altered with increasing tetracycline concentrations. Metagenomic analysis revealed a concurrent increase of several tet genes and a range of other genes providing resistance to different classes of antibiotics (e.g. cmlA, floR, sul1, and mphA), indicating potential for co-selection. Consequently, MSCs for the tet genes of ≤ 1 μg/L suggests that current exposure levels in e.g. sewage treatment plants could be sufficient to promote resistance. The methodology used here to assess MSCs could be applied in risk assessment of other antibiotics as well.

  8. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... to distribute photons evenly between the photosynthetic tissues. As scattering and attenuation in the water column increase, the effect of thallus structure on production declines and thin transparent macrophytes are more efficient at utilizing light than thick opaque macrophytes. The results confirm...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...

  9. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  10. LA EVOLUCIÓN DE SISTEMAS COMPLEJOS: EL CASO DEL SISTEMA INMUNE EN ANIMALES The Evolution of Complex Systems: The Case of the Immune System in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F CADAVID

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales comprende una serie de mecanismos celulares y moleculares que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebrados mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos de inmunidad adaptativa alternos, plantea la necesidad de considerar nuevos elementos en la construcción de un modelo evolutivo de la inmunidad en animales. Algunos de esos elementos se esbozan en este ensayo.The immune system in animals is composed by a series of cell and molecular mechanisms that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms

  11. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  12. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  13. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  14. Effects of micro- and nanoplastics on aquatic ecosystems: Current research trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-17

    Contamination by bulk plastics and plastic debris is currently the one of the most serious environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, small-scale plastic debris such as microplastics and nanoplastics has become leading contributors to the pollution of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Studies are investigating the impacts of micro-and nanoplastics on aquatic organisms and ecosystems worldwide. This review covers 83 studies that investigated the distribution of microplastics and the ecotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems. The studies indicated that micro-sized plastics and plastic debris were distributed at various concentrations in aquatic ecosystems around the world. They had various effects on the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and mortality of aquatic animals. We discuss these studies in detail and suggest directions for future research.

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  17. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  18. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  19. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  20. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  1. Detection of the antiviral drug oseltamivir in aquatic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Söderström

    Full Text Available Oseltamivir (Tamiflu is the most important antiviral drug available and a cornerstone in the defence against a future influenza pandemic. Recent publications have shown that the active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC, is not degraded in sewage treatment plants and is also persistent in aquatic environments. This implies that OC will be present in aquatic environments in areas where oseltamivir is prescribed to patients for therapeutic use. The country where oseltamivir is used most is Japan, where it is used to treat seasonal flu. We measured the levels of OC in water samples from the Yodo River system in the Kyoto and Osaka prefectures, Japan, taken before and during the flu-season 2007/8. No OC was detected before the flu-season but 2-58 ng L(-1 was detected in the samples taken during the flu season. This study shows, for the first time, that low levels of oseltamivir can be found in the aquatic environment. Therefore the natural reservoir of influenza virus, dabbling ducks, is exposed to oseltamivir, which could promote the evolution of viral resistance.

  2. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  3. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  4. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of pharmaceuticals with a focus to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenker, Armin; Cicero, Maria Rita; Prestinaci, Francesca; Bottoni, Paola; Carere, Mario

    2014-01-15

    Pharmaceuticals, among the emerging contaminants, are one of the most relevant groups of substances in aquatic ecosystems due to universal use, their chemico-physical properties and known mode of action in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. After administration many drugs and their transformation products are only retained to some extent in wastewater treatment plants therefore entering the aquatic environment in considerable high amounts. The yearly consumption to treat human and animal diseases, also in livestock and aquaculture was estimated to be hundred thousands tons per year leading to high concentrations in surface water of developed countries. Mostly, pharmaceutical residues in effluents of wastewater treatment plants or in the water column of surface waters have been reported, but data about concentrations in the aquatic biota, partitioning of pharmaceuticals to biosolids, soils, and sediments and the bioaccumulation properties are often lacking. Chronic and subtle effects can be expected when aquatic organisms are long term exposed by pseudo-persistent, persistent and accumulative compounds. This review aims to summarize the current state of research about the fate of pharmaceuticals regarding bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems. More comprehensive approaches for the evaluation of environmental (ERA) and human health risk assessment (HRA) are included and analytical methods required to detect bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals are discussed.

  5. The utilization of aquatic bushmeat from small cetaceans and manatees in South America and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Cosentino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic bushmeat can be defined as the products derived from wild aquatic megafauna (e.g. marine mammals that are used for human consumption and non-food purposes, including traditional medicine. It is obtained through illegal or unregulated hunts as well as from stranded (dead or alive and bycaught animals. In most South American and West African countries aquatic mammals are or have been taken for bushmeat, including 33 small cetaceans and all three manatee species. Of these, two cetacean species are listed in the IUCN red list as near threatened, and one as vulnerable, as are all manatee species. Additionally, 22 cetacean species are listed as data deficient, hence some of these species may also be at risk. No reports (recent or otherwise were found for some countries, however caution is needed in concluding that aquatic bushmeat is not utilized in these nations. Moreover, although aquatic bushmeat is mostly obtained opportunistically and was likely originally taken only for local consumption, directed catches occur in most countries and may have reached unsustainable levels in some areas. For example, in Peru and Nigeria, thousands of small cetaceans are illegally hunted annually. Reliable, recent data and a better overall understanding of the drivers of aquatic bushmeat will be essential in the development of effective mitigation measures.

  6. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  7. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  8. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  9. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  10. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  11. Sleep alterations in mammals: Did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vibha Madan; Sushil K.Jha

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates.Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state.During REM sleep,postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended.Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals,the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep.Further,we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water.The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals,significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals.The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air.Also,these animals live in thermally challenging environments,where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air.Therefore,they have to be moving most of the time.As an adaptation,they have evolved unihemispheric sleep,during which they can rove as well as rest.A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery,as happens during REM sleep,is not suitable for these animals.It is possible that,in accord with Darwin's theory,aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time.In this review,we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  12. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  13. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  14. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  15. Widespread and persistent invasions of terrestrial habitats coincident with larval feeding behavior transitions during snail-killing fly evolution (Diptera: Sciomyzidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Eric G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transitions in habitats and feeding behaviors were fundamental to the diversification of life on Earth. There is ongoing debate regarding the typical directionality of transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and the mechanisms responsible for the preponderance of terrestrial to aquatic transitions. Snail-killing flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae represent an excellent model system to study such transitions because their larvae display a range of feeding behaviors, being predators, parasitoids or saprophages of a variety of mollusks in freshwater, shoreline and dry terrestrial habitats. The remarkable genus Tetanocera (Tetanocerini occupies five larval feeding groups and all of the habitat types mentioned above. This study has four principal objectives: (i construct a robust estimate of phylogeny for Tetanocera and Tetanocerini, (ii estimate the evolutionary transitions in larval feeding behaviors and habitats, (iii test the monophyly of feeding groups and (iv identify mechanisms underlying sciomyzid habitat and feeding behavior evolution. Results Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of molecular data provided strong support that the Sciomyzini, Tetanocerini and Tetanocera are monophyletic. However, the monophyly of many behavioral groupings was rejected via phylogenetic constraint analyses. We determined that (i the ancestral sciomyzid lineage was terrestrial, (ii there was a single terrestrial to aquatic habitat transition early in the evolution of the Tetanocerini and (iii there were at least 10 independent aquatic to terrestrial habitat transitions and at least 15 feeding behavior transitions during tetanocerine phylogenesis. The ancestor of Tetanocera was aquatic with five lineages making independent transitions to terrestrial habitats and seven making independent transitions in feeding behaviors. Conclusions The preponderance of aquatic to terrestrial transitions in sciomyzids goes against the trend

  16. Harmful Effects of Nanoparticles on Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Exbrayat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since several years nanoparticles (NPs are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  17. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  18. Experiences of countries with new aquatic industries: the development of aquaculture in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaby, M

    2008-04-01

    Although caviar is the most significant and famous fishery product of Iran, in recent years the country has gained a lot of experience and had some significant success with other fishery and aquaculture products. Iranian fisheries and aquaculture production reached 522,000 metric tons in 2005, of which 75% originated from capture fishery and 25% from aquaculture activities. Various fishery and aquaculture activities take place in Iran to help meet domestic demand for aquaculture products and to maintain the existing level of natural resources in seas and rivers (restocking natural sources). The ways in which Iran has been able to make progress in developing aquaculture--which could serve as a model for other countries in the region and for developing countries--are as follows: a) optimising the use of climatic diversity in raising various aquatic species; b) establishing the required governmental and nongovernmental organisations for raising aquatic animals, and planning and creating appropriate relationships between those organisations and entities; c) training skilful manpower and educating specialists in the field of aquatic animal health and diseases; d) increasing per capita consumption of fishery products through sensitising public opinion; and e) meeting the requirements for raising the rate of aquatic animal culture and developing the export of fishery products, i.e. by supplying eyed eggs, feed, broodstock, etc.

  19. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  20. Micro RNAs in animal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasterk, R.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that bind to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and silence their expression. This Essay explores the importance of miRNAs in animal development and their possible roles in disease and evolution.

  1. Animal Rights Activism Threatens Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the movement against the use of dissections in science laboratories. Examples of protests across the United States are included. Compared is the plight of using animals in a biology classroom and the demise of the teaching of evolution in some areas. (KR)

  2. Sharing the World with Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the era of industry and technology, human beings continue to brutally hunt and kill animals to obtain furs or simply to satisfy gourmet appetites; everyday, more species disappear forever—species whose existence was the result of millions of years of evolution.

  3. NASDA next-generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Takamatsu, T.; Sakimura, T.

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. These include the Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU), Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) and another VFEU for marine fish. Each facility had functions such as life support for up to 15 days, water quality control system, gas exchange by artificial lung, video observation through a window by a crewmember, day/night cycle control, feeding system for medaka (AAEU only), and more. We are now studying the next -generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and Space Station use. AQH will have many new capabilities missing in earlier facilities. The following functions are of particular importance: long-term life support for up to 90 days, multigeneration breeding (for medaka and zebrafish), automatic feeding system adaptable for young of fish and amphibians, water quality control for long-term experiments, air-water interface, a computer-driven specimen-monitoring system housed in the facilities, and a specimen sampling system including eggs. A prototype breeding system and the specimen-monitoring system were designed and tested. The prototype breeding system consists of a closed water loop, two 700ml fish chambers with LED lighting, a small artificial lung, and a nitrification bacteria filter. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this small breeding system, and the young could grow to adult fish. The water quality control system also worked successfully. For amphibians, the breeding test using tadpoles of xenopus is also starting. We have many difficult technological problems to resolve, but development of AQH is going well. In this paper, we will introduce the results of the component-level test and the concept of AQH. In the future, many space biological experiments will be conducted, especially in the areas of developmental biology, neurophisiology, and

  4. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  5. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  6. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.

