WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic animals evolution

  1. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  2. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.;

    2008-01-01

    and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation......The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code...

  3. Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Klaus; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Akamatsu, Tomonari; André, Michel; Branstetter, Brian K; Lammers, Marc; Radford, Craig A; Stansbury, Amanda L; Aran Mooney, T

    2016-06-01

    A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking effects of man-made sounds on the detection of biologically important sounds; the question how internal state, motivation, context, and previous experience affect their behavioral responses; and the long-term and cumulative effects of sound exposure. If we are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound we must concentrate research on these questions. In order to assess population level and ecological community impacts new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

  4. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals.

  5. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  6. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relatio...

  7. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  8. Pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals. 1. Models and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, M.G.; Stehly, Guy R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    While clinical and toxicological applications of pharmacokinetics have continued to evolve both conceptually and experimentally, pharmacokinetics modeling in aquatic animals has not progressed accordingly. In this paper we present methods and concepts of pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals using multicompartmental, clearance-based, non-compartmental and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models. These models should be considered as alternatives to traditional approaches, which assume that the animal acts as a single homogeneous compartment based on apparent monoexponential elimination.

  9. Aquatic animal telemetry: A panoramic window into the underwater world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussey, Nigel E.; Kessel, Steven T.; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and interactions of aquatic organisms across space and time structure our marine, freshwater, and estuarine ecosystems. Over the past decade, technological advances in telemetry have transformed our ability to observe aquatic animal behavior and movement. These advances are now p...

  10. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  11. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  12. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis, chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity, biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases, and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  13. 5种水产动物血红细胞形态显微观察比较及进化分析%Comparison of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals and their evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪青; 包永波; 林志华; 刘浩明

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the morphological characteristics and microstructure of erythrocytes of five aquatic animals, in order to study the morphological diversity and evolution of erythrocytes. The blood smears of five aquatic animals, bloody clam (Tegillarca granosa, Scapharca subcrenata), Carassius auratus, Rana catesbeiana and Pelodiscus sinensis, were stained by Hemacolor stain. The surface structure and morphological characteristics of erythrocytes were examined by light microscope (LM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The erythrocytes of bloody clams (Tegillarca granosa & Scapharca subcrenata) had basophil granular or/and eosinophilic granular, but none was found in vertebrates erythrocytes. The size of erythrocytes increased from the two bloody clams to Bull frog (Rana catesbeiana); while the size decreased afterwards; the variation of aspect ratio and nucleocytoplasmic ratio of erythrocytes follow this trend in a similar way. The undulate fold and depression on the erythrocytes of the two bloody clams were observed apparently, and the depression was deep and wide. The surface depression was also obvious in the erythrocytes of vertebrates, although the depression faded away gradually, and no distinct surface fold was examined. These results indicated that the changes of animal erythrocytes resulted from the evolution of animals, activities and habitats, in order to obtain the biggest gas exchange efficiency and the stability of the cells.%采用Hemacolor染料对泥蚶(Tegillarca granosa)、毛蚶(Scapharca subcrenata)、鲫鱼(Carassiusauranus)、牛蛙(Rana catesbeiana)、中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)等5种水产动物血细胞涂片进行染色,利用光镜和扫描电镜两种方法对5种动物的血红细胞的表面结构和形态特征进行观察。结果发现:泥蚶、毛蚶两种蚶科贝类血红细胞具有嗜酸性或嗜碱性颗粒,而鲫鱼、牛蛙、中华鳖3种水产脊椎动物

  14. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF POLYELECTROLYTES TO SELECTED AQUATIC ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although polyelectrolytes are widely used to control solids in potable water and municipal wastewater, very few studies have been made to assess their toxicity to aquatic animals. Consequently, the authors tested the acute toxicity of several polyelectrolytes to rainbow trout, la...

  15. Renewable fluid dynamic energy derived from aquatic animal locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Dabiri, John O.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic animals swimming in isolation and in groups are known to extract energy from the vortices in environmental flows, significantly reducing muscle activity required for locomotion. A model for the vortex dynamics associated with this phenomenon is developed, showing that the energy extraction mechanism can be described by simple criteria governing the kinematics of the vortices relative to the body in the flow. In this way, we need not make direct appeal to the fluid dynamics, which can ...

  16. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry is the primary method to actively track aquatic animals for behavioral studies. However, the small storage capacities of the batteries used in the transmitters limit the time that the implanted animals can be studied. In this research, we developed and implemented a battery-free acoustic transmitter that uses a flexible piezoelectric beam to harvest energy from fish swimming as the power source. The transmitter sends out a unique identification code with a sufficiently strong signal (150 dB, ref: 1 μPa at 1 meter) that has a detection range of up to 100 meters. Two prototypes, 100 mm and 77 mm long, respectively, weighing only about 1 gram or less in air, were sub-dermally implanted in two species of live fish. Transmissions were successfully detected as the fish swam in a natural manner. This represents the first known implanted energy-harvesting transmitter demonstrated in vivo. Successful development of this transmitter greatly expands the potential for long-term studies of the behaviors of aquatic animals and for subsequently developing strategies to mitigate the environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. PMID:27647426

  17. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J; Martinez, Jayson J; Brown, Richard S; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry is the primary method to actively track aquatic animals for behavioral studies. However, the small storage capacities of the batteries used in the transmitters limit the time that the implanted animals can be studied. In this research, we developed and implemented a battery-free acoustic transmitter that uses a flexible piezoelectric beam to harvest energy from fish swimming as the power source. The transmitter sends out a unique identification code with a sufficiently strong signal (150 dB, ref: 1 μPa at 1 meter) that has a detection range of up to 100 meters. Two prototypes, 100 mm and 77 mm long, respectively, weighing only about 1 gram or less in air, were sub-dermally implanted in two species of live fish. Transmissions were successfully detected as the fish swam in a natural manner. This represents the first known implanted energy-harvesting transmitter demonstrated in vivo. Successful development of this transmitter greatly expands the potential for long-term studies of the behaviors of aquatic animals and for subsequently developing strategies to mitigate the environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. PMID:27647426

  18. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic telemetry is the primary method to actively track aquatic animals for behavioral studies. However, the small storage capacities of the batteries used in the transmitters limit the time that the implanted animals can be studied. In this research, we developed and implemented a battery-free acoustic transmitter that uses a flexible piezoelectric beam to harvest energy from fish swimming as the power source. The transmitter sends out a unique identification code with a sufficiently strong signal (150 dB, ref: 1 μPa at 1 meter) that has a detection range of up to 100 meters. Two prototypes, 100 mm and 77 mm long, respectively, weighing only about 1 gram or less in air, were sub-dermally implanted in two species of live fish. Transmissions were successfully detected as the fish swam in a natural manner. This represents the first known implanted energy-harvesting transmitter demonstrated in vivo. Successful development of this transmitter greatly expands the potential for long-term studies of the behaviors of aquatic animals and for subsequently developing strategies to mitigate the environmental impacts of renewable energy systems.

  19. Animal evolution: trilobites on speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Graham E

    2013-10-01

    A new study quantifies rates of morphological and molecular evolution for arthropods during the critical Cambrian explosion. Both morphological and molecular evolution are accelerated--but not so much to break any speed limits. PMID:24112983

  20. The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the evolution of unicellular organisms to the multi-cellular plants and animals in existence today. Major events are depicted in a geologic timetable. Organisms, extinct and recent, are classified by taxonomic group. (MA)

  1. Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2003-01-01

    Nitrite is a potential problem in aquatic environments. Freshwater fish actively take up nitrite across the gills, leading to high internal concentrations. Seawater fish are less susceptible but do take up nitrite across intestine and gills. Nitrite has multiple physiological effects. Its uptake ...

  2. Ecology, Evolution, and Animal Behavior (EBB)

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    As discussed in Chapter 2 of Kendall’s thesis, there is a subfield of biology called Ecology, Evolution, and Animal Behavior that is sometimes called Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior with both abbreviated as EEB. Some universities have Departments with this name and it is a well establish field of research. “Ecology is ‘the study of the interrelationships between organisms and their natural environment, both living and nonliving.’ .... Evolution is ‘the gradual process by which th...

  3. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  4. The scaling and structure of aquatic animal wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Muller, UK; van Duren, LA

    2002-01-01

    Animal generated water movements are visualized and quantified using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). The resulting vector flow fields allow for the study of the distribution of velocity, vorticity and vortices. Structural and temporal aspects of animal-induced flows covering a rang

  5. Animal plant warfare and secondary metabolite evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wöll, Steffen; Kim, Sun Hee; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The long-lasting discussion, why plants produce secondary metabolites, which are pharmacologically and toxicologically active towards mammals traces back to the eminent role of medicinal plants in the millennia-old history of manhood. In recent years, the concept of an animal plant warfare emerged, which focused on the co-evolution between plants and herbivores. As a reaction to herbivory, plants developed mechanical defenses such as thorns and hard shells, which paved the way for ad...

  6. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  7. AQUATIC ANIMAL RESPIRATION AND COUGH RESPONSE APPLIED TO INNOVATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL BIOMONITORING: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This bibliography encompasses a body of in-depth technical information on the mechanics and physiology of respiration in aquatic animals (vertebrate and invertebrate). In compiling the bibliography, special emphasis was given to identifying studies that deal with responses of thi...

  8. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production... NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs,...

  9. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David R; Harris, John W K; Levin, Naomi E; McCoy, Jack T; Herries, Andy I R; Bamford, Marion K; Bishop, Laura C; Richmond, Brian G; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-06-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage. PMID:20534571

  10. Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson,; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E

    2016-01-01

    Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.

  11. Epidemiology and Economics Support Decisions about Freedom from Aquatic Animal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, E J; Otte, M J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we review the application of epidemiology and economics to decision-making about freedom from aquatic animal disease, at national and regional level, and recent examples from Europe. Epidemiological data (e.g. pathogen prevalence and distribution) determine the technical feasibility and cost of eradication. The eradication of pathogens which exist in wild populations, or in a latent state, is technically difficult, uncertain and expensive. Notably, the eradication of diseases of molluscs is rarely attempted because host populations (farmed and wild) cannot be completely removed from open water systems. Doubt about the success of eradication translates into uncertain ex-ante cost estimates. Additionally, the benefits of an official disease-free status cannot be estimated with any accuracy. For example, in Europe, official freedom from epizootic ulcerative syndrome and white spot syndrome virus has not been pursued, arguably because the evidence does not exist for the benefits (reduced risk of disease in wild populations) to be estimated and thus weighed against the costs of maintaining disease freedom (e.g. restriction on imports). Economic analysis must assess not only whether the benefits of disease freedom outweigh costs, but whether it is the economically optimal disease control option. Government may also want to compare investment in aquatic animal health with other opportunities. As resources become scarce, governments have sought to share costs of disease control with industry, and thus to ensure equity, the distribution benefits must be known so costs can be borne by those who benefit. The economic principles to support decisions about disease freedom are well established, but their application is constrained by lack of epidemiological data, which may explain the lack of economic analysis in support of aquatic animal management in Europe. The integration of epidemiology and economics in disease control planning will identify research aimed at

  12. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  13. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeler Edmund J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated. A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease

  14. [Meta-analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic enrichment factors for aquatic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Sun, Cui-ping; Ren, Wei-zheng; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Jian-iun; Hu, Liana-liang; Chen, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Isotopic enrichment factor (Δ, the difference between the δ value of food and a consumer tissue) is an important parameter in using stable isotope analysis (SIA) to reconstruct diets, characterize trophic relationships, elucidate patterns of resource allocation, and construct food webs. Isotopic enrichment factor has been considered as a constancy value across a broad range of animals. However, recent studies showed that the isotopic enrichment factor differed among various types of animals although the magnitude of variation was not clear. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize and compare Δ13C and Δ15N among four types of aquatic animals (teleosts, crustaceans, reptiles and molluscs). We searched for papers published before 2014 on Web of Science and CNKI using the key words "stable isotope or isotopic fractionation or fractionation factor or isotopic enrichment or trophic enrichment". Forty-two publications that contain 140 studies on Δ13C and 159 studies on Δ15N were obtained. We conducted three parallel meta-analyses by using three types of weights (the reciprocal of variance as weights, the sample size as weights, and equal weights). The results showed that no significant difference in Δ13C among different animal types (teleosts 1.0 per thousand, crustaceans 1.3 per thousand, reptiles 0.5 per thousand, and molluscs 1.5 per thousand), while Δ15N values were significantly different (teleosts 2.4 per thousand, crustaceans 3.6 per thousand, reptiles 1.0 per thousand and molluscs 2.5 per thousand). Our results suggested that the overall mean of Δ13C could be used as a general enrichment factor, but Δ15N should be chosen according to the type of aquatic animals in using SIA to analyze trophic relationships, patterns of resource allocation and food webs.

  15. Morphological evolution from aquatic to terrestrial in the genus Oreolalax (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wei; Bin Wang; Ning Xu; Zizhong Li; Jianping Jiang

    2009-01-01

    A phylogeny of 17 species in the genus Oreolalax is reconstructed based on 21 morphological characters from adult specimens, skeleton specimens, tadpoles and eggs. Four species groups are recognized, of which the O. rugosus species group is the most primitive, the O. weigoldi species group is the second, the O. omeimontis species group is the third and the O. pingii species group is the most recently diversified. Based on the evolutional tendency of the morphological characters on the phylogenetic tree, it is proposed that the evolution of tympanum, tympanic annulus, columella, spoon-like cartilage and the web between toes reflect the habit changes from aquatic to terrestrial. Thus, Oreolalax is regarded as one important representative genus to study further the evolution of morphological characters from aquatic to terrestrial.

  16. Aquatic Environment, Housing, and Management in the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Additional Considerations and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Timothy J.; Matthews, Monte

    2012-01-01

    The eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recognizes the widespread use of aquatic and semiaquatic research animals by including, among other references, an entire section on aquatic animals in its chapter on environment, housing, and management. Recognizing the large number of aquatic and semiaquatic species used in research and the inherent diversity in animal needs, the Guide refers the reader to texts and journal reviews for specific recommendations and su...

  17. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  18. Arsenic toxicity in mammals and aquatic animals: a comparative biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Monserrat, José M

    2011-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread pollutant in the world and its toxicity is related to its chemical form, with inorganic forms being considered more toxic than the organic form, and huge differences in effects and processes of metabolism. This paper reviews the potential biochemical mechanisms of uptake of arsenic by aquaporins, capacity for metabolism and cellular efflux of As. It is known that As can affect signaling pathways since it can activate proteins such as ERK2, p38 and JNK, as shown in mammals. A comparison between phosphorylation sites of these proteins is presented in order to determine whether the same effect triggered by As in mammals might be observed in aquatic animals. The toxicity resulting from As exposure is considered to be linked to an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis that results in oxidative stress. So, present review analyzes examples of oxidative stress generation by arsenic. Biotransformation of As is a process where firstly the arsenate is converted into arsenite and then transformed into mono-, di-, and trimethylated products. In the methylation process, the role of the omega isoform of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is discussed. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for aquaporin proteins of different species, including aquatic animals, taking into account their importance in trivalent arsenic uptake.

  19. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: a framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C; Coletti, Janaine Z; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W; Valensini, Fiona J; Brookes, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchmentmanagement, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientistsand policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are requiredthat are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiplestressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this chal-lenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observationnetworks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions.The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensornetworks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model isassessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinarynature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and inte-grate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to modelassessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore thetheory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry,and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  20. Chemical cocktails in aquatic systems: Pesticide effects on the response and recovery of >20 animal taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural systems are often exposed to individual insecticides or combinations of multiple insecticides. Using an additive and substitutive design, we examined how populations and communities containing >20 animal taxa are affected by four insecticides applied individually and as a mixture for 18 wks in aquatic mesocosms. The four insecticides had distinct lethal effects on the response and recovery of cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, isopods, and amphibians but not snails. The lethal effect on cladocerans and copepods induced trophic cascades that facilitated algal blooms and abiotic changes (higher pH and dissolved oxygen, but lower light transmission). Exposure to endosulfan resulted in a lag effect reducing cladocerans and spring-breeding amphibian abundance. The reduction in spring-breeding amphibian abundance led to cascading indirect effects on summer-breeding amphibians. Finally, the mixture treatment had lethal effects throughout the community that led to long-term effects on amphibian mass and unique indirect consequences on phytoplankton and abiotic variables. - Highlights: • Insecticides had unique direct and indirect effects on response and recovery. • Due to lag effects, endosulfan was more toxic than expected based on 4d tests. • Variation in oviposition phenology led to positive effects on amphibians. • Lethal direct effects of mixtures were pervasive and led to unique indirect effects. - Insecticides applied individually and in a mixture have complex direct and indirect consequences on aquatic system response and recovery

  1. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna). PMID:26611055

  2. Gravity Related Research with Aquatic Animals - Overview and Perspectives towards Exploratory Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Gravity related research with aquatic animals has not only a long tradition in manned and unmanned space flight but also in ground based research using clinostats and centrifuges In this presentation an overview will be given starting from the early beginning with such experiments Skylab Apollo-Soyuz etc up to today s flight experiments and ground based studies In addition verification will be presented how this research contributes to Earth s benefits and application as well as an outlook will be given how potential follow-up studies may contribute in manned exploratory missions on Earth Moon Mars and maybe beyond This review will summarize results obtained and will try to transfer them into future perspectives in space exploration

  3. Refinement and use of Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (Health Certificates) for optimal assurance of disease freedom in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, D E; Palić, D; Scarfe, A D

    2007-01-01

    Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI), generally termed "Health Certificates", are pivotal for ensuring that translocated animals are not diseased or do not harbour significant pathogens. While used very successfully with terrestrial animal movement for decades, CVIs for aquatic animals are not well refined, understood or used, despite the availability of several aquatic animal "certification processes", "permits" and "health certificates", including the OIE model health certificates. Correctly designed CVIs provide the single most economical and effective assurance of disease status (generally freedom from specific diseases or pathogens) for individuals or lots of animals, at any point in time. When issued by a qualified independent third-party (typically a licensed and government accredited veterinarian) they provide the official level of assurance necessary for intrastate, interstate and international trade. Tailored modifications of CVIs are also useful for other purposes requiring the evaluation of animal health (e.g. specific pathogen-free (SPF) assurance for premises, risk-mitigating assurance necessary for insurance policies, breeding soundness assurance of broodstock, etc.). Here we discuss necessary information for aquatic animal CVIs: animal, ownership and location; standardized diagnostic results and their interpretation; and language contained in CVIs. Also addressed is the viability for use with multiple aquatic species and diseases/pathogens of interest, and their use in conjunction with established veterinary inspection procedures. A revised model aquatic CVI, with broad potential use for individual operations, states or countries, is offered for discussion, comment and refinement. In addition an optimally designed model CVI may be of use with electronic systems that are evolving in, for example, Europe, the USA and Australia/New Zealand (e.g. TRACES, e-CVI, e-Certs). PMID:18306523

  4. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  5. Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

    2008-04-01

    Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward.

  6. The impact of aquatic animals on sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Rice, Stephen; Pledger, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Invertebrate animals have an important and complex role in altering the physical and biochemical environment of marine and freshwater sediments. A database has been compiled which aims to include all published articles that consider how macroinvertebrates alter aquatic systems. The database contains 2300 entries spanning over 120 years of study and representing 800 species. However, only 24 studies focus on invertebrate animals altering geomorphic processes in streams. This is despite the fact that invertebrates are ubiquitous in temperate and tropical rivers; they regularly occur in high densities; and are known to interact with substrates in a multitude of ways; for example when burrowing, moving and foraging for food. Here, we present two examples that demonstrate the potential biogeomorphic significance of invertebrates in rivers. First, the activity of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), a globally widespread invasive crustacean, altered the structure and topography of fluvial substrates in flume experiments. As a result of crayfish destroying grain-scale structures, twice as much material was entrained from disturbed gravel substrates in comparison to control surfaces that had not been exposed to crayfish. Second, Hydropsychid caddisfly larvae bind grains together with silk, which is spun for a variety of purposes including the creation of nets to catch organic matter from the flow. Fine gravels (2-6 mm) that were colonised by natural densities of caddisfly, required significantly greater shear stresses to be mobilised in comparison to uncolonised, control gravels. Whilst these examples demonstrate the potential for invertebrates to alter sediment transport in rivers, their impacts need to be assessed in field environments and at larger scales in order to fully appreciate their significance. Long-term monitoring of radio-tagged crayfish and suspended sediment transport in the Brampton arm of the River Nene suggests that signal crayfish are important

  7. The cell's view of animal body-plan evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Deirdre C; Martindale, Mark Q; Srivastava, Mansi

    2014-10-01

    An adult animal's form is shaped by the collective behavior of cells during embryonic development. To understand the forces that drove the divergence of animal body-plans, evolutionary developmental biology has focused largely on studying genetic networks operating during development. However, it is less well understood how these networks modulate characteristics at the cellular level, such as the shape, polarity, or migration of cells. We organized the "Cell's view of animal body plan evolution" symposium for the 2014 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting with the explicit goal of bringing together researchers studying the cell biology of embryonic development in diverse animal taxa. Using a broad range of established and emerging technologies, including live imaging, single-cell analysis, and mathematical modeling, symposium participants revealed mechanisms underlying cells' behavior, a few of which we highlight here. Shape, adhesion, and movements of cells can be modulated over the course of evolution to alter adult body-plans and a major theme explored during the symposium was the role of actomyosin in coordinating diverse behaviors of cells underlying morphogenesis in a myriad of contexts. Uncovering whether conserved or divergent genetic mechanisms guide the contractility of actomyosin in these systems will be crucial to understanding the evolution of the body-plans of animals from a cellular perspective. Many speakers presented research describing developmental phenomena in which cell division and tissue growth can control the form of the adult, and other presenters shared work on studying cell-fate specification, an important source of novelty in animal body-plans. Participants also presented studies of regeneration in annelids, flatworms, acoels, and cnidarians, and provided a unifying view of the regulation of cellular behavior during different life-history stages. Additionally, several presentations highlighted technological

  8. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  9. Earth's oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Erwin, Douglas H.

    2016-08-01

    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth’s oxygen cycle—the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism’s life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (˜1.8-0.8 billion years ago).

  10. Impact of the terrestrial-aquatic transition on disparity and rates of evolution in the carnivoran skull

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Katrina E; Smaers, Jeroen B; Goswami, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Which factors influence the distribution patterns of morphological diversity among clades? The adaptive radiation model predicts that a clade entering new ecological niche will experience high rates of evolution early in its history, followed by a gradual slowing. Here we measure disparity and rates of evolution in Carnivora, specifically focusing on the terrestrial-aquatic transition in Pinnipedia. We analyze fissiped (mostly terrestrial, arboreal, and semi-arboreal, but also inc...

  11. Contrasting on Hydrocarbon Generation Model and Characteristics of Pyrolysis of Modern Aquatic Plant (Gloeocapsa) vs Marine Animal (Mantis Shrimp)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A hydrocarbon model of the modern aquatic plant Gloeocapsa and the aquatic animal mantis shrimp was found in thermal simulating experiment. The results show that the modern aquatic plant Gloeocapsa is characterized by late generation, late termination and a long duration of oil generation, while the aquatic animal mantis shrimp is characterized by early generation, early termination and a short duration of oil generation. The n-alkanes from Gloeocapsa and mantis shrimp are characterized by peak carbon C15-C17. With increasing thermal simulating temperature, the peak carbon changes from C17 to C15, and the odd-even predominance of n-allanes becomes less clear. The products from Gloeocapsa contain abundant phenanthrene and naphthalene compounds,and even a little retene, while those from mantis shrimp are dominated by naphthalene compounds, and are poor in phenanthrene compounds. Gloeocapsa and mantis shrimp are rich in C27sterane, relatively rich in tricyclic terpones (C1,-C2,) and hopanes (C27-C35), poor in 5α,14β17β sterane, and coprostane does not disappear until 450 ℃. The tricyclic terpanes in Gloeocapsaare characterized by peak carbon C23 and C2>C21, and in mantis shrimp by C21 and C21>C23. The content of pregnanes is very low at low temperature of thermal simulation, while above 360 ℃,high levels of pregnane series compounds and even degraded C2s and C26 steranes occur in thermal simulation products.

  12. Convergent evolution in aquatic tetrapods: insights from an exceptional fossil mosasaur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lindgren

    Full Text Available Mosasaurs (family Mosasauridae are a diverse group of secondarily aquatic lizards that radiated into marine environments during the Late Cretaceous (98-65 million years ago. For the most part, they have been considered to be simple anguilliform swimmers--i.e., their propulsive force was generated by means of lateral undulations incorporating the greater part of the body--with unremarkable, dorsoventrally narrow tails and long, lizard-like bodies. Convergence with the specialized fusiform body shape and inferred carangiform locomotory style (in which only a portion of the posterior body participates in the thrust-producing flexure of ichthyosaurs and metriorhynchid crocodyliform reptiles, along with cetaceans, has so far only been recognized in Plotosaurus, the most highly derived member of the Mosasauridae. Here we report on an exceptionally complete specimen (LACM 128319 of the moderately derived genus Platecarpus that preserves soft tissues and anatomical details (e.g., large portions of integument, a partial body outline, putative skin color markings, a downturned tail, branching bronchial tubes, and probable visceral traces to an extent that has never been seen previously in any mosasaur. Our study demonstrates that a streamlined body plan and crescent-shaped caudal fin were already well established in Platecarpus, a taxon that preceded Plotosaurus by 20 million years. These new data expand our understanding of convergent evolution among marine reptiles, and provide insights into their evolution's tempo and mode.

  13. Injuries caused by aquatic animals in Brazil: an analysis of the data present in the information system for notifiable diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Carneiro Reckziegel; Flávio Santos Dourado; Domingos Garrone Neto; Vidal Haddad Junior

    2015-01-01

    AbstractINTRODUCTION:We present a review of injuries in humans caused by aquatic animals in Brazil using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases [ Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN)] database.METHODS:A descriptive and retrospective epidemiological study was conducted from 2007 to 2013.RESULTS:A total of 4,118 accidents were recorded. Of these accidents, 88.7% (3,651) were caused by venomous species, and 11.3% (467) were caused by poisonous, traumatic or unidentifie...

  14. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up...... manufacturers. AquaResp was developed with the intention of automating data acquisition and control by programming in commonly-available software (Microsoft Excel) and allowing customization by the user without restrictions. The program has been tested in different laboratories for an extended period...

  15. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up to...... manufacturers. AquaResp was developed with the intention of automating data acquisition and control by programming in commonly-available software (Microsoft Excel) and allowing customization by the user without restrictions. The program has been tested in different laboratories for an extended period...

  16. AquaResp® - free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 Morten Bo S. Svendsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Peter V. Skov (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark), Peter G .Bushnell (Indiana University South Bend, Indiana) and John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Aqua......Resp" is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up to four input ports...

  17. Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henikoff Steven

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centromeres represent the last frontiers of plant and animal genomics. Although they perform a conserved function in chromosome segregation, centromeres are typically composed of repetitive satellite sequences that are rapidly evolving. The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone (CenH3, which evolves rapidly and adaptively in Drosophila and Arabidopsis. Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C, that is characterized by a single 24 amino-acid motif (CENPC motif. Results Whereas we find no evidence that mammalian CenH3 (CENP-A has been evolving adaptively, mammalian CENP-C proteins contain adaptively evolving regions that overlap with regions of DNA-binding activity. In plants we find that CENP-C proteins have complex duplicated regions, with conserved amino and carboxyl termini that are dissimilar in sequence to their counterparts in animals and fungi. Comparisons of Cenpc genes from Arabidopsis species and from grasses revealed multiple regions that are under positive selection, including duplicated exons in some grasses. In contrast to plants and animals, yeast CENP-C (Mif2p is under negative selection. Conclusions CENP-Cs in all plant and animal lineages examined have regions that are rapidly and adaptively evolving. To explain these remarkable evolutionary features for a single-copy gene that is needed at every mitosis, we propose that CENP-Cs, like some CenH3s, suppress meiotic drive of centromeres during female meiosis. This process can account for the rapid evolution and the complexity of centromeric DNA in plants and animals as compared to fungi.

