WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquaretic system evidence

  1. Method for the detection of aquaretic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detecting an aquaretic compound. In one embodiment, the method includes administering to a mammal a candidate compound that modulates a nociceptin receptor. Biological material is isolated from the mammal and expression of aquaporin-2 is measured. Modulation of the...... aquaporin-2 is taken to be indicative of a candidate compound having aquaretic activity. The invention has a wide spectrum of uses including helping to identify new diuretics that spare unwanted loss of sodium and potassium ions....

  2. Modeling Forensic Evidence Systems Using Design Science

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Colin; Armstrong, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence processing. The opening discussion addresses the application of design science techniques to specific socio-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents the current problems faced by those dealing with evidence and a conceptual meta-model for a unified approach to forensic evidence is developed. Any prac...

  3. Information systems: the key to evidence-based health practice.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Increasing prominence is being given to the use of best current evidence in clinical practice and health services and programme management decision-making. The role of information in evidence-based practice (EBP) is discussed, together with questions of how advanced information systems and technology (IS&T) can contribute to the establishment of a broader perspective for EBP. The author examines the development, validation and use of a variety of sources of evidence and knowledge that go beyo...

  4. Informed Systems: Enabling Collaborative Evidence Based Organizational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mary M. Somerville; Niki Chatzipanagiotou

    2015-01-01

    Objective – In response to unrelenting disruptions in academic publishing and higher education ecosystems, the Informed Systems approach supports evidence based professional activities to make decisions and take actions. This conceptual paper presents two core models, Informed Systems Leadership Model and Collaborative Evidence-Based Information Process Model, whereby co-workers learn to make informed decisions by identifying the decisions to be made and the information required for those dec...

  5. Evidence Based Order Sets as a Nursing Care Planning System

    OpenAIRE

    LaCrosse, Lisa M.; Heermann, Judith; Azevedo, Karen; Sorrentino, Catherine; Straub, Dawn; O'Dowd, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    The process for developing the nursing care planning (NCP) function for integration into a clinical information system (CIS) will be described. This NCP system uses evidence based order sets or interventions that are specific to a problem with associated patient focused goals or outcomes. The problem, order set, goal framework will eventually be used by all disciplines in the patient focused record.

  6. 33 CFR 157.148 - COW system: Evidence for inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW system: Evidence for... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.148 COW...

  7. Evidence for intermittent radiobiological hypoxia in experimental tumour systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes flow and static fluorescence cytometry techniques to visualize and quantitate acute radiobiological hypoxia resulting from transient fluctuation in tumour blood flow in experimental tumour systems. The application of these techniques in two murine tumour systems provides evidence that such hypoxia exists and reduces the effectiveness of single doses of radiation. Possible mechanisms for and implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  8. Motivational systems or motivational states: Behavioural and physiological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Koolhaas, JM; deBoer, SF; Bohus, B

    1997-01-01

    This paper will critically discuss the available behavioural and neurobiological evidence for the existence of motivational systems and motivational states on the basis of our studies on aggressive behaviour in male rats and mice. Three types of evidence will be discussed. First, some behavioural studies will be evaluated indicating that aggressive behaviour can be considered as part of a cluster of behaviours used to cope actively with environmental challenges. Second, it will be argued that...

  9. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  10. Evidence and control of bifurcations in a respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldin, Matías A., E-mail: mgoldin@df.uba.ar; Mindlin, Gabriel B. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinámicos, IFIBA y Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-12-15

    We studied the pressure patterns used by domestic canaries in the production of birdsong. Acoustically different sound elements (“syllables”) were generated by qualitatively different pressure gestures. We found that some ubiquitous transitions between syllables can be interpreted as bifurcations of a low dimensional dynamical system. We interpreted these results as evidence supporting a model in which different timescales interact nonlinearly.

  11. System-Generated Digital Forensic Evidence in Graphic Design Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Enos Mabuto; Hein Venter

    2013-01-01

    Graphic design applications are often used for the editing and design of digital art. The same applications can be used for creating counterfeit documents such as identity documents (IDs), driver’s licences, passports, etc. However, the use of any graphic design application leaves behind traces of digital information that can be used during a digital forensic investigation. Current digital forensic tools examine a system to find digital evidence, but they do not examine a system specifically ...

  12. Characterization of Evidence for Human System Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Rossi, M.; Riccio, G.; Romero, E.; Francisco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the kinds of evidence available and using the best evidence to answer a question is critical to evidenced-based decision-making, and it requires synthesis of evidence from a variety of sources. Categorization of human system risks in spaceflight, in particular, focuses on how well the integration and interpretation of all available evidence informs the risk statement that describes the relationship between spaceflight hazards and an outcome of interest. A mature understanding and categorization of these risks requires: 1) sufficient characterization of risk, 2) sufficient knowledge to determine an acceptable level of risk (i.e., a standard), 3) development of mitigations to meet the acceptable level of risk, and 4) identification of factors affecting generalizability of the evidence to different design reference missions. In the medical research community, evidence is often ranked by increasing confidence in findings gleaned from observational and experimental research (e.g., "levels of evidence"). However, an approach based solely on aspects of experimental design is problematic in assessing human system risks for spaceflight. For spaceflight, the unique challenges and opportunities include: (1) The independent variables in most evidence are the hazards of spaceflight, such as space radiation or low gravity, which cannot be entirely duplicated in terrestrial (Earth-based) analogs, (2) Evidence is drawn from multiple sources including medical and mission operations, Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH), spaceflight research (LSDA), and relevant environmental & terrestrial databases, (3) Risk metrics based primarily on LSAH data are typically derived from available prevalence or incidence data, which may limit rigorous interpretation, (4) The timeframe for obtaining adequate spaceflight sample size (n) is very long, given the small population, (5) Randomized controlled trials are unattainable in spaceflight, (6) Collection of personal and

  13. A multi-evidence, multi-engine OCR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorin, Ilya; Borovikov, Eugene; Borovikov, Anna; Hernandez, Luis; Summers, Kristen; Turner, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although modern OCR technology is capable of handling a wide variety of document images, there is no single OCR engine that performs equally well on all documents for a given single language script. Naturally, each OCR engine has its strengths and weaknesses, and therefore different engines tend to differ in the accuracy on different documents, and in the errors on the same document image. While the idea of using multiple OCR engines to boost output accuracy is not new, most of the existing systems do not go beyond variations on majority voting. While this approach may work well in many cases, it has limitations, especially when OCR technology used to process a given script has not yet fully matured. Our goal is to develop a system called MEMOE (for "Multi-Evidence Multi-OCR-Engine") that combines, in an optimal or near-optimal way, output streams of one or more OCR engines together with various types of evidence extracted from these streams as well as from original document images, to produce output of higher quality than that of the individual OCR engines, or of majority voting applied to multiple OCR output streams. Furthermore, we aim to improve the accuracy of OCR output on images that might otherwise have low accuracy that significantly impacts downstream processing. The MEMOE system functions as an OCR engine taking document images and some configuration parameters as input and producing a single output text stream. In this paper, we describe the design of the system, various evidence types and how they are incorporated into MEMOE in the form of filters. Results of initial tests that involve two corpora of Arabic documents show that, even in its initial configuration, the system is superior to a voting algorithm and that even more improvement may be achieved by incorporating additional evidence types into the system.

  14. Informed Systems: Enabling Collaborative Evidence Based Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Somerville

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – In response to unrelenting disruptions in academic publishing and higher education ecosystems, the Informed Systems approach supports evidence based professional activities to make decisions and take actions. This conceptual paper presents two core models, Informed Systems Leadership Model and Collaborative Evidence-Based Information Process Model, whereby co-workers learn to make informed decisions by identifying the decisions to be made and the information required for those decisions. This is accomplished through collaborative design and iterative evaluation of workplace systems, relationships, and practices. Over time, increasingly effective and efficient structures and processes for using information to learn further organizational renewal and advance nimble responsiveness amidst dynamically changing circumstances. Methods – The integrated Informed Systems approach to fostering persistent workplace inquiry has its genesis in three theories that together activate and enable robust information usage and organizational learning. The information- and learning-intensive theories of Peter Checkland in England, which advance systems design, stimulate participants’ appreciation during the design process of the potential for using information to learn. Within a co-designed environment, intentional social practices continue workplace learning, described by Christine Bruce in Australia as informed learning enacted through information experiences. In addition, in Japan, Ikujiro Nonaka’s theories foster information exchange processes and knowledge creation activities within and across organizational units. In combination, these theories promote the kind of learning made possible through evolving and transferable capacity to use information to learn through design and usage of collaborative communication systems with associated professional practices. Informed Systems therein draws from three antecedent theories to create an original

  15. Evidence for live 247Cm in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumoto, M.; Shimamura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of the 238U/235U ratio in the Allende meteorite, ranging from -35% to + 19%, are interpreted as evidence of live 247Cm in the early Solar System. The amounts of these and other r-products in the Solar System indicate values of (9,000??3,000) Myr for the age of the Galaxy and ??? 8 Myr for the time between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of meteoritic grains. Three possible explanations are presented for the different values of the latter time period which are indicated by the decay products of 247Cm, 26Al, 244Pu and 129I. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. System-Generated Digital Forensic Evidence in Graphic Design Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enos Mabuto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphic design applications are often used for the editing and design of digital art. The same applications can be used for creating counterfeit documents such as identity documents (IDs, driver’s licences, passports, etc. However, the use of any graphic design application leaves behind traces of digital information that can be used during a digital forensic investigation. Current digital forensic tools examine a system to find digital evidence, but they do not examine a system specifically for the creating of counterfeit documents created through the use of graphic design applications.The paper in hand reviews the system-generated digital forensic evidence gathered from certain graphic design applications, which indicates that a counterfeit document was created. This inference is made by associating the digital forensic information gathered with the possible actions taken, more specifically, the scanning, editing, saving and printing of counterfeit documents. The digital forensic information is gathered by analysing the files generated by the particular graphic design application used for creating the document. The acquired digital forensic information is corroborated to the creation of counterfeit documents and interpreted accordingly. In the end determining if a system was utilised for counterfeiting.

  17. Catchment systems science and management: from evidence to resilient landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul

    2014-05-01

    There is an urgent need to reassess both the scientific understanding and the policy making approaches taken to manage flooding, water scarcity and pollution in intensively utilised catchments. Many European catchments have been heavily modified and natural systems have largely disappeared. However, working with natural processes must still be at the core of any future management strategy. Many catchments have greatly reduced infiltration rates and buffering capacity and this process needs to be reversed. An interventionist and holistic approach to managing water quantity and quality at the catchment scale is urgently required through the active manipulation of natural flow processes. Both quantitative (field experiments and modelling) and qualitative evidence (local knowledge) is required to demonstrate that catchment have become 'unhealthy'. For example, dense networks of low cost instrumentation could provide this multiscale evidence and, coupled with stakeholder knowledge, build a comprehensive understanding of whole system function. Proactive Catchment System Management is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of landscape scale hydrological flow pathways. Many of the changes to hydrological processes cannot be detected at the catchment scale as the primary causes of flooding and pollution. Evidence shows it is the land cover and the soil that are paramount to any change. Local evidence shows us that intense agricultural practices reduce the infiltration capacity through soil degradation. The intrinsic buffering capacity has also been lost across the landscape. The emerging hydrological process is one in which the whole system responds too quickly (driven by near surface and overland flow processes). The bulk of the soil matrix is bypassed during storm events and there is little or no buffering capacity in the riparian areas or in headwater catchments. The prospect of lower intensity farming rates is

  18. The global stock of research evidence relevant to health systems policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Michael G; Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Policymakers and stakeholders need immediate access to many types of research evidence to make informed decisions about the full range of questions that may arise regarding health systems. Methods: We examined all types of research evidence about governance, financial and delivery arrangements, and implementation strategies within health systems contained in Health Systems Evidence (HSE) (http://www.healthsystemsevidence.org). The research evidence types include evidence briefs fo...