  7. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-08-01

    rescue such as captive breeding or translocations may be justified for particularly important animal or plant populations. However, long-haul missions of habitat rehabilitation or restoration are generally to be preferred even if they usually take many years if not decades to reach fruition. Conservation researchers, managers and practitioners must be realistic in their objectives and timescales for such programmes and take positive steps to communicate such information to stakeholders. Now more than ever, people are interested in conservation and sustainability. There are substantial challenges ahead, but these are better days for the biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats.

  8. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are classified in categories depending on their physiology and origin, because, according to the writers, these are determining factors for the evaluation of the nutritional value of each species.The purpose of this study is to present the terminology of the fishes and the various aquatic species that are found in the Byzantine sources and to identify, in parallel, each species with its current scientific name.  

  9. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  10. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    We love movies because we like to jump from our “reality” to live a dream, a parallel universe that inspires us. We long for adventure, excitement and answers to quests… That’s the magic of cinema; it makes you believe what you see and over all, FEEL it. As Antonio Damasio said-“ we´re feeling...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...

  11. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  12. VT Biodiversity Project - Aquatic Sites boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Exemplary aquatic sites in Vermont, both standing water and running water, are represented in this dataset. It is the result of an analysis by the...

  13. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  14. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  15. 76 FR 60863 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... include: Commercial harvest of aquatic invasive species, State Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plans...-Chair, Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, Acting Assistant Director--Fisheries and Habitat... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  16. Toxicity of Cúspide 480SL® spray mixture formulation of glyphosate to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Zachary; Prosser, Ryan S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Mahon, Kim; Poirier, Dave; Solomon, Keith R

    2015-05-01

    In 2011, an alternative formulation of glyphosate (Cúspide 480SL®) was chosen to replace Roundup-SL®, Fuete-SL®, and Gly-41® for the control of Erythroxylum coca, the source of cocaine, in Colombia. Cúspide 480SL contains the active ingredient glyphosate isopropylamine (IPA) salt, which is the same active ingredient used in previous formulations. However, Cúspide 480SL contains an alkyl polyglycoside surfactant rather than the polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactant used in other formulations and known to be more toxic to nonprimary producing aquatic organisms than glyphosate itself. An adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux F411, and water also are added to the spray mixture before application. Aquatic ecosystems adjacent to the target coca fields might be exposed to the spray mix, placing aquatic organisms at risk. Because no toxicity data were available for spray mixture on aquatic organisms, acute toxicity tests were conducted on aquatic plants, invertebrates, and fish, by using the Cúspide 480SL spray mix as described on the label. Based on the median effective concentration (EC50) values for similar organisms, the spray mixture was less toxic to aquatic organisms than formulations previously used for the control of coca (i.e., Roundup-SL, Fuete-SL, and Gly-41). A physical effect induced by Cosmo-Flux F411 was observed in Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hyalella azteca, causing the invertebrates to be trapped in an oily film that was present at the surface of the water. However, a hazard assessment for the Cúspide 480SL spray mix, using estimated worst-case exposure scenario concentrations and EC50 values from the toxicity tests, indicated de minimis hazard for the tested aquatic animals, with hazard quotients all <1.

  17. Laboratory measurements of scalar and momentum structure in turbulent aquatic benthic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombroski, Daniel Edward

    In aquatic benthic environments, hydrodynamic transport of mass and momentum have shaped the evolution of form-function relationships. Animals whose life cycle depends on success in such environments have developed the biological structure and behavioral mechanisms to sustain dynamic stresses and complex chemical signals. It has become increasingly clear that understanding the ecology of these organisms is dependent on examining the complexities of the turbulent environment. In this dissertation, hydrodynamics and the structure of chemical signals within turbulent boundary layer flows are examined in the context of natural and biological systems. Experiments were conducted in the benthic region of a water flume using a combination of point-measurement and full-field imaging techniques. There are three areas of focus within the complete body of work: (1) The accuracy of an acoustic measurement technique commonly used in natural flows was evaluated. Errors in the technique, primarily attributed to a sampling volume that is large relative to the scales of motion in turbulent flows, were found to be larger than and extend farther from the bed than previously reported. (2) A three-dimensional laser-based imaging system was developed for quantifying turbulent scalar structure. The system was employed to study the topology and orientation of structure within a bed-level, passively released scalar plume. (3) Hydrodynamic stresses were measured near marine fouling communities in a study aimed at predicting larval settlement probabilities. Turbulent stresses, and by extension, the suitability of microhabitats, were found to be highly dependent on local topography and outer-scale flow conditions. This body of work advances the field of experimental fluid mechanics by contributing to the development of methods for quantifying turbulent flows, as well as furthering current understanding of the capabilities and limitations associated with new and existing techniques. Statistical

  18. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  19. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.

  20. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  1. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the data set with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2% with a R2 of 0.959. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blanket of a structurally

  2. Production of EPA and DHA in aquatic ecosystems and their transfer to the land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N

    2013-12-01

    Most omnivorous animals, including humans, have to some degree relied on physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from food. Only some taxa of microalgae, rather than higher plants can synthesize de novo high amounts of EPA and DHA. Once synthesized by microalgae, PUFA are transferred through trophic chain to organisms of higher levels. Thus, aquatic ecosystems play the unique role in the Biosphere as the principal source of EPA and DHA for most omnivorous animals, including inhabitants of terrestrial ecosystems. PUFA are transferred from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems through riparian predators, drift of carrion and seaweeds, emergence of amphibiotic insects, and water birds. The essential PUFA are transferred through trophic chains with about twice higher efficiency than bulk carbon. Thereby, PUFA are accumulated, rather than diluted in biomass of organisms of higher trophic levels, e.g., in fish. Mankind is faced with a severe deficiency of EPA and DHA in diet. Although additional sources of PUFA supply for humans, such as aquaculture, biotechnology of microorganisms and transgenic terrestrial oil-seed producing plants are developed, natural fish production of aquatic ecosystems will remain one of the main sources of EPA and DHA for humans. Aquatic ecosystems have to be protected from anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, pollution and warming, which reduce PUFA production.

  3. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laane, R.W.P.M.; Slijkerman, D.M.E.; Vethaak, A.D.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention

  4. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  5. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  6. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  7. DISSIPATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL ON AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM G. MACHADO-NETO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have been used in agriculture to avoid productivity losses caused by various organisms. However, the indiscriminate use of these chemicals has resulted in negative impacts on the environment, such as residues in soil, water, air, plants and animals. Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in agricultural management to control pests of sugar cane in Brazil, and it can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to evaluate the environmental risk of toxic concentrations and dissipation of fipronil to Poecilia reticulata, based on the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50 value estimated at 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/L without sediment and 0.09 ± 0.01 mg/L with sediment of fipronil in the aquatic environment. These values of fipronil were classified as extremely toxic to P. reticulata in both cases, which showed high environmental risk of poisoning to a shallow film of water of 1 ha and 0.30 m deep, with and without sediment. On the other hand, in bodies of water 1 ha and 2.0 m deep, it was of moderate toxicity. Dissipation of fipronil in the water was not affected by temperature, sediment or photoperiod. The minimum time to which fipronil caused 50% acute mortality (0.08 mg/L after dilution of 0.75 mg/L was 242 days; the withdrawal period, after which no mortality occurs (0.025 mg/L, was 263 days.

  8. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDziallas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  9. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  10. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  11. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for Detection of Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins in Non-Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Margry, R.J.C.F.; Vaessen, J.C.H.; Doremalen, van A.M.H.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Kaathoven, van R.G.C.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.E.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2013-01-01

    Due to a growing aquaculture industry, demand for high-quality proteins for aquatic feeds is increasing. Non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) have shown great potential for this purpose. Safe reintroduction of non-ruminant PAPs in aqua feed requires methods that can discriminate ruminant an

  12. What is bioturbation? The need for a precise definition for fauna in aquatic sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Delefosse, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    referred to as particle reworking, while water movement (if considered) is re ferred to as bioirrigation in many cases. For consistency, we therefore propose that, for contemporary aquatic scientific disciplines, faunal bioturbation in aquatic environments includes all transport processes carried out...... by animals that directly or indirectly affect sediment matrices. These processes include both particle reworking and burrow ventilation. With this definition, bioturbation acts as an ‘umbrella’ term that covers all transport processes and their physical effects on the substratum. Particle reworking occurs...... through burrow construction and maintenance, as well as ingestion and defecation, and causes biomixing of the substratum. Organic matter and microorganisms are thus displaced vertically and laterally within the sediment matrix. Particle reworking animals can be categorized as biodiffusors, upward...

  13. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2016-01-01

    studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines......-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.......Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons...

  14. Role of Marsh-Mangrove Interface Habitats as Aquatic Refuges for Wetland Fishes and Other Aquatic Animals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We examined spatial and temporal dynamics in the fish community of ecotonal mangrove creeks along the Shark River Slough transect, particularly between SRS3 & 4....

  15. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossana Girardello; Stefano Tasselli; Nicolò Baranzini; Roberto Valvassori; Magda de Eguileor; Annalisa Grimaldi

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we ...

  16. Morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals: report on round table discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T; Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Di Guardo, G; Domingo, M; Duignan, P; Hall, A; Mamaev, L; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-05-01

    A workshop was organised to ascertain the current situation with regard to morbillivirus infections in aquatic animals. The great interest generated by the discovery of these new virus infections in 1988 has to some extent abated but much high quality research has continued in this field as the workshop showed. There is some serological evidence that the viruses have continued to circulate in most areas since the initial epizootics. As to their origin, it appears that the most likely source of the European seal morbillivirus (PDV-1) is the North Atlantic and Artic seal populations. As to the origin of the Mediterranean dolphin morbillivirus and the morbilliviruses isolated from porpoises, there is serological evidence that the viruses are widespread in many cetacean species in the Atlantic and 93% of long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) which mass stranded between 1982 and 1993 were morbillivirus seropositive. The epizootic in freshwater seals in Lake Baikal was unrelated to events in the European marine mammal populations. The virus which infected these animals (PDV-2) is indistinguishable from canine distemper field strains. Serological and molecular biological studies provided evidence for the presence of the virus in the seals, at least as late as the Summer of 1992 when the animals were last sampled.