  18. Neoproterozoic Glaciations and the Early Evolution of Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne, G. M.

    2004-05-01

    The intense climatic changes that characterized the Neoproterozoic world were marked by equally profound evolutionary changes that ultimately led to the Cambrian Explosion. Early and Middle Neoproterozoic oceans contained prokaryotes and diverse eukaryotic lineages, including crown-group red, green, and heterokont algae. The survival of diverse eukaryotic lineages through the Sturtian, Marinoan, and Gaskiers glaciations implies that, although these were among the most extreme glaciations Earth has ever experienced, sea ice was not as thick or pervasive as required by earlier "hard Snowball" models. Most molecular clocks predict the existence of animals well before 600 Ma and a few tantalizing hints have been found, but the oldest definite evidence of animal life are phosphatized eggs and embryos overlying Marinoan glacial deposits in China. The subsequent Late Neoproterozoic is characterized by the global occurrence of the Ediacara biota, an assemblage of cm- to m-scale fossils of soft-bodied organisms that probably represent a mixture of stem groups of modern phyla and "failed experiments" in evolution. The oldest Ediacaran fossils occur in eastern Newfoundland, and postdate the glacial diamictites and cap carbonate of the Gaskiers Formation (580 Ma) by only 5 million years, implying a causal relationship between the end of the Neoproterozoic glaciations and the proliferation of animal life. These fossils include architecturally complex fronds up to two metres long, implying either extremely rapid rates of evolution or a pre-glacial origin of the Ediacara biota. Fossils of the Mistaken Point biota (575-560 Ma) were completely sessile and show a similar fractal architecture that is difficult to relate to any existing life forms. Some of these taxa persisted into the White Sea biota (560-550 Ma), which also contains trace fossils and metameric fossils that confirm the evolution of mobile bilaterians. The youngest Ediacaran fossils (550-543 Ma) exhibit the first

  19. Detection of Locomotive Behavior in Aquatic Animals by the Use of Infra-red Light

    OpenAIRE

    YONEMORI, Tooru; ヨネモリ, トオル; 米盛, 亨

    1987-01-01

    To promote catching efficiency of shrimp pots, infra-red light was applied to the detection of animal movements. A sensing unit was composed of a LED (light emittingdiode) and a photo-transister. At two sections in the entrance funnel of the pot, one each unit was fixed as a check point. By reading the time lag between transit signalsfrom each gate, the direction of animal locomotion was recognized, furthermore, thenumber of individuals both entering and escaping animal was counted.

  20. Convergent evolution of aquatic foraging in a new genus and species (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kevin C; Achmadi, Anang S; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2014-01-01

    The island of Sulawesi, in Indonesia, lies at the crossroads of the Indo-Australian Archipelago and has remained isolated from the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves for at least the last 10 million years. Of the 50 native species of rodents on Sulawesi, all are endemic and represent the evolution of a variety of ecological and morphological forms within the Muridae and Sciuridae. Carnivorous rodents have evolved, perhaps independently, in Muridae from the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul, but semi-aquatic murids are only known from Sahul. Here we describe a new genus and species of insectivorous water rat from Sulawesi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that it is related to the shrew rats of Sulawesi and represents an origin of aquatic carnivory that is independent from the evolution of water rats on Sahul. Many areas of Sulawesi have not been surveyed systematically and current lists of mammal species are likely to dramatically underestimate actual diversity. PMID:24943633

  1. The use of models in the analysis and management of aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.; Udo, H.M.J.; Densen, van W.L.T.

    1994-01-01

    Modelling of animal production systems as a whole is mainly used for extensively managed systems, such as fishing and hunting natural animal populations. This type of modelling is widely used in fisheries management, but has as yet found limited application in the modelling of extensive cultivation

  2. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  3. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals and its prevention and control%水产动物源细菌耐药性与预防控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国烈; 李林桂; 房文红

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is the ability of a disease-causing bacterium to resist being killed by antibiotics. The formation of bacterial resistance is the result of the development of bacterial evolution and the manifest of bacterial adaptability; however, it threatens the development of aquaculture and human health. Firstly, this paper summarized the research progress on the bacterial resistance in aquatic animals in recent years, including plasmid-mediated resistance of bacteria, resistance gene of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals, and the genetic mechanism of antibiotic resistance and so on. Secondly, the paper analyzed the harm of bacterial resistance, which included the pathogen of bacterial resistance that caused epidemics and the antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals that threatened public health. Finally, from rational and standardized use of drugs, speeding up the development and application of aquatic vaccines and new antimicrobial drugs alternatives, strengthening of the surveillance about pathogen isolates from aquatic animals and so on, the paper provided some valuable methods and strategies on the prevention and control for bacterial resistance in aquatic animals.%细菌耐药性是指细菌对于抗菌药物作用的耐受性。细菌耐药性的形成,是细菌进化发展的结果,是细菌适应性的表现,但它却给养殖业的发展和人类的健康带来威胁。本文首先综述了水产动物源细菌耐药性研究现状,主要包括质粒介导的水产动物源细菌耐药性、细菌耐药基因、细菌耐药性遗传学机制等;其次,从病原菌耐药性会导致水产疾病流行爆发和水产细菌耐药性对人类公共卫生安全的影响两方面,分析了水产动物源细菌耐药性的危害;最后,从合理、规范用药,加快水产疫苗和新型抗菌药物替代品的研制与应用,加强水产动物致病菌耐药性监测等方面,提出了预防和控制

  4. Detection of Locomotive Behavior in Aquatic Animals by the Use of Infra-red Light

    OpenAIRE

    YONEMORI, Tooru; ヨネモリ, トオル; 米盛, 亨

    1987-01-01

    To promote catching efficiency of shrimp pots, infra-red light was applied to the detection of animal movements. A sensing unit was composed of a LED (light emitting diode) and a photo-transister. At two sections in the entrance funnel of the pot, one each unit was fixed as a check point. By reading the time lag between transit signals from each gate, the direction of animal locomotion was recognized, furthermore, the number of individuals both entering and escaping animal was counted.

  5. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  6. Adaptive evolution and functional constraint at TLR4 during the secondary aquatic adaptation and diversification of cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Tong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises are a group of adapted marine mammals with an enigmatic history of transition from terrestrial to full aquatic habitat and rapid radiation in waters around the world. Throughout this evolution, the pathogen stress-response proteins must have faced challenges from the dramatic change of environmental pathogens in the completely different ecological niches cetaceans occupied. For this reason, cetaceans could be one of the most ideal candidate taxa for studying evolutionary process and associated driving mechanism of vertebrate innate immune systems such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs, which are located at the direct interface between the host and the microbial environment, act at the first line in recognizing specific conserved components of microorganisms, and translate them rapidly into a defense reaction. Results We used TLR4 as an example to test whether this traditionally regarded pattern recognition receptor molecule was driven by positive selection across cetacean evolutionary history. Overall, the lineage-specific selection test showed that the dN/dS (ω values along most (30 out of 33 examined cetartiodactylan lineages were less than 1, suggesting a common effect of functional constraint. However, some specific codons made radical changes, fell adjacent to the residues interacting with lipopolysaccharides (LPS, and showed parallel evolution between independent lineages, suggesting that TLR4 was under positive selection. Especially, strong signatures of adaptive evolution on TLR4 were identified in two periods, one corresponding to the early evolutionary transition of the terrestrial ancestors of cetaceans from land to semi-aquatic (represented by the branch leading to whale + hippo and from semi-aquatic to full aquatic (represented by the ancestral branch leading to cetaceans habitat, and the other to the rapid diversification and radiation of oceanic dolphins. Conclusions This

  7. The FAO/NACA Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals: lessons learned from their development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, R P; Bondad-Reantaso, M G

    2008-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward. PMID:18666478

  8. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  9. The TALE face of Hox proteins in animal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir eMerabet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes are major regulators of embryonic development. One of their most conserved functions is to coordinate the formation of specific body structures along the anterior-posterior (AP axis in Bilateria. This architectural role was at the basis of several morphological innovations across bilaterian evolution. In this review, we traced the origin of the Hox patterning system by considering the partnership with PBC and Meis proteins. PBC and Meis belong to the TALE-class of homeodomain-containing transcription factors and act as generic cofactors of Hox proteins for AP axis patterning in Bilateria. Recent data indicate that Hox proteins acquired the ability to interact with their TALE partners in the last common ancestor of Bilateria and Cnidaria. These interactions relied initially on a short peptide motif called hexapeptide (HX, which is present in Hox and non-Hox protein families. Remarkably, Hox proteins can also recruit the TALE cofactors by using specific PBC Interaction Motifs (SPIMs. We describe how a functional Hox/TALE patterning system emerged in eumetazoans through the acquisition of SPIMs. We anticipate that interaction flexibility could be found in other patterning systems, being at the heart of the astonishing morphological diversity observed in the animal kingdom.

  10. Morphological evolution and reconstruction of silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: The roles of natural organic matter and light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: hwzhang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Research Center for Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In the dark, AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM. • NOM decelerated the photoreaction of AgNPs but did not stop the photoconversion. • Under extended irradiation, NOM substituted for citrate as a stabilizer. • In different aquatic systems AgNPs would suffer distinct environmental behavior. - Abstract: With the proliferation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their potential entry into the environment has attracted increasing concern. Although photochemical transformation is an important fate of AgNPs in aquatic environments due to their strong light absorption, little is known about the evolution and transformation mechanisms of AgNPs. This study investigated the morphological evolution and reconstruction of AgNPs during photoconversion in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In the dark, the AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L, and the proportion of Ag{sup +} in solution in the presence of 10 mg/L NOM was reduced by roughly half compared with that in the absence of NOM. Under irradiation, NOM participated in the photoreaction of AgNPs and can decelerate the photoreaction of AgNPs via several mechanisms, including light attenuation, the formation of a NOM coating, and competing with Ag for photons. Additionally, NOM can substitute for citrate as a stabilizing agent to compensate for the loss of AgNP stability due to citrate mineralization under extended irradiation, producing stable triangular nanosilver in aquatic environments. This study sheds light on the behavioral differences of AgNPs in different aquatic systems, which create uncertainties and difficulties in assessing the environmental risks of AgNPs.

  11. The evolution of an annual life cycle in killifish: adaptation to ephemeral aquatic environments through embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I

    2016-08-01

    An annual life cycle is characterized by growth, maturity, and reproduction condensed into a single, short season favourable to development, with production of embryos (seeds, cysts, or eggs) capable of surviving harsh conditions which juveniles or adults cannot tolerate. More typically associated with plants in desert environments, or temperate-zone insects exposed to freezing winters, the evolution of an annual life cycle in vertebrates is fairly novel. Killifish, small sexually dimorphic fishes in the Order Cyprinodontiformes, have adapted to seasonally ephemeral water bodies across much of Africa and South America through the independent evolution of an annual life history. These annual killifish produce hardy desiccation-resistant eggs that undergo diapause (developmental arrest) and remain buried in the soil for long periods when fish have perished due to the drying of their habitat. Killifish are found in aquatic habitats that span a continuum from permanent and stable to seasonal and variable, thus providing a useful system in which to piece together the evolutionary history of this life cycle using natural comparative variation. I first review adaptations for life in ephemeral aquatic environments in killifish, with particular emphasis on the evolution of embryonic diapause. I then bring together available evidence from a variety of approaches and provide a scenario for how this annual life cycle evolved. There are a number of features within Aplocheiloidei killifish including their inhabitation of marginal or edge aquatic habitat, their small size and rapid attainment of maturity, and egg properties that make them particularly well suited to the colonization of ephemeral waters. PMID:25969869

  12. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  13. 'Biogeneric' developmental processes: drivers of major transitions in animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Stuart A

    2016-08-19

    Using three examples drawn from animal systems, I advance the hypothesis that major transitions in multicellular evolution often involved the constitution of new cell-based materials with unprecedented morphogenetic capabilities. I term the materials and formative processes that arise when highly evolved cells are incorporated into mesoscale matter 'biogeneric', to reflect their commonality with, and distinctiveness from, the organizational properties of non-living materials. The first transition arose by the innovation of classical cell-adhesive cadherins with transmembrane linkage to the cytoskeleton and the appearance of the morphogen Wnt, transforming some ancestral unicellular holozoans into 'liquid tissues', and thereby originating the metazoans. The second transition involved the new capabilities, within a basal metazoan population, of producing a mechanically stable basal lamina, and of planar cell polarization. This gave rise to the eumetazoans, initially diploblastic (two-layered) forms, and then with the addition of extracellular matrices promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, three-layered triploblasts. The last example is the fin-to-limb transition. Here, the components of a molecular network that promoted the development of species-idiosyncratic endoskeletal elements in gnathostome ancestors are proposed to have evolved to a dynamical regime in which they constituted a Turing-type reaction-diffusion system capable of organizing the stereotypical arrays of elements of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods. The contrasting implications of the biogeneric materials-based and neo-Darwinian perspectives for understanding major evolutionary transitions are discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431521

  14. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.;

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates:  (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific ......On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates:  (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass......-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...

  15. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  16. Convergent Evolution in Aquatic Tetrapods: Insights from an Exceptional Fossil Mosasaur

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Lindgren; Caldwell, Michael W.; Takuya Konishi; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Mosasaurs (family Mosasauridae) are a diverse group of secondarily aquatic lizards that radiated into marine environments during the Late Cretaceous (98–65 million years ago). For the most part, they have been considered to be simple anguilliform swimmers – i.e., their propulsive force was generated by means of lateral undulations incorporating the greater part of the body – with unremarkable, dorsoventrally narrow tails and long, lizard-like bodies. Convergence with the specialized fusiform ...

  17. Fate of four pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems : Investigating the role of UV- light and animal assimilation as dissipation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund Nord, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment are of concern due to its possible negative consequences for non-target species. Pharmaceuticals can be found in many parts of the environment and especially in the effluent from sewage treatment plants where pharmaceuticals can be found in significant quantities. Therefore it is important to acquire knowledge of the fate of these pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In this study two experimental ponds, one was covered by a tarp to avoid degr...

  18. Animated Autoethnographies: Stop Motion Animation as a Tool for Self-Inquiry and Personal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jeremy Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article will present the autoethnographic animations and processes from three select preservice art educators that enrolled in the Applications of Technology in Art Education course. These students created stop motion animations using small objects, toys, and their bodies; accessing culturally constructed fears, investigating impactful…

  19. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  20. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Duarte

    Full Text Available Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers.

  1. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Miguel; Costa, Vasco; Gomes, Jorge; Rodrigues, Tiago; Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers. PMID:26999614

  2. Molecular evolution of dentin phosphoprotein among toothed and toothless animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Larry W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP is the largest member of the SIBLING family and is the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin. DSPP is also expressed in non-mineralized tissues including metabolically active ductal epithelia and some cancers. Its function, however, is poorly defined. The carboxy-terminal fragment, dentin phosphoprotein (DPP is encoded predominantly by a large repetitive domain that requires separate cloning/sequencing reactions and is, therefore, often incomplete in genomic databases. Comparison of DPP sequences from at least one member of each major branch in the mammalian evolutionary tree (including some "toothless" mammals as well as one reptile and bird may help delineate its possible functions in both dentin and ductal epithelia. Results The BMP1-cleavage and translation-termination domains were sufficiently conserved to permit amplification/cloning/sequencing of most species' DPP. While the integrin-binding domain, RGD, was present in about half of species, only vestigial remnants of this tripeptide were identified in the others. The number of tandem repeats of the nominal SerSerAsp phosphorylation motif in toothed mammals (including baleen whale and platypus which lack teeth as adults, ranged from ~75 (elephant to >230 (human. These repeats were not perfect, however, and patterns of intervening sequences highlight the rapidity of changes among even closely related species. Two toothless anteater species have evolved different sets of nonsense mutations shortly after their BMP1 motifs suggesting that while cleavage may be important for DSPP processing in other tissues, the DPP domain itself may be required only in dentin. The lizard DSPP had an intact BMP1 site, a remnant RGD motif, as well as a distinctly different Ser/Asp-rich domain compared to mammals. Conclusions The DPP domain of DSPP was found to change dramatically within mammals and was lost in two truly toothless animals. The

  3. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals

  4. The evolution of novel animal signals: silk decorations as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, André; Elgar, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    Contemporary animal signals may derive from an elaboration of existing forms or novel non-signalling traits. Unravelling the evolution of the latter is challenging because experiments investigating the maintenance of the signal may provide little insight into its early evolution. The web decorations, or stabilimenta of some orb web spiders represent an intriguing model system to investigate novel animal signals. For over 100 years, biologists have struggled to explain why spiders decorate their webs with additional threads of silk, producing a conspicuous signal on a construction whose function is to entangle unsuspecting prey. The numerous explanations for the maintenance of this behaviour starkly contrast with the absence of a plausible explanation for its evolutionary origin. Our review highlights the difficulties in resolving both the evolution and maintenance of animal signalling, and inferring the causative arrow-even from experimental studies. Drawing on recent research that focuses on physiological processes, we provide a model of the evolutionary progression of web-decorating behaviour.

  5. Control of breathing in African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi): A comparison of aquatic and cocooned (terrestrialized) animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, S.F.; Euverman, R.; Wang, Tobias;

    2008-01-01

    in terrestrialized fish consisted of multiple bouts of inspiration and expiration in rapid succession, the mean frequency of pulmonary breathing events was unaltered in the terrestrialized fish (16.7 ± 1.4 h-1 versus 20.1 ± 4.9 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively). Hypoxia ( 20 mmHg) increased...

  6. Vive la différence: biogenesis and evolution of microRNAs in plants and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, Michael J.; Westholm, Jakub O.; Eric C Lai

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are pervasive in both plants and animals, but many aspects of their biogenesis, function and evolution differ. We reveal how these differences contribute to characteristic features of microRNA evolution in the two kingdoms.

  7. Insights into the early evolution of animal calcium signaling machinery: a unicellular point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinjiang; Wang, Xiangbing; Patel, Sandip; Clapham, David E

    2015-03-01

    The basic principles of Ca(2+) regulation emerged early in prokaryotes. Ca(2+) signaling acquired more extensive and varied functions when life evolved into multicellular eukaryotes with intracellular organelles. Animals, fungi and plants display differences in the mechanisms that control cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. The aim of this review is to examine recent findings from comparative genomics of Ca(2+) signaling molecules in close unicellular relatives of animals and in common unicellular ancestors of animals and fungi. Also discussed are the evolution and origins of the sperm-specific CatSper channel complex, cation/Ca(2+) exchangers and four-domain voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Newly identified evolutionary evidence suggests that the distinct Ca(2+) signaling machineries in animals, plants and fungi likely originated from an ancient Ca(2+) signaling machinery prior to early eukaryotic radiation.

  8. On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuhai; Laflamme, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Ediacara fossils document an important evolutionary episode just before the Cambrian explosion and hold critical information about the early evolution of macroscopic and complex multicellular life. They also represent an enduring controversy in paleontology. How are the Ediacara fossils related to living animals? How did they live? Do they share any evolutionary patterns with other life forms? Recent developments indicate that Ediacara fossils epitomize a phylogenetically diverse biosphere, probably including animals, protists, algae, fungi and others. Their simple ecology is dominated by epibenthic osmotrophs, deposit feeders and grazers, but few if any predators. Their evolution started with an early morphospace expansion followed by taxonomic diversification within confined morphospace, and concluded by extinction of many taxa at the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary. PMID:18952316

  9. [Determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal and aquatic products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hailuan; Wu, Congming; Cheng, Linli; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in animal tissues and aquatic products. The analyte was extracted with 0.2 mol/L hydrochloric acid. The extract was cleaned up on a Bond Elut C18 cartridge. Then the eluate was collected and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen gas at 35 degrees C. The residue was redissolved in acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. The identification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization. The quantification was done by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 2-500 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) of MQCA in pork, swine liver, pig kidney, fish, prawn, and crab were 0.90, 1.51, 0.94, 1.04, 1.62 and 1.80 microg/kg, respectively; and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 3.00, 5.02, 3.13, 3.46, 5.40 and 6.00 microg/kg, correspondingly. The recoveries of MQCA in animal tissues and aquatic products were 73.6%-89.0% at the spiked levels of 3-100 microg/kg. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) were less than 15%, and inter-day RSDs (n = 3) were less than 20%. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were fit for the requirements of veterinary drug residue analysis.

  10. Recent Advances in Ideal Protein Pattern for Aquatic Animals%水产动物理想蛋白质模式研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙龙生; 魏凯; 安振华; 王秀英

    2011-01-01

    Ideal protein pattern attributes to a proportional relationship among amino acids or/and peptides orig inating from dietary proteins. Formulated diets based on ideal protein pattern could apparently improve animal growth performance and feed utilization, make proper use of feed resources, decrease protein level in diets and reduce nitrogen release. That would be benefit technically for reducing feeding costs, promoting incomes from aquaculture and effectively controlling total nitrogen pollution to aquatic farming water. The concept, research advances and application, as well as related methods with respect to ideal protein pattern for aquatic animals are reviewed in this paper.%理想蛋白质模式是饲粮中组成蛋白质的氨基酸或肽之间的平衡关系.以理想蛋白质模式配制饲粮可以显著提高动物的生长性能和饲料利用率,充分利用饲料资源,降低饲粮蛋白质水平,减少氮的排放.这对降低养殖成本、提高养殖效益、有效控制养殖水体总氮污染具有现实指导意义.本文综述了水产动物理想蛋白质模式的定义、研究与应用现状及研究方法等方面取得的进展,旨在为水产动物理想蛋白质模式研究提供参考.

  11. The Evolution of Animal Communication Systems: Questions of Function Examined through Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, J.

    1998-01-01

    Simulated evolution is used as a tool for investigating the selective pressures that have influenced the design of animal signalling systems. The biological literature on communication is first reviewed: central concepts such as the handicap principle and the view of signalling as manipulation are discussed. The equation of “biological function” with “adaptive value” is then defended, along with a workable definition of communication. Evolutionary simulation models are advocated as a way of t...

  12. Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content

  13. Influence of certain forces on evolution of synonymous codon usage bias in certain species of three basal orders of aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T

    2012-12-01

    Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages. PMID

  14. 化学品对水生动物的生态毒理学研究评述%Review on Ecological Toxicity of Chemicals to Aquatic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乙震; 黄岁樑; 林超; 周绪申

    2015-01-01

    水生动物毒性实验一般都是在实验室条件下进行的,忽略了天然水体中各种环境因子和暴露方式的影响。较全面地讨论了水体中溶解性有机质、悬浮颗粒物、混合污染物、pH、温度和硬度等几种环境因子存在条件下化学品对水生动物的生态毒性效应,阐述了非稳定暴露方式下毒理学研究应考虑毒性机制、初始暴露浓度、持续时间以及暴露频率等几个方面,简要探讨了几种非稳定暴露生态毒理学模型的优缺点。为更好预测和评价化学品对水生动物生态风险,今后的研究重点是环境因子对化学品毒性效应的影响及化学品生态毒理学模型以及水生动物远离污染物后机体各项指标的恢复。%Nowadays,most of the aquatic toxicity experiments are conducted in conventional toxicity testing procedures based on the dose-response relationship under simplified laboratory conditions,and this method ignores the effect of envi⁃ronmental factors and the style of exposure in the natural water body. The influence of environmental factors are discussed such as the dissolved organic matter,suspended particles,mixture contaminants,pH,temperature,hardness,and other water quality characteristics on toxicity of chemicals to aquatic animals. It is summarized that we should consider about the fluctuating or pulsed exposure in the research,such as the toxicity mechanisms,post-exposure concentration,the dura⁃tion and frequency of pulses,and so on. And also an overview is presented of advantage and disadvantage of several ecologi⁃cal toxicity models for fluctuating or pulsed exposure. In order to make a better prediction and evaluation to the ecological risk assessment of chemical pollutants,it is pointed out that more research should be put on the influence of environmental factors on toxicity of chemicals to aquatic animals,ecological toxicity models and the recovery of aquatic animals following the exposure.

  15. The cytochrome P450 genesis locus: the origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R; Goldstone, Jared V; Stegeman, John J

    2013-02-19

    The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the 'cytochrome P450 genesis locus', where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution.

  16. Zebrafish RNase T2 genes and the evolution of secretory ribonucleases in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essner Jeffrey J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Ribonuclease (RNase T2 family are common models for enzymological studies, and their evolution has been well characterized in plants. This family of acidic RNases is widespread, with members in almost all organisms including plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and even some viruses. While several biological functions have been proposed for these enzymes in plants, their role in animals is unknown. Interestingly, in vertebrates most of the biological roles of plant RNase T2 proteins are carried out by members of a different family, RNase A. Still, RNase T2 proteins are conserved in these animals Results As a first step to shed light on the role of animal RNase T2 enzymes, and to understand the evolution of these proteins while co-existing with the RNase A family, we characterized RNase Dre1 and RNase Dre2, the two RNase T2 genes present in the zebrafish (Danio rerio genome. These genes are expressed in most tissues examined, including high expression in all stages of embryonic development, and their expression corresponds well with the presence of acidic RNase activities in every tissue analyzed. Embryo expression seems to be a conserved characteristic of members of this family, as other plant and animal RNase T2 genes show similar high expression during embryo development. While plant RNase T2 proteins and the vertebrate RNase A family show evidences of radiation and gene sorting, vertebrate RNase T2 proteins form a monophyletic group, but there is also another monophyletic group defining a fish-specific RNase T2 clade. Conclusion Based on gene expression and phylogenetic analyses we propose that RNase T2 enzymes carry out a housekeeping function. This conserved biological role probably kept RNase T2 enzymes in animal genomes in spite of the presence of RNases A. A hypothetical role during embryo development is also discussed.

  17. Conceptual shifts in animal systematics as reflected in the taxonomic history of a common aquatic snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea stagnalis (L., 1758) is among the most widespread and well-studied species of freshwater Mollusca of the northern hemisphere. It is also notoriously known for its huge conchological variability. The history of scientific exploration of this species may be traced back to the end of the 16th century (Ulisse Aldrovandi in Renaissance Italy) and, thus, L. stagnalis has been chosen as a proper model taxon to demonstrate how changes in theoretical foundations and methodology of animal taxon...

  18. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, David R.; Harris, John W. K.; Naomi E. Levin; McCoy, Jack T.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Bamford, Marion K.; Bishop, Laura C.; Richmond, Brian G.; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-01-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enj...

  19. Bienestar de los animales acuáticos, con fines de control sanitario (Welfare of the aquatic animals, with ends of sanitary control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Limonta, Manuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara introducir las prácticas y el concepto de bienestar de losanimales acuáticos, la OIE, (2006 ha propuesto trabajar los temasreferidos al transporte por las vías vía terrestre y marítima, y delsacrificio para el consumo humano y el control sanitario. En eltrabajo se refieren las prácticas que pueden ser empleadas en laindustria acuícola, para el sacrificio humanitario de animalesacuáticos describiendo métodos de eutanasia mecánicos, eléctricos,químicos y físicos con fines de control sanitario teniendo en cuenta su bienestar.SummaryTo introduce the practices and the concept of well-being of theaquatic animals, the OIE, (2006 has intended the topics referred tothe transport to work (via terrestrial and marine, and of the sacrifice (I consummate human and for the sanitary control. In the work we refer the common practices that can be employees in the aquaculture industry, for the sacrifice of aquatic animals describing the methods of slaughter mechanic, electric, chemical, physical with ends of sanitary control keeping in mind its welfare.

  20. Sources of variation in oxygen consumption of aquatic animals demonstrated by simulated constant oxygen consumption and respirometers of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt;

    2016-01-01

    As intermittent-flow respirometry has become a common method for the determination of resting metabolism or standard metabolic rate (SMR), this study investigated how much of the variability seen in the experiments was due to measurement error. Experiments simulated different constant oxygen...... consumption rates (M˙O2 ) of a fish, by continuously injecting anoxic water into a respirometer, altering the injection rate to correct for the washout error. The effect of respirometer-to-fish volume ratio (RFR) on SMR measurement and variability was also investigated, using the simulated constant M˙O2...... oxygen consumption rates of fishes in systems with reasonable RFRs mainly comes from the animal, not from the measuring equipment....

  1. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  2. Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Fraser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

  3. Conceptual shifts in animal systematics as reflected in the taxonomic history of a common aquatic snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea stagnalis (L., 1758 is among the most widespread and well-studied species of freshwater Mollusca of the northern hemisphere. It is also notoriously known for its huge conchological variability. The history of scientific exploration of this species may be traced back to the end of the 16th century (Ulisse Aldrovandi in Renaissance Italy and, thus, L. stagnalis has been chosen as a proper model taxon to demonstrate how changes in theoretical foundations and methodology of animal taxonomy have been reflected in the practice of classification of a particular taxon, especially on the intraspecific level. In this paper, I depict the long story of recognition of L. stagnalis by naturalists and biologists since the 16th century up to the present day. It is shown that different taxonomic philosophies (essentialism, population thinking, tree thinking led to different views on the species’ internal structure and its systematic position itself. The problem of how to deal with intraspecific variability in the taxonomic arrangement of L. stagnalis has been a central problem that made systematists change their opinion following conceptual shifts in taxonomic theory.