  19. Combination of evidence in recommendation systems characterized by distance functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L. M. (Luis Mateus)

    2002-01-01

    Recommendation systems for different Document Networks (DN) such as the World Wide Web (WWW), Digitnl Libarries, or Scientific Databases, often make use of distance functions extracted from relationships among documents and between documents and semantic tags. For instance, documents In the WWW are related via a hyperlink network, while documents in bibliographic databases are related by citation and collaboration networks.Furthermore, documents can be related to semantic tags such as keywords used to describe their content, The distance functions computed from these relations establish associative networks among items of the DN, and allow recommendation systems to identify relevant associations for iudividoal users. The process of recommendation can be improved by integrating associative data from different sources. Thus we are presented with a problem of combining evidence (about assochaons between items) from different sonrces characterized by distance functions. In this paper we summarize our work on (1) inferring associations from semi-metric distance functions and (2) combining evidence from different (distance) associative DN.

  20. 75 FR 78269 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard for Law... the general public the draft ``Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Standard for...

  1. 76 FR 13436 - NIJ Request for Comments on Draft Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application Guide AGENCY: National Institute of... Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application Guide'' The opportunity to... Office of Justice Programs NIJ Request for Comments on Draft Vehicular Digital Multimedia...

  2. 76 FR 27355 - Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection and Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection... public, the ``Law Enforcement Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System Selection...

  3. Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Engesser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps, a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback experiments, we demonstrate that this species uses the same acoustic elements (A and B in different arrangements (AB or BAB to create two functionally distinct vocalizations. Specifically, the addition or omission of a contextually meaningless acoustic element at a single position generates a phoneme-like contrast that is sufficient to distinguish the meaning between the two calls. Our results indicate that the capacity to rearrange meaningless sounds in order to create new signals occurs outside of humans. We suggest that phonemic contrasts represent a rudimentary form of phoneme structure and a potential early step towards the generative phonemic system of human language.

  4. Evidence to Practice Commentary: The Evidence Alert Traffic Light Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Iona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the "Evidence to Practice" commentary is to highlight an issue or research finding in selected articles, emphasizing the relevance to practice. This article introduces a new tool designed to summarize the most up-to-date evidence in an easily readable format, in order to provide clinically useful answers within minutes for assisting…

  5. Participatory health system priority setting: Evidence from a budget experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2015-12-01

    Budget experiments can provide additional guidance to health system reform requiring the identification of a subset of programs and services that accrue the highest social value to 'communities'. Such experiments simulate a realistic budget resource allocation assessment among competitive programs, and position citizens as decision makers responsible for making 'collective sacrifices'. This paper explores the use of a participatory budget experiment (with 88 participants clustered in social groups) to model public health care reform, drawing from a set of realistic scenarios for potential health care users. We measure preferences by employing a contingent ranking alongside a budget allocation exercise (termed 'willingness to assign') before and after program cost information is revealed. Evidence suggests that the budget experiment method tested is cognitively feasible and incentive compatible. The main downside is the existence of ex-ante "cost estimation" bias. Additionally, we find that participants appeared to underestimate the net social gain of redistributive programs. Relative social value estimates can serve as a guide to aid priority setting at a health system level. PMID:26517295

  6. Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engesser, S.; Crane, J.M.S.; Savage, J.L.; Russell, A.F.; Townsend, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meanin

  7. Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Engesser; Crane, Jodie M. S.; Savage, James L; Russell, Andrew F.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acousti...

  8. An evidence-based review of dental matrix systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Barry M; Phebus, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of proximal surface cavities, originating from Class II carious lesions, to "normal" anatomical specifications is a fundamental objective for the dental practitioner. Cognitive interpretation of tooth morphology attained from evidence-based resources, together with the necessary psychomotor skills for correct design and completion, are considered essential strategies for restoration success. Also, the visualization of the original tooth structure, if present, should substantially benefit the dentist in the creation of a clinically satisfactory restoration. The purpose of this evidence-based review is to define the cause and effect of decisions based on optimum treatment standards of care for the patient. The concepts of form and function, as related to the oral environment, and the consequences of unsatisfactory dental restorative care will be scrutinized. This article will identify and explain the different challenges and solutions for restoration of dental proximal lesions and provide an overview of past, present, and future procedures. PMID:27599285

  9. The evidence-base for family therapy and systemic interventions for child-focused problems

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    2014-01-01

    This review updates similar articles published in the Journal of Family Therapy in 2001 and 2009. It presents evidence from meta-analyses, systematic literature reviews and controlled trials for the effectiveness of systemic interventions for families of children and adolescents with various difficulties. In this context, systemic interventions include both family therapy and other family-based approaches such as parent training. The evidence supports the effectiveness of systemic interventio...

  10. Direct evidence for T violation in the neutral kaon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first direct observation of T violation in the neutral kaon system, is presented showing a positive signal with a significance of more than two standard deviations. The results does not rely on the validity of the CPT theorem. (author)

  11. 76 FR 52350 - Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard, Certification Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Vehicular Digital Multimedia Evidence Recording System (VDMERS) Standard...) will make available to the general public three draft documents related to Vehicular Digital...

  12. The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.

  13. The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2006-01-01

    Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks

  14. First experimental evidence for quantum echoes in scattering systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dembowski, C.; Dietz, B.; Friedrich, T.; Graef, H. -D.; Heine, A.; Mejia-Monasterio, C.; Miski-Oglu, M.; A. Richter; T.H. Seligman

    2004-01-01

    A self-pulsing effect termed quantum echoes has been observed in experiments with an open superconducting and a normal conducting microwave billiard whose geometry provides soft chaos, i.e. a mixed phase space portrait with a large stable island. For such systems a periodic response to an incoming pulse has been predicted. Its period has been associated to the degree of development of a horseshoe describing the topology of the classical dynamics. The experiments confirm this picture and revea...

  15. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    OpenAIRE

    Asokan, G.V.; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K.; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health...

  16. Integration of Evidence into a Detailed Clinical Model-based Electronic Nursing Record System

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha; Jeon, Eunjoo; Chung, Eunja

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an electronic nursing record system for perinatal care that is based on detailed clinical models and clinical practice guidelines in perinatal care. Methods This study was carried out in five phases: 1) generating nursing statements using detailed clinical models; 2) identifying the relevant evidence; 3) linking nursing statements with the evidence; 4) developing a prototype electronic nursing record system based on detailed ...

  17. Hydrothermal systems on Mars: an assessment of present evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J D

    1996-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes have been suggested to explain a number of observations for Mars, including D/H ratios of water extracted from Martian meteorites, as a means for removing CO2 from the Martian atmosphere and sequestering it in the crust as carbonates, and as a possible origin for iron oxide-rich spectral units on the floors of some rifted basins (chasmata). There are numerous examples of Martian channels formed by discharges of subsurface water near potential magmatic heat sources, and hydrothermal processes have also been proposed as a mechanism for aquifer recharge needed to sustain long term erosion of sapping channels. The following geological settings have been identified as targets for ancient hydrothermal systems on Mars: channels located along the margins of impact crater melt sheets and on the slopes of ancient volcanoes; chaotic and fretted terranes where shallow subsurface heat sources are thought to have interacted with ground ice; and the floors of calderas and rifted basins (e.g. chasmata). On Earth, such geological environments are often a locus for hydrothermal mineralization. But we presently lack the mineralogical information needed for a definitive evaluation of hypotheses. A preferred tool for identifying minerals by remote sensing methods on Earth is high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, near-infrared spectroscopy, a technique that has been extensively developed by mineral explorationists. Future efforts to explore Mars for ancient hydrothermal systems would benefit from the application of methods developed by the mining industry to look for similar deposits on Earth. But Earth-based exploration models must be adapted to account for the large differences in the climatic and geological history of Mars. For example, it is likely that the early surface environment of Mars was cool, perhaps consistently below freezing, with the shallow portions of hydrothermal systems being dominated by magma-cryosphere interactions. Given the smaller

  18. Evidence for neural accommodation to a writing system following learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dunlap, Susan; Fiez, Julie; Perfetti, Charles

    2007-11-01

    Native English speakers with no knowledge of Chinese were trained on 60 Chinese characters according to one of three mapping conditions: orthography to pronunciation and meaning (P + M), orthography to pronunciation (P), and orthography to meaning (M). Following the training, fMRI scans taken during passive viewing of Chinese characters showed activation in brain regions that partially overlap the regions found in studies of skilled Chinese readers, but typically not found in alphabetic readers. Areas include bilateral middle frontal (BA 9), right occipital (BA 18/19), and fusiform (BA 37) regions. The activation pattern of Chinese characters was similar across the three groups. However, peak location was different in the left middle frontal region between groups. Direct contrasts between the groups also revealed stronger activation of left middle frontal in the P + M group. The results suggest that learners acquired skill in reading Chinese characters using a brain network similar to that used by Chinese native speakers. The results are consistent with the system accommodation hypothesis: The brain's reading network accommodates to features of an acquired writing system. PMID:17274024

  19. Initial Evidence for Self-Organized Criticality in Electric Power System Blackouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine correlations in a time series of electric power system blackout sizes using scaled window variance analysis and R/S statistics. The data shows some evidence of long time correlations and has Hurst exponent near 0.7. Large blackouts tend to correlate with further large blackouts after a long time interval. Similar effects are also observed in many other complex systems exhibiting self-organized criticality. We discuss this initial evidence and possible explanations for self-organized criticality in power systems blackouts. Self-organized criticality, if fully confirmed in power systems, would suggest new approaches to understanding and possibly controlling blackouts

  20. Evidence for universality in phenomenological emotion response system coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Nezlek, John B; Koopmann, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    The authors reanalyzed data from Scherer and Wallbott's (Scherer, 1997b; Scherer & Wallbott, 1994) International Study of Emotion Antecedents and Reactions to examine how phenomenological reports of emotional experience, expression, and physiological sensations were related to each other within cultures and to determine if these relationships were moderated by cultural differences, which were operationally defined using Hofstede's (2001) typology. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses produced several findings of note. First, the vast majority of the variance in ratings was within countries (i.e., at the individual level); a much smaller proportion of the total variance was between countries. Second, there were negative relationships between country-level means and long- versus short-term orientation for numerous measures. Greater long-term orientation was associated with lowered emotional expressivity and fewer physiological sensations. Third, at the individual (within-culture) level, across the 7 emotions, there were consistent and reliable positive relationships among the response systems, indicating coherence among them. Fourth, such relationships were not moderated by cultural differences, as measured by the Hofstede dimensions. PMID:17352563

  1. Urbanized Information Systems Nets Benefits: An Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Trabelsi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New methods thinking about the enterprise architectures are developing, The Urbanization of the IS in particularis proposed as French framework of EA being appropriate to evolve the IS and proposed outcomes of firms.Where IS became one of the main assets of modern corporations. And it faces many problems Among the mostimportant are low productivity and a large number of failures like obsolescence, heavier, slower and complexityof applications integration. The problem of low productivity of IS was the product of the software crisis, asindicated by the delayed development and implementation of ISs and accumulation which leads to maintenanceproblems. To do this, urbanization is a framework that aims to simplify the IS, to improve communicationbetween its components and to ensure its evolution. In an exploratory approach, this research examines theimpacts of urbanization in private sector studying it to ascertain agility and its nets benefits. This was done inorder to ascertain the evolution of IS and guarantee the agility facing the environment turbulence. The generalassertion is that the Urbanized Information Systems (UIS changes a firm vision because its procure agility toface environment turbulence. The originality of this paper is to explore IS urbanization considered as a Frenchframework of Enterprise Architecture (EA. This research therefore contributes to the body of knowledge by anempirical study and validation of the urbanization success assessments.