  17. Passive internal transport of aquatic organisms by waterfowl in Doñana, south-west Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figuerola, J.; Green, J.; Santamaria, L.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Waterbirds may play an important role in the maintenance of aquatic ecosystem biodiversity by transporting plants and invertebrate propagules between different wetlands. The aim of this study is to provide the first quantitative analysis of the transport of plant and animal propagules by a commu

  18. Long-Term Effects of Ammonia on the Behavioral Activity of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Camargo, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aq

  19. Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörheide, G; Dohrmann, M; Erpenbeck, D; Larroux, C; Maldonado, M; Voigt, O; Borchiellini, C; Lavrov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse taxon of benthic aquatic animals of great ecological, commercial, and biopharmaceutical importance. They are arguably the earliest-branching metazoan taxon, and therefore, they have great significance in the reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. Yet, the phylogeny and systematics of sponges are to some extent still unresolved, and there is an on-going debate about the exact branching pattern of their main clades and their relationships to the other non-bilaterian animals. Here, we review the current state of the deep phylogeny of sponges. Several studies have suggested that sponges are paraphyletic. However, based on recent phylogenomic analyses, we suggest that the phylum Porifera could well be monophyletic, in accordance with cladistic analyses based on morphology. This finding has many implications for the evolutionary interpretation of early animal traits and sponge development. We further review the contribution that mitochondrial genes and genomes have made to sponge phylogenetics and explore the current state of the molecular phylogenies of the four main sponge lineages (Classes), that is, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea, and Homoscleromorpha, in detail. While classical systematic systems are largely congruent with molecular phylogenies in the class Hexactinellida and in certain parts of Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha, the high degree of incongruence in the class Calcarea still represents a challenge. We highlight future areas of research to fill existing gaps in our knowledge. By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, we support previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification. In summary, while deep sponge phylogenetics has made many advances in the past years, considerable efforts are still required to achieve a

  20. Aquatic exercise & balneotherapy in musculoskeletal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2012-06-01

    This is a best-evidence synthesis providing an evidence-based summary on the effectiveness of aquatic exercises and balneotherapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions addressed in this review include: low back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Over 30 years of research demonstrates that exercises in general, and specifically aquatic exercises, are beneficial for reducing pain and disability in many musculoskeletal conditions demonstrating small to moderate effect sizes ranging between 0.19 and 0.32. Balneotherapy might be beneficial, but the evidence is yet insufficient to make a definitive statement about its use. High-quality trials are needed on balneotherapy and aquatic exercises research especially in specific patient categories that might benefit most.

  1. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  2. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  3. The role of water in animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Serrantoni

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of water in animal breeding must be extended to a wider context than the animal production area, considering that 70% of the water used in the world is consumed by the whole production chain (agriculture and animal production. Therefore has a great importance the connection with other fields of the chain, as the fodder-growing and the cereal-growing, together with the evaluation and quantification of the environmental impacts. Water, that plays an essential role in the breeding, assumes different importance in relation to the animal class (birds, fish and mammals and to the animal species. Therefore are extremely different the water requirements and the water consumptions, that are moreover strongly influenced by many factors, such as the dry matter, the climatic breeding conditions, together with the individual animal features. All that represents the starting point to determine the strategies and the ways of the water giving in animal breeding, related to the technological, project and management aspects. Besides the quantitative aspects, water must be considered as food, because it is necessary to animal survival. The importance of the quality of water used in animal breeding and its nutritional role is closely related to the qualitative characteristics and to the presence of residual and polluting substances. The animal production chain, moreover, can produce environmental impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and therefore a particular attention goes to end uses of water as output of the whole animal production chain and to the quantification of the impacts, that is extremely complicate and difficult, depending on many variables. The considerations related to animal production chain assume a different value in the productive context of the management of the water resources in the third countries.

  4. From the ossuary: animation and the danse macabre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carels, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    abstractThe skeleton has been a key figure throughout the evolution of the animated image. Thisessay investigates how the danse macabre lies at the roots of animation, and has hence kepton reappearing as a motif throughout the evolution of the genre. The theoretical frameworkcombines film history wi

  5. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

  7. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    OpenAIRE

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M; Coles, D.; Fischer, A. R. H.; HOUDEBINE, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic...

  8. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  9. [Dermatophytes from animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A

    2000-01-01

    Dermatophytes from animal dermatophytoses were investigated, especially for their teleomorphs and molecular characteristics. Microsporum canis, M. equinum, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes complex, T. rubrum and T. verrucosum were isolated as the etiological agents of animal ringworm in Japan. They were morphologically and biochemically identified and their perfect states were examined. The teleomorph of M. canis was first obtained and reported as Nanizzia otae in 1975. The isolates of M. canis of which the teleomorph was confirmed were all "-" excepted two Japanese isolates. Mating experiments indicated that the isolates of M. gypseum were "+" or "-" of A. gypseum and A. incurvatum, respectively. Most of the isolates of T. mentagrophytes complex of which a perfect state was detected were A. vanbreuseghemii. One isolate from a monkey was A. simii and one from a rabbit was A. benhamiae. However, the teleomorph remained unknown in many isolates. Molecular characteristics in random amplification of polymorphic DNA and Southern hybridization analyses were found to be effective to differentiate the species of Microsporum. Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes were also analyzed for their phylogenetic relatedness. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: the first cluster consisted of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. violaceum; the second of A. fulvum, A. gypseum and A. incurvatum; the third of A. grubyi and A. otae; and the fourth of Epidermaphyton floccosum, providing useful information for the classification and understanding of their evolution.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  11. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  12. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Lacustrine Submergent Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Submergent aquatic vegetation (SAV) provides the foundation for wildlife use in aquatic systems. Sago pondweed is of particular significance in providing protein by...

  13. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  14. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  15. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  16. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...

  17. Teachers and Aquatic Education--A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The Minnesota Sea Grant Education Sub-program provided funds to the University of Minnesota in 1980 to develop aquatic education materials (dealing with freshwater systems) for grades 5-9. The project resulted in the development and classroom testing of 13 instructional modules. A second grant (1982) funded workshops to introduce Minnesota…

  18. The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in the ne

  19. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  20. Adapted Aquatics for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Coleen A.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information for physical education teachers to use while teaching their students with autism in an adapted aquatics unit plan. Crollick, Mancil, & Stopka (2006) have found that activities such as running, cycling, or swimming can reduce inappropriate behaviors in children who are autistic. They recommend further that…

  1. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  2. Black magic in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption to sediment controlsthe actual fate and risks ofhydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs)in most aquatic environments. Sediment-bound HOCs are not readily available for uptake by organisms and degra

  3. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  4. Toxicokinetic modeling challenges for aquatic nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicity has become of increasing concern since the rapid development of metal nanoparticles (NPs. Aquatic nanotoxicity depends on crucial qualitative and quantitative properties of nanomaterials that induce adverse effects on subcellular, tissue, and organ level. The dose-response effects of size-dependent metal NPs, however, are not well investigated in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the uptake and elimination rate constants for metal NPs in the metabolically active/ detoxified pool of tissues, a one-compartmental toxicokinetic model can be applied when subcellular partitioning of metal NPs data would be available. The present review is an attempt to describe the nano-characteristics of toxicokinetics and subcellular partitioning on aquatic organisms with the help of the mechanistic modeling for NP size-dependent physiochemical properties and parameters. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models can provide an effective tool to estimate the time course of NP accumulation in target organs and is useful in quantitative risk assessments. NP accumulation in fish should take into account different effects of different NP sizes to better understand tissue accumulative capacities and dynamics. The size-dependent NP partition coefficient is a crucial parameter that influences tissue accumulation levels in PBPK modeling. Further research is needed to construct the effective systems-level oriented toxicokinetic model that can provide a useful tool to develop quantitatively the robustly approximate relations that convey a better insight into the impacts of environmental metal NPs on subcellular and tissue/organ responses in aquatic organisms.

  5. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  6. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  7. Biodegradation of Guanidinium By Aquatic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates . Appl. Microbiol. 30:922-929. 21. Pfaender, F.K. and G.W. Bartholomew. 1982. Measurement of Aquatic Biodegradation Rates by...incubation, after which time its disappearance became linear , and it could no longer be detected by the 20th day. Results for an identical water sample

  8. The Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Physiological and Biomechanical Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent advances in aquatic research, technology, and facilities, many modes of aquatic therapy now exist. These aquatic modes assist individuals (e.g., osteoarthritis patients) in the performance of activities that may be too difficult to complete on land. However, the biomechanical requirements of each aquatic therapy mode may elicit different physiological and functional responses. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to: (a) provide a review of the physiological and biomechani...

  9. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    OpenAIRE

    VJ. Pott; Pott, A; LCP. Lima; SN. Moreira; AKM Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river fl...