  4. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  5. The evolution of the animals: introduction to a Linnean tercentenary celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2008-04-27

    Celebrating 300 years since the birth of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), a meeting was held in June 2007 to review recent progress made in understanding the origins and evolutionary radiation of the animals. The year 2008 celebrates the 250th anniversary of the publication of the 10th edition of Linnaeus' Systema Naturae, generally considered to be the starting point of zoological nomenclature. With subsequent advances in comparative taxonomic and systematic studies, Darwin's discovery of evolution by natural selection, the birth of phylogenetic systematics, and the wider interest in biodiversity, it is salutary to consider that many of the major advances in our understanding of animal evolution have been made in recent years. Phylogenetic systematics, drawing from evidence provided by genotype, phenotype and an understanding of the link between them through comparative embryological and evolutionary developmental studies, has provided a wide consensus of the major branching patterns of the tree of life. More importantly, the integrated approaches discussed in the 16 contributions to this volume highlight the identity and nature of problematic taxa, the missing data, errors in existing analytical procedures and the promise of a wealth of additional characters from genomes that need to be accumulated and assessed in providing a definitive Systema Naturae. PMID:18192193

  6. Comprehensive analysis of animal TALE homeobox genes: new conserved motifs and cases of accelerated evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishanu; Bürglin, Thomas R

    2007-08-01

    TALE homeodomain proteins are an ancient subgroup within the group of homeodomain transcription factors that play important roles in animal, plant, and fungal development. We have extracted the full complement of TALE superclass homeobox genes from the genome projects of seven protostomes, seven deuterostomes, and Nematostella. This was supplemented with TALE homeobox genes from additional species and phylogenetic analyses were carried out with 276 sequences. We found 20 homeobox genes and 4 pseudogenes in humans, 21 genes in mouse, 8 genes in Drosophila, and 5 genes plus one truncated gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. Apart from the previously identified TALE classes MEIS, PBC, IRO, and TGIF, a novel class is identified, termed MOHAWK (MKX). Further, we show that the MEIS class can be divided into two families, PREP and MEIS. Prep genes have previously only been described in vertebrates but are lacking in Drosophila. Here we identify orthologues in other insect taxa as well as in the cnidarian Nematostella. In C. elegans, a divergent Prep protein has lost the homeodomain. Full-length multiple sequence alignment of the protostome and deuterostome sequences allowed us to identify several novel conserved motifs within the MKX, TGIF, and MEIS classes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed fast-evolving PBC class genes; in particular, some X-linked PBC genes in nematodes are subject to rapid evolution. In addition, several instances of gene loss were identified. In conclusion, our comprehensive analysis provides a defining framework for the classification of animal TALE homeobox genes and the understanding of their evolution.

  7. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ANIMAL EFFECTIVES IN EU – 25 AND IN ROMANIA IN THE PERIOD 2002 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ANDA MILIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study will analyze the evolution of the animal production and the animal effectives in the period 2002 – 2004 in EU and in Romania. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the differences between the Romanian and EU zootechnics according to the in formation supplied by the EU and national statistics. We analyzed the zoo-technical production, its percentage from the total agricultural production, the evolution of the animal effectives comparing the present situation in EU – 15, EU – 25 and Romania.

  9. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  10. Generating Cellular Diversity and Spatial Form: Wnt Signaling and the Evolution of Multicellular Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kyle M; van Amerongen, Renée; Nusse, Roel

    2016-09-26

    There were multiple prerequisites to the evolution of multicellular animal life, including the generation of multiple cell fates ("cellular diversity") and their patterned spatial arrangement ("spatial form"). Wnt proteins operate as primordial symmetry-breaking signals. By virtue of their short-range nature and their capacity to activate both lineage-specifying and cell-polarizing intracellular signaling cascades, Wnts can polarize cells at their site of contact, orienting the axis of cell division while simultaneously programming daughter cells to adopt diverging fates in a spatially stereotyped way. By coupling cell fate to position, symmetry-breaking Wnt signals were pivotal in constructing the metazoan body by generating cellular diversity and spatial form. PMID:27676437

  11. Large-scale trends in the evolution of gene structures within 11 animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Yandell

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have used the annotations of six animal genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Ciona intestinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans together with the sequences of five unannotated Drosophila genomes to survey changes in protein sequence and gene structure over a variety of timescales--from the less than 5 million years since the divergence of D. simulans and D. melanogaster to the more than 500 million years that have elapsed since the Cambrian explosion. To do so, we have developed a new open-source software library called CGL (for "Comparative Genomics Library". Our results demonstrate that change in intron-exon structure is gradual, clock-like, and largely independent of coding-sequence evolution. This means that genome annotations can be used in new ways to inform, corroborate, and test conclusions drawn from comparative genomics analyses that are based upon protein and nucleotide sequence similarities.

  12. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  13. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  14. Placental Evolution within the Supraordinal Clades of Eutheria with the Perspective of Alternative Animal Models for Human Placentation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Mess

    2014-01-01

    Here a survey of placental evolution is conducted. Placentation is a key factor for the evolution of placental mammals that had evolved an astonishing diversity. As a temporary organ that does not allow easy access, it is still not well understood. The lack of data also is a restriction for better understanding of placental development, structure, and function in the human. Animal models are essential, because experimental access to the human placenta is naturally restricted. However, there i...

  15. Measurement in Learning Games Evolution: Review of Methodologies Used in Determining Effectiveness of "Math Snacks" Games and Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Karen; Chamberlin, Barbara; Wiburg, Karin; Armstrong, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article captures the evolution of research goals and methodologies used to assess the effectiveness and impact of a set of mathematical educational games and animations for middle-school aged students. The researchers initially proposed using a mixed model research design of formative and summative measures, such as user-testing,…

  16. Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels. This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Trans...

  17. The Evolution of Animal Welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India

    OpenAIRE

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is esse...

  18. Physiological and Nutrient Metabolic Functions of Potassium in Aquatic Animals%钾在水产动物中的生理作用和营养代谢功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟星; 雎敏; 何亚丁; 陈晓明; 钟国防; 华雪铭

    2014-01-01

    钾是水产动物机体内的常量元素,也是维持生命不可或缺的必需物质。它在生物体的生理活动方面起着十分重要的作用,包括维持细胞电压、改变细胞膜电位和产生神经冲动。另外,钾还在氧化还原调节、酸碱平衡和新陈代谢过程中扮演着关键的角色。不同水产动物对钾的需求量不同,钾缺乏或者过量都会对动物机体产生不利的影响。本文主要针对钾在水产动物中的生理作用和营养代谢方面的功能展开综述。%Potassium is a constant element in aquatic animals and also essential to sustain life.Potassium is not only an important factor in physiological activities such as maintaining cell voltage, changing cell membrane potential and generating nerve impulse, but also plays a critical role in redox regulation, acid-base balance and metabolic process.Requirement of potassium differs among aquatic animals.Either dearth or surfeit will have deleterious impact.This article summarized the functions of potassium on physiological processes and nutrient metabolism in aquatic animals.

  19. Application of BIOLOG Automatic Microbiological Assay Systemin the Detection of Aquatic Animals Pathogen%BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统在水产动物病原菌检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童桂香; 韦信贤; 黎小正; 吴祥庆; 庞燕飞

    2011-01-01

    [ ObjectiVe ] The aim was to know the reliability of BIOLOG automatic microbiological assay system in the detection of aquatic animals' pathogen ,providing references for the diagnosis of aquatic animals' bacteriosis. [ Method] 9 strains pathogen isolated from diseased aquatic animals were identified by BIOLOG automatic microbiological assay system,while 4 strains of them were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis,then two identification results of them were compared. [ Result] The results of the 9 strains identified by BIOLOG automatic microbiological assay system were very satisfactory, and the results of the 4 strains which were identified simultaneously by above two methods were coincident completely. [ Conclusion] It was rapid,accurate and convenient to detect pathogen in aquatic animals with the application of BIOLOG automatic microbiologieal assay system.%[目的]了解BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统对水产动物病原菌鉴定结果的可靠性,为水产动物细菌性疾病的诊断提供参考.[方法]选用BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统对9株分离自发病水产动物的病原菌进行鉴定,同时采用16S rDNA序列分析对其中的4株进行鉴定,比较2种鉴定结果的符合率.[结果]采用自动微生物鉴定系统对9株病原菌进行鉴定均取得良好结果,采用16S rDNA序列分析对4株病原菌进行鉴定的结果与应用自动微生物鏊定系统所得结果完全一致,二者符合率为100%.[结论]应用BIOLOG自动微生物鉴定系统对水产动物病原菌进行鉴定具有操作简便、快速、准确等特点,是实验室鉴定水产动物病原菌的一种可行方法.

  20. Review on visual characteristic measurement research of aquatic animals based on computer vision%基于计算机视觉的水产动物视觉特征测量研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段延娥; 李道亮; 李振波; 傅泽田

    2015-01-01

    In aquaculture, visual attribute information of aquatic animals is the basis of determining growth condition, feed conversion, medication dosage, harvesting date and grading for aquaculture farmers and managers. For improving the quality of aquatic products, the automatic and non-destructive measurement of visual attributes is becoming more and more important in modern fishery. For decades, computer vision, as a non-destructive, rapid, economic, consistent, reliable and objective inspection tool based on image analysis and processing with a variety of applications, has been gradually used in visual quality detection of aquatic animals. Quite a number of researches have highlighted its potential application in aquaculture. Underwater or overwater video/image measurement systems based on image processing technologies have been used widely for automatically counting and measuring fish in aquaculture, fisheries and conservation management. However, the application of computer vision technologies in aquaculture is very challenging because the inspected objects are sensitive, easily stressed and free to move in an environment in which lighting, visibility and stability are generally not controllable, and the camera must be operated underwater or in a wet environment. This review updates and summarizes recent representative researches and industrial solutions proposed in order to evaluate the general trends of computer vision and image processing in the visible range applied for inspection of aquatic animals. On the basis of introducing the mode of operation and the components of a computer vision detection system, this paper presents a review of the overseas and domestic research status in visual attribute measurement of aquatic animals according to inspection tasks that are common to almost all visual attribute detection systems of aquatic animal: measurement of size and shape parameters, estimation of mass and quantification of color, etc. Specially, the techniques

  1. Fluids, form, and function: The role of fluid dynamics in the evolution of stalactites, icicles, and aquatic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Martin Bowen

    This dissertation is devoted to better understanding the role that fluids play in the selection of the shapes and functions of objects and creatures in nature. Toward that end, three specific examples are considered: stalactites, icicles, and species of colonial green algae known as Volvox. In the cases of stalactites and icicles, the object's growth is considered as a free-boundary problem. For stalactites, the coupling of thin-film fluid dynamics with calcium carbonate chemistry leads to a local, geometric growth law that is proportional to the thickness of the water layer covering the surface at any point. Application of this law to a uniformly translating shape allows a universal stalactite form to be derived; the comparison of this shape to images of actual stalactites supports the theory. In the case of icicles, the transport of the latent heat of fusion is coupled with the dynamics of both the thin-film of water encompassing the icicle and a thermally buoyant boundary layer in the immediately surrounding air. The uniformly translating shape solution is found to be parameter-free, and is, in fact, the same shape exhibited by stalactites. A comparison between this shape and icicle images validates the theory. The final example considers how advection of nutrients due to the stirring of water by the flagella of a Volvox colony leads to a metabolite uptake rate that is much greater than would occur by diffusion alone. Moreover, nutrient acquisition by pure diffusion would limit the size of Volvox species to a certain bottleneck radius at the point where diffusional uptake just meets metabolic demands, whereas advection increases the uptake in such a way as to avoid this problem entirely, thus enabling the evolution of the larger Volvox species.

  2. Review of "Animal Models in the Light of Evolution" by Niall Shanks, Ph.D., and C. Ray Greek, M.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolpert Lewis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal Models in the Light of Evolution provides persuasive evidence that animal models should be used with great caution when applying the results to human diseases. Mice and other model animals are both similar and different, in their biology, to humans.

  3. Review of "Animal Models in the Light of Evolution" by Niall Shanks, Ph.D., and C. Ray Greek, M.D

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpert Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Animal Models in the Light of Evolution provides persuasive evidence that animal models should be used with great caution when applying the results to human diseases. Mice and other model animals are both similar and different, in their biology, to humans.

  4. Mechanisms of Gene Duplication and Translocation and Progress towards Understanding Their Relative Contributions to Animal Genome Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Mendivil Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of genetic material is clearly a major route to genetic change, with consequences for both evolution and disease. A variety of forms and mechanisms of duplication are recognised, operating across the scales of a few base pairs upto entire genomes. With the ever-increasing amounts of gene and genome sequence data that are becoming available, our understanding of the extent of duplication is greatly improving, both in terms of the scales of duplication events as well as their rates of occurrence. An accurate understanding of these processes is vital if we are to properly understand important events in evolution as well as mechanisms operating at the level of genome organisation. Here we will focus on duplication in animal genomes and how the duplicated sequences are distributed, with the aim of maintaining a focus on principles of evolution and organisation that are most directly applicable to the shaping of our own genome.

  5. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Discussion on 'Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science' Teaching Experience%浅谈水产专业“水生动物营养与饲料学”教学体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宇杰; 伦峰; 彭新亮; 龚静

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic animal nutrition and feed science' is a professional foundation course in higher vocational education of aquiculture specialty.The teaching reformation and exploration were condncted from the positioning of the course,students' interest,theory teaching,practice teaching and assessment examination and other aspects of teaching experience to develop students' learning initiative,stimulate students interest in learning,train students thinking and independent problem solving skills,improve aquatic animal nutrition and feed science teaching effect.%水生动物营养与饲料学是高职高专水产专业的一门专业基础课。从课程定位、学生兴趣、理论教学、实践教学以及考核检查等方面进行了教学改革与探索,从而发挥学生的学习能动性,激发学生的学习兴趣,培养学生思考和独立解决问题的能力,提高水产动物营养与饲料学的教学效果。

  7. The evolution of animal welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries-Brazil, China and India-with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise.

  8. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms. PMID:26589213

  9. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a ‘two-speed’ mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species–the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia–the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in

  10. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-10-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in shaping animal

  11. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes. By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections

  12. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  13. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal S. Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Picobirnavirus (PBV which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains.

  14. ”ORIGINALITY” DIMENSION IN THERAPEUTIC TECHNIQUES’ EVOLUTION. ANIMAL ASSISTED THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Ardelea, Maria Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents new perspectives and approach of the therapeutic interventions. Animal assisted therapy developed an original dimension of the techniques used in other types of therapy. The animal therapist involved facilitates the relationship that evolves between the client and the therapist. Based on instincts and smooth communication the relationship is formed in a natural way, in a very short period of time. The human therapist has an improved image which helps the therapy to evolve....

  15. Plasticity of animal genome architecture unmasked by rapid evolution of a pelagic tunicate

    OpenAIRE

    Denoeud, F.; Henriet, S.; Mungpakdee, S.; Aury, J.; da Silva, C.; Brinkmann, H; Mikhaleva, J.; Olsen, L.; Jubin, C.; Canestro, C.; Bouquet, J; Danks, G.; Poulain, J.; Campsteijn, C.; Adamski, M

    2010-01-01

    International audience Genomes of animals as different as sponges and humans show conservation of global architecture. Here we show that multiple genomic features including transposon diversity, developmental gene repertoire, physical gene order, and intron-exon organization are shattered in the tunicate Oikopleura, belonging to the sister group of vertebrates and retaining chordate morphology. Ancestral architecture of animal genomes can be deeply modified and may therefore be largely non...

  16. Acute Toxicity of Oil Dispersant GM-2 to Four Species of Aquatic Animals%四种水生动物对GM-2消油剂的急性毒性反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 孙丽萍; 魏社林; 陈琳; 黄韧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare and determine the acute toxicity of oil dispersam GM-2 to the larvae of four species of aquatic animals and to provide reference for application and management of oil dispersant. Methods Static toxicitiy tests of oil dispersant GM-2 to Moina monggollica larvae,Ctenogobius gymnauchen larvae, Artemia nauplii and Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae were carried out,and the measurement of 24h-median lethal concentrations (24hLC50) were done. Results The 24h LC50 values of the four aquatic animals were respectively 53.08, 228.98, 4132.79 and 9404.08 mg/L.Conclusion There were significant differences in toxicities of the oil dispersant, the sensitivities of the four aquatic animals to oil dispersant were from high to low Moina monggollica larvae, Ctenogobius gymnauchen larvae, Artemia nauplii and Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. There was strong acute toxicity of the oil dispersant to Moina monggollica larvae and Ctenogobius gyrnnauchen larvae, the 24 h LC50 were muchlower than that of the state standard (GB 181881.1-2000).%目的 比较研究4种处于生长发育早期的水生动物对GM-2消油剂的急性毒性反应.方法 采用静水式方法,进行GM-2消油剂对蒙古裸腹溞(Moina monggollica) I龄幼体、裸项栉虾虎鱼(Ctenogobius gymnauchen)仔鱼、卤虫(Artemia)幼体、凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)仔虾的急性毒性试验,测定24 h半致死浓度(24 hLC50).结果 4种水生动物的24 hLC50分别为53.08,228.98,4132.79和9404.08 mg/L.结论 1)消油剂对4种水生动物的毒性存在种间差异,敏感性顺序由大到小为蒙古裸腹溞、裸项栉虾虎鱼、卤虫、凡纳滨对虾;2)该消油剂对蒙古裸腹搔I龄幼体和裸项栉虾虎鱼仔鱼的毒性很强,低于国家标准的规定.

  17. Emerging directions in the study of the ecology and evolution of plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Goodale, Eben; Chen, Jin

    2015-03-18

    The study of mutualistic plant and animal networks is an emerging field of ecological research. We reviewed progress in this field over the past 30 years. While earlier studies mostly focused on network structure, stability, and biodiversity maintenance, recent studies have investigated the conservation implications of mutualistic networks, specifically the influence of invasive species and how networks respond to habitat loss. Current research has also focused on evolutionary questions including phylogenetic signal in networks, impact of networks on the coevolution of interacting partners, and network influences on the evolution of interacting species. We outline some directions for future research, particularly the evolution of specialization in mutualistic networks, and provide concrete recommendations for environmental managers. PMID:25855224

  18. An empiricist guide to animal personality variation in ecology and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    SashaR.X.Dall; SimonC.Griffith

    2014-01-01

    The study of animal personality variation promises to provide significant new insight into the way that behaviour evolves in animals, along with its ecological and evolutionary influences. We strongly advocate more empirical work in this exciting and rapidly expanding research area, but hope that new studies adopt a more hypothesis-driven and/or experimental approach than seems to be usual at the moment. Here we outline what we feel is “good practice” to the many empiricists that are keen on ...

  19. Polyploidy in animals : Effects of gene expression on sex determination, evolution and ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; Beukeboom, L. W.; van de Zande, L.

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy is rarer in animals than in plants. Why? Since Muller's observation in 1925, many hypotheses have been proposed and tested, but none were able to completely explain this intriguing fact. New genomic technologies enable the study of whole genomes to explain the constraints on or consequenc

  20. Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M.; Van Doorn, G.S.; Leimar, O.; Weissing, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years evidence has been accumulating that personalities are not only found in humans(1) but also in a wide range of other animal species(2-8). Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural tendencies and the behaviour in one context is correlated with the behaviour in multiple other

  1. An empiricist guide to animal personality variation in ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha R.X. Dall

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality variation promises to provide significant new insight into the way that behaviour evolves in animals, along with its ecological and evolutionary influences. We strongly advocate more empirical work in this exciting and rapidly expanding research area, but hope that new studies adopt a more hypothesis-driven and/or experimental approach than seems to be usual at the moment. Here we outline what we feel is good practice to the many empiricists that are keen on pursuing work in this field. We highlight the substantial body of theoretical work that exists for providing well-reasoned hypotheses, which new empirical studies should be designed to test. Furthermore, using a brief review of existing work on the behavioural ecology of animal personality variation in the zebra finch - one of the more widely used model systems in this field - we stress the importance of understanding the ecology of the chosen study animal, and the problems that are likely to arise by neglecting to identify or account for the structure of behavioural variation that is often likely to occur.

  2. Something gone awry: unsolved mysteries in the evolution of asymmetric animal genitalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The great diversity in genital shape and function across and within the animal phyla hamper the identification of specific evolutionary trends that stretch beyond the limits of the group under study. Asymmetry might be a trait in genital morphology that could play a unifying role in the evolutionary

  3. The role of natural enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in hermaphroditic plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steets, Janette A; Wolf, Diana E; Auld, Josh R; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2007-09-01

    Although a large portion of plant and animal species exhibit intermediate levels of outcrossing, the factors that maintain this wealth of variation are not well understood. Natural enemies are one relatively understudied ecological factor that may influence the evolutionary stability of mixed mating. In this paper, we aim for a conceptual unification of the role of enemies in mating system expression and evolution in both hermaphroditic animals and plants. We review current theory and detail the potential effects of enemies on fundamental mating system parameters. In doing so, we identify situations in which consideration of enemies alters expectations about the stability of mixed mating. Generally, we find that inclusion of the enemy dimension may broaden conditions in which mixed mating systems are evolutionarily stable. Finally, we highlight avenues ripe for future theoretical and empirical work that will advance our understanding of enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in their hosts/victims, including examination of feedback cycles between victims and enemies and quantification of mating system-related parameters in victim populations in the presence and absence of enemies.

  4. The influence of body size and net diversification rate on molecular evolution during the radiation of animal phyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch John J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular clock dates, which place the origin of animal phyla deep in the Precambrian, have been used to reject the hypothesis of a rapid evolutionary radiation of animal phyla supported by the fossil record. One possible explanation of the discrepancy is the potential for fast substitution rates early in the metazoan radiation. However, concerted rate variation, occurring simultaneously in multiple lineages, cannot be detected by "clock tests", and so another way to explore such variation is to look for correlated changes between rates and other biological factors. Here we investigate two possible causes of fast early rates: change in average body size or diversification rate of deep metazoan lineages. Results For nine genes for phylogenetically independent comparisons between 50 metazoan phyla, orders, and classes, we find a significant correlation between average body size and rate of molecular evolution of mitochondrial genes. The data also indicate that diversification rate may have a positive effect on rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution. Conclusion If average body sizes were significantly smaller in the early history of the Metazoa, and if rates of diversification were much higher, then it is possible that mitochondrial genes have undergone a slow-down in evolutionary rate, which could affect date estimates made from these genes.

  5. Performance assessment of two whole-lake acoustic positional telemetry systems - is reality mining of free-ranging aquatic animals technologically possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Zajicek, Petr; Klefoth, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    to mine the reality of free ranging fish in their natural environment. This opens important opportunities to advance several fields of study such as movement ecology and animal social networks in the wild. It is recommended that thorough performance tests are conducted in any study utilizing APTs...

  6. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  7. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development. PMID:23896345

  8. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development.

  9. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter;

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  10. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  11. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Sabeeha S; Prochnik, Simon E; Vallon, Olivier; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Witman, George B.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Marshall, Wallace F.; Qu, Liang-Hu; Nelson, David R.; Sanderfoot, Anton A.; Spalding, Martin H

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ∼120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes enco...

  12. The ecology and evolution of animal medication : genetically fixed response versus phenotypic plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Choisy, Marc; de Roode, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the ...

  13. Food for thought on the evolution of toxicology and the phasing out of animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    There is something brewing in the field of toxicology: Last year's vision and strategy document published by the US National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 2007) has excited many toxicologists on both sides of the Atlantic. In February 2008 several American agencies announced a coalition to set this into practice (www.sciencemag.org/content/vol319/issue 5865/index.dtl): We propose a shift from primarily in vivo animal studies to in vitro assays, in vivo assays with lower organisms, and computatio...

  14. Something gone awry: unsolved mysteries in the evolution of asymmetric animal genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Schilthuizen, M

    2013-01-01

    The great diversity in genital shape and function across and within the animal phyla hamper the identification of specific evolutionary trends that stretch beyond the limits of the group under study. Asymmetry might be a trait in genital morphology that could play a unifying role in the evolutionary biology of genitalia. Here, I review the current knowledge on the taxonomic distribution, phylogenetic patterns, genetics, development, and ecology of asymmetric (chiral) genitalia. Asymmetric gen...

  15. Acute Toxic Effect of Abamectin on Fresh-water Aquatic Animals%阿维菌素对几种淡水水生动物的急性毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡珍; 陆宏达

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the acute toxicity of abamectin to several aquatic animals, it can provide reference for formulating safety concentration value of abamectin on fresh-water aquatic animals. Methods The method of changing solution was used for Cladocera Crustacea with 48 h,and Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling (fry),Gambusia affinis,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry,Macrobrachium nipponense ,Eriocheir sinensis, Cipangopaludina chincasis with 96 h in this experiment. For the experimental animals, every kind of animal was randomly divided into 11 groups(495 animals in each), including nine treatment groups, one control group and one ethanol (hydrotropy agent) group (15 animals in each). The clinic symptoms were observed and mortalities were recorded;median-lethal concentration with 24,48,72,96 h and safety concentration were calculated. Results During the experiment,the mortalities of all animals increased with increase of time and concentration of abamectin. As for Cladocera Crustacea,48 h LC_(50), and safety concentration were 0.000 37 and 0.000 037 mg/L,for Allogynogenetic crucian carp fry, Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling,Gambusia affinis,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry,Macrobrachium nipponense, Eriocheir sinensis,Cipangopaludina chincasis,the values of 96 h LC_(50) were 0.018,0.06,0.08,0.02,0.52,0.25,0.57 mg/L and safety concentrations were 0.001 8,0.006,0.008, 0.002,0.052,0.025,0.057 mg/L,respectively. The results showed that the toxicity of abamectin to seven fresh-water aquatic animals ranked as Cladocera Crustacea,Allogynogenetic crucian carp fry,Hypophthal michthys molitrix fry, Allogynogenetic crucian carp fingerling,Gambusia affinis, Eriocheir sinensis,Macrobrachium nipponense, Cipangopaludina chincasis. Conclusion Abamectin has higher toxicity to fresh-water aquatic animals.%目的 探讨阿维菌素对几种水生动物的急性毒性作用,为制订阿维菌素对淡水水生动物安全浓度的阈值提供参考依据.方法 采用

  16. Current status of the studies on genome in aquatic animal and its application prospects%水产养殖动物基因组研究的现状及其应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙效文; 梁利群; 闫学春

    2004-01-01

    The genomic resources from human and several model organisms have been increased very fast since 1990. The techniques for developing genomic resources have already been very advanced and smart. These could make scientists see and improve organism in genomic level. For Chinese aquaculture scientists and aquatic industry, developing genomic resources and genetic tools for the native species are most important in the genomic era. The genomic resources and genetic tools for several aquatic species have been developed and some of them have been used in the marker based selection and other researches. The genome research work on aquaculture species was reviewed in this paper, especially a USDA genome project was focused. Some functional genomic research for aquatic animal was also discussed here. The importance and necessity of China aquaculture species genome project were discussed. Common carp and other cultured fishes in Cyprinidae such as grass carp, silver carp, bighead carp etc were recommended as the candidate species for genome research, because the output of all carps is almost up to 1/3 of total fisheries output in China. Common carp with another virtue for genome research is that there are much more families and strains in common carp than those in other cultured species in China, and those families and strains are the basis for genome research and mapping quantitative trait loci associated with important economic trait. Although the first linkage map of common carp made by Sun needs to be added with more markers for mapping QTL and Type I markers ,it has laid the groundwork for QTL mapping and markerassisted selection in common carp. Because the model organism zebrafish and common carp, grass carp and other carps cultured in China all belong to Cyprinidae, the China carp genome research will obtain a lot of useful information from zebrafish genome research. How the China carp genome program will be conducted and what kinds of strategy involved in this program

  17. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  18. The evolution and functional diversification of animal microRNA genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Katsutomo Okamura; David M Tyler; Michael D Phillips; Wei-Jen Chung; Eric C Lai

    2008-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of ~22 nucleotide (nt) regulatory RNAs that are pervasive in higher eukaryotic genomes.In order to fully understand their prominence in genomes,it is necessary to elucidate the molecu lar mechanisms that can diversify miRNA activities.In this review,we describe some of the many strategies that allow novel miRNA functions to emerge,with particular emphasis on how miRNA genes evolve in animals.These mechanisms include changes in their sequence,processing,or expression pattern;acquisition of miRNA* functionality or antisense processing;and de novo gene birth.The facility and versatility of miRNAs to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of higher genomes.

  19. The Effect of Abiotic Factors on Marine Animal Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Wong, W.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    While there is evidence of a general increase in body size over time, there has been no comprehensive attempt to determine the influence of abiotic factors on body size. Although an increase in maximum body size has been observed during and after the Precambrian oxidation events in the Late Archean and at the onset of the Cambrian, these observations took into account the appearance of eukaryotic life and multicellular life respectively. Using a database of marine animal body sizes spanning the Phanerozoic, we conducted a series of Pearson product-moment correlation tests with igneous rock weathering (Strontium-87: Strontium-86), rate of carbon cycle (δ13C), temperature (δ18O), CO2 concentration, sulfate mineral weathering (δ34S), atmospheric oxygen concentration, and sea level as independent variables, and mean body size as the dependent variable. Our test yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.81 between δ18O and body size, and -0.78 between rCO2 and body size; since δ18O is inversely correlated with temperature, these results indicate that both temperature and CO2 have strong inverse relationships with body size. Atmospheric oxygen yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.09, demonstrating that it ceased to play an influential role in shaping body sizes following the start of the Phanerozoic.