  2. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A 'one-health' concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses. PMID:24363836

  3. Health Professionals' Use of Online Information Retrieval Systems and Online Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lialiou, Paschalina; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    Across-sectional survey was designed to determine health professionals' awareness and usage of online evidence retrieval systems in clinical practice. A questionnaire was used to measure professionals' behavior and utilization of online evidences, as well as, reasons and barriers on information retrieval. 439 nurses and physicians from public and private hospitals in Greece formulate the study's sample. The two most common reasons that individuals are using online information systems were for writing scientific manuscripts or filling a knowledge gap. A positive correlation was found between participants with postgraduate studies and information system usage. The majority of them (90,6%) believe that online information systems improves patient care and 67,6% of them had their own experiences on this. More support is needed to nurses and physicians in order to use the online evidence and as a result to improve the provided care and practices. PMID:27577498

  4. What is the Role of Legal Systems in Financial Intermediation? Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottazzi, L.; Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory and empirical test of how the legal system affects the relationship between venture capitalists and entrepreneurs. The theory uses a double moral hazard framework to show how optimal contracts and investor actions depend on the quality of the legal system. The empirical evidence

  5. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  6. Enhancing evidence informed policymaking in complex health systems: lessons from multi-site collaborative approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, Etienne V.; Becerril Montekio, Victor; Young, Taryn; Song, Kayla; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline; Tran, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest worldwide to ensure evidence-informed health policymaking as a means to improve health systems performance. There is a need to engage policymakers in collaborative approaches to generate and use knowledge in real world settings. To address this gap, we implemented two interventions based on iterative exchanges between researchers and policymakers/implementers. This article aims to reflect on the implementation and impact of these multi-site evidence-...

  7. The economic impact of quality management systems in portuguese certified companies : empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Paulo; Saraiva, Pedro; Rodrigues, António Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Despite all the studies carried out in order to analyze the impact of quality management systems implementation and certification over companies’ financial performance, conclusions reached so far have been of a contradictory nature. Some authors conclude that there is a positive relationship between ISO 9001 certification and companies’ financial improvement, while others do not find evidence to support such a relationship. Overall, no consistent evidence could therefore...

  8. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations II: Pilot study of a new system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems that are used by different organisations to grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations vary. They have different strengths and weaknesses. The GRADE Working Group has developed an approach that addresses key shortcomings in these systems. The aim of this study was to pilot test and further develop the GRADE approach to grading evidence and recommendations. Methods A GRADE evidence profile consists of two tables: a quality assessment and a summary of findings. Twelve evidence profiles were used in this pilot study. Each evidence profile was made based on information available in a systematic review. Seventeen people were given instructions and independently graded the level of evidence and strength of recommendation for each of the 12 evidence profiles. For each example judgements were collected, summarised and discussed in the group with the aim of improving the proposed grading system. Kappas were calculated as a measure of chance-corrected agreement for the quality of evidence for each outcome for each of the twelve evidence profiles. The seventeen judges were also asked about the ease of understanding and the sensibility of the approach. All of the judgements were recorded and disagreements discussed. Results There was a varied amount of agreement on the quality of evidence for the outcomes relating to each of the twelve questions (kappa coefficients for agreement beyond chance ranged from 0 to 0.82. However, there was fair agreement about the relative importance of each outcome. There was poor agreement about the balance of benefits and harms and recommendations. Most of the disagreements were easily resolved through discussion. In general we found the GRADE approach to be clear, understandable and sensible. Some modifications were made in the approach and it was agreed that more information was needed in the evidence profiles. Conclusion Judgements about evidence and recommendations are

  9. Development of a 3D-based automated firearms evidence comparison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Benjamin

    2002-11-01

    Since the early 1990's, the idea of automated systems for the comparison of microscopic firearms evidence has received considerable attention. The main objective of such systems is to enable the analysis of large amounts of evidence, therefore, transforming the comparison of firearms evidence from an evidence verification tool into a crime-fighting tool. Two such systems have been widely used in United States forensic laboratories: namely, the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) (1) and DRUGFIRE (2). Both IBIS and DRUGFIRE have in common the fact that their characterization of a specimen is based on a two-dimensional (2D) representation of the specimen's surface. Although these systems have provided satisfactory results in the identification of cartridge cases, their performance in the identification of bullets has not yet met firearms examiner's expectations. This project was motivated by the premise that a better characterizations of the bullet's surface should translate into better performance of automated identification systems. A three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the bullet's surface is proposed as an alternative to a 2D characterization. This paper discusses the development and preliminary results obtained with SciClops, an automated microscopic comparison system based on the use of a 3D characterization of a bullet's surface. PMID:12455646

  10. Scientific evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems of the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mooventhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of water for various treatments (hydrotherapy is probably as old as mankind. Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body. Many studies/reviews reported the effects of hydrotherapy only on very few systems and there is lack of studies/reviews in reporting the evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems. We performed PubMed and PubMed central search to review relevant articles in English literature based on "effects of hydrotherapy/balneotherapy" on various systems of the body. Based on the available literature this review suggests that the hydrotherapy has a scientific evidence-based effect on various systems of the body.

  11. An Approach to Maintaining Safety Case Evidence After A System Change

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Omar; Graydon, Patrick; Bate, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Developers of some safety critical systems construct a safety case. Developers changing a system during development or after release must analyse the change's impact on the safety case. Evidence might be invalidated by changes to the system design, operation, or environmental context. Assumptions valid in one context might be invalid elsewhere. The impact of change might not be obvious. This paper proposes a method to facilitate safety case maintenance by highlighting the impact of changes.

  12. A Regional PD Strategy for EPR Systems: Evidence-Based IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2006-01-01

    One of the five regions in Denmark has initiated a remark-able and alternative strategy for the development of Elec-tronic Patient Record (EPR) systems. This strategy is driven by Participatory Design (PD) experiments and based on evidence of positive effects on the clinical practice when using EPR...... systems. We present this PD strategy and our related research on evidence-based IT development. We report from a newly completed PD experiment with EPR in the region conducted through a close collaboration compris-ing a neurological stroke unit, the region’s EPR unit, the vendor, as well as the authors....

  13. The validation of forensic DNA extraction systems to utilize soil contaminated biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Mohaimin; Shires, Karen

    2015-07-01

    The production of full DNA profiles from biological evidence found in soil has a high failure rate due largely to the inhibitory substance humic acid (HA). Abundant in various natural soils, HA co-extracts with DNA during extraction and inhibits DNA profiling by binding to the molecular components of the genotyping assay. To successfully utilize traces of soil contaminated evidence, such as that found at many murder and rape crime scenes in South Africa, a reliable HA removal extraction system would often be selected based on previous validation studies. However, for many standard forensic DNA extraction systems, peer-reviewed publications detailing the efficacy on soil evidence is either lacking or is incomplete. Consequently, these sample types are often not collected or fail to yield suitable DNA material due to the use of unsuitable methodology. The aim of this study was to validate the common forensic DNA collection and extraction systems used in South Africa, namely DNA IQ, FTA elute and Nucleosave for processing blood and saliva contaminated with HA. A forensic appropriate volume of biological evidence was spiked with HA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/ml) and processed through each extraction protocol for the evaluation of HA removal using QPCR and STR-genotyping. The DNA IQ magnetic bead system effectively removed HA from highly contaminated blood and saliva, and generated consistently acceptable STR profiles from both artificially spiked samples and crude soil samples. This system is highly recommended for use on soil-contaminated evidence over the cellulose card-based systems currently being preferentially used for DNA sample collection. PMID:25690910

  14. Evidence-based detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: the DETECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coghlan, J.G.; Denton, C.P.; Grunig, E.; Bonderman, D.; Distler, O.; Khanna, D.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Pope, J.E.; Vonk, M.C.; Doelberg, M.; Chadha-Boreham, H.; Heinzl, H.; Rosenberg, D.M.; McLaughlin, V.V.; Seibold, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Earlier detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), facilitates earlier treatment. The objective of this study was to develop the first evidence-based detection algorithm for PAH in SSc. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, intern

  15. Bank Systemic Risk-Taking and Loan Pricing : Evidence from Syndicated Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loan pricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific va

  16. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix a

  17. Forensic Evidence Identification and Modeling for Attacks against a Simulated Online Business Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic readiness can support future forensics investigation or auditing on external/internal attacks, internal sabotage and espionage, and business frauds. To establish forensics readiness, it is essential for an organization to identify what evidences are relevant and where they can be found, to determine whether they are logged in a forensic sound way and whether all the needed evidences are available to reconstruct the events successfully.  Our goal of this research is to ensure evidence availability. First, both external and internal attacks are molded as augmented attack trees/graphs based on the system vulnerabilities. Second, modeled attacks are conducted against a honeynet simulating an online business information system, and each honeypot's hard drive is forensic sound imaged for each individual attack. Third, an evidence tree/graph will be built after forensics examination on the disk images for each attack. The evidence trees/graphs are expected to be used for automatic crime scene reconstruction and automatic attack/fraud detection in the future.

  18. What is the role of legal systems in financial intermediation? Theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bottazzi, L.; Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a theory and empirical test of how the legal system affects the relationship between a venture investor and an entrepreneur. The theory uses a double moral hazard framework to show how optimal contracts and investor actions depend on the quality of the legal system. The empirical evidence is based on a sample of European venture capital deals. The main results are that with better legal protection, investors give more non-contractible support and demand more downside protection, an...

  19. Relevance of the Glutathione System in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Evidence in Human and Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Elvia Coballase-Urrutia; Claudia Pérez-Cruz; Hortencia Montesinos-Correa; Liliana Rivera-Espinosa; Aristides Sampieri; Liliana Carmona-Aparicio

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with diseases that are systemic as well as diseases that affect the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, and temporal lobe epilepsy represents an estimated 40% of all epilepsy cases. Currently, evidence from human and experimental models supports the involvement of oxidative stre...

  20. Translational evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in stress-related psychiatric illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Matthew N.; Patel, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence over the past decade has highlighted an important role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the regulation of stress and emotional behavior across divergent species, from rodents to humans. The general findings from this work indicate that the eCB system plays an important role in gating and buffering the stress response, dampening anxiety and regulating mood. Work in rodents has allowed researchers to determine the neural mechanisms mediating this relationship while w...

  1. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework: evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Aqil Anwer; Hotchkiss David R; Lippeveld Theo; Mukooyo Edward

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS). In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data qua...

  2. Firm-Level Determinants of Board System Choice: Evidence from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, using a unique data set of joint-stock companies, we empirically examine the determinants of the choice and size of the collective executive board, a core element of the multi-tier board system of Russian firms. Our empirical evidence strongly suggests that the need of company executives for a collective management system is a key driver for the formation of a collective executive board, while outside investors are generally indifferent toward its adoption as a means to strengt...

  3. Bank Systemic Risk-Taking and Loan Pricing : Evidence from Syndicated Loans

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loanpricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific variables. We argue that the underpricing of systematic risk relative to idiosyncratic risk suggests banks' preference for investing in systematic risk which increases interbank correlation and system...

  4. ED-12WIDESPREAD SYSTEMIC METASTASES FROM MEDULLOBLASTOMA WITHOUT EVIDENCE OF ACTIVE CNS INVOLVEMENT: A CASE SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kumthekar, Priya; Singh, Simran; Smiley, Natasha Pillay; Lulla, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    This case series describes two patients with previously treated medulloblastoma who present with systemic metastases without evidence of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Patient #1 is male who presented at age 29 with pathology confirmed medulloblastoma treated with complete surgical resection followed by radiation (36 Gy craniospinal plus posterior fossa boost). Subsequently, he received cisplatin, cytoxan, and vincristine. One year later, he developed back pain and urinary retention. I...

  5. Cosmochemical evidence for astrophysical processes during the formation of our solar system

    OpenAIRE

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Boss, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Through the laboratory study of ancient solar system materials such as meteorites and comet dust, we can recognize evidence for the same star-formation processes in our own solar system as those that we can observe now through telescopes in nearby star-forming regions. High temperature grains formed in the innermost region of the solar system ended up much farther out in the solar system, not only the asteroid belt but even in the comet accretion region, suggesting a huge and efficient proces...

  6. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Asokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health’ concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses.