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Effects of Water Chemistry on Submersed Aquatic Plants: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    plants exhibiting C4 photosynthesis, C is conserved by refixing photorespired CO2. These terres- trial adaptations have counterparts in the aquatic...such as low photorespiration rates and low CO2 compensation points. The advantages of this photosynthetic pathway include conservation of... photorespired C and efficient C assimilation under the high dissolved oxygen and low free CO2 concentrations common in dense submersed aquatic plant populations

  11. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  12. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  13. Building Capacity and International Partnerships to Address Anthropogenic Impacts on Aquatic Animal Health: 44th Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Brucellosis , and the interpretation of gas bubbles in stranded cetaceans. Workshops provided training in oil spill preparedness, necropsy techniques to...ship strike diagnosis (M. Moore), oil spill preparedness (M. Ziccardi), pinniped sampling and handling (Gulland). IMPACT/APPLICATIONS The focus...and established collaborations for future research on this topic. Productive discussions on future directions in tag design for cetaceans, diagnosis

  14. On the ultrasonic irradiation in the photosynthetic activity of aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Cardona, A.; Juarez G, A. G.; Marin, E.; Munoz H, R. A.; Diaz G, J. A., E-mail: jcalderona@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    We report, for the first time, the application of the photoacoustic technique for monitoring the photosynthesis evolution in aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes), before and after it was exposed to ultrasonic irradiations. We obtained the disappearance of the phototobaric contribution in the Pa signal measured for the irradiated samples with ultrasound of 17 khz, and therefore of a possible damage in the centers producing the photosynthesis, due to the irradiation. These results show the utility of the ultrasonic irradiation, as well as, of the photosynthesis monitoring by means of the photoacoustic technique, for the elaboration and establishment of methodologies in the control of this aquatic plant, whose propagation causes many consequences extremely unfavorable for the environment, as well as for the diverse human activities that are developed in the bodies of water in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. (Author)

  15. Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, J G M; Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Clementz, Mark T; Bajpai, Sunil; Tiwari, B N

    2007-12-20

    Although the first ten million years of whale evolution are documented by a remarkable series of fossil skeletons, the link to the ancestor of cetaceans has been missing. It was known that whales are related to even-toed ungulates (artiodactyls), but until now no artiodactyls were morphologically close to early whales. Here we show that the Eocene south Asian raoellid artiodactyls are the sister group to whales. The raoellid Indohyus is similar to whales, and unlike other artiodactyls, in the structure of its ears and premolars, in the density of its limb bones and in the stable-oxygen-isotope composition of its teeth. We also show that a major dietary change occurred during the transition from artiodactyls to whales and that raoellids were aquatic waders. This indicates that aquatic life in this lineage occurred before the origin of the order Cetacea.

  16. Photoacoustic analysis of the ultrasonic irradiation effect in the photosynthetic activity in aquatic lirium plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, A; Cardona, A; Nogal, U; Juárez Gracia, A G; Marín, E; Muñoz Hernández, R A

    2014-01-01

    We report, the application of the photoacoustic technique for monitoring the photosynthesis evolution in aquatic lirium (Eichhornia Crassipes), before and after it was exposed to ultrasonic irradiations. We obtained the disappearance of the phototobaric contribution in the PA signal measured for the irradiated samples with ultrasound of 17 kHz, and therefore of a possible damage in the centers producing the photosynthesis, due to the irradiation. These results show the utility of the ultrasonic irradiation, as well as, of the photosynthesis monitoring by means of the photoacoustic technique, for the elaboration and establishment of methodologies in the control of this aquatic plant, whose propagation causes many consequences extremely unfavorable for the environment, as well as for the diverse human activities that are developed in the bodies of water in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.

  17. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  18. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health.

  19. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Girardello

    Full Text Available The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+ are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18, and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health.

  20. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Carlson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI, specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality.

  1. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  2. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, H; Shoji, T; Uchida, S

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  3. Microbial Experimental Evolution as a Novel Research Approach in the Vibrionaceae and Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eSoto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists. The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to a solid substrate such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study.

  4. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  5. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... stocks.Ecosystem effects expands from the ecosystem approach to fisheries management to an integratedapproach where other human activities are taken into consideration. Fisheries management developsmethods, models and tools for predicting and evaluating the effects of management measures andregulations...

  6. Axial allometry in a neutrally buoyant environment: effects of the terrestrial-aquatic transition on vertebral scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pierce, S E

    2016-03-01

    Ecological diversification into new environments presents new mechanical challenges for locomotion. An extreme example of this is the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle. Here, we examine the implications of life in a neutrally buoyant environment on adaptations of the axial skeleton to evolutionary increases in body size. On land, mammals must use their thoracolumbar vertebral column for body support against gravity and thus exhibit increasing stabilization of the trunk as body size increases. Conversely, in water, the role of the axial skeleton in body support is reduced, and, in aquatic mammals, the vertebral column functions primarily in locomotion. Therefore, we hypothesize that the allometric stabilization associated with increasing body size in terrestrial mammals will be minimized in secondarily aquatic mammals. We test this by comparing the scaling exponent (slope) of vertebral measures from 57 terrestrial species (23 felids, 34 bovids) to 23 semi-aquatic species (pinnipeds), using phylogenetically corrected regressions. Terrestrial taxa meet predictions of allometric stabilization, with posterior vertebral column (lumbar region) shortening, increased vertebral height compared to width, and shorter, more disc-shaped centra. In contrast, pinniped vertebral proportions (e.g. length, width, height) scale with isometry, and in some cases, centra even become more spool-shaped with increasing size, suggesting increased flexibility. Our results demonstrate that evolution of a secondarily aquatic lifestyle has modified the mechanical constraints associated with evolutionary increases in body size, relative to terrestrial taxa.

  7. Pectinases in leaf degradation by aquatic Hyphomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chamier, Anne-Carole

    1980-01-01

    Packs of oak and alder leaves were submerged in late autumn in the River Bourne, a moderately eutrophic stream in Surrey so that the colonization pattern of aquatic Hyphomycetes on the leaves could be quantified as the leaves were degraded. The physico-chemical of the water was monitored over the experimental period and the inoculum available for leaf colonization was measured by filter counts of conidia in the stream. Colonization of the leaves by pectolytic bacteria was also measured. There...

  8. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

    1999-05-01

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  9. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  10. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  11. Cultural evolution: universality in animal culture and uniqueness in human culture%文化的起源——动物文化的普遍性与人类文化的独特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万美婷; 苏彦捷

    2009-01-01

    In most time, culture was attributed to human exclusively. However, after some investigations of animals' cultural behaviors coming out, many researchers believe that culture can exist in animal populations. In the current review, we provided observation evidences about cultural phenomena of animals in wild, as well as experimental results about cognitive foundation of cultural behaviors in laboratory. Besides, we pointed out different ways between human and animal cultures , and explained the cause of the uniqueness of human culture.%在很长一段时间里文化被认为是人类文明的产物.该文提供了许多关于动物文化现象的证据,并且提供了动物创新和社会学习能力的观察与实证研究的结果,用以说明文化在动物中存在的可能性.然而,人类文化与动物文化存在着明显差异,造成这种结果的原因可能主要是两者认知能力的差异:人类特殊的认知模式--文化认知造就了人类复杂的文化体系.

  12. Aquatic therapy for patients with rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, R L

    1990-11-01

    Aquatic therapy is justifiably a rapidly expanding, beneficial form of patient treatment. The goals established at the initial and subsequent evaluations usually are met as quickly and as sensibly as possible. Understanding the theory of water techniques is essential in implementing an aquatic therapy program. The success of the program, however, will always depend on the pleasure and benefits achieved by the patients. Remember, rheumatic patients most likely will need to modify their previous daily functioning. Patients need to be aware of the long-term ramifications of the disease process and understand how treatment and care may be altered during various stages of exacerbation and remission. Patient education is critical in ensuring individual responsibility for the changes that must be made when not supervised by a professional. Aquatic therapy is a step in molding a positive lifestyle change for the patient. The patient can be encouraged to be fitness oriented and, at the same time, exercise in a manner that is safe, effective, and biomechanically and physiologically sound. The environment, hopefully, also will be conductive to family and social interaction that ultimately encourages the compliance of long-term exercise programs.

  13. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  15. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  16. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu,Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to ana...

  17. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  19. Seasonal dynamics in the relative density of aquatic flora along some coastal areas of the Red Sea, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Ansari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the producers of all autotrophic ecosystems’ and are the base of the food chain taking energy from the sun and converting it into food for all other organisms through photosynthesis. Plants grow in certain places and seasons when the environmental factors are suitable for their germination, growth and developments that influence their diversity. Environmental factors can include abiotic factors such as temperature, light, moisture, soil nutrients; or biotic factors like competition from other plants or grazing by animals. Anthropogenic perturbations can also influence distribution patterns. Monitoring of ecological habitats and diversity of some aquatic flora along some coastal areas of Red Sea has been done to understand the dynamics of aquatic plants influenced by prevailing environmental and anthropogenic perturbations The results of this research showed that the summer season is the most suitable period for the study of aquatic plant diversity along the coastal sites of Red Sea. The aquatic flora had high relative density and diversity in April, May, June and July and these four months of the summer season are best for collection of aquatic plants from the selected coastal areas of Red Sea for medicinal purposes and ecological studies.

  20. Reality mining of animal social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jens; Krause, Stefan; Arlinghaus, Robert; Psorakis, Ioannis; Roberts, Stephen; Rutz, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The increasing miniaturisation of animal-tracking technology has made it possible to gather exceptionally detailed machine-sensed data on the social dynamics of almost entire populations of individuals, in both terrestrial and aquatic study systems. Here, we review important issues concerning the collection of such data, and their processing and analysis, to identify the most promising approaches in the emerging field of 'reality mining'. Automated technologies can provide data sensing at time intervals small enough to close the gap between social patterns and their underlying processes, providing insights into how social structures arise and change dynamically over different timescales. Especially in conjunction with experimental manipulations, reality mining promises significant advances in basic and applied research on animal social systems.

  1. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  2. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes; Cornou, Cécile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  3. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  4. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Dawson, Mary R; Tedford, Richard H

    2009-04-23

    Modern pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and the walrus) are semi-aquatic, generally marine carnivores the limbs of which have been modified into flippers. Recent phylogenetic studies using morphological and molecular evidence support pinniped monophyly, and suggest a sister relationship with ursoids (for example bears) or musteloids (the clade that includes skunks, badgers, weasels and otters). Although the position of pinnipeds within modern carnivores appears moderately well resolved, fossil evidence of the morphological steps leading from a terrestrial ancestor to the modern marine forms has been weak or contentious. The earliest well-represented fossil pinniped is Enaliarctos, a marine form with flippers, which had appeared on the northwestern shores of North America by the early Miocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a new semi-aquatic carnivore from an early Miocene lake deposit in Nunavut, Canada, that represents a morphological link in early pinniped evolution. The new taxon retains a long tail and the proportions of its fore- and hindlimbs are more similar to those of modern terrestrial carnivores than to modern pinnipeds. Morphological traits indicative of semi-aquatic adaptation include a forelimb with a prominent deltopectoral ridge on the humerus, a posterodorsally expanded scapula, a pelvis with relatively short ilium, a shortened femur and flattened phalanges, suggestive of webbing. The new fossil shows evidence of pinniped affinities and similarities to the early Oligocene Amphicticeps from Asia and the late Oligocene and Miocene Potamotherium from Europe. The discovery suggests that the evolution of pinnipeds included a freshwater transitional phase, and may support the hypothesis that the Arctic was an early centre of pinniped evolution.