  20. Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Economic Aquatic Animals in Huaihe River Segment of Bengbu Sampling Points%淮河蚌埠段采样点鱼虾贝类重金属的富集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明松; 王松; 鲍方印; 崔峰; 康健

    2011-01-01

    应用WFX - 110型原子吸收分光光度法测定淮河蚌埠段污染较重采样点鱼虾贝类不同组织中重金属(Cu,Mn,Zn,Fe,Ni,Cd和Pb)的含量.结果表明:在同一组织中w(Fe),w(Zn),w(Cu),w(Mn)和w(Ni)高于w(Cd)和w(Pb),变化趋势为日本沼虾>河蚌>鱼;鱼虾贝类不同组织重金属含量变化趋势为w(Fe)>w(Mn)>w(Zn)>w(Ni)>w(Cu)>w(Pb)>w(Cd).w(Cu),w(Mn),w(Zn)和w(Fe)在肠、鳃、肝胰脏等组织中较高,在精巢、肌肉等组织中较低;w(Ni),w(Cd)和w(Pb)在肝胰脏、鳃等组织中较高,在肌肉、脑等组织中较低.其中,日本沼虾和河蚌对重金属元素的富集能力明显强于淡水鱼类;而肝胰脏和鳃是鱼虾贝类体内重金属富集的主要部位;其食用部分w(Cd)和w(Pb)均超过无公害食品水产品中有害物质限量( NY 5073-2006)和人体卫生消费标准,因此不宜食用,表明淮河蚌埠段采样点附近生物受重金属影响明显.%The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd and Pb) were measured by WFX-110 atomic absorption spectrophotometry in different tissues of economic aquatic animals from sampling points of the Bengbu segment of the Huaihe River. The results showed that the concentrations of the seven heavy metals were different in the same tissues of different animals. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni were higher than those of Cd and Pb. The variation tendency of heavy metals was in the order of Macrobrachium nipponense >A. Woodiana woodiana > fishes. The content sequence of the seven heavy metals in fish and shellfish was Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd. Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe were mainly accumulated in the intestines, gills, hepatopancreas, etc. , but were lower in the testes, muscles, etc. Tissue of the fish and shellfish. The concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb were higher in the hepatopancreas, gills, etc. , but lower in the muscles, brain and other tissues of the tested animals. Enrichment of heavy metals in

  1. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  2. 微卫星多重PCR在水生动物亲权分析中的研究进展%Recent progress on microsatellite multiplex PCRs for parentage analysis of aquatic animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 宋文平

    2012-01-01

    微卫星标记作为共显性标记具有分布广泛、中性遗传的特点,在群体遗传结构分析和亲子鉴定(即亲权鉴定)方面已有了广泛应用,通过微卫星标记技术可以清楚有效地分析子代的遗传背景.本文就目前微卫星多重PCR在水生动物亲权关系分析、系谱认证方面的研究进展进行了综述.%As a codominant marker with wide distribution and genetic neutrality, microsatellite marker has been widely used in analysis of population genetic structure and paternity. Microsatellite marker is an effective tool to illuminate the genetic background of the offspring. In this paper, the research progress of microsatellite multiplex PCR in certification of paternity relationship and pedigree of aquatic animals was reviewed.

  3. A review on the effects of hypoxia on aquatic animals in estuaries%河口及近岸海域低氧环境对水生动物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾孝连; 徐兆礼

    2009-01-01

    水体溶解氧浓度低于2 mg/L时,通常称水体为低氧或缺氧(hypoxia).目前,中国的长江口等许多河口及近岸海域的底层水体出现了季节性低氧区,这些低氧区对鱼类等水生动物及海洋生态环境的影响目前仍不十分清楚,这应引起政府及研究部门的关注.本文综述了低氧区的成因,分析了低氧对水生动物的影响,特别是近年来研究较多的水生动物对低氧的分子响应研究进展,最后综述了低氧对海洋生态系统的影响.我国未来的研究应注重低氧区海洋物理、海洋生物等基础数据的收集,同时,要加强低氧区对我国主要渔场影响的研究.%Hypoxia is defined as dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L in the water. In recent years, due to excessive anthropogenic input of nutrients, organic matters, and global warming, hypoxia zones have been expanding year by year all over the world. Hypoxia has threatened the survival of marine animals, destroyed marine ecosystem and reduced fishing production. In this paper, we analyzed the causes of hypoxia and its' effects on marine animals and ecosystem. Hypoxia mainly results from the accumulative oxygen consumption of organism and density stratification of the water column, which restricts water exchange and oxygen supply. However, in more cases hypoxia is due to excessive anthropogenic input of nutrients and organic matters into water bodies where there is poor circulation. This paper also reviewed the effects of hypoxia on marine animals. Hypoxia affects survival, growth, reproduction, behavior, physiology and some gene expression of aquatic animals. Hypoxia changes the composition and structure of marine benthic community, and also alters the structure of food chain and energy flow of marine ecosystem. Finally, we prospected the research development tendency.

  4. The biomechanics of fast prey capture in aquatic bladderworts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K.; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2011-01-01

    Carnivorous plants match their animal prey for speed of movements and hence offer fascinating insights into the evolution of fast movements in plants. Here, we describe the mechanics of prey capture in aquatic bladderworts Utricularia stellaris, which prey on swimming insect larvae or nematodes to supplement their nitrogen intake. The closed Utricularia bladder develops lower-than-ambient internal pressures by pumping out water from the bladder and thus setting up an elastic instability in bladder walls. When the external sensory trigger hairs on their trapdoor are mechanically stimulated by moving prey, the trapdoor opens within 300–700 μs, causing strong inward flows that trap their prey. The opening time of the bladder trapdoor is faster than any recorded motion in carnivorous plants. Thus, Utricularia have evolved a unique biomechanical system to gain an advantage over their animal prey. PMID:21389013

  5. Study on the mercury evolution in a laboratory multi specific aquatic system by using instrumental neutron activation analysis; Estudio de la evolucion del mercurio en un sistema acuatico de laboratorio multiespecifico utilizando analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubach, Debora; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Analisis por Activacion Nautronica; Pechen de d`Angelo, Ana; Ferrari, Ana; Venturino, Andres [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary study on the evolution of mercury in the organisms of a laboratory multi specific aquatic system was performed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Some of the possible effects of mercury toxicity were monitored by analyzing early biochemical indicators. The system consisted of an aquarium with bed sediments, aquatic macrophytes (Myriophyllum sp.), bivalves (Diplodom sp.) and exotic fish, simulating a long term contamination situation of unknown causes, where the sediments are the contaminant reservoir. Samples of the abiotic components of the system were analyzed at the beginning of the experiment, and again when the organisms were sampled. Fish carcass, kidney and liver samples, bivalve hepatopancreas, and whole macrophytes were extracted ana analyzed for mercury and other elements by INAA at the beginning of the experiment, and after 48 and 96 hours. Since some crustal elements such as Sc and La were detected in the hepatopancreas and macrophyte samples, enrichment factors for mercury, with respect to the <63 {mu}m sediment fraction, were computed to discriminate the metabolized Hg content from that associated to the particulate. The hepatopancreas index, some indicators of oxidative stress ({gamma}-Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine content and lipid peroxidation) and brain acetilcolinesterasa were measured as early indicators of toxicity. (author) 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Animal lectins as self/non-self recognition molecules. Biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding their biological roles and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, G R; Ahmed, H; Fink, N E; Elola, M T; Marsh, A G; Snowden, A; Odom, E W

    1994-04-15

    In recent years, the significant contributions from molecular research studies on animal lectins have elucidated structural aspects and provided clues not only to their evolution but also to their multiple biological functions. The experimental evidence has suggested that distinct, and probably unrelated, groups of molecules are included under the term "lectin." Within the invertebrate taxa, major groups of lectins can be identified: One group would include lectins that show significant homology to membrane-integrated or soluble vertebrate C-type lectins. The second would include those beta-galactosyl-specific lectins homologous to the S-type vertebrate lectins. The third group would be constituted by lectins that show homology to vertebrate pentraxins that exhibit lectin-like properties, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Finally, there are examples that do not exhibit similarities to any of the aforementioned categories. Moreover, the vast majority of invertebrate lectins described so far cannot yet be placed in one or another group because of the lack of information regarding their primary structure. (See Table 1.) Animal lectins do not express a recombinatorial diversity like that of antibodies, but a limited diversity in recognition capabilities would be accomplished by the occurrence of multiple lectins with distinct specificities, the presence of more than one binding site, specific for different carbohydrates in a single molecule, and by certain "flexibility" of the binding sites that would allow the recognition of a range of structurally related carbohydrates. In order to identify the lectins' "natural" ligands, we have investigated the interactions between those proteins and the putative endogenous or exogenous glycosylated substances or cells that may be relevant to their biological function. Results from these studies, together with information on the biochemical properties of invertebrate and vertebrate lectins, including their structural

  7. Evolution of bright colours in animals: worlds of prohibition and oblivion [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir J. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the ability to hide in plain sight provides a major selective advantage to both prey and predator species, the emergence of the striking colouration of some animal species (such as many coral reef fish represents an evolutionary conundrum that remains unsolved to date. Here I propose a framework by which conspicuous colours can emerge when the selective pressures for camouflage are relaxed (1 because camouflage is not essential under specific prey/predator conditions or (2 due to the impossibility of reducing the signal-to-background noise in the environment. The first case is found among non-predator-species that possess effective defences against predators (hence a “Carefree World”, such as the strong macaws’ beaks and the flight abilities of hummingbirds. The second case is found in diurnal mobile fish of coral reef communities, which swim in clear waters against highly contrasting and unpredictable background (hence an "Hyper-Visible World”. In those contexts the selective pressures that usually come secondary to camouflage (such as sexual, warning, species recognition or territorial display are free to drive the evolution of brilliant and diverse colouration. This theoretical framework can also be useful for studying the conditions that allow for conspicuousness in other sensory contexts (acoustic, chemical, electrical, etc..

  8. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  9. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  10. USE OF CONCRETE TANKS AS A PATTERN FOR RESEARCH WITH AQUATIC ANIMALS ESTUDO DE UMA SÉRIE DE TANQUES DE ALVENARIA COMO MODELO PARA CONDUÇÃO DE EXPERIMENTOS COM ORGANISMOS AQUÁTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Machado Cantisani Pádua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Water quality determines the success or failure of fish researches. A series of rectangular concrete tanks covered with nylon nets were evaluated as a pattern for conduction essay with aquatic animals, when environment conditions must be the same. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were observed. The tanks were populated with ten juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus which were fed ad libitum twice a day. The experiment was carried out between November and February 1992/1993. In the middle of experiment five fishes were slaughtered in order to keep the biomass adequate until the end (87 days. Unsuitable limnologic conditions were detected in the lower waterflow tanks. The increased biomass and decreased waterflow were related to increased mortality and diseases. This kind of serial tanks building allows homogeneous environmental conditions and the waterflow was the parameter which must be carefully monitored.

    KEY-WORDS: Tanks; water quality; fish.

    Avaliou-se uma série de tanques de alvenaria, cobertos com tela de nylon, como modelo para ensaios com animais aquáticos, em que são exigidas igualdades das condições ambientais. Foram observados alguns parâmetros físicos e químicos da água. Os tanques foram povoados com dez juvenis de pacu, e a ração fornecida ad libitum duas vezes ao dia. O experimento foi conduzido entre novembro e fevereiro de 1992/1993. Na metade do experimento cinco peixes foram retirados para se manter a biomassa adequada até o final, aos 87 dias. Condições limnológicas inadequadas foram observadas nos tanques com menor taxa de renovação de água. O aumento da biomassa e o decréscimo da circulação de água foram relacionados com o aumento da mortalidade e doenças. Este

  11. ‘Captivity bias’ in animal tool use and its implications for the evolution of hominin technology

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Animals in captive or laboratory settings may outperform wild animals of the same species in both frequency and diversity of tool use, a phenomenon here termed ‘captivity bias’. Although speculative at this stage, a logical conclusion from this concept is that animals whose tool-use behaviour is observed solely under natural conditions may be judged cognitively or physically inferior than if they had also been tested or observed under controlled captive conditions. In turn, this situation cre...

  12. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from various aquatic animals in Guangdong Province%广东省水产动物源气单胞菌对抗菌药物的耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅丽; 邓玉婷; 姜兰; 谭爱萍; 薛慧娟; 王伟利; 罗理; 赵飞

    2013-01-01

    为了解广东地区水产动物源气单胞菌的耐药情况,采用K-B纸片法测定了112株1995-2012年来源于不同种类患病水产动物的气单胞菌对20种抗菌药的耐药性,数据用WHONET 5.6耐药监测软件分析.结果显示,气单胞菌对氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率分别高达85.7%和79.5%,其次对利福平、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、链霉素、萘啶酸、磺胺类、头孢西丁、四环素和磺胺甲基异恶唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率分别达57.1%、51.8%、49.1%、44.6%、31.2%、28.6%、28.6%和21.4%;对氟喹诺酮类(氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、环丙沙星)、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、亚胺培南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因、氯霉素和多西环素相对敏感.比较不同来源气单胞菌的耐药情况,结果显示爬行、两栖动物和观赏鱼来源的分离菌株对氟喹诺酮类、头孢类等药物的耐药率比养殖鱼、虾类的高;气单胞菌对常用抗菌药呈现不同程度的耐药,不同来源的气单胞菌的耐药率亦不尽相同.水产动物源气单胞菌存在多重耐药菌株应引起重视,今后在气单胞菌疾病防治方面要慎重用药,并且有必要开展水产动物源的细菌耐药性监测,以指导水产养殖合理用药.%112 Aeromonas strains were isolated from various aquatic animals at different time in Guangdong province. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to detect the resistance of 112 strains against 20 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Resistance rates were analyzed by WHONET 5. 6 software. The overall resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (85. 7%) and cephalothin (79. 5%) followed by rifampicin (57.1% ) ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (51. 8% ) .streptomycin (49. 1% ) ,sulfonamides (31. 2% ) ,cefoxitin (28. 6% ) , tetracycline (28.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (21.4%). Aeromonas isolates were suseptible to most of antimicrobial agents and a low incidence ( < 10% ) of resistance to imipenem (0

  14. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  15. Mechanical performance of aquatic rowing and flying.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.A.; Westneat, M. W.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic flight, performed by rowing or flapping fins, wings or limbs, is a primary locomotor mechanism for many animals. We used a computer simulation to compare the mechanical performance of rowing and flapping appendages across a range of speeds. Flapping appendages proved to be more mechanically efficient than rowing appendages at all swimming speeds, suggesting that animals that frequently engage in locomotor behaviours that require energy conservation should employ a flapping stroke. The...

  16. Unexpected skeletal histology of an ichthyosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia: implications for evolution of bone microstructure among secondary aquatic tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevi, Marianella; Fernández, Marta S.

    2012-03-01

    During the Mesozoic, one of the most significant evolutionary processes was the secondary adaptation of tetrapods to life in water. Several non-related lineages invaded from the terrestrial realms and from the oceans of the entire world. Among these lineages, ichthyosaurs were particularly successful. Advance parvipelvian ichthyosaurs were the first tetrapods to evolve a fish-shaped body profile. The deep skeletal modifications of their bodies, as well as their biology, depict advance ichthyosaurs as the paradigm of secondary adaptation of reptiles to marine life. Functional inferences point to them as off-shore cruising forms, similar to a living tuna, and some of them were capable of deep diving. Bone histology of some genera such as Temnodontosaurus, Stenopterygius, Ichthyosaurus, and Caypullisaurus, characterized by overall cancellous bone, is consistent with the idea of a fish-shaped ichthyosaurs as fast and far cruisers. Here, we provide histological examination of the ribs of the Middle Jurassic parvipelvian Mollesaurus. Contrasting with the bone histology of other parvipelvian, Mollesaurus ribs are characterized by a compact and thick cortex. Our data indicate that the rib cage was heavy and suggest that not all advanced ichthyosaurs were fast cruisers. The compact and dense ribs in these parvipelvian show that advance ichthyosaurs were ecologically more diverse than previously thought and that the lightening of the skeleton reversed, as also occurred in the evolution of cetacean, at least once along the evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs.

  17. The Multipartite Mitochondrial Genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila: Insights into the Evolution of Mitochondrial Genomes in Bilateral Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Dan-Dan Wei; Renfu Shao; Ming-Long Yuan; Wei Dou; Barker, Stephen C.; Jin-Jun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Booklice (order Psocoptera) in the genus Liposcelis are major pests to stored grains worldwide and are closely related to parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera). We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila and found that the typical single mt chromosome of bilateral animals has fragmented into and been replaced by two medium-sized chromosomes in this booklouse; each of these chromosomes has about half of the genes of the typical mt chromosome of bilateral animals. The...

  18. Aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, M J

    1991-06-01

    While most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. It is worth reconsidering the features of Australopithecus, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT) of Hardy and Morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)aquatic animals. Possible convergences are observed with proboscis monkeys, beavers, sea-otters, hippopotamuses, seals, sea-lions, walruses, sea-cows, whales, dolphins, porpoises, penguins and crocodiles. PMID:1909768

  19. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paré

    Full Text Available The Grainy head (GRH family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl. We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2 mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  20. The multipartite mitochondrial genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila: insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes in bilateral animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan-Dan; Shao, Renfu; Yuan, Ming-Long; Dou, Wei; Barker, Stephen C; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Booklice (order Psocoptera) in the genus Liposcelis are major pests to stored grains worldwide and are closely related to parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera). We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila and found that the typical single mt chromosome of bilateral animals has fragmented into and been replaced by two medium-sized chromosomes in this booklouse; each of these chromosomes has about half of the genes of the typical mt chromosome of bilateral animals. These mt chromosomes are 8,530 bp (mt chromosome I) and 7,933 bp (mt chromosome II) in size. Intriguingly, mt chromosome I is twice as abundant as chromosome II. It appears that the selection pressure for compact mt genomes in bilateral animals favors small mt chromosomes when small mt chromosomes co-exist with the typical large mt chromosomes. Thus, small mt chromosomes may have selective advantages over large mt chromosomes in bilateral animals. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences of Psocodea (i.e. Psocoptera plus Phthiraptera) indicate that: 1) the order Psocoptera (booklice and barklice) is paraphyletic; and 2) the order Phthiraptera (the parasitic lice) is monophyletic. Within parasitic lice, however, the suborder Ischnocera is paraphyletic; this differs from the traditional view that each suborder of parasitic lice is monophyletic. PMID:22479490

  1. The multipartite mitochondrial genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila: insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes in bilateral animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Wei

    Full Text Available Booklice (order Psocoptera in the genus Liposcelis are major pests to stored grains worldwide and are closely related to parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera. We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila and found that the typical single mt chromosome of bilateral animals has fragmented into and been replaced by two medium-sized chromosomes in this booklouse; each of these chromosomes has about half of the genes of the typical mt chromosome of bilateral animals. These mt chromosomes are 8,530 bp (mt chromosome I and 7,933 bp (mt chromosome II in size. Intriguingly, mt chromosome I is twice as abundant as chromosome II. It appears that the selection pressure for compact mt genomes in bilateral animals favors small mt chromosomes when small mt chromosomes co-exist with the typical large mt chromosomes. Thus, small mt chromosomes may have selective advantages over large mt chromosomes in bilateral animals. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences of Psocodea (i.e. Psocoptera plus Phthiraptera indicate that: 1 the order Psocoptera (booklice and barklice is paraphyletic; and 2 the order Phthiraptera (the parasitic lice is monophyletic. Within parasitic lice, however, the suborder Ischnocera is paraphyletic; this differs from the traditional view that each suborder of parasitic lice is monophyletic.

  2. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...

  3. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  4. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  5. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  6. The heart and heart conducting system in the kingdom of animals: A comparative approach to its evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Šolc, David

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the heart and its conducting system is surveyed in the present study, as well as its parallels with ontogeny. A concise review of its evolution in the main taxonomic groups is presented. The aim is to inform physicians on evolutionary connections to the physiology of the human heart conducting system. Furthermore, some unanswered questions in terms of the developmental biology of the heart are offered. It is assumed that some supraventricular arrhythmias are based on remnants...

  7. Edaphics, active tectonics and animal movements in the Kenyan Rift - implications for early human evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Rucina, Stephen; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2014-05-01

    The quality of soils (edaphics) and the associated vegetation strongly controls the health of grazing animals. Until now, this has hardly been appreciated by paleo-anthropologists who only take into account the availability of water and vegetation in landscape reconstruction attempts. A lack of understanding the importance of the edaphics of a region greatly limits interpretations of the relation between our ancestors and animals over the last few million years. If a region lacks vital trace elements then wild grazing and browsing animals will avoid it and go to considerable length and take major risks to seek out better pasture. As a consequence animals must move around the landscape at different times of the year. In complex landscapes, such as tectonically active rifts, hominins can use advanced group behaviour to gain strategic advantage for hunting. Our study in the southern Kenya rift in the Lake Magadi region shows that the edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of an early hominin site at Mt. Olorgesailie. We carried out field analysis based on studying the relationship between the geology and soil development as well as the tectonic geomorphology to identify 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We further sampled different soils that developed on the volcanic bedrock and sediment sources of the region and interviewed the local Maasai shepherds to learn about present-day good and bad grazing sites. At the Olorgesailie site the rift valley floor is covered with flood trachytes; basalts only occur at Mt. Olorgesailie and farther east up the rift flank. The hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. The lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by basalt flows from Mt. Olorgesailie

  8. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  9. Emerging directions in the study of the ecology and evolution of plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Hao; Goodale, Eben; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The study of mutualistic plant and animal networks is an emerging field of ecological research. We reviewed progress in this field over the past 30 years. While earlier studies mostly focused on network structure, stability, and biodiversity maintenance, recent studies have investigated the conservation implications of mutualistic networks, specifically the influence of invasive species and how networks respond to habitat loss. Current research has also focused on evolutionary questions inclu...

  10. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  11. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  12. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zo Young-Gun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx, the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic

  13. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Comet assay is a novel biological analysis, which is a sensitive, flexible, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to assess aquatic genotoxicant. Since Singh and co-workers developed the method in 1988, its use has increased exponentially in various fields. This review discourses on the application of this assay in aquatic ecosystems. Various types of cells from various aquatic organisms have been tested by various genotoxicant both direct- and indirect-acting using the comet assay. The applications of this assay suggest that it is a useful assay to assess aquatic genotoxicants. However, there are some factors, which should be taken into account when using this assay as aquatic ecotoxicological assessment device such as inter-animal and cell variability.

  14. Distinct expression patterns of glycoprotein hormone subunits in the lophotrochozoan Aplysia: implications for the evolution of neuroendocrine systems in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Andreas; Plachetzki, David; Donelly, Evonne; Gunaratne, Dinuka; Bobkova, Yelena; Jacobson, John; Kohn, Andrea B; Moroz, Leonid L

    2012-11-01

    Glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) comprise a group of signaling molecules critical for major metabolic and reproductive functions. In vertebrates they include chorionic gonadotropin, LH, FSH, and TSH. The active hormones are characterized by heterodimerization between a common α and hormone-specific β subunit, which activate leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein coupled receptors. To date, genes referred to as GPHα2 and GPHβ5 have been the only glycoprotein hormone subunits identified in invertebrates, suggesting that other GPHα and GPHβ subunits diversified during vertebrate evolution. Still the functions of GPHα2 and GPHβ5 remain largely unknown for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To further understand the evolution and putative function of these subunits, we cloned and analyzed phylogenetically two glycoprotein subunits, AcaGPHα and AcaGPHβ, from the sea hare Aplysia californica. Model based three-dimensional predictions of AcaGPHβ confirm the presence of a complete cysteine knot, two hairpin loops, and a long loop. As in the human GPHβ5 subunit the seatbelt structure is absent in AcaGPHβ. We also found that AcaGPHα and AcaGPHβ subunits are expressed in larval stages of Aplysia, and we present a detailed expression map of the subunits in the adult central nervous system using in situ hybridizations. Both subunits are expressed in subpopulations of pleural and buccal mechanosensory neurons, suggesting a neuronal modulatory function of these subunits in Aplysia. Furthermore it supports the model of a relatively diffuse neuroendocrine-like system in molluscs, where specific primary sensory neurons release peptides extrasynaptically (paracrine secretion). This is in contrast to vertebrates and insects, in which releasing and stimulating factor from centralized sensory regions of the central nervous system ultimately regulate hormone release in peripheral glands.

  15. On the Role of Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity in the Evolution of Animal Personalities and Stress Coping Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overli, Oyvind; Sorensen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Individual variation in how animals react to stress and environmental change has become a central topic in a wide range of biological disciplines, from evolutionary ecology to biomedicine. Such variation manifests phenotypically as correlated trait-clusters (referred to as coping styles, behavioral...... are conserved throughout the vertebrate subphylum, including factors affecting perception, learning, and memory of stimuli and events. Here we review conserved aspects of the contribution of neurogenesis and other aspects of neural plasticity to stress coping. In teleost fish, brain cell proliferation...... and neurogenesis have received recent attention. This work reveals that brain cell proliferation and neurogenesis are associated with heritable variation in stress coping style, and they are also differentially affected by short- and long-term stress in a biphasic manner. Routine-dependent and inflexible behavior...

  16. Quality of mixing in a stired bioreactor used for animal cells culture: heterogeneities in a lab scale bioreactor and evolution of mixing time with scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon, ML.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal cells are industrially cultivated inside stirred bioreactors to produce proteinic compounds. Due to the use of mild agitation conditions in order to limit mechanical constraints, the homogeneity of the culture medium can be far from perfect. This study has therefore two objectives: the global characterization of the mixing via the mixing time and the local description of concentration fields. The mixing time is measured by conductimetry inside 20 l, 80 l, 600 l tanks. The Grenville correlation is adjusted on these experimental measurements to improve the prediction of the mixing time during the scale-up of the process. The concentration fields are visualized by the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (P.L.I.F. technique in the 20 l tank. This part of the study is focused on the time evolution of the maximum value of the tracer concentration inside measurement planes and of the numerical distribution of theses concentration fields.

  17. Anthropometric evolution and classification of pre-scholar and scholar students from public education: Relation to food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Pissaia Savitsky

    2012-12-01

    decrease on the stature deficit on children from 0 to 6 years old (p<0.01 and a decrease on low weight (p<0.01, of weight and height of children from 6 to 12 years old (p=0.97. Results show an increase on children´s weight, especially on children under 6 years old, where there is a need for preventive attitudes, in order to reduce the DCNT. In this context the increase on quality and/or quantity of animal origin products in the children´s diet at school must be evaluated and reformulated substituting carbohydrates for animal food from several sources (poultry, fish, bovine meat, eggs, milk, etc. Sustainability of public education has to deal with nutritional factors and the end of the animal food chain to aim better education and better citizens.

  18. Genetic characterization of flea-derived Bartonella species from native animals in Australia suggests host-parasite co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; McInnes, Linda M; Burmej, Halina; Bennett, Mark D; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Fleas are important arthropod vectors for a variety of diseases in veterinary and human medicine, and bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are among the organisms most commonly transmitted by these ectoparasites. Recently, a number of novel Bartonella species and novel species candidates have been reported in marsupial fleas in Australia. In the present study the genetic diversity of marsupial fleas was investigated; 10 species of fleas were collected from seven different marsupial and placental mammal hosts in Western Australia including woylies (Bettongia penicillata), western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville), mardos (Antechinus flavipes), bush rats (Rattus fuscipes), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), feral cats (Felis catus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 18S rRNA genes from these fleas was performed. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of the COI and 18S rRNA genes revealed a close genetic relationship between marsupial fleas, with Pygiopsylla hilli from woylies, Pygiopsylla tunneyi from western barred bandicoots and Acanthopsylla jordani from mardos, forming a separate cluster from fleas collected from the placental mammals in the same geographical area. The clustering of Bartonella species with their marsupial flea hosts suggests co-evolution of marsupial hosts, marsupial fleas and Bartonella species in Australia. PMID:21856444

  19. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  20. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.;

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  2. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world.

  3. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  4. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  5. Aquatic flight inspired propulsion for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Man, S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) technology has a number of limitations and one of these is vehicle manoeuvrability. Conventional flight style AUVs generally have turning circle diameters of five or more vehicle lengths, but most marine animals can turn in under one body length. This shows there is merit in looking at marine animals for inspiration to improve the manoeuvrability of AUVs. Aquatic flight propulsion is one marine animal propulsion strategy that was identified early in ...