  7. Evidences of a threshold system as the source for magnetic storms detected on Earth s surface

    CERN Document Server

    Papa, A R R; Seixas, N A B; Papa, Andres R. R.; Barreto, Luiz M.; Seixas, Ney A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Threshold systems appear to underlie the global behaviour of physical phenomena very unlike at a first look. The usual experimental fingerprint of threshold system grounded phenomena is the presence of power laws. Experimental evidence has been found, for example, in superconductor vortex avalanches, sand piles, the brain, 4He superfluidity and earthquakes. Double power-laws have been found in social networks, in the luminosity of some galactic nuclei and, very recently, in solar flares, among others. Here we show evidences that point to a threshold system as the source for magnetic storms detected on the Earth. We based our analysis on series of data acquired during many years in the network of magnetic observatories of the National Observatory (Brazil). In particular we focused our attention on October 2000 month of the Vassouras Observatory (RJ, Brazil), which have been active since 1915. We have found both power laws and double power laws for some relevant distributions.

  8. Socio-contextual Determinants of Research Evidence Use in Public-Youth Systems of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio R; Kim, Minseop; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Snowden, Lonnie; Landsverk, John

    2016-07-01

    Recent efforts have been devoted to understanding the conditions by which research evidence use (REU) is facilitated from the perspective of system leaders in the context of implementing evidence-based child mental health interventions. However, we have limited understanding of the extent to which outer contextual factors influence REU. Outer contextual factors for 37 counties in California were gathered from public records in 2008; and child welfare, juvenile justice, and mental health system leaders' perceptions of their REU were measured via a web-based survey from 2010 to 2012. Results showed that leaders with higher educational attainment and in counties with lower expenditures on inpatient mental health services were significantly associated with higher REU. Positive relationships between gathering research evidence and racial minority concentration and poverty at the county level were also detected. Results underscore the need to identify the organizational and socio-political factors by which mental health services and resources meet client demands that influence REU, and to recruit and retain providers with a graduate degree to negotiate work demands and interpret research evidence. PMID:25702145

  9. Risks, Outcomes, and Evidence-Based Interventions for Girls in the US Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia; Kim, Hyoun K

    2015-09-01

    The proportion of the juvenile justice population that comprises females is increasing, yet few evidence-based models have been evaluated and implemented with girls in the juvenile justice system. Although much is known about the risk and protective factors for girls who participate in serious delinquency, significant gaps in the research base hamper the development and implementation of theoretically based intervention approaches. In this review, we first summarize the extant empirical work about the predictors and sequelae of juvenile justice involvement for girls. Identified risk and protective factors that correspond to girls' involvement in the juvenile justice system have been shown to largely parallel those of boys, although exposure rates and magnitudes of association sometimes differ by sex. Second, we summarize findings from empirically validated, evidence-based interventions for juvenile justice-involved youths that have been tested with girls. The interventions include Functional Family Therapy, Multisystemic Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, and Treatment Foster Care Oregon (formerly known as Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care). We conclude that existing evidence-based practices appear to be effective for girls. However, few studies have been sufficiently designed to permit conclusions about whether sex-specific interventions would yield any better outcomes for girls than would interventions that already exist for both sexes and that have a strong base of evidence to support them. Third, we propose recommendations for feasible, cost-efficient next steps to advance the research and intervention agendas for this under-researched and underserved population of highly vulnerable youths. PMID:26119215

  10. Developing and refining the methods for a ‘one-stop shop’ for research evidence about health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Moat, Kaelan A; Hammill, Amanda C; Boyko, Jennifer A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Flottorp, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Policymakers, stakeholders and researchers have not been able to find research evidence about health systems using an easily understood taxonomy of topics, know when they have conducted a comprehensive search of the many types of research evidence relevant to them, or rapidly identify decision-relevant information in their search results. Methods: To address these gaps, we developed an approach to building a ‘one-stop shop’ for research evidence about health systems. We developed ...

  11. Developing and refining the methods for a ‘one-stop shop’ for research evidence about health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Moat, Kaelan A; Hammill, Amanda C; Boyko, Jennifer A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Flottorp, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Background Policymakers, stakeholders and researchers have not been able to find research evidence about health systems using an easily understood taxonomy of topics, know when they have conducted a comprehensive search of the many types of research evidence relevant to them, or rapidly identify decision-relevant information in their search results. Methods To address these gaps, we developed an approach to building a ‘one-stop shop’ for research evidence about health systems. We developed a ...

  12. Evidence and Persistence of Education Inequality in an Early-Tracking System: The German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Annabelle; Schüller, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews empirical evidence on the early tracking system in Germany and the educational inequalities associated with it. Overall, the literature confirms the existence of considerable social, ethnic, gender- and age-related inequalities in secondary school track placement. Studies on tracking timing and track allocation mechanisms reveal that postponement of the selection decision and binding teacher recommendations may reduce certain (mainly social) inequalities. Furthermore, rec...

  13. Bank Systemic Risk-Taking and Loan Pricing: Evidence from Syndicated Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loan pricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific variables. We argue that the underpricing of systematic risk relative to idiosyncratic risk suggests banks' preference for investing in systematic risk which increases interbank correlation and syste...

  14. SME Performance, Innovation and Networking Evidence on Complementarities for a Local Economic System

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Mancinelli, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the relevancy of networking activities and R&D as main drivers of productivity performance and ouput innovation, for small and medium enterprises (SME) playing in a local economic system. Given the intangible nature of many techno organisational innovation and networking strategies, original recent survey data for manufacturing and services are exploited. The aim is to provide new evidence on the complementarity relationships concerning different networking activities and ...

  15. Attenuating the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Brown, Jeremiah R; Fitzgerald, David; Likosky, Donald S; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A; Hammon, John W

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of pharmacological, surgical, and mechanical pump approaches have been studied to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass, yet no systematically based review exists to cover the scope of anti-inflammatory interventions deployed. We therefore conducted an evidence-based review to capture "self-identified" anti-inflammatory interventions among adult cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. To be included, trials had to measure at least one inflammatory mediator and one clinical outcome, specified in the "Outcomes 2010" consensus statement. Ninety-eight papers satisfied inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the review. The review identified 33 different interventions and approaches to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response. However, only a minority of papers (35 of 98 [35.7%]) demonstrated any clinical improvement to one or more of the predefined outcome measures (most frequently myocardial protection or length of intensive care unit stay). No single intervention was supported by strong level A evidence (multiple randomized controlled trials [RCTs] or meta-analysis) for clinical benefit. Interventions at level A evidence included off-pump surgery, minimized circuits, biocompatible circuit coatings, leukocyte filtration, complement C5 inhibition, preoperative aspirin, and corticosteroid prophylaxis. Interventions at level B evidence (single RCT) for minimizing inflammation included nitric oxide donors, C1 esterase inhibition, neutrophil elastase inhibition, propofol, propionyl-L-carnitine, and intensive insulin therapy. A secondary analysis revealed that suppression of at least one inflammatory marker was necessary but not sufficient to confer clinical benefit. The most effective interventions were those that targeted multiple inflammatory pathways. These observations are consistent with a "multiple hit" hypothesis, whereby clinically effective suppression of the systemic inflammatory response requires hitting multiple

  16. Implementing the evidence for language-appropriate health care systems: The Welsh context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gwerfyl W; Burton, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Like Canada, Wales, UK is a bilingual nation: the Welsh language is an important part of its national identity and legislative framework. This has implications for the delivery of public sector services, particularly in the context of health and social care, where responding to the language needs of service users is fundamental to quality health care provision. Nevertheless, despite the strengthening policy commitment for a whole-system approach towards enhancing Welsh language services, there is a paucity of evidence to guide best practice in organizational planning in health care settings. This commentary outlines the context and significance of bilingual health care provision in Wales and the implications for building and embedding the evidence base. It calls for further work to translate our knowledge and understanding of language-appropriate practice to provide more effective and sensitive health care services; and to close the implementation gap between evidence and practice. Given the relevance of this challenge for health care providers in Canada who plan and deliver services for French-language minorities, this approach has resonance across our research communities. Thus, in our common pursuit to establish integrated knowledge translation research for language-appropriate health care systems, this commentary offers a focus for reflection, discussion and collaborative action. PMID:24300330

  17. Complementary roles of systems representing sensory evidence and systems detecting task difficulty during perceptual decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DouglasARuff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making is a multi-stage process where incoming sensory information is used to select one option from several alternatives. Researchers typically have adopted one of two conceptual frameworks to define the criteria for determining whether a brain region is involved in decision computations. One framework, building on single unite recordings in monkeys, posits that activity in a region involved in decision making reflects the accumulation of evidence toward a decision threshold, thus showing the lowest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. The other framework instead posits that activity in a decision-making region reflects the difficulty of a decision, thus showing the highest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. We had subjects perform a face detection task on degraded face images while we simultaneously recorded BOLD activity. We searched for brain regions where changes in BOLD activity during this task supported either of these frameworks by calculating the correlation of BOLD activity with reaction time - a measure of task difficulty. We found that the right supplementary eye field, right frontal eye field and right inferior frontal gyrus had increased activity relative to baseline that positively correlated with reaction time, while the left superior frontal sulcus and left middle temporal gyrus had decreased activity relative to baseline that negatively correlated with reaction time. We propose that a simple mechanism that scales a region’s activity based on task demands can explain our results.

  18. Electoral systems, political career paths and legislative behavior: evidence from South Korea's mixed-member system

    OpenAIRE

    Hae-Won, Jun; Hix, Simon

    2010-01-01

    A growing literature looks at how the design of the electoral system shapes the voting behavior of politicians in parliaments. Existing research tends to confirm that in mixed-member systems the politicians elected in the single-member districts are more likely to vote against their parties than the politicians elected on the party lists. However, we find that in South Korea, the members of the Korean National Assembly who were elected on PR lists are more likely to vote against their party l...

  19. Evidence of a protein C-like anticoagulant system in bony fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salte, R; Norberg, K; Odegaard, O R

    1996-09-01

    Evidence is presented, confirming the presence of an anticoagulant system in the plasma of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) (Order: Teleostei, Family: Salmonidae) that bears striking similarities with the protein C anticoagulant system in mammals; its vitamin K-dependence was documented through a warfarin feeding trial. A potent activator of this system is the protein C activator from the venom of the Central American Moccasin, Agkistrodon bilineatus. When activated, the system splits the tripeptide substrate glu-pro-arg-pNa, which is the substrate preferred for the in vitro assay of human protein C. It also prolongates the plasma activated partial thromboplastin time, indicating that the system is of clinical relevance. A temperature dependence of the plasma protein C-like activity was evident, the mean activity being 5- to 10-fold higher, but also more variable, in both species in summer and early fall, than it was in winter. There was also a species difference, with rainbow trout having the higher levels. In man, subnormal values of protein C implies an increased risk of thrombosis. Whether this applies to fish is not known. It is, however, a fact that microvascular thromboses are prevalent in farmed Atlantic salmon in winter, whereas thrombotic disease is not a problem in rainbow trout; in the present study plasma protein C-like activity was 30% (of a human reference plasma) in salmon at 4 degrees C compared to a level of 60% in rainbow trout. A complicating factor for the assay of protein C-like activity in salmonid plasma, is the poor stability of the inhibitory system upon storage. Consequently, assays have to be done with freshly prepared citrated plasma. PMID:8873347

  20. UCLA, British astronomers discover wake of planet around nearby star. Strong evidence for solar system like ours

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "An international team of astronomers reports the first strong evidence for the existence of massive planets on wide orbits - like those of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune - around many stars. The new research provides some of the strongest evidence so far that solar systems similar to our own, or even larger, are likely to exist: (1 page).