  5. Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines

    CERN Document Server

    Bale, Rahul; Neveln, Izaak D; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; MacIver, Malcolm A; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a century, researchers have tried to understand the swimming of aquatic animals in terms of a balance between the forward thrust from swimming movements and drag on the body. Prior approaches have failed to provide a separation of these two forces for undulatory swimmers such as lamprey and eels, where most parts of the body are simultaneously generating drag and thrust. We nonetheless show that this separation is possible, and delineate its fundamental basis in undulatory swimmers. Our approach unifies a vast diversity of undulatory aquatic animals (anguilliform, sub-carangiform, gymnotiform, bal- istiform, rajiform) and provides design principles for highly agile bioinspired underwater vehicles. This approach has practical utility within biology as well as engineering. It is a predictive tool for use in understanding the role of the mechanics of movement in the evolutionary emergence of morphological features relating to locomotion. For example, we demonstrate that the drag-thrust separation fram...

  6. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  7. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  8. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  9. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  10. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  11. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  12. Computer animations of quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E. (Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique)

    1992-07-01

    A visualization mehtod for quantum field theories based on the transfer matrix formalism is presented. It generates computer animations simulating the time evolution of complex physical systems subject to local Hamiltonians. The method may be used as a means of gaining insight to theories such as QCD, and as an educational tool in explaining high-energy physics. (orig.).

  13. COMADRE: a global database of animal demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero-Gómez, R.; Jones, O.R.; Archer, C.R.; Bein, C.; de Buhr, H.; Farack, C.; Gottschalk, F.; Hartmann, A.; Henning, A.; Hoppe, G.; Römer, G.; Ruoff, T.; Sommer, V.; Wille, J.; Voigt, J; Zeh, S.; Vieregg, D.; Buckley, Y.M.; Che-Castaldo, J.; Hodgson, D.; Scheuerlein, A.; Caswell, H.; Vaupel, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    1. The open-data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open-data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics spann

  14. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches; Marina Gulo Alcorinte; Lucas Henrique Sahm; Guilherme Rossi Gorni; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Pau...

  15. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  16. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  17. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  18. Inland Aquatic Resources and Biogeochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The biosphere is the entire planetary system that includes, sustains and is influenced by life. The central issue of the science of the biosphere is the extent to which the Earth's surface, atmosphere and hydrosphere is the result of biological rather than abiotic processes. Space science and technology accelerates the understanding of global biological processes by providing repetive synoptic observations on large spatial scales once the relationships between the processes and the remotely sensed quantities are established. Especially promising applications of space technology are the measurement of biological productivity and portions of geochemical cycles in aquatic ecosystems and the evaluation and management of the quality of freshwater resources.

  19. Decomposition of aquatic plants in lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godshalk, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This study was carried out to systematically determine the effects of temperature and oxygen concentration, two environmental parameters crucial to lake metabolism in general, on decomposition of five species of aquatic vascular plants of three growth forms in a Michigan lake. Samples of dried plant material were decomposed in flasks in the laboratory under three different oxygen regimes, aerobic-to-anaerobic, strict anaerobic, and aerated, each at 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C. In addition, in situ decomposition of the same species was monitored using the litter bag technique under four conditions.

  20. Monitoring aquatic environments with autonomous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard

    High frequency measurements from autonomous sensors have become a widely used tool among aquatic scientists. This report focus primarily on the use of ecosystem metabolism based on high frequency oxygen measurements and relates the calculations to spatial variation, biomass of the primary producers...... and in shallow systems the macrophytes can completely dominate primary production. This was despite the fact that the plants in the studied system were light-saturated most of the light hours and occasionally carbon limited. It was also shown that the GPP and the total phytoplankton biomass in a nutrient...

  1. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major ``greenhouse`` gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  2. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Sprague, S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse'' gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  3. Aquatic Exercise and Thermoregulation in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultanakis, Helen N

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic exercise, in a general sense, is any type of movement performed in the water for the purpose of improving health and fitness. Water, with its properties, provides buoyancy to lighten the "load" of pregnancy, hydrostatic pressure to alleviate pregnancy-induced edema, and many other benefits. Sports in extreme temperatures may involve some risks. The fact that a person's conductivity increases about 25 times in water comes with a great loss, which is the depression of the evaporative mechanism. Altered thermal control mechanisms in water, both in the gravid and the nongravid state, will be addressed in this review. convenience.

  4. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Habitat Value of Aquatic Macrophytes for Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    feed on abunaant organisms provided that they are palatable. Notable predators occur among the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Odonata (damselflies and...Westfall, M. J., Jr. 1984. " Odonata ," An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 2d ed., R. W. Merritt and K. W. Cummins, eds., Kendall

  5. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen K; Crane, Mark St J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Olesen, Niels J; Gallardo Lagno, Alicia

    2016-02-25

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  6. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A.; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen; St. J. Crane, Mark; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Olesen, Niels J; Lagno, Alicia Gallardo

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies—paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  7. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits.

  8. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  9. Nutritional composition of aquatic species in Laotian rice field ecosystems : possible impact of reduced biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhasan, Mulia

    2008-01-01

    The population density of Laos PDR has increased from 15 persons per square km in 1985 to 19 persons in 1995 and to 24 persons in 2005. This has threatened food security, which in Laos PDR is generally synonymous with rice availability. Rice production in Laos rose by 70 percent from 1990 to 2004. Evidence from Vietnam, Malaysia and Central Thailand has shown that the rise of rice production steadily decreases the population of aquatic animals in rice field ecosystems, as a result of higher a...

  10. Aerotaxis in the Closest Relatives of Animals

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkegaard, Julius B; Marron, Alan O; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-01-01

    As the closest unicellular relatives of animals, choanoflagellates serve as useful model organisms for understanding the evolution of animal multicellularity. An important factor in animal evolution was the increasing ocean oxygen levels in the Precambrian, which are thought to have influenced the emergence of complex multicellular life. As a first step in addressing these conditions, we study here the response of the colony-forming choanoflagellate $Salpingoeca~rosetta$ to oxygen gradients. Using a microfluidic device that allows spatio-temporal variations in oxygen concentrations, we report the discovery that $S.~rosetta$ display positive aerotaxis. Analysis of the spatial population distributions provides evidence for logarithmic sensing of oxygen, which enhances sensing in low oxygen neighborhoods. Analysis of search strategy models on the experimental colony trajectories finds that choanoflagellate aerotaxis is consistent with stochastic navigation, the statistics of which are captured using an effective...

  11. Aquatic insect assemblages of man-made permanent ponds, Buenos Aires city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarrosa, M S; Collantes, M B; Bachmann, A O

    2013-02-01

    Freshwater habitats are important elements within urban green space and they are endangered by various types of human activity. With the aim to increase the knowledge about species biodiversity in urban ecosystems, we characterised the assemblages of aquatic insects in four permanent man-made ponds in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) during a 1-year period. We recorded 32 species with Sigara spp. (Hemiptera) as the most abundant. The removal of aquatic vegetation from the studied ponds may have affected both the establishment and permanence of the insect community. Swimmers were the dominant group in the studied sites, followed by burrowers and sprawlers, and only a few strictly climbers were collected. Therefore, all sampled ponds were dominated by collectors (principally gatherers), secondarily by predators and only few shredders were detected, which was much affected by the removal of macrophytes. Non-parametric abundance indexes estimated a number of species very close to the observed number in each site. Conversely, the incidence indexes estimated more species because there were many more taxa present only in one sample than those represented by few individual in a sample. Our data provides some insights on the community of man-made ponds that can improve the management of these aquatic urban habitats. Considering that macrophytes affect animal assemblages due to their role as physical structures that increase the complexity or heterogeneity of habitats, they should not be removed by authorities in order to promote biodiversity.

  12. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark; Lemaire, Philippe; Presow, Shaun; van Egmond, Roger; Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald; Mayer, Philipp; Galay Burgos, Malyka

    2015-10-20

    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of action (MoA). We considered 660 toxicity data to be of acceptable quality. The 328 data which applied to the 72 substances identified as MoA 1 were then evaluated within the activity-toxicity framework: EC50 and LC50 values for all three taxa correlated generally well with (subcooled) liquid solubilities. Acute toxicity was typically exerted within the chemical activity range of 0.01-0.1, whereas chronic toxicity was exerted in the range of 0.001-0.01. These results confirm that chemical activity has the potential to contribute to the determination, interpretation and prediction of toxicity to aquatic organisms. It also has the potential to enhance regulation of organic chemicals by linking results from laboratory tests, monitoring and modeling programs. The framework can provide an additional line of evidence for assessing aquatic toxicity, for improving the design of toxicity tests, reducing animal usage and addressing chemical mixtures.

  13. Export of aquatic productivity, including highly unsaturated fatty acids, to terrestrial ecosystems via Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga N; Haritonov, Anatoly Y; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Anzhelika A; Gladyshev, Michail I

    2017-03-01

    Based on 31-year field study of the abundance and biomass of 18 species of odonates in the Barabinsk Forest-Steppe (Western Siberia, Russia), we quantified the contribution of odonates to the export of aquatic productivity to surrounding terrestrial landscape. Emergence varied from 0.8 to 4.9g of wet biomass per m(2) of land area per year. Average export of organic carbon was estimated to be 0.30g·m(-2)·year(-1), which is comparable with the average production of herbivorous terrestrial insects in temperate grasslands. Moreover, in contrast to terrestrial insects, emerging odonates contained high quantities of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), which are known to be essential for many terrestrial animals, especially for birds. The export of EPA+DHA by odonates was found to be 1.92-11.76mg·m(-2)·year(-1), which is equal to an average general estimation of the export of HUFA by emerging aquatic insects. Therefore, odonates appeared to be a quantitatively and qualitatively important conduit of aquatic productivity to forest-steppe ecosystem.