  6. Deep Time Ecosystem Engineers: The Correlation between Palaeozoic Vegetation, Evolution of Physical Riverine Habitats, and Plant and Animal Terrestrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N. S.; Gibling, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    corridors narrowed throughout the Ordovician and Silurian, the potential importance of riparian zones as a global biome would have increased as they became more extensive in continental environments. Furthermore, the move towards climatic controls on the ephemeral or perennial nature of streams would have boosted the diversity of temporally diverse hydrodynamic regimes. As single-thread meandering channels and extensive muddy floodplains, stabilised by vegetation, became significant components of the global suite of alluvial geomorphic components throughout the Siluro-Devonian, further diversification of the extent and diversity of physical habitats within the global riparian biome occurred. Into the Carboniferous, the evolution of the anabranching habit within alluvial systems created further new physical landforms for colonization and would have promoted increasingly complex hyporheic flow regimes. Furthermore the associated advent of arborescent vegetation and, specifically, the large woody debris supplied by this, would have created a wealth of new microhabitats for continental organisms. The expanding extent and diversity of physical alluvial niches during the Palaeozoic can be argued to be an underappreciated driver of the terrestrialization of early continental life. The study of the deep time fossil and stratigraphic record also illustrates that vegetation is a fundamental prerequisite for the creation of biogeomorphic alluvial landforms and physical habitats and microhabitats.

  7. 动物中microRNA的保守性和进化历程%Conservation and Evolution of microRNAs in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 张群; 梁宇君; 张士璀

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs,~22 nucleotides in length, which have been found in diverse animals and function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs play versatile and important roles in the ontogeny of developmental timing, cell differentiation and nervous system development. Recent evidence has suggested that miRNAs have huge impacts on animal phylogeny. Many of miRNAs are phylogenetically conserved among different animals. In addition, the miRNAs innovation appears to be associated with the advent of major lineages of metazoans. This review summarizes conservations of miRNAs in their biogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, the phylogenetic distribution and functions in the ontogeny. We also discuss evolutionary histories of miRNAs and how they impact on the animal evolution.%microRNA是一类长度约为22个核苷酸的内源性非编码单链RNA,在后生动物中普遍存在,在转录后过程调控基因表达.miRNA在个体发育过程中发挥着各种功能,如发育时序调控和细胞分化、神经发育等.miRNA在各种后生动物中具有保守性,而且多个关键类群的出现皆伴随着大量新miRNA的产生,这些现象都表明miRNA与动物的系统发生密切相关.本文从miRNA的产生和作用机制、在后生动物中的分布格局及其在个体发育中的调控功能3个方面论述了miRNA的保守性,并结合miRNA的发生和发展历程,探讨了miRNA在动物进化中起到的重要作用.

  8. Advances on Toxicological Mechanism of AhR Pathway and Early Biomonitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)in Aquatic Animals%持久性有机污染物对水生动物芳香烃受体通道的毒理机制及其早期监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海龙; 张林宝; 廖春阳; 韦双双; 郑继平; 薛钦昭

    2010-01-01

    过去30年,随着工农业的不断发展,由持久性有机污染物(POPs)导致的癌症患者不断增加.目前POPs已广泛存在于水生态系统中,对水生动物的生长发育、种群繁衍、群落结构等产生重要影响.虽然POPs对水生动物的毒理机制非常复杂,但研究表明其毒理机制主要通过芳香烃受体通道(AhR pathway)来进行调控.为全面理解水生动物AhR通道中每一个基因在毒理调控过程中的作用,论文从水生动物芳香烃通道的角度详细阐述了POPs的毒理机制,同时对水生动物中POPs的早期监测进行了讨论,最后提出了未来POPs毒理机制研究的发展方向.%With the development of industry and agriculture, the case of cancer is incresing gradually in the last thirty years. Considerable part of the cases are caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs)and some of them belong to the environmental endocrine disruptors. POPs are ubiquitous in the environment, especiUy in the aquatic ecosystem which has aroused the extensive attention of the world. The mechanism of POPs toxicology is very complicated, but it is mainly mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)pathway in aquatic animals. The overall goal of this review paper is to highlight the toxicological mechanism of AhR pathway that may contribute to a more holistic understanding of each AhR pathway gene behavior in the toxicological process, as well as the early biomonitoring methods of POPs in aquatic animals. Finally, we propose some perspectives for future toxicological mechhanism research of interest.

  9. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  10. Skin of the Cretaceous mosasaur Plotosaurus: implications for aquatic adaptations in giant marine reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Johan; Alwmark, Carl; Caldwell, Michael W.; Anthony R Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The physical nature of water and the environment it presents to an organism have long been recognized as important constraints on aquatic adaptation and evolution. Little is known about the dermal cover of mosasauroids (a group of secondarily aquatic reptiles that occupied a wide array of predatory niches in the Cretaceous marine ecosystems 92–65 Myr ago), a lack of information that has hindered inferences about the nature and level of their aquatic adaptations. A newly discovered Plotosaurus...

  11. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Nakanishi

    Full Text Available In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B. In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B, during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  12. Development of aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrobenzene is a toxic pollutant and was the main compound involved in the Songhuajiang accident in 2007, one of the largest water pollution accidents in China in the last decade. No aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene have previously been proposed. In this study, published toxicity data of nitrobenzene to Chinese aquatic species were gathered, and six resident Chinese aquatic organisms were used in toxicity tests to supplement the existing toxicity data for nitrobenzene. Seventeen genuses mean acute values, three genuses mean chronic values to freshwater aquatic animals, and six genus toxicity values to aquatic plants were collected in total. A criterion maximum concentration of 0.018 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.001 mg/L were developed based on these data, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. These criteria may be useful in the determination of water quality standard of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: ► China is embarking on development of national water quality criteria system. ► Nitrobenzene is a valuable case in development of water quality criteria in China. ► Several Chinese resident aquatic organisms were chosen to be tested. ► The aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene were developed. - An acute criterion of 0.018 mg/L and a chronic criterion of 0.001 mg/L for nitrobenzene in China were developed according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines.

  13. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stief

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal–microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal–microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosys...

  14. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs.

  15. Elucidating the diversity of aquatic microdochium and trichoderma species and their activity against the fish pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, De Irene

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security

  16. Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation of Metal-Based Engineered Nanomaterials in Aquatic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luoma, Samuel; Khan, Farhan R.; Croteau, Marie-Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Bioavailability of Me-ENMs to aquatic organisms links their release into the environment to ecological implications. Close examination shows some important differences in the conceptual models that define bioavailability for metals and Me-ENMs. Metals are delivered to aquatic animals from Me-ENMs...

  17. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  18. In Vivo Evaluation of Cervical Stiffness Evolution during Induced Ripening Using Shear Wave Elastography, Histology and 2 Photon Excitation Microscopy: Insight from an Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Peralta

    Full Text Available Prematurity affects 11% of the births and is the main cause of infant mortality. On the opposite case, the failure of induction of parturition in the case of delayed spontaneous birth is associated with fetal suffering. Both conditions are associated with precocious and/or delayed cervical ripening. Quantitative and objective information about the temporal evolution of the cervical ripening may provide a complementary method to identify cases at risk of preterm delivery and to assess the likelihood of successful induction of labour. In this study, the cervical stiffness was measured in vivo in pregnant sheep by using Shear Wave Elastography (SWE. This technique assesses the stiffness of tissue through the measurement of shear waves speed (SWS. In the present study, 9 pregnant ewes were used. Cervical ripening was induced at 127 days of pregnancy (term: 145 days by dexamethasone injection in 5 animals, while 4 animals were used as control. Elastographic images of the cervix were obtained by two independent operators every 4 hours during 24 hours after injection to monitor the cervical maturation induced by the dexamethasone. Based on the measurements of SWS during vaginal ultrasound examination, the stiffness in the second ring of the cervix was quantified over a circular region of interest of 5 mm diameter. SWS was found to decrease significantly in the first 4-8 hours after dexamethasone compared to controls, which was associated with cervical ripening induced by dexamethasone (from 1.779 m/s ± 0.548 m/s, p < 0.0005, to 1.291 m/s ± 0.516 m/s, p < 0.000. Consequently a drop in the cervical elasticity was quantified too (from 9.5 kPa ± 0.9 kPa, p < 0.0005, to 5.0 kPa ± 0.8 kPa, p < 0.000. Moreover, SWE measurements were highly reproducible between both operators at all times. Cervical ripening induced by dexamethasone was confirmed by the significant increase in maternal plasma Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as evidenced by the assay of its

  19. Morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals: report on round table discussion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Barrett (Thomas); M. Blixenkrone-Mø ller; G. di Guardo; M. Domingo; P. Duignan; A. Hall; L. Mamaev; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA workshop was organised to ascertain the current situation with regard to morbillivirus infections in aquatic animals. The great interest generated by the discovery of these new virus infections in 1988 has to some extent abated but much high quality research has continued in this field

  20. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  1. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  2. Finfish and aquatic invertebrate pathology resources for now and the future✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Bowser, Paul R.; Cheng, Keith C.; Cooper, Keith R.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Frasca, Salvatore; Groman, David B.; Harper, Claudia M.; (Mac) Law, Jerry M.; Marty, Gary D.; Smolowitz, Roxanna M.; Leger, Judy St.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of finfish and aquatic invertebrates in biomedical research and as environmental sentinels has grown dramatically in recent decades. Likewise the aquaculture of finfish and invertebrates has expanded rapidly worldwide as populations of some aquatic food species and threatened or endangered aquatic species have plummeted due to overharvesting or habitat degradation. This increasing intensive culture and use of aquatic species has heightened the importance of maintaining a sophisticated understanding of pathology of various organ systems of these diverse species. Yet, except for selected species long cultivated in aquaculture, pathology databases and the workforce of highly trained pathologists lag behind those available for most laboratory animals and domestic mammalian and avian species. Several factors must change to maximize the use, understanding, and protection of important aquatic species: 1) improvements in databases of abnormalities across species; 2) standardization of diagnostic criteria for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions; and 3) more uniform and rigorous training in aquatic morphologic pathology. PMID:18948226

  3. Are Aquatic Viruses a Biological Archive of Genetic Information from Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toparceanu, F.; Negoita, Gh. T.; Nita, I. I.; Sava, D.

    2009-04-01

    After 1990, when the viruses were admited as the most abundant lifeforms from aquatic environments, it became obvious that viral lysis had an essential role on release and recycling of nutrients. Studies on cellular cultures and modeling suggest that this is an important quantitative process. The viruses from oceans represent the widest source of genetic diversity on the Earth, uncharacterized yet. The ancient lifeforms records stretching back a million years are locked in ice caps. The trend of glaciers melting as effect of actual climate change will promote the release of ancient viruses from ice caps. The increasing of the freshwater layer led to the replace of some algae species by others. Law-Racovitza Station (69o23'S 76o23'E) from East Antarctica (Larsemann Hills Oasis) offers opportunities to study the Antarctic marine ecosystem, as well as archaic aquatic ecosystems from this area ( 150 lakes and waterways resulted from ice and snow melting during the austral summer). According to Law-Racovitza Station Scientific Program, we are performing studies regarding the effect of climate changes on virus-algae host relationship in these aquatic ecosystems. Phycodnaviruses, that infect the eukaryote algae, are comprised of ancient genes and they are considered a "peek" of genetic diversity useful in biological studies and exobiology regarding the evolution of genetic sequencing. The latest discoveries of the giant aquatic viruses open the unexpected perspectives for understanding the role of viral infection in global ecosystem; beyond the old concept which considered that the viruses were only etiological agents of human, animals and plants illnesses. The aquatic viruses which infect microalgae contain similar genes of other viruses, bacteria, arhebacteria and eukaryotes, all of them being on the same genome. Which is the signification of enormous abundance of viruses and excessive diversity of genetic information encoded by viruses? There is the possibility that

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Teaching Reform and Thinking of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science Course%《水产动物营养与饲料学》课程理论与实验教学的改革与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛

    2013-01-01

    In order to stimulate students′interest in learning Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science course and improve the teaching effect, the teaching content, teaching methods and assessment methods were reformed in teaching practice. Recent progress and new technologies were introduced in teaching content to stimulate the students′initiative. Multimedia and internet technology was comprehensively applied to enhance teaching intuitiveness. Opening experimental content was set to improve creative ability of students. Assessment methods were reformed to stimulate learning motivation.%为了激发学生对《水产动物营养与饲料学》课程的学习兴趣,提高教学效果,对该课程的教学内容、教学方法和考核方式进行了探索和教学实践。在教学内容上,引入该学科的研究进展和新技术,调动学生的主动性;应用多媒体网络技术,增强教学的直观性;开设开放性实验内容,提高学生的创新能力;改变考核方式,激发学生学习动力。

  5. Predominance of clonal reproduction, but recombinant origins of new genotypes in the free-floating aquatic bladderwort Utricularia australis f. tenuicaulis (Lentibulariaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    KAMEYAMA, YOSHIAKI; Ohara, masashi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic plants are a biological group sharing several adaptations to aquatic conditions. The most striking evolutionary convergence in this group is the extensive reliance on clonal reproduction, which largely determines the patterns and process of evolution in aquatic plants. Utricularia australis f. tenuicaulis is a free-floating aquatic bladderwort that reproduces both sexually via seeds and clonally via turions and shoot fragments. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was condu...

  6. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management. PMID:9216257

  7. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  8. Arsenic concentrations in water, sediment, and aquatic animals from the Pearl River estuaries and its distribution characteristics and ecological risk evaluation%珠江口水、沉积物及生物体As含量分布特征及生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婉玲; 庞世勋; 王超; 高原; 曾艳艺; 赖子尼

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic in water, sediments, and aquatic animals from the Pearl River estuaries were studied in February, May, August, and November 2008. The results showed that the average arsenic concentration in water was 2.88µg ·L-1, which was lower than the Class I standard for sea water quality. The arsenic concentration in water was significantly higher in November than in the other three months according to ANOVA (P 0.05). However, the arsenic concentration in shrimp was 0.314 mg·kg-1, which was lower than the permitted limits. The average arsenic concentration in the environment and in aquatic organisms from the Pearl River estuaries has increased in recent years, and the estuaries have a higher degree of contamination compared with other estuaries in China.%  于2008年2、5、8及11月对珠江口进行了水、沉积物和生物体As含量的调查,分析其分布特征以及进行生态评价。结果表明:珠江口水体中As含量平均值为2.88µg·L-1,符合一类海水水质标准;其中,11月份显著高于其它3个月份(P 0.05)。受检生物样品虾的含量为0.314 mg·kg-1,符合水产品中有毒有害物质限量要求。与历年比较发现珠江口水、沉积物和生物体中As含量有上升的趋势,与其它河口相比较发现珠江口As污染在对比的河口和海湾中受污染程度较高。

  9. Aquatic versus terrestrial attachment: Water makes a difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Ditsche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal attachment to a substrate is very different in terrestrial and aquatic environments. We discuss variations in both the forces acting to detach animals and forces of attachment. While in a terrestrial environment gravity is commonly understood as the most important detachment force, under submerged conditions gravity is nearly balanced out by buoyancy and therefore matters little. In contrast, flow forces such as drag and lift are of higher importance in an aquatic environment. Depending on the flow conditions, flow forces can reach much higher values than gravity and vary in magnitude and direction. For many of the attachment mechanisms (adhesion including glue, friction, suction and mechanical principles such as hook, lock, clamp and spacer significant differences have to be considered under water. For example, the main principles of dry adhesion, van der Waals forces and chemical bonding, which make a gecko stick to the ceiling, are weak under submerged conditions. Capillary forces are very important for wet adhesion, e.g., in terrestrial beetles or flies, but usually do not occur under water. Viscous forces are likely an important contributor to adhesion under water in some mobile animals such as torrent frogs and mayflies, but there are still many open questions to be answered. Glue is the dominant attachment mechanism of sessile aquatic animals and the aquatic realm presents many challenges to this mode of attachment. Viscous forces and the lack of surface tension under submerged conditions also affect frictional interactions in the aquatic environment. Moreover, the limitation of suction to the pressure difference at vacuum conditions can be ameliorated under water, due to the increasing pressure with water depth.

  10. Aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  11. Ataque por animales acuáticos (tiburón y cocodrilo: A propósito de dos casos fatales en la provincia de Bocas del Toro (Panamá Attack for aquatic animals (shark and alligator: Report of two fatal cases in the Bocas del Toro province (Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mendieta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques por animales acuáticos, y especialmente los producidos por tiburón y cocodrilo, son muy poco frecuentes. Se han descrito ataques por tiburón en países como Australia, Sudáfrica, Brasil, Bahamas, México y Puerto Rico, algunos con resultado fatal en los últimos cinco años. En Panamá, los casos descritos de ataques por escualo son escasos, siendo el último descrito con resultado no fatal en julio de 2008 en una playa de la localidad de San Carlos mientras que el último caso fatal se remonta al año 1964. Los ataques por cocodrilo, al igual que en el caso anterior, son poco frecuentes. A nivel mundial la mayor parte de los casos descritos proceden de Australia, Angola, India, Brasil y Florida. En Panamá, el último caso fatal ocurrió en el Lago de Miraflores en mayo de 2007, pero el cadáver no fue encontrado. En este artículo se describen dos casos de depredación animal, por tiburón y cocodrilo, en la provincia de Bocas del Toro (Panamá con el objetivo de reconocer el patrón de las lesiones por mordedura y las áreas anatómicas vulnerables afectadas.Attacks for aquatic animals, especially those due to shark and alligator, are very unusual. Shark attacks have been reported in countries such as Australia, South Africa, Brazil, Bahamas, Mexico and Puerto Rico, some with fatal consequences in the last five years. In Panama, reported cases from shark attack are scarce, being the last one in the city of San Carlos, while the last fatal case was reported in the year 1964. Alligator attacks, as in the previous case, are very scarce. Worldwide, the major part of the described cases are from Australia, Angola, India, Brazil and Florida. In Panama, the last fatal case occurred in the Miraflores lake in May 2007; however, the corpse was never found. In this paper, we described two cases of animal predation, from shark and alligator, occurred in the Bocas del Toro province (Panama with the aim to recognize the pattern of bite

  12. Causes of the increased nitrite concentrations in aquatic environments and their effects on the plant and animal survival%水环境中亚硝酸盐聚集的原因及其对动植物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫民; 戴树桂; 张清敏

    2011-01-01

    分析了水环境中亚硝酸盐含量升高的原因,综述了其对动植物的毒理作用机制.认为亚硝酸盐浓度的升高主要是因为人为排放的亚硝酸盐增加和环境因素变化引起的硝酸盐不完全还原与铵盐不完全氧化所致.亚硝酸盐对动物的毒害作用,主要是高铁血红蛋白的形成引起机体缺氧,和亚硝酸盐导致的器官损伤与体内离子浓度变化紊乱了机体正常的生理功能;对植物的损伤主要是细胞内氧自由基含量的增加,能量转化效率下降,光合作用和一些酶活性受到抑制.%The present paper is inclined to introduce our research on the causes of the increased nitrite concentrations in aquatic environments and their effects on the plant and animal survival. As a matter of fact, nitrite is a common pollutant in aquatic environment as a kind of intermediate product both of nitrification and denitrification in the nitrogen cycle. In healthy biological systems, it exists in a relatively floating form at low levels (μmo)/L), however, in certain conditions it can be accumulated due to the imbalance of the nitrification and denitrification processes or the influence of received agricultural effluents and industrial discharges with nitrite. It is for this reason that this paper thinks of it as a real need to make a general review of the broad range of parameters and environmental factors that involve the nitrite accumulation, such as the pH value, dissolved oxygen, temperature , phosphate and free ammonia, all of which are found to play their own role. In addition, nitrite accumulation can be said to be a potential problem in aquatic environment, in which freshwater creature actively takes up nitrite across the gills, leading to high internal concentrations. In fact, nitrite has rmiltiple physiological effects, for example, it helps to activate efflux of potassium from skeletal muscle and erythrocytes, disturbing intracellular and extracellular K+ levels. It

  13. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  14. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  15. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  16. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  17. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America. PMID:25148081

  18. Life support for aquatic species - past; present; future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Life Support is a basic issue since manned space flight began. Not only to support astronauts and cosmonauts with the essential things to live, however, also animals which were carried for research to space etc together with men need support systems to survive under space conditions. Most of the animals transported to space participate at the life support system of the spacecraft. However, aquatic species live in water as environment and thus need special developments. Research with aquatic animals has a long tradition in manned space flight resulting in numerous life support systems for them starting with simple plastic bags up to complex support hardware. Most of the recent developments have to be identified as part of a technological oriented system and can be described as small technospheres. As the importance arose to study our Earth as the extraordinary Biosphere we live in, the modeling of small ecosystems began as part of ecophysiological research. In parallel the investigations of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems were launched and identified as necessity for long-term space missions or traveling to Moon and Mars and beyond. This paper focus on previous developments of Life Support Systems for aquatic animals and will show future potential developments towards Bioregenerative Life Support which additionally strongly benefits to our Earth's basic understanding.

  19. Transfer of foreign DNA into aquatic animals by electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the principle, procedure and application of the electroporation method to produce various types of transgenic marine organisms including finfish, shellfish and marine algae. Electroporation utilizes a series of short electrical pulses to induce formation of short-lived pores ...

  20. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  1. Cone visual pigments of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lucy A; Robinson, Phyllis R

    2005-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that the visual systems of animals are evolutionarily adapted to their visual environment. The entrance many millions of years ago of mammals into the sea gave these new aquatic mammals completely novel visual surroundings with respect to light availability and predominant wavelengths. This study examines the cone opsins of marine mammals, hypothesizing, based on previous studies [Fasick et al. (1998) and Levenson & Dizon (2003)], that the deep-dwelling marine mammals would not have color vision because the pressure to maintain color vision in the dark monochromatic ocean environment has been relaxed. Short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cone opsin genes from two orders (Cetacea and Sirenia) and an additional suborder (Pinnipedia) of aquatic mammals were amplified from genomic DNA (for SWS) and cDNA (for LWS) by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. All animals studied from the order Cetacea have SWS pseudogenes, whereas a representative from the order Sirenia has an intact SWS gene, for which the corresponding mRNA was found in the retina. One of the pinnipeds studied (harp seal) has an SWS pseudogene, while another species (harbor seal) appeared to have an intact SWS gene. However, no SWS cone opsin mRNA was found in the harbor seal retina, suggesting a promoter or splice site mutation preventing transcription of the gene. The LWS opsins from the different species were expressed in mammalian cells and reconstituted with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in order to determine maximal absorption wavelengths (lambda(max)) for each. The deeper dwelling Cetacean species had blue shifted lambda(max) values compared to shallower-dwelling aquatic species. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that in the monochromatic oceanic habitat, the pressure to maintain color vision has been relaxed and mutations are retained in the SWS genes, resulting in pseudogenes. Additionally, LWS opsins are retained in the

  2. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  3. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  5. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  6. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  7. An aquatic ecosystem in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeste, D; Andriske, M; Paris, F; Levine, H G; Blum, V

    1999-07-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Mini-Module experiment was designed to study aquatic ecosystem performance within a middeck locker on the Space Shuttle. CEBAS was flown aboard STS-89 in January 1998 with a population of four pregnant Xiphophorus helleri female fish and eleven adult Biomphalaria glabrata snails in the first compartment and 200 juvenile X. helleri and 48 adult and juvenile B. glabrata in the second compartment. A plant compartment contained eleven snails and 53 g of the aquatic angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum. During the flight, Ceratophyllum fresh weight increased from 53 g to 117 g. All adult fish and 65 juveniles survived the flight experiment and 37 adult snails and 40 newly laid snail spawn packs were recovered after the flight. Oxygen production and pH were as expected.

  8. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  9. DISSIPATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL ON AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    JOAQUIM G. MACHADO-NETO; MAYRA A.P. FIGUEIREDO; WILSON G. MANRIQUE

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been used in agriculture to avoid productivity losses caused by various organisms. However, the indiscriminate use of these chemicals has resulted in negative impacts on the environment, such as residues in soil, water, air, plants and animals. Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in agricultural management to control pests of sugar cane in Brazil, and it can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to evaluate the environmental risk of toxic...

  10. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Animal Pathogen Listeria ivanovii, Which Provides Insights into Host Specificities and Evolution of the Genus Listeria

    OpenAIRE

    Buchrieser, C; Rusniok, C.; Garrido, P; HAIN, T; M. Scortti; Lampidis, R.; Kaerst, U.; Chakraborty, T; Cossart, P.; Kreft, J; Vazquez-Boland, J A; Goebel, W.; Glaser, P

    2011-01-01

    We report the complete and annotated genome sequence of the animal pathogenListeria ivanoviisubsp.ivanoviistrain PAM 55 (serotype 5), isolated in 1997 in Spain from an outbreak of abortion in sheep. The sequence and its analysis are available at an interactive genome browser at the Institut Pasteur (http://genolist.pasteur.fr/LivaList/).

  12. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    OpenAIRE

    CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS, Maria; Angelos VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are cl...

  13. The ultrafast valve of an aquatic carnivorous plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmottant, Philippe; Vincent, Olivier; Joyeux, Marc; Quilliet, Catherine; Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Aquatic carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp.) are plants that catch prey animals with suction traps. Here we present an experimental study with high speed video analyses of the extremely fast trapping movements, and show that suction is performed in less than a millisecond, much faster than previously thought. We reveal how the convex door morphology is optimized for a fast opening and closure, which we confirm by numerical simulations: the trapdoor is an elastic valve that buckles inside (entailing rapid opening) and then unbuckles (entailing rapid closure). These precise and reproducible motions are coupled with a strong suction swirl causing accelerations of up to 600 g, and leaving little escape chances for prey animals.

  14. Plasma Vitellogenin and Hormone Levels in Common Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Ponds versus a Reference Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from land treated with animal manure may contaminate adjacent aquatic ecosystems and negatively impact organisms living in these environments. Of notable concern, influx of estrogens can result in endocrine disruption and affect reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Vitel...

  15. Evolution and Development of Animal Medicine Varieties in China%我国药用动物品种沿革与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天羽; 杨学连; 陆昕怡; 李月; 马维维; 金梦; 邵莹; 吴启南

    2015-01-01

    Animal medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine with a long application history in China. Systematically understanding the history of the development of animal medicine is of great significance to scientific protection and rational use of animal medicine resources. It has certain guiding significance to protection of wild resources, exploitation of new substitutes, standardization and summary of artificial breeding, and artificial reproduction technology. Taking the development of bezoar as an example, this article expounded the following four aspects:the development history of animal medicine, national animal protection, technical development, and prospect forecast by summarizing the Chinese ancient medical books and consulting the relevant laws and regulations. The entire above are about to offer new ideas for the sustainable development, the development of new medicine resources, and the development of animal medicine related preparation product.%动物类中药是中药的重要组成部分,在我国的应用历史悠久。系统了解动物药发展的历史沿革,对动物药资源的科学保护和合理开发利用有重要意义,在加强野生资源保护、论证新代用品开发,以及规范和总结野生变家养、人工繁殖技术等方面有一定的指导意义。本文通过对我国本草古籍的整理归纳,查阅相关法律规定,以牛黄的发展为例,从动物药的发展简史、国家动物保护、科技发展及前景展望4个方面进行阐述,为动物类中药的可持续发展、新药用资源的开发,以及动物药相关制剂产品的开发提供新的思路。

  16. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  17. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  18. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  19. Aquatic viruses induce host cell death pathways and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Latif; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    Virus infections of mammalian and animal cells consist of a series of events. As intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the use of host cellular machinery. Through the use of cell culture and molecular approaches over the past decade, our knowledge of the biology of aquatic viruses has grown exponentially. The increase in aquaculture operations worldwide has provided new approaches for the transmission of aquatic viruses that include RNA and DNA viruses. Therefore, the struggle between the virus and the host for control of the cell's death machinery is crucial for survival. Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and, as such, must modulate apoptotic pathways to control the lifespan of their host to complete their replication cycle. This paper updates the discussion on the detailed mechanisms of action that various aquatic viruses use to induce cell death pathways in the host, such as Bad-mediated, mitochondria-mediated, ROS-mediated and Fas-mediated cell death circuits. Understanding how viruses exploit the apoptotic pathways of their hosts may provide great opportunities for the development of future potential therapeutic strategies and pathogenic insights into different aquatic viral diseases.

  20. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture or ethical conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Vonne; Olsson, I Anna S

    2006-01-01

    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the other. Furthermore, animals are important in sustainable agriculture. They can increase efficiency by their ability to transform...

  1. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  2. Study regarding the quantitative evolution of the game animals populations from 66 Tolvadia, Forest Domain- Lunca Timisului, in 2008-2012 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the E.U., is imposing a special attention to game populations. The aim of the present paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13 species during 2008-2012, on the hunting terrain 66 Tolvadia, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of 12,557 ha. The study shows that form the 13 species monitored, 3 were not identified on this hunting terrain Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L., Fallow Deer (Dama dama L, European Pine Marten (Martes martes L.. For the other species identified the population evolution in number demonstrated that there is a god correlation between the number of individuals and its biogenic capacity. Also the study shows that a special attention to natural selection and the efficient use of artificial selection is needed, especially for the following 3 species: Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L. and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L..