  1. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on system considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry describes the CEGB system and the concepts of economy, security and quality of supply which underlie it. Attention is drawn to the present geographical imbalance between generation and demand on the CEGB system which leads to high power transfers at times of peak demand and for long periods at off-peak times. When there is a need to install new generating plant in the mid-1990s, system benefits can be achieved by siting plant in the South rather than in the North. The system benefits which would arise from the siting of a new PWR nuclear power station at Hinkley Point ''C'' rather than elsewhere are identified. The system benefits of other PWR sites and non-fossil options, such as a further link with France, interconnection with Iceland and the Severn Tidal Barrage, are reviewed. System benefits in terms of security and economics would accrue from locating a PWR station at Hinkley Point without the need for new transmission lines. (author)

  2. Evidence-based management assessment of return on investment from anesthesia information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cormac T; Dexter, Franklin; Lubarsky, David A; Vigoda, Michael M

    2007-02-01

    A systematic and comprehensive review of the scientific literature revealed 4 evidence-based methods that contribute to a positive return on investment from anesthesia information management systems (AIMS): reducing anesthetic-related drug costs, improving staff scheduling and reducing staffing costs, increasing anesthesia billing and capture of anesthesia-related charges, and increased hospital reimbursement through improved hospital coding. There were common features to these interventions. Whereas an AIMS may be the ideal choice to achieve these cost reductions and revenue increases, alternative existing systems may be satisfactory for the studied applications (i.e., the incremental advantage to the AIMS may be less than predicted from applying each study to each facility). Savings are likely heterogeneous among institutions, making an internal survey using standard accounting methods necessary to perform a valid return on investment analysis. Financial advantages can be marked for the anesthesia providers, although hospitals are more likely to purchase the AIMS. PMID:17304783

  3. Isotopic evidence of magmatism and a sedimentary carbon source at the Endeavour hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T A; Proskurowski, G; Lilley, M D

    2004-01-07

    Stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements made on CO{sub 2} from high temperature hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicate both magmatic and sedimentary sources of carbon to the hydrothermal system. The Endeavour segment is devoid of overlying sediments and has shown no observable signs of surficial magmatic activity during the {approx}20 years of ongoing studies. The appearance of isotopically heavy, radiocarbon dead CO{sub 2} after a 1999 earthquake swarm requires that this earthquake event was magmatic in origin. Evidence for a sedimentary organic carbon source suggests the presence of buried sediments at the ridge axis. These findings, which represent the first temporally coherent set of radiocarbon measurements from hydrothermal vent fluids, demonstrate the utility of radiocarbon analysis in hydrothermal studies. The existence of a sediment source at Endeavour and the occurrence of magmatic episodes illustrate the extremely complex and evolving nature of the Endeavour hydrothermal system.

  4. Scaling up evidence-based practices for children and families in New York State: toward evidence-based policies on implementation for state mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Olin, S Serene; Horwitz, Sarah; McKay, Mary; Cleek, Andrew; Gleacher, Alissa; Lewandowski, Eric; Nadeem, Erum; Acri, Mary; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Weiss, Dara; Frank, Samantha; Finnerty, Molly; Bradbury, Donna M; Woodlock, Kristin M; Hogan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of innovations is widely considered the sine qua non for system improvement. At least two dozen states are rolling out evidence-based mental health practices targeted at children and families using trainings, consultations, webinars, and learning collaboratives to improve quality and outcomes. In New York State (NYS) a group of researchers, policymakers, providers, and family support specialists have worked in partnership since 2002 to redesign and evaluate the children's mental health system. Five system strategies driven by empirically based practices and organized within a state-supported infrastructure have been used in the child and family service system with more than 2,000 providers: (a) business practices, (b) use of health information technologies in quality improvement, (c) specific clinical interventions targeted at common childhood disorders, (d) parent activation, and (e) quality indicator development. The NYS system has provided a laboratory for naturalistic experiments. We describe these initiatives, key findings and challenges, lessons learned for scaling, and implications for creating evidence-based implementation policies in state systems. PMID:24460518

  5. Evidence evaluation in fingerprint comparison and automated fingerprint identification systems--modelling within finger variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Nicole M; Champod, Christophe; Margot, Pierre

    2007-04-11

    Recent challenges and errors in fingerprint identification have highlighted the need for assessing the information content of a papillary pattern in a systematic way. In particular, estimation of the statistical uncertainty associated with this type of evidence is more and more called upon. The approach used in the present study is based on the assessment of likelihood ratios (LRs). This evaluative tool weighs the likelihood of evidence given two mutually exclusive hypotheses. The computation of likelihood ratios on a database of marks of known sources (matching the unknown and non-matching the unknown mark) allows an estimation of the evidential contribution of fingerprint evidence. LRs are computed taking advantage of the scores obtained from an automated fingerprint identification system and hence are based exclusively on level II features (minutiae). The AFIS system attributes a score to any comparison (fingerprint to fingerprint, mark to mark and mark to fingerprint), used here as a proximity measure between the respective arrangements of minutiae. The numerator of the LR addresses the within finger variability and is obtained by comparing the same configurations of minutiae coming from the same source. Only comparisons where the same minutiae are visible both on the mark and on the print are therefore taken into account. The denominator of the LR is obtained by cross-comparison with a database of prints originating from non-matching sources. The estimation of the numerator of the LR is much more complex in terms of specific data requirements than the estimation of the denominator of the LR (that requires only a large database of prints from an non-associated population). Hence this paper addresses specific issues associated with the numerator or within finger variability. This study aims at answering the following questions: (1) how a database for modelling within finger variability should be acquired; (2) whether or not the visualisation technique or the

  6. Feature engineering and a proposed decision-support system for systematic reviewers of medical evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bekhuis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based medicine depends on the timely synthesis of research findings. An important source of synthesized evidence resides in systematic reviews. However, a bottleneck in review production involves dual screening of citations with titles and abstracts to find eligible studies. For this research, we tested the effect of various kinds of textual information (features on performance of a machine learning classifier. Based on our findings, we propose an automated system to reduce screeing burden, as well as offer quality assurance. METHODS: We built a database of citations from 5 systematic reviews that varied with respect to domain, topic, and sponsor. Consensus judgments regarding eligibility were inferred from published reports. We extracted 5 feature sets from citations: alphabetic, alphanumeric(+, indexing, features mapped to concepts in systematic reviews, and topic models. To simulate a two-person team, we divided the data into random halves. We optimized the parameters of a Bayesian classifier, then trained and tested models on alternate data halves. Overall, we conducted 50 independent tests. RESULTS: All tests of summary performance (mean F3 surpassed the corresponding baseline, P<0.0001. The ranks for mean F3, precision, and classification error were statistically different across feature sets averaged over reviews; P-values for Friedman's test were .045, .002, and .002, respectively. Differences in ranks for mean recall were not statistically significant. Alphanumeric(+ features were associated with best performance; mean reduction in screening burden for this feature type ranged from 88% to 98% for the second pass through citations and from 38% to 48% overall. CONCLUSIONS: A computer-assisted, decision support system based on our methods could substantially reduce the burden of screening citations for systematic review teams and solo reviewers. Additionally, such a system could deliver quality assurance both by

  7. Cosmochemical evidence for astrophysical processes during the formation of our solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J; Boss, Alan

    2011-11-29

    Through the laboratory study of ancient solar system materials such as meteorites and comet dust, we can recognize evidence for the same star-formation processes in our own solar system as those that we can observe now through telescopes in nearby star-forming regions. High temperature grains formed in the innermost region of the solar system ended up much farther out in the solar system, not only the asteroid belt but even in the comet accretion region, suggesting a huge and efficient process of mass transport. Bi-polar outflows, turbulent diffusion, and marginal gravitational instability are the likely mechanisms for this transport. The presence of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system, especially (60)Fe, (26)Al, and (41)Ca, requires a nearby supernova shortly before our solar system was formed, suggesting that the Sun was formed in a massive star-forming region similar to Orion or Carina. Solar system formation may have been "triggered" by ionizing radiation originating from massive O and B stars at the center of an expanding HII bubble, one of which may have later provided the supernova source for the short-lived radionuclides. Alternatively, a supernova shock wave may have simultaneously triggered the collapse and injected the short-lived radionuclides. Because the Sun formed in a region where many other stars were forming more or less contemporaneously, the bi-polar outflows from all such stars enriched the local region in interstellar silicate and oxide dust. This may explain several observed anomalies in the meteorite record: a near absence of detectable (no extreme isotopic properties) presolar silicate grains and a dichotomy in the isotope record between (26)Al and nucleosynthetic (nonradiogenic) anomalies. PMID:22106251

  8. ED-12WIDESPREAD SYSTEMIC METASTASES FROM MEDULLOBLASTOMA WITHOUT EVIDENCE OF ACTIVE CNS INVOLVEMENT: A CASE SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumthekar, Priya; Singh, Simran; Smiley, Natasha Pillay; Lulla, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    This case series describes two patients with previously treated medulloblastoma who present with systemic metastases without evidence of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Patient #1 is male who presented at age 29 with pathology confirmed medulloblastoma treated with complete surgical resection followed by radiation (36 Gy craniospinal plus posterior fossa boost). Subsequently, he received cisplatin, cytoxan, and vincristine. One year later, he developed back pain and urinary retention. Imaging of his spine showed widespread bony metastases without parenchymal CNS disease. Biopsy of the left acetabulum confirmed metastatic medulloblastoma. He is currently enrolled on study with LDE225 versus temozolomide. Surveillance imaging to date is negative for intracranial metastasis, but does show extensive bony metastases involving the total spine, pelvis, ribs, sternum, clavicles, humeri, and femurs. Patient #2 is a female who presented at 32 years with severe headaches, nausea and vomiting found to have pathology confirmed medulloblastoma. She was lost to follow up temporarily, but presented again months later with headaches. She had a recurrent mass and underwent repeat resection. MRI of the spine showed nodular enhancement of the sacral nerve roots compatible with leptomeningeal spread. She underwent craniospinal radiation 36 Gy with a boost to the lumbar region and posterior fossa. One year after initial diagnosis, she presented with hypotension, tachycardia, and fatigue. Neuroimaging showed improved enhancement of the sacral nerve roots and brain imaging showed stable postsurgical changes. Systemic imaging, however, revealed widespread metastatic disease in the lymphatic system, liver, lung, and bones. The patient passed away a few months later. Medulloblastoma can metastasize outside the central nervous system (CNS), however typically does so concurrently with CNS progression. Here we present two adult patients with widely metastatic medulloblastoma systemically

  9. Evidence for the long-term maintenance of a rare self-incompatibility system in Oleaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, Philippe; Lepercq, Pierre; Billiard, Sylvain; Bourceaux, Angélique; Lepart, Jacques; Dommée, Bertrand; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    A rare homomorphic diallelic self-incompatibility (DSI) system discovered in Phillyrea angustifolia (family Oleaceae, subtribe Oleinae) can promote the transition from hermaphroditism to androdioecy. If widespread and stable in Oleaceae, DSI may explain the exceptionally high rate of androdioecious species reported in this plant family. Here, we set out to determine whether DSI occurs in another Oleaceae lineage. We tested for DSI in subtribe Fraxininae, a lineage that diverged from subtribe Oleinae c. 40 million yr ago. We explored the compatibility relationships in Fraxinus ornus using 81 hermaphrodites and 25 males from one natural stand and two naturalized populations using intra- and interspecific stigma tests performed on F. ornus and P. angustifolia testers. We uncovered a DSI system with hermaphrodites belonging to one of two self-incompatibility (SI) groups and males compatible with both groups, making for a truly androdioecious reproductive system. The two human-founded populations contained only one of the two SI groups. Our results provide evidence for the evolutionary persistence of DSI. We discuss how its stability over time may have affected transitions to other sexual systems, such as dioecy. PMID:26833140

  10. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae, Candidatus Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae this function is performed by its single endosymbiont Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola. However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species.