  14. COMPOSTING AQUATIC MACROPHYTES: SALVINIA AURICULATA AND EICHHORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available High population growth and densities in urban areas and the consumerism present in modern societies have pronounced effect on the generation of organic waste, which may become an environmental problem. Aerobic composting is one of the best known alternatives to treating these wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of composting as an alternative to the disposal of organic wastes from aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata collected in the reservoir UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Tocantins, Brazil and also produce an organic compound from different combinations of macrophytes, prunning residues and organic waste generated by the Campus of Palmas of UFT, TO. The study was conducted in an area of 80m² in unprotected environment at the experimental station of the Campus of Palmas. The experiments were done as three replications in the dry season (from 18.09.2008 to 11.21.2008 and rainy season (from 03.09.2009 to 05.04.2009 and the parameters temperature, pH, total nitrogen and carbon, and organic matter were monitored along with counts of microorganisms. It was possible to produce compost from the combinations of organic wastes within 65 days of composting during the dry season and 55 days in the rainy season. The aquatic macrophytes resulted in a good raw material for composting, since there is not a destination for the excess plant materials removed by the cleaning process of the reservoir.

  15. Selenium toxicosis in wild aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Kilness, A.W.; Simmons, J.L.; Stroud, R.K.; Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal beaks, amelia, micromelia, ectrodactyly, and hydrocephaly. Mean concentrations of selenium in livers (94.4 ppm, dry weight) and kidneys (96.6 ppm) of birds collected at the Kesterson ponds were about 10 times those found at a nearby control area (8.3 and 12.2 ppm). We conclude that selenium present in the agricultural drainage water supplied to the Kesterson ponds accumulated in the food chain of aquatic birds to toxic concentrations and caused the lesion and other changes observed.

  16. Antimicrobial use in aquaculture re-examined: its relevance to antimicrobial resistance and to animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Dölz, Humberto; Millanao, Ana; Buschmann, Alejandro H

    2013-07-01

    The worldwide growth of aquaculture has been accompanied by a rapid increase in therapeutic and prophylactic usage of antimicrobials including those important in human therapeutics. Approximately 80% of antimicrobials used in aquaculture enter the environment with their activity intact where they select for bacteria whose resistance arises from mutations or more importantly, from mobile genetic elements containing multiple resistance determinants transmissible to other bacteria. Such selection alters biodiversity in aquatic environments and the normal flora of fish and shellfish. The commonality of the mobilome (the total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome) between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria together with the presence of residual antimicrobials, biofilms, and high concentrations of bacteriophages where the aquatic environment may also be contaminated with pathogens of human and animal origin can stimulate exchange of genetic information between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria. Several recently found genetic elements and resistance determinants for quinolones, tetracyclines, and β-lactamases are shared between aquatic bacteria, fish pathogens, and human pathogens, and appear to have originated in aquatic bacteria. Excessive use of antimicrobials in aquaculture can thus potentially negatively impact animal and human health as well as the aquatic environment and should be better assessed and regulated.

  17. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  18. Comparative EST analysis provides insights into the basal aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Suely L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the Chytridiomycete class, which is at the base of the fungal phylogenetic tree. In this sense, some ancestral characteristics of fungi and animals or fungi and plants could have been retained in this aquatic fungus and lost in members of late-diverging fungal species. To identify in B. emersonii sequences associated with these ancestral characteristics two approaches were followed: (1 a large-scale comparative analysis between putative unigene sequences (uniseqs from B. emersonii and three databases constructed ad hoc with fungal proteins, animal proteins and plant unigenes deposited in Genbank, and (2 a pairwise comparison between B. emersonii full-length cDNA sequences and their putative orthologues in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa and the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis. Results Comparative analyses of B. emersonii uniseqs with fungi, animal and plant databases through the two approaches mentioned above produced 166 B. emersonii sequences, which were identified as putatively absent from other fungi or not previously described. Through these approaches we found: (1 possible orthologues of genes previously identified as specific to animals and/or plants, and (2 genes conserved in fungi, but with a large difference in divergence rate in B. emersonii. Among these sequences, we observed cDNAs encoding enzymes from coenzyme B12-dependent propionyl-CoA pathway, a metabolic route not previously described in fungi, and validated their expression in Northern blots. Conclusion Using two different approaches involving comparative sequence analyses, we could identify sequences from the early-diverging fungus B. emersonii previously considered specific to animals or plants, and highly divergent sequences from the same fungus relative to other fungi.

  19. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  20. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  3. Trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities as explained by pesticides and water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieromina, O; Musters, C J M; Bodegom, P M; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Vijver, M G

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing functional species' characteristics (species traits) that represent physiological, life history and morphological characteristics of species help understanding the impacts of various stressors on aquatic communities at field conditions. This research aimed to study the combined effects of pesticides and other environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, floating macrophytes cover, phosphate, nitrite, and nitrate) on the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities. To this purpose, a field inventory was performed in a flower bulb growing area of the Netherlands with significant variation in pesticides pressures. Macrofauna community composition, water chemistry parameters and pesticide concentrations in ditches next to flower bulb fields were determined. Trait modalities of nine traits (feeding mode, respiration mode, locomotion type, resistance form, reproduction mode, life stage, voltinism, saprobity, maximum body size) likely to indicate pesticides impacts were analyzed. According to a redundancy analysis, phosphate -and not pesticides- constituted the main factor structuring the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna. The functional composition could be ascribed for 2-4 % to pesticides, and for 3-11 % to phosphate. The lack of trait responses to pesticides may indicate that species may have used alternative strategies to adapt to ambient pesticides stress. Biomass of animals exhibiting trait modalities related to feeding by predation and grazing, presence of diapause form or dormancy, reproduction by free clutches and ovoviviparity, life stage of larvae and pupa, was negatively correlated to the concentration of phosphate. Hence, despite the high pesticide pollution in the area, variation in nutrient-related stressors seems to be the dominant driver of the functional composition of aquatic macrofauna assembly in agricultural ditches.

  4. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.

  5. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1...

  6. Aquatic beetle species and their distributions in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ling; JIA Feng-long; Tursun Dilbar; ZHENG Zhe-min

    2009-01-01

    The species of aquatic beetles and their distributions in lotic and lentic habitats were investigated during July to August of 2005 and 2006 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. A total of 66 species belonging to 7 beetle families (Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Helophoridae, Noteridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae) are recorded, of which 16 are new records of aquatic beetles for China.

  7. Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of methane (CH4) from anaerobic sediments through the leaves, stems, and flowers of aquatic plants and into the atmosphere was found to provide a significant pathway for the emission of CH4 from the aquatic substrates of flooded wetlands. Methane concentrations well above the surrounding ambient air levels were found in the mesophyll of 16 varies of aquatic plants and are attributed to transpiration, diffusion, and pressure-induced flow of gaseous CH4 from the roots when they are embedded in CH4-saturated anaerobic sediments. Methane emissions from the emergent parts of aquatic plants were measured using floating chamber techniques and by enclosing the plants in polyethylene bags of known volume. Concentration changes were monitored in the trapped air using syringes and gas chromatographic techniques. Vertical profiles of dissolved CH4 in sediment pore water surrounding the aquatic plants' rhizomes were obtained using an interstitial sampling technique. Methane emissions from the aquatic plants studied varied from 14.8 mg CH4/d to levels too low to be detectable. Rooted and unrooted freshwater aquatic plants were studied as well as saltwater and brackish water plants. Included in the experiment is detailed set of measurements on CH4 emissions from the common cattail (Typha latifolia). This paper illustrates that aquatic plants play an important gas exchange role in the C cycle between wetlands and the atmosphere.

  8. 78 FR 60306 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... meeting of the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force. The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and... Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Wednesday, November 6, through Thursday, November...

  9. 77 FR 61019 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... aquatic invasive species. The agenda and other related meeting information are on the ANS Task Force Web... Species Task Force, Assistant Director--Fisheries and Habitat Conservation. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P ...: 134] Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  10. Aquatic exercise for the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Lund, H; Hagen, K B;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical experience indicates that aquatic exercise may have advantages for osteoarthritis patients. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of aquatic-exercise interventions in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE from 1949, E...

  11. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality m...

  12. Microbially mediated detrital food web: The link between mangroves and coastal aquatic animal communities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, S.

    The importance of mangroves extends far beyond that which is offerEd. by their vegetation. In fact, mangroves constitute the driving force of the food web in coastal waters adjacent to them, in the form of detritus. Detritus, in simple terms, may...

  13. A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Li, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Myjak, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Martinez, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Xiao, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Brown, R. S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA; Cartmell, S. S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99332, USA

    2016-11-01

    The lack of stronger acoustic signal, longer service life and smaller size from off-the-shelf transmitters has precluded intensive research for environmental monitoring of certain species using acoustic telemetry techniques. In this study we developed a small long-life acoustic transmitter with the length of approximately 24.2 mm, the diameter of approximately 5.0 mm, and the dry weight of approximately 0.72 g. The new transmitter can generate an acoustic signal at selectable source level between 159 and 163 dB re 1 µPa at 1 m. The new acoustic transmitter has an operation lifetime up to a year or longer at a pulse rate interval of 15 seconds, and also has a signal detection range up to at least 500 meters that enhances detection probability in a quiet environment. The new technology makes long-term acoustic telemetry studies of small fish possible and is being deployed for long-term tracking of juvenile sturgeon.

  14. FishPathogens.eu a new database in the research of aquatic animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Søren Peter; Gray, T.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    We live in a world where the amount of information available is enormous. In order to keep track of the available knowledge, databases are needed to collect, store, and sort it. Www.fishpathogens.eu is a database developed and maintained by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases...

  15. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Zoologisches Institut-Okologie

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  16. Selection of commercial biofilters for rearing aquatic animals in closed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuayrodmod, J.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was made to select the most suitable biofilter from 7 types of commercial water filters by rearing hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus in aquaria for 64 days. It was found that diminishing concentrations of ammonia and nitrite were attributed mainly to nitrifying bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrite and nitrate which required a minimum period of 16-28 days for the process to function. Low absorption of ammonia was achieved through using activated carbon, coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and ceramic. Durability and filtering efficiency of the filters depended upon porosity and amount of biofilm on the filter surface. The filter using one coarse meshed plastic sheet and 37 bioballs was the most suitable, though it caused a problem with low total alkalinity resulting in mortality of the biofilm which peeled off, thus increasing the concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and suspended solids toward the end of the experimental period. The catfish growth rate, survival and FCR in all treatments were in the ranges of 7.39-8.91 g/d, 84.44-95.56% and 0.21-0.25, respectively.