  3. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  4. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  5. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  6. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  7. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  8. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  9. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  10. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  11. Generation and characterization of a breast carcinoma model by PyMT overexpression in mammary epithelial cells of tree shrew, an animal close to primates in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Guang-Zhe; Xia, Hou-Jun; He, Bao-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Liu, Wen-Jing; Shao, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Ji; Ge, Fei; Li, Fu-Bing; Li, Yi; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-02-01

    The tree shrew is becoming an attractive experimental animal model for human breast cancer owing to a closer relationship to primates/humans than rodents. Tree shrews are superior to classical primates because tree shrew are easier to manipulate, maintain and propagate. It is required to establish a high-efficiency tree shrew breast cancer model for etiological research and drug assessment. Our previous studies suggest that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induce breast tumors in tree shrews with a low frequency (<50%) and long latency (∼ 7-month), making these methods less than ideal. We induced mammary tumors in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) by injection of lentivirus expressing the PyMT oncogene into mammary ducts of 22 animals. Most tree shrews developed mammary tumors with a latency of about three weeks, and by 7 weeks all injected tree shrews had developed mammary tumors. Among these, papillary carcinoma is the predominant tumor type. One case showed lymph node and lung metastasis. Interestingly, the expression levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK and STAT3 were elevated in 41-68% of PyMT-induced mammary tumors, but not all tumors. Finally, we observed that the growth of PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumors was significantly inhibited by Cisplatin and Epidoxorubicin. PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumor model may be suitable for further breast cancer research and drug development, due to its high efficiency and short latency. PMID:26296387

  12. Minimal selective concentrations of tetracycline in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sara V; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Rutgersson, Carolin; Thoudal, Malin; Sircar, Triranta; Blanck, Hans; Eriksson, K Martin; Tysklind, Mats; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-05-15

    Selection pressure generated by antibiotics released into the environment could enrich for antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, thereby increasing the risk for transmission to humans and animals. Tetracyclines comprise an antibiotic class of great importance to both human and animal health. Accordingly, residues of tetracycline are commonly detected in aquatic environments. To assess if tetracycline pollution in aquatic environments promotes development of resistance, we determined minimal selective concentrations (MSCs) in biofilms of complex aquatic bacterial communities using both phenotypic and genotypic assays. Tetracycline significantly increased the relative abundance of resistant bacteria at 10 μg/L, while specific tet genes (tetA and tetG) increased significantly at the lowest concentration tested (1 μg/L). Taxonomic composition of the biofilm communities was altered with increasing tetracycline concentrations. Metagenomic analysis revealed a concurrent increase of several tet genes and a range of other genes providing resistance to different classes of antibiotics (e.g. cmlA, floR, sul1, and mphA), indicating potential for co-selection. Consequently, MSCs for the tet genes of ≤ 1 μg/L suggests that current exposure levels in e.g. sewage treatment plants could be sufficient to promote resistance. The methodology used here to assess MSCs could be applied in risk assessment of other antibiotics as well. PMID:26938321

  13. Minimal selective concentrations of tetracycline in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Sara V; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Rutgersson, Carolin; Thoudal, Malin; Sircar, Triranta; Blanck, Hans; Eriksson, K Martin; Tysklind, Mats; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-05-15

    Selection pressure generated by antibiotics released into the environment could enrich for antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, thereby increasing the risk for transmission to humans and animals. Tetracyclines comprise an antibiotic class of great importance to both human and animal health. Accordingly, residues of tetracycline are commonly detected in aquatic environments. To assess if tetracycline pollution in aquatic environments promotes development of resistance, we determined minimal selective concentrations (MSCs) in biofilms of complex aquatic bacterial communities using both phenotypic and genotypic assays. Tetracycline significantly increased the relative abundance of resistant bacteria at 10 μg/L, while specific tet genes (tetA and tetG) increased significantly at the lowest concentration tested (1 μg/L). Taxonomic composition of the biofilm communities was altered with increasing tetracycline concentrations. Metagenomic analysis revealed a concurrent increase of several tet genes and a range of other genes providing resistance to different classes of antibiotics (e.g. cmlA, floR, sul1, and mphA), indicating potential for co-selection. Consequently, MSCs for the tet genes of ≤ 1 μg/L suggests that current exposure levels in e.g. sewage treatment plants could be sufficient to promote resistance. The methodology used here to assess MSCs could be applied in risk assessment of other antibiotics as well.

  14. Two possible driving forces supporting the evolution of animal communication. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2016-03-01

    In the target paper [1], M.A. Arbib proposes a quite exhaustive review of the (often computational) models developed during the last decades that support his detailed scenario on language evolution (the Mirror System Hypothesis, MSH). The approach considers that language evolved from a mirror system for grasping already present in LCA-m (the last common ancestor of macaques and humans), to a simple imitation system for grasping present in LCA-c (the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans), to a complex imitation system for grasping that developed in the hominid line since that ancestor. MSH considers that this complex imitation system is a key evolutionary step for a language-ready brain, providing all the required elements for an open-ended gestural communication system. The transition from the gestural (bracchio-manual and visual) to the vocal (articulatory and auditory) domain is supposed to be a less important evolutionary step.

  15. Optimal Strouhal number for swimming animals

    CERN Document Server

    Eloy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the swimming performances of aquatic animals, an important dimensionless quantity is the Strouhal number, St = fA/U, with f the tail-beat frequency, A the peak-to-peak tail amplitude, and U the swimming velocity. Experiments with flapping foils have exhibited maximum propulsive efficiency in the interval 0.25 < St < 0.35 and it has been argued that animals likely evolved to swim in the same narrow interval. Using Lighthill's elongated-body theory to address undulatory propulsion, it is demonstrated here that the optimal Strouhal number increases from 0.15 to 0.8 for animals spanning from the largest cetaceans to the smallest tadpoles. To assess the validity of this model, the swimming kinematics of 53 different species of aquatic animals have been compiled from the literature and it shows that their Strouhal numbers are consistently near the predicted optimum.

  16. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  17. Marine invasions by non-sea snakes, with thoughts on terrestrial-aquatic-marine transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C

    2012-08-01

    Few species of snakes show extensive adaptations to aquatic environments and even fewer exploit the oceans. A survey of morphology, lifestyles, and habitats of 2552 alethenophidian snakes revealed 362 (14%) that use aquatic environments, are semi-aquatic, or aquatic; about 70 (2.7%) of these are sea snakes (Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae). The ancient and aquatic family Acrochordidae contains three extant species, all of which have populations inhabiting brackish or marine environments, as well as freshwater. The Homalopsidae have the most ecologically diverse representatives in coastal habitats. Other families containing species exploiting saline waters with populations in freshwater environments include: the Dipsadidae of the western hemisphere, the cosmopolitan Natricidae, the African Grayinae, and probably a few Colubridae. Species with aquatic and semi-aquatic lifestyles are compared with more terrestrial (fossorial, cryptozoic, and arboreal) species for morphological traits and life histories that are convergent with those found in sea snakes; this may provide clues to the evolution of marine snakes and increase our understanding of snake diversity.

  18. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference Genetics Selection Evolution 2010, 42:29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg;

    2010-01-01

    " or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (co)variance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean) being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative...... relationship matrix, but genetic (co)variance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents) only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents). Results When applied to simulated...

  19. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  20. Is the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis strictly aquatic? – Habitats where the turtle lives in central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Mitrus

    2010-01-01

    Based on ecological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it is possible to try to reconstruct the evolution of ecological traits in turtles. However, the European pond turtle is treated by different scientists as aquatic or as semi-aquatic species. The importance of terrestrial behaviour for this species is discussed.

  1. LA EVOLUCIÓN DE SISTEMAS COMPLEJOS: EL CASO DEL SISTEMA INMUNE EN ANIMALES The Evolution of Complex Systems: The Case of the Immune System in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F CADAVID

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales comprende una serie de mecanismos celulares y moleculares que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebrados mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos de inmunidad adaptativa alternos, plantea la necesidad de considerar nuevos elementos en la construcción de un modelo evolutivo de la inmunidad en animales. Algunos de esos elementos se esbozan en este ensayo.The immune system in animals is composed by a series of cell and molecular mechanisms that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms

  2. Strategic research on the construction of high-end farming industry in China based on the concept of aquatic animal welfare%构建基于水产福利养殖理念的高端养殖战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷霁霖; 黄滨; 刘滨; 徐志方; 颜阔秋; 翟介明

    2014-01-01

    At present,Chinese aquaculture industry is in a new period of development. Speeding up the transformation of economic growth mode,following the way of energy-saving and emission reduction,environmental protection,quality and efficient,have become people’s common pursuit of the industry. In this paper,studies are under the support of the project named“Chinese flatfish industry technology system”based on nearly 10 years’work of flatfish closed recirculating aquaculture system. The contents of this paper refer to facing the huge de-mand of efficient healthy aquaculture industry in future,advocating the idea of aquatic animal welfare,introducing and cross merging advanced manufacturing technology,information tech-nology,automatic control technology,modern biological technology and precision farming technology,so as to thoroughly build a digital,intelligent and accurate industrialized mode of aquaculture. The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical and technical support to realize the localization,standardization and information in Chinese aquaculture,which will not only improve quality and safety level of aquacultural product,but also stimulate the formation of farming equipment manufacturing industry and intelligent control technology,so as to constant-ly advance development of high-end culture mode in China.%当前,我国的水产养殖业正处于一个全新发展时期。加快经济增长方式转变,走节能减排、绿色环保、优质高效发展道路,已经成为业界人士的共同奋斗目标。本文在“国家鲆鲽类产业技术体系”的资助下,以近10年鲆鲽类封闭式循环水养殖系统的研究为基础,面对未来发展高效养殖模式的巨大需求,积极倡导水产动物福利养殖理念,引入先进的工程化、信息化、自动化,以及现代生物技术和养殖系统控制技术,实施多学科交叉融合,构筑具有数字化、智能化和标准化的、有福利内涵的工业

  3. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  4. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.......This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  5. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  6. Metacognition in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Foote, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    Metacognition is thinking about thinking. There is considerable interest in developing animal models of metacognition to provide insight about the evolution of mind and a basis for investigating neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in people. Formal modeling of low-level (i.e., alternative) mechanisms has recently demonstrated that prevailing standards for documenting metacognition are inadequate. Indeed, low-level mechanisms are sufficient to explain data from existing methods...

  7. The role of macrophytes in habitat structuring in aquatic ecosystems: methods of measurement, causes and consequences on animal assemblages' composition and biodiversity O papel das macrófitas na estruturação de habitat em ambientes aquáticos: métodos de medida, causas e consequências para a composição das assembléias animais e biodiversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in structuring communities in aquatic environments. These plants provide physical structure, increase habitat complexity and heterogeneity and affect various organisms like invertebrates, fishes and waterbirds. The complexity provided by macrophytes has been exhaustively studied in aquatic environments. However, macrophyte complexity has rarely been measured in a standardized fashion, making comparisons among different studies and the establishment of general conclusions difficult. To address this issue, this review is focused on questions related to the habitat structural complexity provided by these plants, exploring: i how complexity has been viewed by ecologists, with an emphasis on macrophyte studies; ii the pros and cons of several methods used to quantify plant complexity; iii the consequences of habitat structuring by macrophytes on invertebrates and fish and possible causes, mediated by habitat complexity, that lead to changes in these animal assemblages; iv potential impacts of non-native macrophyte species on habitat complexity and v the importance of complexity provided by macrophytes to management strategies for maintaining aquatic biodiversity. We examined literature produced in both temperate and tropical regions, but prioritized the latter. We found a great variety of habitat complexity measurements that are applied to aquatic macrophytes to understand their influence on attached animal assemblages. A lack of standardization (considering the wide range of techniques and scales of resolution used limits comparisons between different studies exploring this subject, in which biological samples and physical substrates were used to explore these relationships. Macrophytes affect animal assemblages and promote biodiversity through a chain of mechanisms, related to habitat complexity, that involve the availability of shelter and feeding sites. Invasive macrophyte species may modify habitat

  8. Marine envenomations and aquatic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppe, G G

    1989-08-01

    Jellyfish stings are usually mild except those caused by species in the South Pacific. The box jellyfish can produce a severe cardiorespiratory insult. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more potent than that of the common jellyfish. The Indo-Pacific area is the source of the most venomous bony fish. Many injuries can be avoided by wearing shoes when walking in shallow water or tide pools. Aquatic-related skin infections may involve unusual organisms. Swimmer's itch, a disease of freshwater bathing, is caused by cercariae. Seabather's eruption produces a rash in swimsuit-covered areas; the etiology is not clear. PMID:2569260

  9. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  10. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  11. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  12. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  13. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  14. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  15. Detection of the antiviral drug oseltamivir in aquatic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Söderström

    Full Text Available Oseltamivir (Tamiflu is the most important antiviral drug available and a cornerstone in the defence against a future influenza pandemic. Recent publications have shown that the active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC, is not degraded in sewage treatment plants and is also persistent in aquatic environments. This implies that OC will be present in aquatic environments in areas where oseltamivir is prescribed to patients for therapeutic use. The country where oseltamivir is used most is Japan, where it is used to treat seasonal flu. We measured the levels of OC in water samples from the Yodo River system in the Kyoto and Osaka prefectures, Japan, taken before and during the flu-season 2007/8. No OC was detected before the flu-season but 2-58 ng L(-1 was detected in the samples taken during the flu season. This study shows, for the first time, that low levels of oseltamivir can be found in the aquatic environment. Therefore the natural reservoir of influenza virus, dabbling ducks, is exposed to oseltamivir, which could promote the evolution of viral resistance.

  16. Providing Aquatic Organism Passage in Vertically Unstable Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JanineM Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organism passage barriers have been identified as one of the key impediments to recovery of salmonids and other migratory aquatic organisms in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. As such, state and federal agencies invest millions of dollars annually to address passage barriers. Because many barriers function as ad hoc grade control structures, their removal and/or replacement can unwittingly set off a cascade of effects that can negatively impact the very habitat and passage that project proponents seek to improve. The resultant vertical instability can result in a suite of effects that range from floodplain disconnection and loss of backwater and side channel habitat, to increased levels of turbidity. Risk assessment, including an evaluation of both the stage of stream evolution and a longitudinal profile analysis, provides a framework for determining if grade control is warranted, and if so, what type of structure is most geomorphically appropriate. Potential structures include placement of large wood and roughness elements, and constructed riffles, step-pools, and cascades. The use of structure types that mimic natural reach scale geomorphic analogues should result in improved aquatic organism passage, increased structural resilience, and reduced maintenance.

  17. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  18. Can aquatic macrophytes mobilize technetium by oxidizing their rhizosphere?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium (Tc) is very mobile in aerated surface environments, but is essentially immobile and biologically unavailable in anaerobic sediments. Aquatic macrophyte roots penetrate anaerobic sediments, carrying O2 downward and frequently creating oxidizing conditions in their rhizosphere. The authors hypothesized that this process could mobilize otherwise unavailable Tc, possibly leading to incorporation of Tc into human or animal foods. Through experiments with rice (Oryza sativa L.), and with a novel artificial macrophyte root, they concluded that this pathway is unlikely to be important for annual plants, especially in soils with a high biological oxygen demand. The relatively slow oxidation of Tc limited its mobilization by short-lived root systems

  19. Changing Chilean coastal currents could drive aquatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-01-01

    For invertebrate and fish species that spend most of their lives in rich coastal waters rather than migrating freely throughout the open ocean, the formation of island populations and the associated risk of genetic diversity loss are threats to long-term population health. Many species cope through a spawning mechanism whereby larvae are released en masse into near-shore ocean currents, like pollen adrift in the wind. The larvae are viable in open waters from days to months, but only those that find their way back to shore can settle and develop. To increase their chances, different species' larvae often use particular swimming behaviors, for example, varying their depth in the water column throughout the day.

  20. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  1. RESAMA: A Network for Monitoring Health and Husbandry Practices in Aquatic Research Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Laurent; Guillet, Brigitte; Leguay, Emmanuel; Meunier, Emmanuel; Labrut, Sophie; Keck, Nicolas; Bardotti, Massimiliano; Michelet, Lorraine; Sohm, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Health monitoring is a crucial aspect of the management of any research animal house. RESAMA is a network strong of 60 academic and private partners acting in France since the end of 2012. The network aims to increase awareness of animal caretakers and researchers on health management issues in facilities holding aquatic model species (zebrafish, Xenopus, medaka, Mexican tetra). To do so, each partner research facility will be visited at least once. The visiting team is composed at least of one veterinarian and one zootechnician specialized in aquatic species. The visit results in a health-monitoring assessment of the facility, which includes a sampling for histo-pathological, bacteriological, and molecular pathogen detection. During the visit, rearing practices are also reviewed through an interview of animal caretakers. However, the present report essentially focuses on the health-monitoring aspect. The ultimate goal of the project is to provide a network-wide picture of health issues in aquatic facilities. Performed in parallel, the rearing practice assessment will ultimately help to establish rational relationship between handling practices and animal health in aquatic facilities. The study is still in progress. Here, we describe the results to be drawn from an analysis of the 23 facilities that had been visited so far. We sampled 720 fish and 127 amphibians and performed a little less than 1400 individual tests. PMID:27192449

  2. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  3. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  4. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  5. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  6. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  7. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  8. Spatial Pattern Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystem Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales. It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs retrieved from Remote Sensing i

  9. EURL ECVAM Strategy to replace, reduce and refine the use of fish in aquatic toxicity and bioaccumulation testing

    OpenAIRE

    HALDER MARIA ELISABETH; KIENZLER AUDE; Whelan, Maurice; Worth, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of aquatic toxicity and bioaccumulation are important components of the environmental hazard and risk assessment of all types of chemicals, and are therefore included in several pieces of European Union and international legislation. In this document, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) outlines approaches which will deliver an impact on the replacement, reduction and refinement (3Rs) of fish tests used for aquatic toxicity...

  10. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world. PMID:27598953

  11. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of pharmaceuticals with a focus to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenker, Armin; Cicero, Maria Rita; Prestinaci, Francesca; Bottoni, Paola; Carere, Mario

    2014-01-15

    Pharmaceuticals, among the emerging contaminants, are one of the most relevant groups of substances in aquatic ecosystems due to universal use, their chemico-physical properties and known mode of action in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. After administration many drugs and their transformation products are only retained to some extent in wastewater treatment plants therefore entering the aquatic environment in considerable high amounts. The yearly consumption to treat human and animal diseases, also in livestock and aquaculture was estimated to be hundred thousands tons per year leading to high concentrations in surface water of developed countries. Mostly, pharmaceutical residues in effluents of wastewater treatment plants or in the water column of surface waters have been reported, but data about concentrations in the aquatic biota, partitioning of pharmaceuticals to biosolids, soils, and sediments and the bioaccumulation properties are often lacking. Chronic and subtle effects can be expected when aquatic organisms are long term exposed by pseudo-persistent, persistent and accumulative compounds. This review aims to summarize the current state of research about the fate of pharmaceuticals regarding bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems. More comprehensive approaches for the evaluation of environmental (ERA) and human health risk assessment (HRA) are included and analytical methods required to detect bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals are discussed.

  12. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  13. Sleep alterations in mammals: Did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vibha Madan; Sushil K.Jha

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates.Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state.During REM sleep,postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended.Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals,the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep.Further,we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water.The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals,significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals.The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air.Also,these animals live in thermally challenging environments,where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air.Therefore,they have to be moving most of the time.As an adaptation,they have evolved unihemispheric sleep,during which they can rove as well as rest.A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery,as happens during REM sleep,is not suitable for these animals.It is possible that,in accord with Darwin's theory,aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time.In this review,we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  14. Tracing Cultural Evolution Through Memetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tiktik Dewi Sartika

    2004-01-01

    Viewing human being, as a part of evolution process is still a controversial issue for some people, in fact the evolution runs. As a sociocultural entity, human being has distinctive characters in its evolution process. A Theory inherited from Darwin may have only been able to answer how a simple unit such genes evolve to such complex animal like human. Yet, how among those complex animals interact, communicate, and replicate idea in so forth formed a such self-organized sociocultural complex...

  15. An introduction to the freshwater animal diversity assessment (FADA) project

    OpenAIRE

    Balian, E. V.; Segers, H.; Lévêque, Christian; Martens, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment (FADA) project aims at compiling an overview of genus- and species-level diversity of animals in the continental, aquatic ecosystems of the world. It is a collective effort of 163 experts, and presents 59 articles treating the diversity and endemism of different animal taxa, ranging from microscopic worms to mammals, at global and regional scales. Given their structural importance, an article on macrophytes is also added. Here, we give an overview of...

  16. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  17. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  18. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Réale, D.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D.; McDougall, P.T.; Dingemanse, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is centr

  19. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  20. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses the...

  1. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  2. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  3. Widespread and persistent invasions of terrestrial habitats coincident with larval feeding behavior transitions during snail-killing fly evolution (Diptera: Sciomyzidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Eric G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transitions in habitats and feeding behaviors were fundamental to the diversification of life on Earth. There is ongoing debate regarding the typical directionality of transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and the mechanisms responsible for the preponderance of terrestrial to aquatic transitions. Snail-killing flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae represent an excellent model system to study such transitions because their larvae display a range of feeding behaviors, being predators, parasitoids or saprophages of a variety of mollusks in freshwater, shoreline and dry terrestrial habitats. The remarkable genus Tetanocera (Tetanocerini occupies five larval feeding groups and all of the habitat types mentioned above. This study has four principal objectives: (i construct a robust estimate of phylogeny for Tetanocera and Tetanocerini, (ii estimate the evolutionary transitions in larval feeding behaviors and habitats, (iii test the monophyly of feeding groups and (iv identify mechanisms underlying sciomyzid habitat and feeding behavior evolution. Results Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of molecular data provided strong support that the Sciomyzini, Tetanocerini and Tetanocera are monophyletic. However, the monophyly of many behavioral groupings was rejected via phylogenetic constraint analyses. We determined that (i the ancestral sciomyzid lineage was terrestrial, (ii there was a single terrestrial to aquatic habitat transition early in the evolution of the Tetanocerini and (iii there were at least 10 independent aquatic to terrestrial habitat transitions and at least 15 feeding behavior transitions during tetanocerine phylogenesis. The ancestor of Tetanocera was aquatic with five lineages making independent transitions to terrestrial habitats and seven making independent transitions in feeding behaviors. Conclusions The preponderance of aquatic to terrestrial transitions in sciomyzids goes against the trend

  4. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  5. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  6. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.

  7. Harmful Effects of Nanoparticles on Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Exbrayat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since several years nanoparticles (NPs are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  8. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  9. NASDA next-generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Takamatsu, T.; Sakimura, T.

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. These include the Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU), Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) and another VFEU for marine fish. Each facility had functions such as life support for up to 15 days, water quality control system, gas exchange by artificial lung, video observation through a window by a crewmember, day/night cycle control, feeding system for medaka (AAEU only), and more. We are now studying the next -generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and Space Station use. AQH will have many new capabilities missing in earlier facilities. The following functions are of particular importance: long-term life support for up to 90 days, multigeneration breeding (for medaka and zebrafish), automatic feeding system adaptable for young of fish and amphibians, water quality control for long-term experiments, air-water interface, a computer-driven specimen-monitoring system housed in the facilities, and a specimen sampling system including eggs. A prototype breeding system and the specimen-monitoring system were designed and tested. The prototype breeding system consists of a closed water loop, two 700ml fish chambers with LED lighting, a small artificial lung, and a nitrification bacteria filter. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this small breeding system, and the young could grow to adult fish. The water quality control system also worked successfully. For amphibians, the breeding test using tadpoles of xenopus is also starting. We have many difficult technological problems to resolve, but development of AQH is going well. In this paper, we will introduce the results of the component-level test and the concept of AQH. In the future, many space biological experiments will be conducted, especially in the areas of developmental biology, neurophisiology, and

  10. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-08-01

    rescue such as captive breeding or translocations may be justified for particularly important animal or plant populations. However, long-haul missions of habitat rehabilitation or restoration are generally to be preferred even if they usually take many years if not decades to reach fruition. Conservation researchers, managers and practitioners must be realistic in their objectives and timescales for such programmes and take positive steps to communicate such information to stakeholders. Now more than ever, people are interested in conservation and sustainability. There are substantial challenges ahead, but these are better days for the biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats.

  11. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  12. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der;

    , watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  13. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  14. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  15. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  16. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  17. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  18. Sharing the World with Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the era of industry and technology, human beings continue to brutally hunt and kill animals to obtain furs or simply to satisfy gourmet appetites; everyday, more species disappear forever—species whose existence was the result of millions of years of evolution.

  19. Animal Rights Activism Threatens Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the movement against the use of dissections in science laboratories. Examples of protests across the United States are included. Compared is the plight of using animals in a biology classroom and the demise of the teaching of evolution in some areas. (KR)

  20. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are classified in categories depending on their physiology and origin, because, according to the writers, these are determining factors for the evaluation of the nutritional value of each species.The purpose of this study is to present the terminology of the fishes and the various aquatic species that are found in the Byzantine sources and to identify, in parallel, each species with its current scientific name.  

  1. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  2. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  3. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  4. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  5. Laboratory measurements of scalar and momentum structure in turbulent aquatic benthic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombroski, Daniel Edward

    In aquatic benthic environments, hydrodynamic transport of mass and momentum have shaped the evolution of form-function relationships. Animals whose life cycle depends on success in such environments have developed the biological structure and behavioral mechanisms to sustain dynamic stresses and complex chemical signals. It has become increasingly clear that understanding the ecology of these organisms is dependent on examining the complexities of the turbulent environment. In this dissertation, hydrodynamics and the structure of chemical signals within turbulent boundary layer flows are examined in the context of natural and biological systems. Experiments were conducted in the benthic region of a water flume using a combination of point-measurement and full-field imaging techniques. There are three areas of focus within the complete body of work: (1) The accuracy of an acoustic measurement technique commonly used in natural flows was evaluated. Errors in the technique, primarily attributed to a sampling volume that is large relative to the scales of motion in turbulent flows, were found to be larger than and extend farther from the bed than previously reported. (2) A three-dimensional laser-based imaging system was developed for quantifying turbulent scalar structure. The system was employed to study the topology and orientation of structure within a bed-level, passively released scalar plume. (3) Hydrodynamic stresses were measured near marine fouling communities in a study aimed at predicting larval settlement probabilities. Turbulent stresses, and by extension, the suitability of microhabitats, were found to be highly dependent on local topography and outer-scale flow conditions. This body of work advances the field of experimental fluid mechanics by contributing to the development of methods for quantifying turbulent flows, as well as furthering current understanding of the capabilities and limitations associated with new and existing techniques. Statistical

  6. Optimal Strouhal number for swimming animals

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the swimming performances of aquatic animals, an important dimensionless quantity is the Strouhal number, St = fA/U, with f the tail-beat frequency, A the peak-to-peak tail amplitude, and U the swimming velocity. Experiments with flapping foils have exhibited maximum propulsive efficiency in the interval 0.25 < St < 0.35 and it has been argued that animals likely evolved to swim in the same narrow interval. Using Lighthill's elongated-body theory to address undulatory propulsion, ...

  7. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  8. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  9. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. PMID:27474848

  10. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.

  11. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists - Concepts, limitations, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut; Calbet, Albert; Hansen, Per Juel; Montagnes, David J S

    2016-08-01

    Functional ecology is a subdiscipline that aims to enable a mechanistic understanding of patterns and processes from the organismic to the ecosystem level. This paper addresses some main aspects of the process-oriented current knowledge on phagotrophic, i.e. heterotrophic and mixotrophic, protists in aquatic food webs. This is not an exhaustive review; rather, we focus on conceptual issues, in particular on the numerical and functional response of these organisms. We discuss the evolution of concepts and define parameters to evaluate predator-prey dynamics ranging from Lotka-Volterra to the Independent Response Model. Since protists have extremely versatile feeding modes, we explore if there are systematic differences related to their taxonomic affiliation and life strategies. We differentiate between intrinsic factors (nutritional history, acclimatisation) and extrinsic factors (temperature, food, turbulence) affecting feeding, growth, and survival of protist populations. We briefly consider intraspecific variability of some key parameters and constraints inherent in laboratory microcosm experiments. We then upscale the significance of phagotrophic protists in food webs to the ocean level. Finally, we discuss limitations of the mechanistic understanding of protist functional ecology resulting from principal unpredictability of nonlinear dynamics. We conclude by defining open questions and identifying perspectives for future research on functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists. PMID:27094869

  12. AquaPathogen X--A template database for tracking field isolates of aquatic pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Evi; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    AquaPathogen X is a template database for recording information on individual isolates of aquatic pathogens and is available for download from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) website (http://wfrc.usgs.gov). This template database can accommodate the nucleotide sequence data generated in molecular epidemiological studies along with the myriad of abiotic and biotic traits associated with isolates of various pathogens (for example, viruses, parasites, or bacteria) from multiple aquatic animal host species (for example, fish, shellfish, or shrimp). The simultaneous cataloging of isolates from different aquatic pathogens is a unique feature to the AquaPathogen X database, which can be used in surveillance of emerging aquatic animal diseases and clarification of main risk factors associated with pathogen incursions into new water systems. As a template database, the data fields are empty upon download and can be modified to user specifications. For example, an application of the template database that stores the epidemiological profiles of fish virus isolates, called Fish ViroTrak (fig. 1), was also developed (Emmenegger and others, 2011).