  11. ADDITIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL EVIDENCES ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE SYSTEMIC THERAPY IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexinschi, Ovidiu; Chirita, Roxana; Manuela, Padurariu; Ciobica, Alin; Dobrin, Romeo; Petrariu, F D; Timofte, Daniel; Chirita, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    The modern treatment for alcohol dependence is still problematic, in many cases with the costs exceeding benefits. In these conditions a new management approach was developed lately, known as the systemic therapy. In this way, the crystallization and practical transposition of this new treatment approach is represented by the Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment. These clubs are in fact a form of psycho-social intervention consisting of multi-family communities in order to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol and to change their lifestyle and behavior. Thus, in the present paper we were interested in understanding the demographics of this systemic theory and how these aspects are influencing the final results of the therapy, as well as studying/confirming how relevant is this systemic approach on the management of alcohol dependence. Our results presented in this report bring additional evidences for the superiority of the systemic, multi-family approach of alcohol-related problems, as complemented to the standard medicinal therapy. Moreover, the data collected from patients in this study might suggest that patients with a higher educational level and therefore better capacity of understanding the information, with family support, and also with a better occupational insertion, have accepted to follow The Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment program, with a subsequently better evolution. PMID:26793858

  12. The Impact of Three Evidence-Based Programmes Delivered in Public Systems in Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Little

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Birmingham Brighter Futures strategy was informed by epidemiological data on child well-being and evidence on “what works,” and included the implementation and evaluation of three evidence-based programmes in regular children’s services systems, as well as an integrated prospective cost-effectiveness analysis (reported elsewhere. A randomised controlled trial (RCT of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting programme involved 161 children aged three and four at risk of a social-emotional or behavioural disorder. An RCT of the universal PATHS social-emotional learning curriculum involved children aged four–six years in 56 primary schools. An RCT of the Level 4 Group Triple-P parenting programme involved parents of 146 children aged four–nine years with potential social-emotional or behavioural disorders. All three studies used validated standardised measures. Both parenting programme trials used parentcompletedmeasures of child and parenting behaviour. The school-based trial used teacher reports of children’s behaviour, emotions, and social competence.Incredible Years yielded reductions in negative parenting behaviours among parents, reductions in child behaviour problems, and improvements in children’s relationships. In the PATHS trial, modest improvements in emotional health and behavioural development after one year disappeared by the end of year two. There were no effects for Triple-P. Much can be learned from the strengths and limitations of the Birmingham experience.

  13. Assessment and improvement of the Italian healthcare system: first evidence from a pilot national performance evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara; Vainieri, Milena; Zett, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The Italian National Health System (NHS), established in 1978, follows a model similar to the Beveridge model developed by the British NHS (Beveridge 1942; Musgrove 2000). Like the British NHS, healthcare coverage for the Italian population is provided and financed by the government through taxes. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, in Italy the strong policy of decentralization, which has been taking place since the early 1990s, has gradually shifted powers from the state to the 21 Italian regions. Consequently, the state now retains limited supervisory control and continues to have overall responsibility for the NHS in order to ensure uniform and essential levels of health services across the country. In this context, it has become essential, both for the ministry and for regions, to adopt a common performance evaluation system (PES). This article reports the definition, implementation, and first evidences of a pilot PES at a national level. It shows how this PES can be viewed as a strategic tool supporting the Ministry of Health (MoH) in ensuring uniform levels of care for the population and assisting regional managers to evaluate performance in benchmarking. Finally, lessons for other health systems, based on the Italian experience, are provided. PMID:22724376

  14. Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Akhilesh

    This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the

  15. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the central nervous system: evidence from experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F H; Bøgh, I B; Lykkesfeldt, J

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a major acute complication in type 1 as well as in type 2 diabetes, particularly during intensive insulin therapy. The brain plays a central role in the counter-regulatory response by eliciting parasympathetic and sympathetic hormone responses to restore normoglycaemia. Brain glucose concentrations, being approximately 15-20% of the blood glucose concentration in humans, are rigorously maintained during hypoglycaemia through adaptions such as increased cerebral glucose transport, decreased cerebral glucose utilisation and, possibly, by using central nervous system glycogen as a glucose reserve. However, during sustained hypoglycaemia, the brain cannot maintain a sufficient glucose influx and, as the cerebral hypoglycaemia becomes severe, electroencephalogram changes, oxidative stress and regional neuronal death ensues. With particular focus on evidence from experimental studies on nondiabetic IIH, this review outlines the central mechanisms behind the counter-regulatory response to IIH, as well as cerebral adaption to avoid sequelae of cerebral neuroglycopaenia, including seizures and coma. PMID:24428753

  16. Management earnings forecasts and analyst forecasts:Evidence from mandatory disclosure system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao; Wang; Yunsen; Chen; Juxian; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Distinct from the literature on the effects that management earnings forecasts(MEFs) properties, such as point, range and qualitative estimations, have on analyst forecasts, this study explores the effects of selective disclosure of MEFs.Under China’s mandatory disclosure system, this study proposes that managers issue frequent forecasts to take advantage of opportune changes in predicted earnings. The argument herein is that this selective disclosure of MEFs increases information asymmetry and uncertainty, negatively influencing analyst earnings forecasts. Empirical evidence shows that firms that issue more frequent forecasts and make significant changes in MEFs are less likely to attract an analyst following, which can lead to less accurate analyst forecasts. The results imply that the selective disclosure of MEFs damages information transmission and market efficiency, which can enlighten regulators seeking to further enhance disclosure policies.

  17. Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women's physiological sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Harte, Christopher B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that women's physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Literature also suggests that the level of SNS activation may play a role in the degree to which SNS activity affects sexual arousal. We provide the first empirical examination of a possible curvilinear relationship between SNS activity and women's genital arousal using a direct measure of SNS activation in 52 sexually functional women. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV), a specific and sensitive marker of SNS activation, and vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), a measure of genital arousal, was analyzed. Moderate increases in SNS activity were associated with higher genital arousal, while very low or very high SNS activation was associated with lower genital arousal. These findings imply that there is an optimal level of SNS activation for women's physiological sexual arousal. PMID:22092348

  18. Preclinical Evidence for a Role of the Nicotinic Cholinergic System in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Xiomara A

    2015-12-01

    One of the primary deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficits that underlie the motor symptoms associated with the disease. A plethora of animal models have been developed over the years to uncover the molecular alterations that lead to PD development. These models have provided valuable information on neurotransmitter pathways and mechanisms involved. One such a system is the nicotinic cholinergic system. Numerous studies show that nigrostriatal damage affects nicotinic receptor-mediated dopaminergic signaling; therefore therapeutic modulation of the nicotinic cholinergic system may offer a novel approach to manage PD. In fact, there is evidence showing that nicotinic receptor drugs may be useful as neuroprotective agents to prevent Parkinson's disease progression. Additional preclinical studies also show that nicotinic receptor drugs may be beneficial for the treatment of L-dopa induced dyskinesias. Here, we review preclinical findings supporting the idea that nicotinic receptors are valuable therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:26553323

  19. Ancient coastal transportation system along the Western Saurashtra coast: Evidence from Navibandar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    A recent maritime archaeological exploration around Navibandar, Gujarat yielded evidence of ferry/jetty points. These points were well connected with the stone-paved roads. Interestingly, the roads have evidence of the use of bullock carts...

  20. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  1. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II–III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Montone, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Pirro, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Boschi, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II–III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with rightlateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence ...

  2. Pathways towards chronic care-focused healthcare systems: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Paolucci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Increasing healthcare expenditure is a matter of concern in many countries, particularly in relation to the underlying drivers of such escalation that include ageing, medical innovation, and changes in the burden of disease, such as the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Most healthcare systems in developed countries have been designed to 'cure' acute episodes, rather than to 'manage' chronic conditions, and therefore they are not suitably or efficiently organized to respond to the changing needs and preferences of users. New models of chronic care provision have been developed to respond to the changing burden of disease and there is already considerable practical experience in several different countries showing their advantages but also the difficulties associated with their implementation. In this paper, we focus on the Spanish experience in terms of policy changes and pilot studies focused on testing the feasibility of moving towards chronic care models. In particular, we discuss a framework that identifies and analyses ten key prerequisites to achieving high performing chronic care-based healthcare systems and apply it to the current Spanish National Health System (NHS). We find that the design of the Spanish NHS already meets some of these pre-requisites. However, other features are still in their early stages of development or are being applied only in limited geographical and clinical contexts. We outline the policies that are being implemented and the pathway that the Spanish NHS is taking to address the crucial challenge of the transition towards an optimal health system focused on chronic care. Given the current evidence and trends, we expect that the pathway for developing a chronicity strategy being followed by the Spanish NHS will significantly transform its current healthcare delivery model in the next few years. PMID:23116631

  3. Dentists' practice behaviors and perceived barriers regarding oral-systemic evidence: implications for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S; Bell, Kathryn P; Phillips, Ceib; Paquette, David W; Offenbacher, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Observational studies consistently support a relationship between poor oral health and systemic diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify current practices and perceived barriers among North Carolina dentists regarding the incorporation of oral-systemic evidence into the delivery of patient care. A survey questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, revised, and mailed to 1,350 licensed dentists in North Carolina. The response rate was 49 percent. Bivariate analysis was used to compare practice behaviors and barriers among age, gender, practice type, and setting categorizations using the chi-square test. Respondents were predominantly male (77 percent), in solo practice (59.4 percent), and in urban or suburban settings (74 percent). Half (50 percent) reported updating medical histories at every patient visit. Younger dentists were significantly (ppatient blood glucose levels and utilize blood pressure guidelines. Perceived patient objections to additional fees and lack of patient acceptance were reported as significant barriers, especially among younger dentists. Significantly more rural dentists reported lack of appropriate referral options as a barrier (ppatients' objection to additional fees. Dental schools need to prepare dental students for future roles in the assessment, management, and interprofessional collaboration that will be needed in the future. PMID:25179921

  4. Observational Evidence for a Dark Side to NGC5128's Globular Cluster System

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Matthew; Gomez, Matias; Woodley, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the dynamical properties of 125 compact stellar systems (CSSs) in the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC5128, using high-resolution spectra (R 26,000) obtained with VLT/FLAMES. Our results provide evidence for a new type of star cluster, based on the CSS dynamical mass scaling relations. All radial velocity (v_r) and line-of-sight velocity dispersion (sigma_los) measurements are performed with the penalized pixel fitting (ppxf) technique, which provided sigma_ppxf estimates for 115 targets. The sigma_ppxf estimates are corrected to the 2D projected half-light radii, sigma_{1/2}, as well as the cluster cores, sigma_0, accounting for observational/aperture effects and are combined with structural parameters, from high spatial resolution imaging, in order to derive total dynamical masses (M_dyn) for 112 members of NGC5128's star cluster system. In total, 89 CSSs have dynamical masses measured for the first time along with the corresponding dynamical mass-to-light ratios (Upsilon_V^dyn). We ...

  5. Implication of the immune system in Alzheimer's disease: evidence from genome-wide pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jean-Charles; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Chouraki, Vincent; Heath, Simon; Zelenika, Diana; Fievet, Nathalie; Hannequin, Didier; Pasquier, Florence; Hanon, Olivier; Brice, Alexis; Epelbaum, Jacques; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-Francois; Tzourio, Christophe; Campion, Dominique; Lathrop, Mark; Amouyel, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The results of several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have recently been published. Although these studies reported in detail on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the neighboring genes with the strongest evidence of association with AD, little attention was paid to the rest of the genome. However, complementary statistical and bio-informatics approaches now enable the extraction of pertinent information from other SNPs and/or genes which are only nominally associated with the disease risk. Two different tools (the ALIGATOR and GenGen/KEGG software packages) were used to analyze a large GWAS dataset containing 2,032 AD cases and 5,328 controls. Convergent outputs from the two gene set enrichment approaches suggested an immune system dysfunction in AD. Furthermore, although these statistical approaches did not adopt a priori hypotheses concerning a biological function's putative role in the disease process, genes associated with AD risk were overrepresented in the "Alzheimer's disease" KEGG pathway. In conclusion, a systematic search for biological pathways using GWAS data set seems to comfort the primary causes already suspected but may specifically highlight the importance of the immune system in AD. PMID:20413860

  6. Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Fever induction pathways: evidence from responses to systemic or local cytokine formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune and central nervous systems are functionally connected and interacting. The concept that the immune signaling to the brain which induces fever during infection and inflammation is mediated by circulating cytokines has been traditionally accepted. Administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the appearance of a so-termed "cytokine cascade" in the circulation more or less concomitantly to the developing febrile response. Also, LPS-like fever can be induced by systemic administration of key cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-alpha, and others. However, anti-cytokine strategies against IL-1ß or TNF-alpha along with systemic injections of LPS frequently lead to attenuation of the later stages of the febrile response but not of the initial phase of fever, indicating that cytokines are rather involved in the maintenance than in the early induction of fever. Within the last years experimental evidence has accumulated indicating the existence of neural transport pathways of immune signals to the brain. Because subdiaphragmatic vagotomy prevents or attenuates fever in response to intraperitoneal or intravenous injections of LPS, a role for vagal afferent nerve fibers in fever induction has been proposed. Also other sensory nerves may participate in the manifestation of febrile responses under certain experimental conditions. Thus, injection of a small dose of LPS into an artificial subcutaneous chamber results in fever and formation of cytokines within the inflamed tissue around the site of injection. This febrile response can be blocked in part by injection of a local anesthetic into the subcutaneous chamber, indicating a participation of cutaneous afferent nerve signals in the manifestation of fever in this model. In conclusion, humoral signals and an inflammatory stimulation of afferent sensory nerves can participate in the generation and maintenance of a febrile response.