  17. QUANTITATIVE FLOW-ANALYSIS AROUND AQUATIC ANIMALS USING LASER SHEET PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMHUIS, EJ; VIDELER, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Two alternative particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods have been developed, applying laser light sheet illumination of particle-seeded flows around marine organisms, Successive video images, recorded perpendicular to a light sheet parallel to the main stream, were digitized and processed to map th

  18. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  19. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  1. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms - mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  2. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ. Pott

    Full Text Available This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz Morrone & Zuloaga.

  3. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.;

    2012-01-01

    aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv......Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... a literature survey, we document the growing importance of numerical aquatic ecosystem models while also noting the difficulties, up until now, of the aquatic scientific community to make significant advances in these models during the past two decades. Through a common forum for aquatic ecosystem modellers we...

  4. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, V J; Pott, A; Lima, L C P; Moreira, S N; Oliveira, A K M

    2011-04-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz) Morrone & Zuloaga.

  5. Genomes and evolutionary genomics of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luting SONG; Wen WANG

    2013-01-01

    Alongside recent advances and booming applications of DNA sequencing technologies,a great number of complete genome sequences for animal species are available to researchers.Hundreds of animals have been involved in whole genome sequencing,and at least 87 non-human animal species' complete or draft genome sequences have been published since 1998.Based on these technological advances and the subsequent accumulation of large quantity of genomic data,evolutionary genomics has become one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines in biology.Scientists now can perform a number of comparative and evolutionary genomic studies for animals,to identify conserved genes or other functional elements among species,genomic elements that confer animals their own specific characteristics and new phenotypes for adaptation.This review deals with the current genomic and evolutionary research on non-human animals,and displays a comprehensive landscape of genomes and the evolutionary genomics of non-human animals.It is very helpful to a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the myriad forms within the animal kingdom [Current Zoology 59 (1):87-98,2013].

  6. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  7. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior.

  8. Performance evaluation on aquatic product cold-chain logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The requirements for high quality and diversification aquatic products are increasing with the improvement of Chinese living standard. However, the distribution between place of production and place of consumption are uneven, which results in large cold-chain logistics demand for aquatic products. At present, the low-level development of cold chain logistics has a bad impact on the circulation of aquatic products in China. So it is very urgent to develop cold-chain logistics in China. Design/methodology/approach: In order to do this, we apply performance evaluation, a well-known management tool, to study Chinese aquatic product cold-chain logistics. In this paper we first propose SISP(Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model(Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation. Then an ANP-Fuzzy method is proposed to evaluate the operational performance of Shandong Oriental Ocean Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. Furthermore, a system dynamic model is built to simulate the impact of temperature on the profits in aquatic products cold-chain sales section. Findings: We find out within a reasonable temperature range, lower temperature brings higher profit level. Also, performance improvement methods are proposed and the simulation of performance evaluation system is developed. Practical implications: Our findings can help to improve the level of aquatic product cold-chain logistics in China. Originality/value: The paper proposes the SISP (Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model (Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation.

  9. Evolutionally Dissemination of CTX-M-14 Producing Escherichia coli among Food-producing Animals%食品动物源产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌传播分子机制的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄盼盼; 汤电; 任艳娜; 郭玉芳; 王丽华; 裘宗平; 蒋红霞

    2012-01-01

    从保存的2002-2009年分离的食品动物源大肠杆菌中,挑选16株blacTx-M14阳性菌,用PCR方法检测超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)编码基因、PMQR耐药基因及其他重要抗生素耐药基因(rmtB和floR);通过脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)及种族进化关系分析16株细菌的亲缘关系;通过接合转移试验、复制子分型和blaCTX-M-14上下游插入元件的检测,分析产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌的传播分子机制.PCR检测结果表明,16株食品动物源产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌大多属于系统发育组A组,其次为B1和D组,没有B2组;PFGE分型结果表明,同一时间内不同动物间存在产CTX-M-14共生型大肠杆菌克隆的扩散传播,但养殖场内CTX-M-14主要是随质粒或其他元件进行水平传播;质粒复制子分型结果表明,携带blaCTX-M-14的质粒属于IncK(3/14)、IncF(5/14)、IncHI2(1/14)、IncFIB和IncF(1/14)、IncHI1和IncN(2/14)、IncIl(2/14)等,且随着时间推移,复制子的种类呈增多趋势.2002-2007年的菌株blaCTx-M基因的上下游均检测到ISEcpl和IS903;但2009年菌株除了部分在上下游都可以检测到ISEcpl和IS903外,还有的只检测到上游的ISEcpl或下游的IS903;2002-2009年的菌均未检测到ISCR1.16株产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌除了携带其他ESBLs编码基因,如blaCTx-M79和blaTEM-135外,还携带其他重要抗生素耐药基因,如oqxA、floR、aac(6') - lb-cr及rmtB,而且2002-2009年大肠杆菌携带耐药基因的种类和数量逐年增多;接合转移试验发现,2002-2005年的菌株,blaCTx-M-14往往发生单独转移,而2009年分离菌blaCTx-M-14往往和floR或rmtB位于同一质粒上发生共同转移.这说明养殖场使用氨基糖苷类或氟苯尼考等任何一种抗生素,都可以筛选出产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌并促进其扩散,所以动物养殖过程中要慎用这些抗生素.%Sixteen CTX-M-14 producing Escherichia coli isolates from food animal recovered from 2002 to 2009 were subjected to detection of

  10. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  11. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    , implicitly as well as explicitly, to species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). This draws on recent insights for chemical mixtures and identifies the implications of different model choices. In spite of the many options, assumptions, and areas for further research, it is concluded that a single effect factor...... basis represents the best available practice for use in LCA at this time, ƒ´PAFms/ƒ´C = 0.5/HC50; where ƒ´PAFms is the change in the (Potentially Affected) Fraction (PAF) of species that experiences an Increase in exposure above a specified effect level, accounting for the presence of complex background...... mixtures (ms), ƒ´C is the change in cumulative exposure concentration of the chemical of interest, and HC50 is the median, chronic Hazardous Concentration for regional, multiple species systems. The resultant aquatic effect factors are risk-based and can be readily estimated for many chemicals using...

  12. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  13. Animal Structures and Functions, Science (Experimental): 5314.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Barbara A.

    This unit of instruction was designed to introduce the student to the relationship between structure and function in the animal kingdom, with emphasis given to: (1) the evolution of physiological systems in the major animal phyla, (2) the complementarity of structure and function, and (3) the concept of homeostasis. The booklet lists the relevant…

  14. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  15. What's New: Acquatic Stabilization: Aquatic Rehabilitation Strategies for the Lumbar Spine and Risk Management for the Aquatic Therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschettti, Marilou

    Through dynamic aquatic stabilization techniques, patients will develop the ability to characterize sensory distractions and develop self-awareness and sensitivity to movement in the water, which will relate directly to improved motor function. Aquatic therapy is a systematic method of treatment, with programs developed by a licensed physical…

  16. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  17. 水生植物的生态功能和资源应用%Ecological Functions and Resource Utilization of Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬林; 王磊; 丁晶晶; 芮雯奕

    2011-01-01

    水生植物具有水体产氧、氮循环、吸附沉积物、抑制浮游藻类繁殖、减轻水体富营养化、提高水体自净能力的重要功能,同时还能为水生动物、微生物提供栖息地和食物源,维持水岸带物种多样性.通过综述国内外水生植物的研究进展,阐明了水生植物的概念及分类方法,全面概述了水生植物的生态功能,讨论了中国城市建设中水生植物资源利用现状和效果,提出了水生植物在水岸带生态恢复应用中需要关注的问题以及今后水生植物研究的目标和方向.%Aquatic plants are one of the important factors in maintaining water ecological quality effectively. A lots of research showed that aquatic plants have many important functions, such as producing oxygen, nitrogen cycling, and adsorption deposit, controlling the harmful algal breeding, lightening water eutrophication, improving water clear ability. Moreover aquatic plants can provide inhabits and food to aquatic animals and microbe, maintain species diversity too. The concepts and classifying methods of aquatic plants were clarified by synthesized researched progress of aquatic plants in the paper. Ecological functions of aquatic plants were systematically summarized; their utilizing actuality and effect on building in the cities were discussed. Presently, much of correlative basic researches on aquatic plants, such as the collecting of genetic resources, breeding of new varieties, the general industrialized level and ecological functions with much faultiness in China. The more efforts of relevant studies were concentrated on ecological effect of aquatic plants on rivers and lakes water environment, but studies on their eco-physiological characteristics and regulation in adverse circumstances were few; presently, the researches on absorption of aquatic plants to nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water have already been reported frequently in China, but the studies on the morphology

  18. Improving Fishpond Sediment by Aquatic Vegetable Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously intensive fish farming results in pond degradation that needs to be improved. Therefore, the experiment rotating intensive fish culture with two aquatic vegetables lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and water chestnuts (Eleocharis dulcis cultivation is conducted aiming at determining the effect of rotation as a sediment management technique on improving the pond sediment and assessing the food safety risk of the vegetables cultivated in the pond sediment from the aspects of heavy metal. The results showed that after rotation, the content of Total Nitrogen (TN and Organic Matter (OM in the upper 10 cm sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with TN content reduced 1.05 and 0.74 g/kg; OM content reduced 0.59 and 0.37%, respectively. The contents of Organic-Phosphorus (OP and Fe/Al-bound Phosphorus (Fe/Al-P in the sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with OP reduced 0.05 and 0.04 g/kg, Fe/Al-P reduced 0.19 and 0.15 g/kg, respectively. The heavy metal contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr and Zn except Cu in the pond sediment were under Chinese National II Soil Criterion and the contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu and Zn in edible vegetable rhizomes satisfied Safety Requirements for Non-environmental Pollution Vegetable. Rotation of fish culture with aquatic vegetables cultivation effectively mitigated excessive nutrient load in the sediment while recycled the nutrient in the sediment to produce safe vegetables. It could be considered as a viable sediment quality improving technique.

  19. Role of an Aquatic and Non Aquatic Environment on Trunk Muscle Activation

    OpenAIRE

    VandenBerg, Jeanne P.

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a widespread problem affecting a number of people. Traditionally treated by nonoperative approaches the recent development of water currents and treadmills imbedded into pools has spurred physical therapists and athletic trainers to incorporate the use of aquatic therapy into their rehabilitation programs. OBJECTIVE: Determine if select trunk muscle activity levels are different in water-based exercises compared to land-based exercises. METHODS: 11 healthy male particip...