  13. Heterochronic genes in plant evolution and development

    OpenAIRE

    Geuten, Koen; Coenen, Heleen

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of morphology includes evolutionary shifts of developmental processes in space or in time. Heterochronic evolution is defined as a temporal shift. The concept of heterochrony has been very rewarding to investigators of both animal and plant developmental evolution, because it has strong explanatory power when trying to understand morphological diversity. While for animals, extensive literature on heterochrony developed along with the field of evolution of development, in plants the ...

  14. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  15. DISSIPATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL ON AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM G. MACHADO-NETO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have been used in agriculture to avoid productivity losses caused by various organisms. However, the indiscriminate use of these chemicals has resulted in negative impacts on the environment, such as residues in soil, water, air, plants and animals. Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in agricultural management to control pests of sugar cane in Brazil, and it can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to evaluate the environmental risk of toxic concentrations and dissipation of fipronil to Poecilia reticulata, based on the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50 value estimated at 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/L without sediment and 0.09 ± 0.01 mg/L with sediment of fipronil in the aquatic environment. These values of fipronil were classified as extremely toxic to P. reticulata in both cases, which showed high environmental risk of poisoning to a shallow film of water of 1 ha and 0.30 m deep, with and without sediment. On the other hand, in bodies of water 1 ha and 2.0 m deep, it was of moderate toxicity. Dissipation of fipronil in the water was not affected by temperature, sediment or photoperiod. The minimum time to which fipronil caused 50% acute mortality (0.08 mg/L after dilution of 0.75 mg/L was 242 days; the withdrawal period, after which no mortality occurs (0.025 mg/L, was 263 days.

  16. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDziallas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  17. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  18. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  19. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  20. Role of Marsh-Mangrove Interface Habitats as Aquatic Refuges for Wetland Fishes and Other Aquatic Animals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We examined spatial and temporal dynamics in the fish community of ecotonal mangrove creeks along the Shark River Slough transect, particularly between SRS3 &...

  1. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  2. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronesi Paola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy. Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities.

  3. Morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals: report on round table discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T; Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Di Guardo, G; Domingo, M; Duignan, P; Hall, A; Mamaev, L; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-05-01

    A workshop was organised to ascertain the current situation with regard to morbillivirus infections in aquatic animals. The great interest generated by the discovery of these new virus infections in 1988 has to some extent abated but much high quality research has continued in this field as the workshop showed. There is some serological evidence that the viruses have continued to circulate in most areas since the initial epizootics. As to their origin, it appears that the most likely source of the European seal morbillivirus (PDV-1) is the North Atlantic and Artic seal populations. As to the origin of the Mediterranean dolphin morbillivirus and the morbilliviruses isolated from porpoises, there is serological evidence that the viruses are widespread in many cetacean species in the Atlantic and 93% of long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) which mass stranded between 1982 and 1993 were morbillivirus seropositive. The epizootic in freshwater seals in Lake Baikal was unrelated to events in the European marine mammal populations. The virus which infected these animals (PDV-2) is indistinguishable from canine distemper field strains. Serological and molecular biological studies provided evidence for the presence of the virus in the seals, at least as late as the Summer of 1992 when the animals were last sampled.

  4. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training. PMID:24937101

  5. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  6. Emergent aquatic plants: biological and economic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most productive, but least exploited, biomass resources is the group classified as the emergent aquatic plants. Information is presented concerning the biological and economic factors that must be considered if emergent aquatic plants are to become viable feedstocks for multipurpose systems. The feedstock purposes highlighted include fuel and/or chemical production and the species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolla. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be investigated further. Issues such as the development of base-line yield data for managed systems, mechanization and harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, identification of secondary plant products, and economic considerations require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if successful. 19 references.

  7. COMADRE: a global database of animal demography

    OpenAIRE

    Salguero-Gómez, R.; Jones, O.R.; Archer, C.R.; Bein, C.; Buhr, de, H.; Farack, C.; Gottschalk, F.; Hartmann, A.; Henning, A.; Hoppe, G.; Römer, G.; Ruoff, T.; Sommer, V.; Wille, J.; Voigt, J.(Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany)

    2016-01-01

    1. The open-data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open-data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics spanning the rich diversity of the animal kingdom world-wide. This information is fundamental to our understanding of the conditions that have shaped variation in animal life histories and their relatio...

  8. Animal Communication and Human Language: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Barón Birchenall, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Comparative research has proven to be a fruitful field of study on the ontogenetic and phylogenetic evolution of language, and on the cognitive capacities unique to humans or shared with other animals. The degree of continuity between components of human language and non-human animal communication systems, as well as the existence of a core factor of language, are polemic subjects at present. In this article, we offer an overview of the research on animal communication, comparing the resultin...

  9. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  10. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  11. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  12. Passive internal transport of aquatic organisms by waterfowl in Doñana, south-west Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figuerola, J.; Green, J.; Santamaria, L.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Waterbirds may play an important role in the maintenance of aquatic ecosystem biodiversity by transporting plants and invertebrate propagules between different wetlands. The aim of this study is to provide the first quantitative analysis of the transport of plant and animal propagules by a commu

  13. Effects of modifications of aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies under this program historically have been concerned with the effects of a variety of stress factors on aquatic populations and communities. Current research was focused principally on ionizing radiation, and includes studies on the interaction of acute radiation and temperature on fish, the in situ measurement of radiation exposure in an aquatic environment, and the uptake and retention of tritium in a simulated pond community. In response to the expanded responsibilities of the recently formed Energy Research and Development Administration in dealing with all forms of energy related problems, this program will be redirected in the coming year to nonnuclear energy research

  14. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

  15. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author)

  17. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for Detection of Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins in Non-Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Margry, R.J.C.F.; Vaessen, J.C.H.; Doremalen, van A.M.H.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Kaathoven, van R.G.C.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.E.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2013-01-01

    Due to a growing aquaculture industry, demand for high-quality proteins for aquatic feeds is increasing. Non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) have shown great potential for this purpose. Safe reintroduction of non-ruminant PAPs in aqua feed requires methods that can discriminate ruminant an

  18. Evolutionary origins of animal skeletal biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Duncan J E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of biomineralization in animals is crucial to our understanding of modern mineralized tissues. Traditional methods of unravelling this history have aimed to derive a theory of the development of biomineralization through evolution by the comparison of mineralized systems in model organisms. This has led to the recognition of the 'biomineralization toolkit' and raised the question of the homology of mineralized tissues versus convergent or parallel evolution. The 'new animal phylogeny' reveals that many of the groups known to biomineralize sit among close relatives that do not, and it favours an interpretation of convergent or parallel evolution for biomineralization in animals. In addition, the fossil record of the earliest mineralized skeletons presents a rapid proliferation of biomineralization across a range of animal phyla with fossil representatives of many modern biomineralizing phyla. A synthesis of molecular, developmental, phylogenetic and fossil evidence demonstrates the convergent or parallel evolution of biomineralization in animals at the phylum level. The fossil record of the Cambrian explosion not only provides vital evidence for the evolution of animal mineralized tissues but also suggests a mechanism for its rapid and synchronous convergent origin. PMID:21625061

  19. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-01-01

    Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  20. From the ossuary: animation and the danse macabre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carels, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    abstractThe skeleton has been a key figure throughout the evolution of the animated image. Thisessay investigates how the danse macabre lies at the roots of animation, and has hence kepton reappearing as a motif throughout the evolution of the genre. The theoretical frameworkcombines film history wi

  1. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  2. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  3. Aquatic ecotoxicity effect of engineered aminoclay nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Hwang, Yuhoon; Uk Lee, Hyun;

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the short term aquatic ecotoxicity of water-solubilized aminoclay nanoparticles (ANPs) of ~51±31 nm average hydrodynamic diameter was characterized. An ecotoxicological evaluation was carried out utilizing standard test organisms of different phyla and trophic levels namely t...

  4. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  5. Aquatic Habitat Bottom Classification Using ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein we examine...

  6. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares available options for the aquatic ecotoxicological effect factor component in life cycle assessment (LCA). The effect factor is expressed here as the change in risk per unit change in cumulative exposure, ƒ´Effect/ƒ´Exposure. The comparison is restricted to approaches linked...

  7. SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION GARDENING MX974861

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Gardening project will acquire the seed/seedlings of SAVs for planting, will create an SAV gardening guide; and will create SAV plots at volunteers waterfront properties. Volunteers will gather data on plant size and spacing. Water quality test ...

  8. Black magic in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption to sediment controlsthe actual fate and risks ofhydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs)in most aquatic environments. Sediment-bound HOCs are not readily available for uptake by organisms and degra

  9. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data. PMID:26337600

  10. Toxicokinetic modeling challenges for aquatic nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicity has become of increasing concern since the rapid development of metal nanoparticles (NPs. Aquatic nanotoxicity depends on crucial qualitative and quantitative properties of nanomaterials that induce adverse effects on subcellular, tissue, and organ level. The dose-response effects of size-dependent metal NPs, however, are not well investigated in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the uptake and elimination rate constants for metal NPs in the metabolically active/ detoxified pool of tissues, a one-compartmental toxicokinetic model can be applied when subcellular partitioning of metal NPs data would be available. The present review is an attempt to describe the nano-characteristics of toxicokinetics and subcellular partitioning on aquatic organisms with the help of the mechanistic modeling for NP size-dependent physiochemical properties and parameters. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models can provide an effective tool to estimate the time course of NP accumulation in target organs and is useful in quantitative risk assessments. NP accumulation in fish should take into account different effects of different NP sizes to better understand tissue accumulative capacities and dynamics. The size-dependent NP partition coefficient is a crucial parameter that influences tissue accumulation levels in PBPK modeling. Further research is needed to construct the effective systems-level oriented toxicokinetic model that can provide a useful tool to develop quantitatively the robustly approximate relations that convey a better insight into the impacts of environmental metal NPs on subcellular and tissue/organ responses in aquatic organisms.

  11. Effects of radiation on aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the onset of nuclear age, nuclear fuel cycle products, nuclear medicine techniques, disposal of radio active wastes on land or in water, fall out of testing nuclear weapons has contributed large amount of radio nuclides to the water bodies. Radio nuclides can imbalance aquatic ecosystem resulting in danger to natural life. The biological effects of radiation on aquatic life are mortality, pathophysiological, reproductive, developmental and genetic changes. A broad review of the results obtained about the aquatic organisms related to different phyla indicates that the lower or less developed or more primitive organisms are more resistant than the higher or more advanced, developed and complex organisms to ionizing radiation. The algae, protozoa are more resistant than the insects, crustaceans, molluscs and fishes. The changes in sensitivity between different stages of development have also been noted. A review of the results of exposing salmonoid gametes, eggs, fingerlings and adults to X-rays supports the concepts that radio sensitivity decreases with age. This paper presents a selective review on effects of radiation and radio nuclides on the aquatic life. It include uses and sources of radiation, effective quantity of radiation, lethal and sub lethal effect, effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behaviour, metabolism, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (author)

  12. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  13. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Lacustrine Submergent Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Submergent aquatic vegetation (SAV) provides the foundation for wildlife use in aquatic systems. Sago pondweed is of particular significance in providing protein by...

  14. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    OpenAIRE

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.; Fischer, A.R.H.; HOUDEBINE, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic...

  15. Evolutionary genomics of animal personality

    OpenAIRE

    Oers, Kees van; Mueller, Jakob C

    2010-01-01

    Research on animal personality can be approached from both a phenotypic and a genetic perspective. While using a phenotypic approach one can measure present selection on personality traits and their combinations. However, this approach cannot reconstruct the historical trajectory that was taken by evolution. Therefore, it is essential for our understanding of the causes and consequences of personality diversity to link phenotypic variation in personality traits with polymorphisms in genomic r...

  16. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  17. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  18. Effects of Seven Fungicides on Non-Target Aquatic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Dijksterhuis, Jan; van Doorn, Tineke; Samson, Rob; Postma, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic risk assessments for fungicides are carried out without information on their toxicity to non-target aquatic fungi. This might cause an underestimation of the toxic effects to the aquatic fungal community. This study focuses on the question whether recently derived concentrations limits for fungicides considered to protect populations of primary producers and (in)vertebrates also do protect the aquatic fungi. A panel of fungal species and Oomycetes was isolated and identified from unpo...

  19. Bottom dwelling animals: Benthos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stress or aquatic pollution and some of the macrobenthic invertebrates are widely used in 'biomonitoring programmes' both as surveillance and compliance in order to assess the health of environment....

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  2. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  3. Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on (Marine) Animals: Physiological Underpinnings and Evolutionary Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, Hans O; Gutt, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Understanding thermal ranges and limits of organisms becomes important in light of climate change and observed effects on ecosystems as reported by the IPCC (2014). Evolutionary adaptation to temperature is presently unable to keep animals and other organisms in place; if they can these rather follow the moving isotherms. These effects of climate change on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have brought into focus the mechanisms by which temperature and its oscillations shape the biogeography and survival of species. For animals, the integrative concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has successfully characterized the sublethal limits to performance and the consequences of such limits for ecosystems. Recent models illustrate how routine energy demand defines the realized niche. Steady state temperature-dependent performance profiles thus trace the thermal window and indicate a key role for aerobic metabolism, and the resulting budget of available energy (power), in defining performance under routine conditions, from growth to exercise and reproduction. Differences in the performance and productivity of marine species across latitudes relate to changes in mitochondrial density, capacity, and other features of cellular design. Comparative studies indicate how and why such mechanisms underpinning OCLTT may have developed on evolutionary timescales in different climatic zones and contributed to shaping the functional characteristics and species richness of the respective fauna. A cause-and-effect understanding emerges from considering the relationships between fluctuations in body temperature, cellular design, and performance. Such principles may also have been involved in shaping the functional characteristics of survivors in mass extinction events during earth's history; furthermore, they may provide access to understanding the evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds. Accordingly, an understanding is emerging how climate changes and

  4. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  5. Skin of the Cretaceous mosasaur Plotosaurus: implications for aquatic adaptations in giant marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Johan; Alwmark, Carl; Caldwell, Michael W; Fiorillo, Anthony R

    2009-08-23

    The physical nature of water and the environment it presents to an organism have long been recognized as important constraints on aquatic adaptation and evolution. Little is known about the dermal cover of mosasauroids (a group of secondarily aquatic reptiles that occupied a wide array of predatory niches in the Cretaceous marine ecosystems 92-65 Myr ago), a lack of information that has hindered inferences about the nature and level of their aquatic adaptations. A newly discovered Plotosaurus skeleton with integument preserved in three dimensions represents not only the first documented squamation in a mosasaurine mosasaur but also the first record of skin in an advanced member of the Mosasauroidea. The dermal cover comprises keeled and possibly osteoderm-reinforced scales that presumably contributed to an anterior-posterior channelling of the water flow and a reduction of microturbulent burst activities along the surface of the skin. Thus, hydrodynamic requirements of life in the water might have influenced the evolution of multiple-keeled body scales in advanced mosasauroids. PMID:19364713

  6. A Novel Degree of Freedom in Flapping Wings Shows Promise for a Dual Aerial/Aquatic Vehicle Propulsor

    CERN Document Server

    Izraelevitz, Jacob S

    2014-01-01

    Ocean sampling for highly temporal phenomena, such as harmful algal blooms, necessitates a vehicle capable of fast aerial travel interspersed with an aquatic means of acquiring in-situ measurements. Vehicle platforms with this capability have yet to be widely adopted by the oceanographic community. Several animal examples successfully make this aerial/aquatic transition using a flapping foil actuator, offering an existence proof for a viable vehicle design. We discuss a preliminary realization of a flapping wing actuation system for use in both air and water. The wing employs an active in-line motion degree of freedom to generate the large force envelope necessary for propulsion in both fluid media.

  7. On the ultrasonic irradiation in the photosynthetic activity of aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Cardona, A.; Juarez G, A. G.; Marin, E.; Munoz H, R. A.; Diaz G, J. A., E-mail: jcalderona@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    We report, for the first time, the application of the photoacoustic technique for monitoring the photosynthesis evolution in aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes), before and after it was exposed to ultrasonic irradiations. We obtained the disappearance of the phototobaric contribution in the Pa signal measured for the irradiated samples with ultrasound of 17 khz, and therefore of a possible damage in the centers producing the photosynthesis, due to the irradiation. These results show the utility of the ultrasonic irradiation, as well as, of the photosynthesis monitoring by means of the photoacoustic technique, for the elaboration and establishment of methodologies in the control of this aquatic plant, whose propagation causes many consequences extremely unfavorable for the environment, as well as for the diverse human activities that are developed in the bodies of water in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. (Author)

  8. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardello, Rossana; Tasselli, Stefano; Baranzini, Nicolò; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda; Grimaldi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours) and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks) exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+) are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18), and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health. PMID:26636582

  9. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Environmental Dispersion on an Aquatic Invertebrate, Hirudo medicinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Girardello

    Full Text Available The recent widespread applications of nanomaterials, because of their properties, opens new scenarios that affect their dispersal in the environment. In particular multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, despite their qualities, seem to be harmful for animals and humans. To evaluate possible toxic effects caused by carbon nanotube environmental dispersion, with regard to aquatic compartment, we proposed as experimental model a freshwater invertebrate: Hirudo medicinalis. In the present study we analyse acute and chronic immune responses over a short (1, 3, 6 and 12 hours and long time (from 1 to 5 weeks exposure to MWCNTs by optical, electron and immunohistochemical approaches. In the exposed leeches angiogenesis and fibroplasia accompanied by massive cellular migration occur. Immunocytochemical characterization using specific markers shows that in these inflammatory processes the monocyte-macrophages (CD45+, CD68+ are the most involved cells. These immunocompetent cells are characterized by sequence of events starting from the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (in particular IL-18, and amyloidogenensis. Our combined experimental approaches, basing on high sensitive inflammatory response can highlight adverse effects of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms and could be useful to assess the MWCNTs impact on aquatic, terrestrial animal and human health.

  10. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Carlson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, the Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI, specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame. The features of the AAMI software are discussed, and several case studies are presented to illustrate its functionality.

  11. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to further......Many macrofauna species co-ingest large quantities of microorganisms some of which survive the gut passage. Denitrifying bacteria, in particular, become metabolically induced by anoxic conditions, nitrate, and labile organic compounds in the gut of invertebrates. A striking consequence of the short......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...

  12. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... habitats – from the North Atlantic Oceanand European shelf areas to coastal areas and innerDanish waters, ecosystems in lakes and streams as well as aquaculture. European shelf seas, Danish coastalareas and freshwaters are our main working areas, but we also work on Arctic and sub-Arctic waters...

  13. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  14. Diversity and Impact of Prokaryotic Toxins on Aquatic Environments: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Tenreiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are ubiquitous in all habitats and are recognized by their metabolic versatility and ability to produce many bioactive compounds, including toxins. Some of the most common toxins present in water are produced by several cyanobacterial species. As a result, their blooms create major threats to animal and human health, tourism, recreation and aquaculture. Quite a few cyanobacterial toxins have been described, including hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and dermatotoxins. These toxins are secondary metabolites, presenting a vast diversity of structures and variants. Most of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites are peptides or have peptidic substructures and are assumed to be synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS, involving peptide synthetases, or NRPS/PKS, involving peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases hybrid pathways. Besides cyanobacteria, other bacteria associated with aquatic environments are recognized as significant toxin producers, representing important issues in food safety, public health, and human and animal well being. Vibrio species are one of the most representative groups of aquatic toxin producers, commonly associated with seafood-born infections. Some enterotoxins and hemolysins have been identified as fundamental for V. cholerae and V. vulnificus pathogenesis, but there is evidence for the existence of other potential toxins. Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli are also water contaminants and are able to produce important toxins after infecting their hosts. Other bacteria associated with aquatic environments are emerging as toxin producers, namely Legionella pneumophila and Aeromonas hydrophila, described as responsible for the synthesis of several exotoxins, enterotoxins and cytotoxins. Furthermore, several Clostridium species can produce potent neurotoxins. Although not considered aquatic microorganisms, they are ubiquitous in the environment and can easily contaminate drinking

  15. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Uchida, S.

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  16. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, H; Shoji, T; Uchida, S

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  17. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  18. Measuring Complexity in an Aquatic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Nelson; Gershenson, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We apply formal measures of emergence, self-organization, homeostasis, autopoiesis and complexity to an aquatic ecosystem; in particular to the physiochemical component of an Arctic lake. These measures are based on information theory. Variables with an homogeneous distribution have higher values of emergence, while variables with a more heterogeneous distribution have a higher self-organization. Variables with a high complexity reflect a balance between change (emergence) and regularity/orde...

  19. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

    1999-05-01

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  20. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  1. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko eKagami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 101-109 spores L-1. When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the ‘mycoloop,’ may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans.

  2. Refining atmospheric correction for aquatic remote spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Guild, L. S.; Negrey, K.; Kudela, R. M.; Palacios, S. L.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.

    2015-12-01

    Remote spectroscopic investigations of aquatic ecosystems typically measure radiance at high spectral resolution and then correct these data for atmospheric effects to estimate Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) at the surface. These reflectance spectra reveal phytoplankton absorption and scattering features, enabling accurate retrieval of traditional remote sensing parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, and new retrievals of additional parameters, such as phytoplankton functional type. Future missions will significantly expand coverage of these datasets with airborne campaigns (CORAL, ORCAS, and the HyspIRI Preparatory Campaign) and orbital instruments (EnMAP, HyspIRI). Remote characterization of phytoplankton can be influenced by errors in atmospheric correction due to uncertain atmospheric constituents such as aerosols. The "empirical line method" is an expedient solution that estimates a linear relationship between observed radiances and in-situ reflectance measurements. While this approach is common for terrestrial data, there are few examples involving aquatic scenes. Aquatic scenes are challenging due to the difficulty of acquiring in situ measurements from open water; with only a handful of reference spectra, the resulting corrections may not be stable. Here we present a brief overview of methods for atmospheric correction, and describe ongoing experiments on empirical line adjustment with AVIRIS overflights of Monterey Bay from the 2013-2014 HyspIRI preparatory campaign. We present new methods, based on generalized Tikhonov regularization, to improve stability and performance when few reference spectra are available. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. US Government Support Acknowledged.

  3. Phytoremediation using eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation is a cost effective approach for the Treatment of polluted soil and contaminated water. The effectiveness of one aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes was evaluated for its capability in removing copper from copper solution using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The aquatic plant was placed in solutions containing 2 mg/L, 4 mg/L an d 6 mg/L of copper, for a period of 18 days and the change in Cu concentration was measured. Results showed an increase of copper within the plants' root and shoot tissues and a decrease of copper concentration in the solution. It was found that roots tend to accumulate a higher amount of copper than shoots due to translocation process. The maximum growth of Eichhornia crassipes was in the 2 mg/L solution which shows that growth was affected by the presence of Cu in the water. The maximum removal of copper in the solutions containing Eichhornia crassipes was 87.5% from the 4 mg/L solution. Eichhornia crassipes accumulated upto 1265.0 mg/kg of Cu in its roots indicating that this aquatic plant species may be used as a hyper-accumulator for copper. (author)

  4. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  5. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  6. Diets and abundances of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining and milling of uranium in the Alligator River Region in the Northern Territory has raised the possibility that heavy metals and radionuclides might escape into the aquatic system and be accumulated by the reptilian fauna. Aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles are regularly eaten by Aboriginal people of the region, and data on diets and reproduction of these species, as well as on their dispersion and abundance, are essential before the possibility that reptiles might act as pathways for these contaminants to Aboriginals can be assessed. The objectives of this study were to provide quantitative data on the diets of filesnakes, sand goannas and water goannas, to provide information on seasonal changes in their abundance and distribution within the Magela Creek system; and to describe their reproductive cycles

  7. 动画影像艺术的产业化流变--以近代影像工业发展进程为例%Industrialization Evolution of Animation Art:Based on the Development of Modern Film Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟丹倪

    2013-01-01

    动画及其相关产业在世界各国几乎都是文化创意产业的重要支点,拥有巨大的经济效益与现实发展潜力,而所形成的“动画”产业链条与集群系统几乎触及主流消费市场的多个方面。产业化进程是动画影像艺术的重要发展过程,而这一过程与影像科技和资本市场的参与密切关联。通过对近代动画影像艺术产业化历史进程的梳理,认为动画艺术的产业化流变过程有其自身内涵及其属性的必然性,进而阐述了这一进程对当代中国动画产业化发展的启示。%Animation and related industries worldwide are the important fulcrum for cultural creativity industry, and they have huge potential in economic beneift and development in reality. Formed by which the“Animation”industrial chain and cluster system almost can touch all the aspects of the main consumption market. Industrialization is a very important process for Animation art development, and this progress is closely related with imaging technology and capital market participants. By combing the industrialization history progress for modern animation, this paper demonstrates that the progress of industrialization of animation art has its own meaning and attribute and it expounds the revelation to China modern animation industrialization development by this progress.

  8. Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Pakky Reddy, G.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market. Nonethel...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  12. Animal influenza epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Ducatez, Mariette; Webster, R G; Webby, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A viruses exist within their natural host, aquatic birds, in a number of antigenic subtypes. Only a few of these subtypes have successfully crossed into other avian and mammalian hosts. This brief review will focus on just three examples of viruses that have successfully passed between species; avian H5NI1 and H9N2 viruses and H3N2 viruses which have transmitted from aquatic birds to humans and then to swine. Although there are a number of other subtypes that have also transmitted s...

  13. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Dawson, Mary R; Tedford, Richard H

    2009-04-23

    Modern pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and the walrus) are semi-aquatic, generally marine carnivores the limbs of which have been modified into flippers. Recent phylogenetic studies using morphological and molecular evidence support pinniped monophyly, and suggest a sister relationship with ursoids (for example bears) or musteloids (the clade that includes skunks, badgers, weasels and otters). Although the position of pinnipeds within modern carnivores appears moderately well resolved, fossil evidence of the morphological steps leading from a terrestrial ancestor to the modern marine forms has been weak or contentious. The earliest well-represented fossil pinniped is Enaliarctos, a marine form with flippers, which had appeared on the northwestern shores of North America by the early Miocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a new semi-aquatic carnivore from an early Miocene lake deposit in Nunavut, Canada, that represents a morphological link in early pinniped evolution. The new taxon retains a long tail and the proportions of its fore- and hindlimbs are more similar to those of modern terrestrial carnivores than to modern pinnipeds. Morphological traits indicative of semi-aquatic adaptation include a forelimb with a prominent deltopectoral ridge on the humerus, a posterodorsally expanded scapula, a pelvis with relatively short ilium, a shortened femur and flattened phalanges, suggestive of webbing. The new fossil shows evidence of pinniped affinities and similarities to the early Oligocene Amphicticeps from Asia and the late Oligocene and Miocene Potamotherium from Europe. The discovery suggests that the evolution of pinnipeds included a freshwater transitional phase, and may support the hypothesis that the Arctic was an early centre of pinniped evolution. PMID:19396145

  14. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  15. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  16. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists–concepts, limitations, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut;

    2016-01-01

    in aquatic food webs. This is not an exhaustive review; rather, we focus on conceptual issues, in particular on the numerical and functional response of these organisms. We discuss the evolution of concepts and define parameters to evaluate predator-prey dynamics ranging from Lotka......, food, turbulence) affecting feeding, growth, and survival of protist populations. We briefly consider intraspecific variability of some key parameters and constraints inherent in laboratory microcosm experiments. We then upscale the significance of phagotrophic protists in food webs to the ocean level...

  17. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  18. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  19. Evolution and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptib...

  20. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Sprague, S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse'' gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  1. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major ``greenhouse`` gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  2. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  3. Aquatic Exercise and Thermoregulation in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultanakis, Helen N

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic exercise, in a general sense, is any type of movement performed in the water for the purpose of improving health and fitness. Water, with its properties, provides buoyancy to lighten the "load" of pregnancy, hydrostatic pressure to alleviate pregnancy-induced edema, and many other benefits. Sports in extreme temperatures may involve some risks. The fact that a person's conductivity increases about 25 times in water comes with a great loss, which is the depression of the evaporative mechanism. Altered thermal control mechanisms in water, both in the gravid and the nongravid state, will be addressed in this review. convenience.