  8. Populus Responses to Edaphic and Climatic Cues: Emerging Evidence from Systems Biology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Davis, John M [University of Florida

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of Populus as a model system for tree biology continues to be driven by a community of scientists dedicated to developing the resources needed to undertake genetic and functional genomic studies in this genus. As a result, understanding the molecular processes that underpin the growth and development of cottonwood, aspen, and hybrid poplar has steadily increased over the last several decades. Recently, our ability to examine the basic mechanisms whereby trees respond to a changing climate and resource limitations has benefited greatly from the sequencing of the P. trichocarpa genome. This landmark event has laid a solid foundation upon which biologists can now quantify, in breathtaking and unprecedented detail, the diversity of genes, proteins, and metabolites that govern the growth and development of some of the longest living and tallest growing organisms on Earth. Although the challenges likely to be encountered by scientists who work with trees are many, recent literature provides a few examples where a systems approach, one that focuses on integrating transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, is beginning to provide insights into the molecular-scale response of poplars to their climatic and edaphic environment. In this review, our objectives are to look at evidence from studies that examine the molecular response of poplar to edaphic and climatic cues and highlight instances where two or more omic-scale measurements confirm and hopefully expand our inferences about mechanisms contributing to observed patterns of response. Based on conclusions drawn from these studies, we propose that three requirements will be essential as systems biology in poplar moves to reveal unique insights. These include use of genetically-defined individuals (e.g., pedigrees or transgenics) in studies; incorporation of modeling as a complement to transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data; and inclusion of whole-tree and stand-level phenotypes to place

  9. Strengthening the food systems governance evidence base: Supporting commensurability of research through a systematic review of methods

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Aogán; Evans, Tom; McGreevy, John; Blekking, Jordan; Schlachter, Tyler; Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa; Tamás, Peter A.; Todd A. Crane; Eakin, Hallie; Förch, Wiebke; Jones, Lindsey; Donald R. Nelson; Oberlack, Christoph; Purdon, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Governance of food systems is a poorly understood determinant of food security. Much scholarship on food systems governance is non-empirical, while existing research is often case study-based and theoretically and methodologically incommensurable. This frustrates aggregation of evidence and generalisation. We undertook a systematic review of methods used in food systems governance research with a view to identifying a core set of indicators for future research. We gathered literature through ...

  10. Impact of a computerized system for evidence-based diabetes care on completeness of records: a before–after study

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanov Pavel S; Gerstein Hertzel C; Hunt Dereck L; Sebaldt Rolf J; Haynes R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Physicians practicing in ambulatory care are adopting electronic health record (EHR) systems. Governments promote this adoption with financial incentives, some hinged on improvements in care. These systems can improve care but most demonstrations of successful systems come from a few highly computerized academic environments. Those findings may not be generalizable to typical ambulatory settings, where evidence of success is largely anecdotal, with little or no use of rigo...

  11. 刑事证据开示制度的重构%The System of Criminal Evidence Discovery Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔林

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of evidence system as pretrial procedures and mechanisms in common law countries is very common,but also the criminal procedure justice embodiment.After 1996,our country reforms original trial way,absorption of Anglo-American law system in the criminal procedure of some rules and regulations,pay attention to parties to the litigation mode.In fact,China's new" law" have established a one-way evidence demonstration program,criminal evidence discovery system has become China's judicial field.This careful analysis of Chinese evidence public problems,reconstruction of the system of criminal evidence discovery,present evidence show system legislation,reform and perfect our country's criminal justice system.%证据开示制度作为审判前的程序和机制在英美法系国家中非常普遍,也是刑事诉讼程序公正性的体现。1996年后我国改革原有的庭审方式,吸收英美法系刑事诉讼中的一些规则和制度,重视当事人的诉讼模式。其实我国新《律师法》已经建立了一种单向证据展示程序,刑事证据的开示制度成为了我国司法界的热点。文章分析我国证据公示存在的问题,重构刑事证据开示制度,提出证据公示制度的立法,完善和改革我国的刑事司法制度。

  12. Zirconium isotope evidence for the heterogeneous distribution of s-process materials in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M.; Bisterzo, S.; Gallino, R.

    2015-09-01

    A growing number of elements show well-resolved nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies in bulk-rock samples of solar system materials. In order to establish the occurrence and extent of such isotopic heterogeneities in Zr, and to investigate the origin of the widespread heterogeneities in our solar system, new high-precision Zr isotope data are reported for a range of primitive and differentiated meteorites. The majority of the carbonaceous chondrites (CV, CM, CO, CK) display variable ε96Zr values (⩽1.4) relative to the Earth. The data indicate the heterogeneous distribution of 96Zr-rich CAIs in these meteorites, which sampled supernova (SN) material that was likely synthesized by charged-particle reactions or neutron-captures. Other carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CB, CR), ordinary chondrites and eucrites display variable, well-resolved 96Zr excesses correlated with potential, not clearly resolved variations in 91Zr relative to the bulk-Earth and enstatite chondrites. This tentative correlation is supported by nucleosynthetic models and provides evidence for variable contributions of average solar system s-process material to different regions of the solar system, with the Earth representing the most s-process enriched material. New s-process model calculations indicate that this s-process component was produced in both low and intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The isotopic heterogeneity pattern is different to the s-process signature resolved in a previous Zr leaching experiment, which was attributed to low mass AGB stars. The bulk-rock heterogeneity requires several nucleosynthetic sources, and therefore opposes the theory of the injection of material from a single source (e.g., supernova, AGB star) and argues for a selective dust-sorting mechanism within the solar nebula. Thermal processing of labile carrier phases is considered and, if correct, necessitates the destruction and removal of non-s-process material from the innermost solar system

  13. Deficiencies in the transfer and availability of clinical trials evidence: a review of existing systems and standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkenhoef Gert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions concerning drug safety and efficacy are generally based on pivotal evidence provided by clinical trials. Unfortunately, finding the relevant clinical trials is difficult and their results are only available in text-based reports. Systematic reviews aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence in a specific area, but may not provide the data required for decision making. Methods We review and analyze the existing information systems and standards for aggregate level clinical trials information from the perspective of systematic review and evidence-based decision making. Results The technology currently used has major shortcomings, which cause deficiencies in the transfer, traceability and availability of clinical trials information. Specifically, data available to decision makers is insufficiently structured, and consequently the decisions cannot be properly traced back to the underlying evidence. Regulatory submission, trial publication, trial registration, and systematic review produce unstructured datasets that are insufficient for supporting evidence-based decision making. Conclusions The current situation is a hindrance to policy decision makers as it prevents fully transparent decision making and the development of more advanced decision support systems. Addressing the identified deficiencies would enable more efficient, informed, and transparent evidence-based medical decision making.

  14. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  15. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  16. Midurethral slings: evidence-based medicine vs the medicolegal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Charles W

    2016-06-01

    Midurethral sling procedures are minimally invasive surgeries for stress urinary incontinence that use a trocar system to place a narrow ribbon of polypropylene mesh under the midurethra. The peer-reviewed scientific literature on these procedures is abundant and midurethral slings are the most well-studied incontinence procedure ever. Systematic reviews of the literature demonstrate that midurethral slings are safer and more (or equally) effective as traditional procedures. The midurethral sling is the worldwide standard for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence and >3 million procedures have been performed. The Food and Drug Administration and international scientific review agencies have consistently differentiated transvaginal mesh for stress urinary incontinence from transvaginal mesh for prolapse. In the recruitment of patients to participate in transvaginal mesh litigation, plaintiff lawyers have not made the distinction between stress urinary incontinence and prolapse procedures because more women have received midurethral slings than transvaginal mesh for prolapse by an order of magnitude. The litigation costs of defending their products have forced several companies that manufactured midurethral slings to leave the marketplace. It is not inconceivable that midurethral slings could become absent from the US market. If that happens, then US women with stress urinary incontinence will be harmed because they will not have access in this country to the best and safest stress urinary incontinence surgical procedure ever developed. It may be time for the Institute of Medicine or another comparable national agency to provide evidence-based recommendations on the midurethral sling. PMID:27105683

  17. Evidence evaluation in fingerprint comparison and automated fingerprint identification systems--Modeling between finger variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli Anthonioz, N M; Champod, C

    2014-02-01

    In the context of the investigation of the use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) for the evaluation of fingerprint evidence, the current study presents investigations into the variability of scores from an AFIS system when fingermarks from a known donor are compared to fingerprints that are not from the same source. The ultimate goal is to propose a model, based on likelihood ratios, which allows the evaluation of mark-to-print comparisons. In particular, this model, through its use of AFIS technology, benefits from the possibility of using a large amount of data, as well as from an already built-in proximity measure, the AFIS score. More precisely, the numerator of the LR is obtained from scores issued from comparisons between impressions from the same source and showing the same minutia configuration. The denominator of the LR is obtained by extracting scores from comparisons of the questioned mark with a database of non-matching sources. This paper focuses solely on the assignment of the denominator of the LR. We refer to it by the generic term of between-finger variability. The issues addressed in this paper in relation to between-finger variability are the required sample size, the influence of the finger number and general pattern, as well as that of the number of minutiae included and their configuration on a given finger. Results show that reliable estimation of between-finger variability is feasible with 10,000 scores. These scores should come from the appropriate finger number/general pattern combination as defined by the mark. Furthermore, strategies of obtaining between-finger variability when these elements cannot be conclusively seen on the mark (and its position with respect to other marks for finger number) have been presented. These results immediately allow case-by-case estimation of the between-finger variability in an operational setting. PMID:24447455

  18. The Origin of Organic Matter in the Solar System: Evidence from Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Jacobsen, C.; Wirick, S.