  20. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  1. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  2. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    • Many wetland plants produce aquatic adventitious roots from submerged stems. Aquatic roots can form chloroplasts, potentially producing endogenous carbon and oxygen. Here, aquatic root photosynthesis was evaluated in the wetland plant Meionectes brownii, which grows extensive stem-borne aquatic...... m(-3) dissolved CO(2), aquatic roots fix carbon at 0.016 µmol CO(2) g(-1) DM s(-1). Illuminated aquatic roots do not rely on exogenous inputs of O(2). • The photosynthetic ability of aquatic roots presumably offers an advantage to submerged M. brownii as aquatic roots, unlike sediment roots, need...

  3. Vision in semi-aquatic snakes: Intraocular morphology, accommodation, and eye: Body allometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plylar, Helen Bond

    Vision in vertebrates generally relies on the refractive power of the cornea and crystalline lens to facilitate vision. Light from the environment enters the eye and is refracted by the cornea and lens onto the retina for production of an image. When an animal with a system designed for air submerges underwater, the refractive power of the cornea is lost. Semi-aquatic animals (e.g., water snakes, turtles, aquatic mammals) must overcome this loss of corneal refractive power through visual accommodation. Accommodation relies on change of the position or shape of the lens to change the focal length of the optical system. Intraocular muscles and fibers facilitate lenticular displacement and deformation. Snakes, in general, are largely unstudied in terms of visual acuity and intraocular morphology. I used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to examine differences in eye anatomy between five sympatric colubrid snake species (Nerodia cyclopion, N. fasciata, N. rhombifer, Pantherophis obsoletus, and Thamnophis proximus) from Southeast Louisiana. I discovered previously undescribed structures associated with the lens in semi-aquatic species. Photorefractive methods were used to assess refractive error. While all species overcame the expected hyperopia imposed by submergence, there was interspecific variation in refractive error. To assess scaling of eye size with body size, I measure of eye size, head size, and body size in Nerodia cyclopion and N. fasciata from the SLU Vertebrate Museum. In both species, body size increases at a significantly faster rate than head size and eye size (negative allometry). Small snakes have large eyes relative to body size, and large snakes have relatively small eyes. There were interspecific differences in scaling of eye size with body size, where N. fasciata had larger eye diameter, but N. cyclopion had longer eyes (axial length).

  4. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  5. Animals in a bacterial world: opportunities for chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Alexandra M; Clardy, Jon

    2015-07-01

    This Viewpoint article provides a brief and selective summary of research on the chemical ecology underlying symbioses between bacteria and animals. Animals engage in multiple highly specialized interactions with bacteria that reflect their long coevolutionary history. The article focuses on a few illustrative but hardly exhaustive examples in which bacterially produced small molecules initiate a developmental step with important implications for the evolution of animals, provide signals for the maturation of mammalian immune systems, and furnish chemical defenses against microbial pathogens.

  6. Handling and Use of Oxygen by Pancrustaceans: Conserved Patterns and the Evolution of Respiratory Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    The handling and use of oxygen are central to physiological function of all pancrustaceans. Throughout the Pancrustacea, ventilation is controlled by a central oxygen-sensitive pattern generator. The ancestral condition was likely to achieve ventilation of the gills via leg-associated or mouth-associated muscles, but in insects and some air-breathing crustaceans, new muscles were recruited for this purpose, including intersegmental muscles likely used previously for posture and locomotion. Many aspects of the sensing of oxygen and the occurrence of responses to hypoxia (increased ventilation, depressed growth and metabolic rate, developmental changes that enhance the delivery of oxygen) appear common across most pancrustaceans, but there is tremendous variation across species. Some of this can be explained by habitat (e.g., ventilation of the internal medium occurs in terrestrial species and of the external medium in aquatic species; rearing under hypoxia induces tracheal proliferation in terrestrial insects and hemocyanin production in aquatic crustaceans); some plausibly by evolutionary origin of some responses to hypoxia within the Pancrustacea (the most basal arthropods may lack a ventilatory response to hypoxia); and some by the availability of environmental oxygen (animals adapted to survive hypoxia turn on the response to hypoxia at a lower PO2). On average, crustaceans and insects have similar tolerances to prolonged anoxia, but species or life stages from habitats with a danger of being trapped in hypoxia can tolerate longer durations of anoxia. Lactate is the primary anaerobic end-product in crustaceans but some insects have evolved a more diverse array of anaerobic end-products, including ethanol, alanine, succinate, and acetate. Most clades of Pancrustacea are small and lack obvious respiratory structures. Gilled stem-pancrustaceans likely evolved in the Cambrian, and gills persist in large Ostracoda, Malacostraca, and Branchiopoda. Based on currently

  7. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  8. Energy from fresh and brackish water aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Aquatic plants can achieve relatively high biomass productivities when compared to terrestrial plants because they need not be water-stressed and can be optimally supplied with nutrients. Based on literature reports, productivities in southern US regions of about 40 to 60 t/ha-yr (dry weight basis) can be predicted for green algae or marsh plants and about 80 t/ha-yr for water hyacinth. Higher productivities may be possible in exceptionally favorable locations by assuming development of advanced cultivation technologies and genetic selection of improved strains. The lack of established cultivation systems and low-cost harvesting processes imposes great uncertainties on the cost of biomass production by aquatic plants. Three potentially practical aquatic biomass energy systems are chemicals production from microalgae, alcohol production from marsh plants, and methane production from water hyacinths. At present, aquatic plants are not being used commercially as a fuel source any place in the world. Nevertheless, it is clear that aquatic plants have potentially high biomass productivities and, specifically for the case of microalgae, could produce a high-quality, high-value biomass suitable for conversion to fuels and extraction of other products. A list of the relative advantages and disadvantages of aquatic plant energy systems in comparison with the concepts of terrestrial tree or herbaceous plant energy farming is given. Three favorable aspects of aquatic plant biomass systems should be stressed - the relative short-term research and development effort that will be required to determine the practical feasibility of such systems, the continuous production nature of such systems, and the relative independence of aquatic biomass systems from soil characteristics and weather fluctuations. The fast generation times of most aquatic plants allow rapid data acquisition, as compared to even short-rotation trees.

  9. The evolution of helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Wen, C. Y.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we show that during their half-century history, helicopters have been evolving into geometrically similar architectures with surprisingly sharp correlations between dimensions, performance, and body size. For example, proportionalities emerge between body size, engine size, and the fuel load. Furthermore, the engine efficiency increases with the engine size, and the propeller radius is roughly the same as the length scale of the whole body. These trends are in accord with the constructal law, which accounts for the engine efficiency trend and the proportionality between "motor" size and body size in animals and vehicles. These body-size effects are qualitatively the same as those uncovered earlier for the evolution of aircraft. The present study adds to this theoretical body of research the evolutionary design of all technologies [A. Bejan, The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (St. Martin's Press, New York, 2016)].

  10. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  11. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  12. Algorithm Animation with Galant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F

    2017-01-01

    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  13. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise

    2014-01-01

    -demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective...... judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway...

  14. Aquatic therapy: scientific foundations and clinical rehabilitation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bruce E

    2009-09-01

    The aquatic environment has broad rehabilitative potential, extending from the treatment of acute injuries through health maintenance in the face of chronic diseases, yet it remains an underused modality. There is an extensive research base supporting aquatic therapy, both within the basic science literature and clinical literature. This article describes the many physiologic changes that occur during immersion as applied to a range of common rehabilitative issues and problems. Because of its wide margin of therapeutic safety and clinical adaptability, aquatic therapy is a very useful tool in the rehabilitative toolbox. Through a better understanding of the applied physiology, the practitioner may structure appropriate therapeutic programs for a diverse patient population.

  15. Aquatic fungi: targeting the forgotten in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor

    2016-06-01

    Fungi constitute important and conspicuous components of aquatic microbial communities, but their diversity and functional roles remain poorly characterized. New methods and conceptual frameworks are required to accurately describe their ecological roles, involvement in global cycling processes, and utility for human activities, considering both cultivation-independent techniques as well as experiments in laboratory and in natural ecosystems. Here we highlight recent developments and extant knowledge gaps in aquatic mycology, and provide a conceptual model to expose the importance of fungi in aquatic food webs and related biogeochemical processes.

  16. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  17. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  18. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic organisms from over-water uses of glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Thompson, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Although the herbicide glyphosate is most widely used in agriculture, some is used for the control of emergent aquatic weeds in ditches, wetlands, and margins of water bodies, largely as the formulation Rodeo. This article presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of glyphosate and some of the recommended surfactants as used in or near aquatic systems. Glyphosate does not bioaccumulate, biomagnify, or persist in a biologically available form in the environment. Its mechanism of action is specific to plants and it is relatively nontoxic to animals. As a commercial product, glyphosate may be formulated with surfactants that increased efficacy but, in some cases, are more toxic to aquatic organisms than the parent material. For this risk assessment, three model exposure scenarios--static or low-flow systems such as ponds, flowing waters such as streams, and systems subjected to tidal flows such as estuaries--were chosen and application rates from 1 to 8 kg glyphosate/ha were modeled. Additional measured exposure data from several field studies were also used. As acute exposures are most likely to occur, acute toxicity data were used as effect measures for the purposes of risk assessment. Toxicity data were obtained from the literature and characterized using probabilistic techniques. Risk assessments based on estimated and measured concentrations of glyphosate that would result from its use for the control of undesirable plants in wetlands and over-water situations showed that the risk to aquatic organisms is negligible or small at application rates less than 4 kg/ha and only slightly greater at application rates of 8 kg/ha. Less is known about the environmental fate and toxicology of the surfactants commonly used in combination with the Rodeo formulation of glyphosate. The surfactants used for this purpose were judged not to be persistent nor bioaccumulative in the environment. Distributional analysis of measured deposition concentrations of LI 700, suggest that

  19. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  20. The evolution of 'bricolage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboule, D; Wilkins, A S

    1998-02-01

    The past ten years of developmental genetics have revealed that most of our genes are shared by other species throughout the animal kingdom. Consequently, animal diversity might largely rely on the differential use of the same components, either at the individual level through divergent functional recruitment, or at a more integrated level, through their participation in various genetic networks. Here, we argue that this inevitably leads to an increase in the interdependency between functions that, in turn, influences the degree to which novel variations can be tolerated. In this 'transitionist' scheme, evolution is neither inherently gradualist nor punctuated but, instead, progresses from one extreme to the other, together with the increased complexity of organisms.