  4. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: water-sediment interactions of U, Pu, Am, and Cm; relative availability of actinide elements from abiotic to aquatic biota; comparative uptake of transuranic elements by biota bordering Pond 3513; metabolic reduction of 239Np from Np(V) to Np(IV) in cotton rats; evaluation of hazards associated with transuranium releases to the biosphere; predicting Pu in bone; adsorption--solubility--complexation phenomena in actinide partitioning between sorbents and solution; comparative soil extraction data; and comparative plant uptake data

  5. Decomposition of aquatic plants in lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godshalk, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This study was carried out to systematically determine the effects of temperature and oxygen concentration, two environmental parameters crucial to lake metabolism in general, on decomposition of five species of aquatic vascular plants of three growth forms in a Michigan lake. Samples of dried plant material were decomposed in flasks in the laboratory under three different oxygen regimes, aerobic-to-anaerobic, strict anaerobic, and aerated, each at 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C. In addition, in situ decomposition of the same species was monitored using the litter bag technique under four conditions.

  6. Inland Aquatic Resources and Biogeochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The biosphere is the entire planetary system that includes, sustains and is influenced by life. The central issue of the science of the biosphere is the extent to which the Earth's surface, atmosphere and hydrosphere is the result of biological rather than abiotic processes. Space science and technology accelerates the understanding of global biological processes by providing repetive synoptic observations on large spatial scales once the relationships between the processes and the remotely sensed quantities are established. Especially promising applications of space technology are the measurement of biological productivity and portions of geochemical cycles in aquatic ecosystems and the evaluation and management of the quality of freshwater resources.

  7. Aquatic Exercise and Thermoregulation in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultanakis, Helen N

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic exercise, in a general sense, is any type of movement performed in the water for the purpose of improving health and fitness. Water, with its properties, provides buoyancy to lighten the "load" of pregnancy, hydrostatic pressure to alleviate pregnancy-induced edema, and many other benefits. Sports in extreme temperatures may involve some risks. The fact that a person's conductivity increases about 25 times in water comes with a great loss, which is the depression of the evaporative mechanism. Altered thermal control mechanisms in water, both in the gravid and the nongravid state, will be addressed in this review. convenience. PMID:27152529

  8. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2006-01-01

    Comet assay is a novel biological analysis, which is a sensitive, flexible, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to assess aquatic genotoxicant. Since Singh and co-workers developed the method in 1988, its use has increased exponentially in various fields. This review discourses on the application of this assay in aquatic ecosystems. Various types of cells from various aquatic organisms have been tested by various genotoxicant both direct- and indirect-acting using the comet assay. The appli...

  9. Impact of Organic Contamination on Some Aquatic Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser, El-Nahhal; Shawkat, El-Najjar; Samir, Afifi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contamination of water systems with organic compounds of agricultural uses pose threats to aquatic organisms. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diuron were considered as model aquatic pollutants in this study. The main objective of this study was to characterize the toxicity of organic contamination to two different aquatic organisms. Materials and Methods: Low concentrations (0.0–60 µmol/L) of carbaryl, diuron and very low concentration (0.0–0.14 µmol/L) of chlorpyrifos and their mixtu...

  10. Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines

    CERN Document Server

    Bale, Rahul; Neveln, Izaak D; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; MacIver, Malcolm A; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a century, researchers have tried to understand the swimming of aquatic animals in terms of a balance between the forward thrust from swimming movements and drag on the body. Prior approaches have failed to provide a separation of these two forces for undulatory swimmers such as lamprey and eels, where most parts of the body are simultaneously generating drag and thrust. We nonetheless show that this separation is possible, and delineate its fundamental basis in undulatory swimmers. Our approach unifies a vast diversity of undulatory aquatic animals (anguilliform, sub-carangiform, gymnotiform, bal- istiform, rajiform) and provides design principles for highly agile bioinspired underwater vehicles. This approach has practical utility within biology as well as engineering. It is a predictive tool for use in understanding the role of the mechanics of movement in the evolutionary emergence of morphological features relating to locomotion. For example, we demonstrate that the drag-thrust separation fram...

  11. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  12. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. What is Aquatic Biodiversity; Why Is it Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A.; Neves, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)

    2005-01-01

    Describes the term aquatic biodiversity, explains the factors that increase and decrease biodiversity in natural ecosystems, and discusses the value of biodiversity for the health of the environment and quality of life; document also includes web links on national and world biodiversity.

  13. Comparative immune systems in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shaochun; Tao, Xin; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-02-01

    Animal immune systems can be classified into those of innate immunity and those of adaptive immunity. It is generally thought that the former are universal for all animals and depend on germline-encoded receptors that recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), whereas the latter are vertebrate specific and are mediated primarily by lymphocytes bearing a unique antigen receptor. However, novel adaptive or adaptive-like immunities have been found in invertebrates and jawless vertebrates, and extraordinarily complex innate immunities, created through huge expansions of many innate gene families, have recently been found in the cephalochordate amphioxus and the echinoderm sea urchin. These studies not only inspire immunologists to seek novel immune mechanisms in invertebrates but also raise questions about the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunities. PMID:25384142

  14. Morphological and functional changes in the vertebral column with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Julia L; Pierce, Stephanie E; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Turner, Alan H; Hutchinson, John R

    2015-11-01

    The lineage leading to modern Crocodylia has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes in morphology, ecology and locomotion over the past 200+ Myr. These functional innovations may be explained in part by morphological changes in the axial skeleton, which is an integral part of the vertebrate locomotor system. Our objective was to estimate changes in osteological range of motion (RoM) and intervertebral joint stiffness of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae with increasing aquatic adaptation in crocodylomorphs. Using three-dimensional virtual models and morphometrics, we compared the modern crocodile Crocodylus to five extinct crocodylomorphs: Terrestrisuchus, Protosuchus, Pelagosaurus, Steneosaurus and Metriorhynchus, which span the spectrum from terrestrial to fully aquatic. In Crocodylus, we also experimentally measured changes in trunk flexibility with sequential removal of osteoderms and soft tissues. Our results for the more aquatic species matched our predictions fairly well, but those for the more terrestrial early crocodylomorphs did not. A likely explanation for this lack of correspondence is the influence of other axial structures, particularly the rigid series of dorsal osteoderms in early crocodylomorphs. The most important structures for determining RoM and stiffness of the trunk in Crocodylus were different in dorsoventral versus mediolateral bending, suggesting that changes in osteoderm and rib morphology over crocodylomorph evolution would have affected movements in some directions more than others. PMID:26716001

  15. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  16. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  18. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  19. The aquatic fate of triclopyr in whole-pond treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, D G; Skogerboe, J G; Getsinger, K D; Foster, D R; Houtman, B A; Fairchild, J F; Anderson, L W

    2001-09-01

    The aquatic fate of the triethylamine salt formulation of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) was determined in whole-pond applications in closed (no water exchange) systems in California, Missouri and Texas in two studies conducted in 1995 and 1996. These studies determined dissipation rates of triclopyr and its principal metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-methoxypridine (TMP) in water, sediment and finfish. Ponds at each site containing a healthy biological community were treated at 2.5 mg AE litre-1 triclopyr. Water and sediment samples were collected through 12 weeks post-treatment, and non-target animals were collected through 4 weeks post-treatment. Dissipation rates for triclopyr, TCP and TMP were similar at each of the study sites, despite differences in weather, water quality, biotic community, light transmission and geographic location. Half-lives of triclopyr in water ranged from 5.9 to 7.5 days, while those of TCP and TMP ranged from 4 to 8.8 and 4 to 10 days, respectively. Levels of triclopyr and TCP declined in sediments at half-lives ranging from 2.8 to 4.6 days and 3.8 to 13.3 days, respectively. No TMP was detected in sediment. Triclopyr and TCP cleared from fish in relation to concentrations found in the water column. TMP levels in fish were generally an order of magnitude higher than levels of triclopyr and TCP, particularly in the visceral portion of the animals. No adverse effects on water quality or on the non-target biotic community were found following triclopyr applications. Results of these studies were comparable to those of triclopyr dissipation studies conducted in reservoirs, lakes and riverine systems in Georgia, Florida, Minnesota and Washington, indicating that the degradation and dissipation of triclopyr and its metabolites are similar in representative systems throughout the USA. PMID:11561400

  20. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  1. Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Novotny, Thomas E.; Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

    2011-01-01

    Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Alth...

  2. 全球化视野下畜牧产品价格演进与中国的调控策略%Evolution of Animal Husbandry Product Price on the Context of Globalization and Chinese Controlling Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永綦

    2012-01-01

    This paper forecasts global animal husbandry product price from 2012 to 2020. Furthermore, based on this estimation, this article predicts domestic animal husbandry product price from 2012 to 2020. The results conclude that animal husbandry product price in global market will maintain a high level but show a fluctuation, and if the basic status has no obvious changes, the future price of animal husbandry product will very complex. Especially in backward region in China, for its serious dual structure and the influence of opening-up will become more and more obvious, animal husbandry product price will show more obvious fluctuation than other region. On global context of controlling the fluctuation of animal husbandry product price, the authors suggest to set up and perfect the preventing system to strengthen the supervision on global market price; enhancing elasticity of exchange rate to respond to external shocks; strengthen integration of industrial chains to Improving the scale degree; build and standardize the financial service system; strengthen the domestic market integration, and play the advantage of great power.%在预测2012-2020年世界畜牧产品价格的基础上。以此作为影响因素纳入中国畜牧产品的预测模型,预测畜牧产品价格的未来走势。结果发现,未来几年内国际市场畜牧产品价格依然会维持在高位波动。而在中国国内基本局势没有显著变化情况下,未来畜牧产品价格调整力量错综复杂。特别是欠发达地区由于二元结构突出,在加速开放过程中受到外部冲击的影响越来越明显,未来的价格波动幅度要高于其他地区。在全球化背景下调控畜牧产品价格波动,中国应健全完善预警体系,加强对国际市场价格的监测:提高汇率弹性,应对外部冲击;加强产业链整合,提高规模化程度;建立和规范金融服务体系;加强国内市场的整合,发挥大国优势。

  3. COMPOSTING AQUATIC MACROPHYTES: SALVINIA AURICULATA AND EICHHORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available High population growth and densities in urban areas and the consumerism present in modern societies have pronounced effect on the generation of organic waste, which may become an environmental problem. Aerobic composting is one of the best known alternatives to treating these wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of composting as an alternative to the disposal of organic wastes from aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata collected in the reservoir UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Tocantins, Brazil and also produce an organic compound from different combinations of macrophytes, prunning residues and organic waste generated by the Campus of Palmas of UFT, TO. The study was conducted in an area of 80m² in unprotected environment at the experimental station of the Campus of Palmas. The experiments were done as three replications in the dry season (from 18.09.2008 to 11.21.2008 and rainy season (from 03.09.2009 to 05.04.2009 and the parameters temperature, pH, total nitrogen and carbon, and organic matter were monitored along with counts of microorganisms. It was possible to produce compost from the combinations of organic wastes within 65 days of composting during the dry season and 55 days in the rainy season. The aquatic macrophytes resulted in a good raw material for composting, since there is not a destination for the excess plant materials removed by the cleaning process of the reservoir.

  4. Selenium toxicosis in wild aquatic birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Kilness, A.W.; Simmons, J.L.; Stroud, R.K.; Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal beaks, amelia, micromelia, ectrodactyly, and hydrocephaly. Mean concentrations of selenium in livers (94.4 ppm, dry weight) and kidneys (96.6 ppm) of birds collected at the Kesterson ponds were about 10 times those found at a nearby control area (8.3 and 12.2 ppm). We conclude that selenium present in the agricultural drainage water supplied to the Kesterson ponds accumulated in the food chain of aquatic birds to toxic concentrations and caused the lesion and other changes observed.

  5. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen K; Crane, Mark St J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Olesen, Niels J; Gallardo Lagno, Alicia

    2016-02-25

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  6. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A.; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen; St. J. Crane, Mark; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Olesen, Niels J; Lagno, Alicia Gallardo

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies—paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  7. Computer animations of quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E. (Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique)

    1992-07-01

    A visualization mehtod for quantum field theories based on the transfer matrix formalism is presented. It generates computer animations simulating the time evolution of complex physical systems subject to local Hamiltonians. The method may be used as a means of gaining insight to theories such as QCD, and as an educational tool in explaining high-energy physics. (orig.).

  8. The fate of mercury in Arctic terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Loseto, Lisa L.; MacDonald, Robie W.;

    2012-01-01

    into the Arctic by oceanic, atmospheric and terrestrial pathways. Our focus is on the movement, transformation and bioaccumulation of Hg in aquatic (marine and fresh water) and terrestrial ecosystems. The processes most relevant to biological Hg uptake and the potential risk associated with Hg exposure...... the fate of Hg in most ecosystems, and the role of trophic processes in controlling Hg in higher order animals are also included. Case studies on Eastern Beaufort Sea beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) are presented as examples of the relationship between...

  9. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits. PMID:26697861

  10. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits.

  11. Design and setup of intermittent-flow respirometry system for aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2016-01-01

    software further reduces error by allowing many measurements to be made over long periods thereby minimizing animal stress due to acclimation issues. This paper describes some of the fundamental principles that need to be considered when designing and carrying out automated intermittent-flow respirometry......Intermittent-flow respirometry is an experimental protocol for measuring oxygen consumption in aquatic organisms that utilizes the best features of closed (stop-flow) and flow-through respirometry while eliminating (or at least reducing) some of their inherent problems. By interspersing short...

  12. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  13. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  14. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  15. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  16. The Total Arsenic Concentrations of Aquatic Products and the Assessment of Arsenic Intake from Aquatic Products in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guang-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of aquatic products consumed by the resident to the daily dietary arsenic intakes of the residents of Guangzhou of Guangdong province in China. All aquatic products were sampled from supermarkets and terminal markets. Accuracy was assured using standard reference material (GBW08551 and recovery experiments. Total arsenic concentrations of aquatic products were determined after acid digestion by hydride generation atomic fluorescent spectrometry. A wide range of arsenic concentration (0.0075-1.2017 mg/kg was found among the various aquatic products, the mean arsenic concentration in aquatic production was 0.2022 mg/kg. The arsenic concentrations of various aquatic products groups were as follows: Crustacean (0.3176±0.2324 mg/kg >Mollusk fish (0.1979±0.2013 mg/k >Saltwater fish (0.1558±0.1119 mg/kg >Freshwater fish (0.1374±0.0970 mg/kg. The range of daily dietary arsenic intake of various residents through the consumption of aquatic products was 5.96-11.85 µg/day. The freshwater fish had the largest contribution to the daily dietary arsenic intakes from aquatic products in all type aquatic products, accounted for around 50%.

  17. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark; Lemaire, Philippe; Presow, Shaun; van Egmond, Roger; Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald; Mayer, Philipp; Galay Burgos, Malyka

    2015-10-20

    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of action (MoA). We considered 660 toxicity data to be of acceptable quality. The 328 data which applied to the 72 substances identified as MoA 1 were then evaluated within the activity-toxicity framework: EC50 and LC50 values for all three taxa correlated generally well with (subcooled) liquid solubilities. Acute toxicity was typically exerted within the chemical activity range of 0.01-0.1, whereas chronic toxicity was exerted in the range of 0.001-0.01. These results confirm that chemical activity has the potential to contribute to the determination, interpretation and prediction of toxicity to aquatic organisms. It also has the potential to enhance regulation of organic chemicals by linking results from laboratory tests, monitoring and modeling programs. The framework can provide an additional line of evidence for assessing aquatic toxicity, for improving the design of toxicity tests, reducing animal usage and addressing chemical mixtures.

  18. Deconvoluting lung evolution: from phenotypes to gene regulatory networks

    OpenAIRE

    Torday, John S.; Rehan, Virender K.; Hicks, James W.; Wang, Tobias; Maina, John; Weibel, Ewald R.; Hsia, Connie C.W.; Sommer, Ralf J.; Perry, Steven F.

    2007-01-01

    Speakers in this symposium presented examples of respiratory regulation that broadly illustrate principles of evolution from whole organ to genes. The swim bladder and lungs of aquatic and terrestrial organisms arose independently from a common primordial “respiratory pharynx” but not from each other. Pathways of lung evolution are similar between crocodiles and birds but a low compliance of mammalian lung may have driven the development of the diaphragm to permit lung inflation during inspir...

  19. Comparative EST analysis provides insights into the basal aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Suely L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the Chytridiomycete class, which is at the base of the fungal phylogenetic tree. In this sense, some ancestral characteristics of fungi and animals or fungi and plants could have been retained in this aquatic fungus and lost in members of late-diverging fungal species. To identify in B. emersonii sequences associated with these ancestral characteristics two approaches were followed: (1 a large-scale comparative analysis between putative unigene sequences (uniseqs from B. emersonii and three databases constructed ad hoc with fungal proteins, animal proteins and plant unigenes deposited in Genbank, and (2 a pairwise comparison between B. emersonii full-length cDNA sequences and their putative orthologues in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa and the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis. Results Comparative analyses of B. emersonii uniseqs with fungi, animal and plant databases through the two approaches mentioned above produced 166 B. emersonii sequences, which were identified as putatively absent from other fungi or not previously described. Through these approaches we found: (1 possible orthologues of genes previously identified as specific to animals and/or plants, and (2 genes conserved in fungi, but with a large difference in divergence rate in B. emersonii. Among these sequences, we observed cDNAs encoding enzymes from coenzyme B12-dependent propionyl-CoA pathway, a metabolic route not previously described in fungi, and validated their expression in Northern blots. Conclusion Using two different approaches involving comparative sequence analyses, we could identify sequences from the early-diverging fungus B. emersonii previously considered specific to animals or plants, and highly divergent sequences from the same fungus relative to other fungi.

  20. Evolution Example of Classical Garden--Analysis of Exhibition Area Reconstruction in Hangzhou Animal Zoo%经典园林实例的演变--浅析杭州动物园金鱼展区的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立慧

    2014-01-01

    This article expounds the evolution process of the classical garden landscape with instance. This article points out the shortcomings of garden landscape through the analysis and investigation of current situation. Reconstruct the garden scientifical y and reasonably based on the original feature to meet the needs of the garden landscape and function.%本文以理论结合实例,阐述了经典园林景观的演变过程。通过对现状的考察、分析,得出了园林景观存在的不足,并提出了相应的解决方案。说明了要在保留其原有特色的基础上进行科学、合理地改造,进而完善其景观和功能的需求。

  1. Aerotaxis in the Closest Relatives of Animals

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkegaard, Julius B; Marron, Alan O; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-01-01

    As the closest unicellular relatives of animals, choanoflagellates serve as useful model organisms for understanding the evolution of animal multicellularity. An important factor in animal evolution was the increasing ocean oxygen levels in the Precambrian, which are thought to have influenced the emergence of complex multicellular life. As a first step in addressing these conditions, we study here the response of the colony-forming choanoflagellate $Salpingoeca~rosetta$ to oxygen gradients. Using a microfluidic device that allows spatio-temporal variations in oxygen concentrations, we report the discovery that $S.~rosetta$ display positive aerotaxis. Analysis of the spatial population distributions provides evidence for logarithmic sensing of oxygen, which enhances sensing in low oxygen neighborhoods. Analysis of search strategy models on the experimental colony trajectories finds that choanoflagellate aerotaxis is consistent with stochastic navigation, the statistics of which are captured using an effective...

  2. Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: From Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems and Human Health to Anticarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliane Zanchett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic environments, primarily due to human activities. Eutrophic environments are conducive to the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms that not only affect water quality, but also produce highly toxic metabolites. Poisoning and serious chronic effects in humans, such as cancer, have been described. On the other hand, many cyanobacterial genera have been studied for their toxins with anticancer potential in human cell lines, generating promising results for future research toward controlling human adenocarcinomas. This review presents the knowledge that has evolved on the topic of toxins produced by cyanobacteria, ranging from their negative impacts to their benefits.

  3. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: from impacts on aquatic ecosystems and human health to anticarcinogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchett, Giliane; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C

    2013-10-01

    Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are among the pioneer organisms of planet Earth. They developed an efficient photosynthetic capacity and played a significant role in the evolution of the early atmosphere. Essential for the development and evolution of species, they proliferate easily in aquatic environments, primarily due to human activities. Eutrophic environments are conducive to the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms that not only affect water quality, but also produce highly toxic metabolites. Poisoning and serious chronic effects in humans, such as cancer, have been described. On the other hand, many cyanobacterial genera have been studied for their toxins with anticancer potential in human cell lines, generating promising results for future research toward controlling human adenocarcinomas. This review presents the knowledge that has evolved on the topic of toxins produced by cyanobacteria, ranging from their negative impacts to their benefits. PMID:24152991

  4. 78 FR 60306 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... meeting of the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force. The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and... Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Wednesday, November 6, through Thursday, November...

  5. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  6. Aquatic exercise for the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Lund, H; Hagen, K B;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical experience indicates that aquatic exercise may have advantages for osteoarthritis patients. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of aquatic-exercise interventions in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE from 1949, E...

  7. Pieter Hendrik Nienhuis: aquatic ecologist and environmental scientist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, R.S.E.W.; van den Heuvel, P.J.; van Katwijk, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; van der Velde, G.; Ragas, A.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Prof. Dr. Pieter Hendrik (Piet) Nienhuis worked for almost 40 years in all aspects of aquatic ecology and environmental science and retired on 31 October 2003. He can be characterised as a distinguished scientist, shaped in an applied estuarine and aquatic research ambience of the former Delta Insti

  8. Trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities as explained by pesticides and water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieromina, O; Musters, C J M; Bodegom, P M; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Vijver, M G

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing functional species' characteristics (species traits) that represent physiological, life history and morphological characteristics of species help understanding the impacts of various stressors on aquatic communities at field conditions. This research aimed to study the combined effects of pesticides and other environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, floating macrophytes cover, phosphate, nitrite, and nitrate) on the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities. To this purpose, a field inventory was performed in a flower bulb growing area of the Netherlands with significant variation in pesticides pressures. Macrofauna community composition, water chemistry parameters and pesticide concentrations in ditches next to flower bulb fields were determined. Trait modalities of nine traits (feeding mode, respiration mode, locomotion type, resistance form, reproduction mode, life stage, voltinism, saprobity, maximum body size) likely to indicate pesticides impacts were analyzed. According to a redundancy analysis, phosphate -and not pesticides- constituted the main factor structuring the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna. The functional composition could be ascribed for 2-4 % to pesticides, and for 3-11 % to phosphate. The lack of trait responses to pesticides may indicate that species may have used alternative strategies to adapt to ambient pesticides stress. Biomass of animals exhibiting trait modalities related to feeding by predation and grazing, presence of diapause form or dormancy, reproduction by free clutches and ovoviviparity, life stage of larvae and pupa, was negatively correlated to the concentration of phosphate. Hence, despite the high pesticide pollution in the area, variation in nutrient-related stressors seems to be the dominant driver of the functional composition of aquatic macrofauna assembly in agricultural ditches. PMID:27209569

  9. VALIDATION OF EMBRYO TESTS FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF FUNGAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS ON NONTARGET AQUATIC ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina and grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to conidiospores of the fungal weed control agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, f. sp. aeschynomene, and the entomopathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. nly Metarhiz...

  10. Selection of commercial biofilters for rearing aquatic animals in closed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuayrodmod, J.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was made to select the most suitable biofilter from 7 types of commercial water filters by rearing hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus in aquaria for 64 days. It was found that diminishing concentrations of ammonia and nitrite were attributed mainly to nitrifying bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrite and nitrate which required a minimum period of 16-28 days for the process to function. Low absorption of ammonia was achieved through using activated carbon, coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and ceramic. Durability and filtering efficiency of the filters depended upon porosity and amount of biofilm on the filter surface. The filter using one coarse meshed plastic sheet and 37 bioballs was the most suitable, though it caused a problem with low total alkalinity resulting in mortality of the biofilm which peeled off, thus increasing the concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and suspended solids toward the end of the experimental period. The catfish growth rate, survival and FCR in all treatments were in the ranges of 7.39-8.91 g/d, 84.44-95.56% and 0.21-0.25, respectively.

  11. QUANTITATIVE FLOW-ANALYSIS AROUND AQUATIC ANIMALS USING LASER SHEET PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMHUIS, EJ; VIDELER, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Two alternative particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods have been developed, applying laser light sheet illumination of particle-seeded flows around marine organisms, Successive video images, recorded perpendicular to a light sheet parallel to the main stream, were digitized and processed to map th

  12. FishPathogens.eu a new database in the research of aquatic animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Søren Peter; Gray, T.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    We live in a world where the amount of information available is enormous. In order to keep track of the available knowledge, databases are needed to collect, store, and sort it. Www.fishpathogens.eu is a database developed and maintained by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases....... The database was launched in June 2009 focusing on Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV), extended with Infectious Haemorrhagic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) in 2010, and is now being extended to include Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV), Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV), Betanodaviruses, and Koi Herpes...... Virus (KHV). The database design is based on freeware and could easily be implemented to include pathogens relevant for other species than fish. We present the database using the data on the different fish pathogens as example. However if some are interested in the platform we are happy to cooperate...

  13. Microbially mediated detrital food web: The link between mangroves and coastal aquatic animal communities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, S.

    be defined as any dead organic matter and its associated microbiota. The detrital pathway is the most important one through which the energy of coastal macrophytic primary producers is channelled into the food web of adjacent waters. The salient features...

  14. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Zoologisches Institut-Okologie

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  15. Radioactive contamination of aquatic organisms of the Yenisei river in the area affected by the activity of a Russian plutonium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yenisei River, one of the world's largest rivers, is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by a Russian facility producing weapons-grade plutonium, which has been in operation for many years. The aim of the study conducted between 1997 and 2003 was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides by aquatic organisms of the Yenisei River and to estimate the exposure dose rates to organisms from various sources. The aquatic plants sampled were of three species: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Ceratophyllum demersum. The gamma-spectrometric and radiochemical analysis of the samples of aquatic plants for artificial radionuclides has revealed more than 20 long-lived and short-lived radionuclides, including plutonium isotopes. The aquatic animal Phylolimnogammarus viridis and diatoms also contain artificial radionuclides. For most aquatic organisms under study, the dose received from the artificial irradiation is an order of magnitude higher than the dose received from natural irradiation. As Fontinalis antipyretica features the highest capacity to accumulate artificial radionuclides, it accumulates the largest artificial exposure does among the study aquatic organisms (up to 39 μGy/day)

  16. Developmental adaptations to gravity in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Terrestrial animals have adapted to a constant gravitational stress over millions of years. Tissues of the cardiovascular system and lumbar spine in tall species of animals such as the giraffe are particularly well adapted to high and variable vectors of gravitational force. Swelling of the leg tissues in the giraffe is prevented by a variety of physiological mechanisms including (1) a natural 'antigravity suit', (2) impermeable capillaries, (3) arterial-wall hypertrophy, (4) variable blood pressures during normal activity, and (5) a large-capacity lymphatic system. These adaptations, as well as a natural hypertension, maintain blood perfusion to the giraffe's brain. The intervertebral disk is another tissue that is uniquely adapted to gravitational stress. Tall and large terrestrial animals have higher swelling pressures than their smaller or aquatic counterparts. Finally, the meniscus of the rabbit knee provides information on the effects of aging and load-bearing on cartilaginous tissues. Such tissues within the joints of animals are important for load-bearing on Earth; these connective tissues may degenerate during long-duration space flight.

  17. The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Goncalves, Ines; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-08-22

    Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care (nourishment, osmoregulation and oxygenation) to their young in a brood pouch on their bodies. We took advantage of this species' pronounced variation in egg size, correlating positively with female size, and tested the effect of hypoxia (40% dissolved oxygen) versus fully oxygenated (100%) water on embryo size and survival of large versus small eggs after 18 days of paternal brooding. Egg size did not affect embryo survival, regardless of O2 treatment. While hypoxia affected embryo size negatively, both large and small eggs showed similar reductions in growth. Males in hypoxia ventilated more and males with large eggs swam more, but neither treatment affected their position in the water column. Overall, our results call into question the most common explanation for constrained egg size evolution in aquatic environments. PMID:26290070

  18. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  19. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  20. Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems in Boreal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schindler

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Few boreal waters are managed in a sustainable manner, because cumulative effects of a variety of human activities are not considered. Fisheries and water quality have declined in most large water bodies of the southern boreal zone. Some of the reasons are direct, including overexploitation of fisheries, alteration of flow patterns, introductions of non-native species, and discharge of eutrophying nutrients and persistent contaminants. However, improper management of watersheds and airsheds also causes degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Clear-cut logging, climatic warming, acid precipitation, and stratospheric ozone depletion are among the more important of these indirect stressors. There are important interactions among these stressors, requiring that they not be treated in isolation. Ecological sustainability of boreal waters would require that exploitation of all parts of the boreal landscape be much lower than it is at present. Unfortunately, management for sustainability is lagging far behind scientific understanding in most countries.