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the organic matter in interplanetary materials has not been established. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed, with two extreme cases being a Fisher-Tropsch type process operating in the gas phase of the solar nebula or a Miller-Urey type process, which requires interaction with an aqueous fluid, presumably occurring on an asteroid. In the Fisher-Tropsch case, we might expect similar organic matter in hydrated and anhydrous interplanetary materials. However, aqueous alteration is required in the case of the Miller-Urey process, and we would expect to see organic matter preferentially in interplanetary materials that exhibit evidence of aqueous activity, such as the presence of hydrated silicates. The types and abundance of organic matter in meteorites have been used as an indicator of the origin of organic matter in the Solar System. Indigenous complex organic matter, including amino acids, has been found in hydrated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, such as Murchison. Much lower amounts of complex organic matter, possibly only terrestrial contamination, have been found in anhydrous carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, such as Allende, that contain most of their carbon in elemental form. These results seem to favor production of the bulk of the organic matter in the Solar System by aqueous processing on parent bodies such as asteroids, a Miller-Urey process. However, the hydrated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites have approximately solar abundances of the moderately volatile elements, while all anhydrous carbonaceous chondrite meteorites have significantly lower contents of these moderately volatile elements. Two mechanisms, incomplete condensation or evaporation, both of which involve processing at approx. 1200 C, have been suggested to explain the lower content of the moderately volatile elements in all anhydrous meteorites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqil Anwer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS. In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance

  20. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%. Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42% with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79% and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%. Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of

  1. Do you do Damon®? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natasha; Modarai, Faranak; Cobourne, Martyn T; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2011-09-01

    Self-ligating bracket systems are increasing in popularity amongst orthodontists. This reflects their high quality engineering, improved reliability and relative ease of use. However, it might also be related to claims of superior function made by the manufacturers of these appliances. In particular, the Damon(®) appliance system claims to offer significant advantages to both orthodontist and patient over conventional-ligation and other forms of self-ligated appliances. We have reviewed current literature relating to use of the Damon(®) appliance system. There is some evidence to suggest this appliance may lead to reductions in chairside time for the orthodontist, particularly those experienced with this system, in comparison to conventional-ligation. However, evidence that pain experience is reduced for the patient when using Damon(®) brackets is not conclusive. In the presence of identical archwire sequences, there is no evidence that Damon(®) brackets can align teeth faster or in a qualitatively differently manner, when compared with conventional-ligation. There is no high quality evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance takes place more rapidly or leads to a superior occlusal or aesthetic result. Indeed, the best available evidence would suggest there is no difference in treatment outcome or time, at least in extraction cases. There is no evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance is more stable. Claims relating to improved clinical performance of the Damon(®) appliance system are currently being made to orthodontists and patients that are not substantiated in the scientific literature. PMID:21875995

  2. Metagenomic Evidence for the Presence of Comammox Nitrospira-Like Bacteria in a Drinking Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ameet J; Marcus, Daniel N; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Bautista-de Lose Santos, Quyen Melina; Dick, Gregory J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2016-01-01

    We report metagenomic evidence for the presence of a Nitrospira-like organism with the metabolic potential to perform the complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate (i.e., it is a complete ammonia oxidizer [comammox]) in a drinking water system. This metagenome bin was discovered through shotgun DNA sequencing of samples from biologically active filters at the drinking water treatment plant in Ann Arbor, MI. Ribosomal proteins, 16S rRNA, and nxrA gene analyses confirmed that this genome is related to Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The presence of the full suite of ammonia oxidation genes, including ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase, on a single ungapped scaffold within this metagenome bin suggests the presence of recently discovered comammox potential. Evaluations based on coverage and k-mer frequency distribution, use of two different genome-binning approaches, and nucleic acid and protein similarity analyses support the presence of this scaffold within the Nitrospira metagenome bin. The amoA gene found in this metagenome bin is divergent from those of canonical ammonia and methane oxidizers and clusters closely with the unusual amoA gene of comammox Nitrospira. This finding suggests that previously reported imbalances in abundances of nitrite- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria/archaea may likely be explained by the capacity of Nitrospira-like organisms to completely oxidize ammonia. This finding might have significant implications for our understanding of microbially mediated nitrogen transformations in engineered and natural systems. IMPORTANCE Nitrification plays an important role in regulating the concentrations of inorganic nitrogen species in a range of environments, from drinking water and wastewater treatment plants to the oceans. Until recently, aerobic nitrification was considered to be a two-step process involving ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. This process requires close cooperation

  3. Criminal Scene Evidence Management System Design%刑事现场物证管理系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晶晶; 范晓辉

    2012-01-01

    本文通过刑事现场物证管理系统的设计,实现了物证管理的信息化,克服现有物证管理的弊端。其开发的总任务是实现与刑事现场物证管理相关的各种信息的系统化、规范化和自动化。主要完成物证信息管理、日常入出库操作、信息查询、系统管理等功能。%Through the criminal scene evidence management system designed to achieve the physical evidence of information management, to overcome the drawbacks of the existing evidence management. The development task is to realize the systematization, standardization and automation of a variety of information related to the criminal scene evidence management. Completed evidence information management, the daily into and out of library, information query, and system management functions.

  4. Evidence for a Dark Side to NGC 5128’s Globular Cluster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Taylor, Matthew Alan

    2015-08-01

    Evidence for a new type of star cluster from the dynamical mass scaling relations of compact stellar systems (CSSs) will be presented, based on a study of 125 CSSs around the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128, using high-resolution spectra (R=26000) obtained with VLT/FLAMES. All radial velocity (vr) and line-of-sight velocity dispersion (σlos) measurements are performed with the penalized pixel fitting (ppxf) technique. The σlos estimates are corrected to the 2D projected half-light radii, (σ1/2), as well as the cluster cores, (σ0), accounting for observational/aperture effects and are combined with structural parameters in order to derive dynamical half-mass estimates (M1/2), and total dynamical masses (Mdyn), for 116 CSSs around NGC 5128. In total, 93 CSSs have Mdyn measured for the first time along with the corresponding dynamical mass-to-light ratios (M/L)dyn. We find two distinct sequences in the (M/L)dyn-Mdyn plane, which are well fit by power laws of the forms (M/L)dyn ~ M(0.33+/-0.04) and (M/L)dyn ~ M(0.91+/-0.04). The shallower sequence corresponds to the very bright tail of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF), with indications for angular momentum content that increases with Mdyn. The steeper relation appears to be populated by a distinct group of objects with significant dark gravitating mass components, such as central massive black holes and/or exotically compact dark matter distributions. This result would suggest that the formation and evolution of these CSSs is markedly different from the classical globular clusters in NGC 5128 despite the fact that they have luminosities similar to the GCLF turn-over magnitude.

  5. In vivo evidence that TRAF4 is required for central nervous system myelin homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Blaise

    Full Text Available Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factors (TRAFs are major signal transducers for the TNF and interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor superfamilies. However, TRAF4 does not fit the paradigm of TRAF function in immune and inflammatory responses. Its physiological and molecular functions remain poorly understood. Behavorial analyses show that TRAF4-deficient mice (TRAF4-KO exhibit altered locomotion coordination typical of ataxia. TRAF4-KO central nervous system (CNS ultrastructure shows strong myelin perturbation including disorganized layers and disturbances in paranode organization. TRAF4 was previously reported to be expressed by CNS neurons. Using primary cell culture, we now show that TRAF4 is also expressed by oligodendrocytes, at all stages of their differentiation. Moreover, histology and electron microscopy show degeneration of a high number of Purkinje cells in TRAF4-KO mice, that was confirmed by increased expression of the Bax pro-apoptotic marker (immunofluorescence, TUNEL analysis, and caspase-3 activation and PARP1 cleavage (western blotting. Consistent with this phenotype, MAG and NogoA, two myelin-induced neurite outgrowth inhibitors, and their neuron partners, NgR and p75NTR were overexpressed (Q-RT-PCR and western blotting. The strong increased phosphorylation of Rock2, a RhoA downstream target, indicated that the NgR/p75NTR/RhoA signaling pathway, known to induce actin cytoskeleton rearrangement that favors axon regeneration inhibition and neuron apoptosis, is activated in the absence of TRAF4 (western blotting. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence for the pivotal contribution of TRAF4 to myelination and to cerebellar homeostasis, and link the loss of TRAF4 function to demyelinating or neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Evidence for Methyl-Compound-Activated Life in Coal Bed System 2 km Below Sea Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath-reichert, E.; Morono, Y.; Dawson, K.; Wanger, G.; Bowles, M.; Heuer, V.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Inagaki, F.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 337 set the record for deepest marine scientific drilling down to 2.4 kmbsf. This cruise also had the unique opportunity to retrieve deep cores from the Shimokita coal bed system in Japan with the aseptic and anaerobic conditions necessary to look for deep life. Onboard scientists prepared nearly 1,700 microbiology samples shared among five different countries to study life in the deep biosphere. Samples spanned over 1 km in sampling depths and include representatives of shale, sandstone, and coal lithologies. Findings from previous IODP and deep mine expeditions suggest the genetic potential for methylotrophy in the deep subsurface, but it has yet to be observed in incubations. A subset of Expedition 337 anoxic incubations were prepared with a range of 13C-methyl substrates (methane, methylamine, and methanol) and maintained near in situ temperatures. To observe 13C methyl compound metabolism over time, we monitored the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (by-product of methyl compound metabolism) over a period of 1.5 years. Elemental analysis (EA), ion chromatograph (IC), 13C volatile fatty acid (VFA), and mineral-associated microscopy data were also collected to constrain initial and endpoint conditions in these incubations. Our geochemical evidence suggests that the coal horizon incubated with 13C-methane showed the highest activity of all methyl incubations. This provides the first known observation of methane-activated metabolism in the deep biosphere, and suggests there are not only active cells in the deeply buried terrigenous coal bed at Shimokita, but the presence of a microbial community activated by methylotrophic compounds.

  7. Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Relation to a Clinical Nursing Ladder System: A National Survey in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Chen, Chiehfeng; Kuo, Ken N.; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lo, Heng-Lien; Chen, Kee-Hsin; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has been widely investigated, few studies have investigated its correlation with a clinical nursing ladder system. The current national study evaluates whether EBP implementation has been incorporated into the clinical ladder system. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted nationwide of registered nurses among regional hospitals of Taiwan in January to April 2011. Subjects were categorized into beginning nurses (N1 and N2)...

  8. Towards evidence-based, quality-controlled health promotion: the Dutch recognition system for health promotion interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Brug, J.; Dale, D.; Lanting, L.; Kremers, S.; Veenhof, C.; Leurs, M.; Yperen, T. van; Kok, G

    2010-01-01

    Registration or recognition systems for best-practice health promotion interventions may contribute to better quality assurance and control in health promotion practice. In the Netherlands, such a system has been developed and is being implemented aiming to provide policy makers and professionals with more information on the quality and effectiveness of available health promotion interventions and to promote use of good-practice and evidence-based interventions by health promotion organizatio...

  9. Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2006-11-18

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis. PMID:17113432

  10. [Evidence is good for your health system: policy reform to remedy catastrophic and impoverishing health spending in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Méndez-Carniado, Oscar; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Barofsky, Jeremy; Maguire, Rachel; Miranda, Martha; Sesma, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Absence of financial protection in health is a recently diagnosed "disease" of health systems. The most obvious symptom is that families face economic ruin and poverty as a consequence of financing their health care. Mexico was one of the first countries to diagnose the problem, attribute it to lack of financial protection, and propose systemic therapy through health reform. In this article we assess how Mexico turned evidence on catastrophic and impoverishing health spending into a catalyst for institutional renovation through the reform that created Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance). We present 15-year trends on the evolution of catastrophic and impoverishing health spending, including evidence on how the situation is improving. The results of the Mexican experience suggest an important role for the organisation and financing of the health system in reducing impoverishment and protecting households during periods of individual and collective financial crisis. PMID:17469400

  11. Bridging evidence, policy, and practice to strengthen health systems for improved maternal and newborn health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Atsumi; Hall, Sarah; Memon, Zahid; Hussein, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Policy and decision making should be based on evidence, but translating evidence into policy and practice is often sporadic and slow. It is recognised that the relationship between research and policy uptake is complex and that dissemination of research findings is necessary, but insufficient, for policy uptake. Political, social, and economic context, use of (credible) data and dialogues between and across networks of researchers and policymakers play important roles in evidence uptake. Advocacy is the process of mobilising political and public opinions to achieve specific aims and its role is crucial in mobilising key actors to push for policy uptake. Advocacy and research groups (i.e. those who would like to see research evidence used by policymakers) may use different approaches and tools to stimulate the diffusion of research findings. The use of mass- and social media, communication with study participants, and the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages of research development are examples of the approaches that can be employed to stimulate diffusion of evidence and increase evidence uptake. The Research and Advocacy Fund (RAF) for Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) worked within the health system context in Pakistan with the aim of espousing the principles of evidence, advocacy, and dissemination to improve MNH outcomes. The articles included in this special issue are outputs of RAF and highlight where RAF's approaches contributed to MNH policy reforms. The papers discuss critical health system issues facing Pakistan, including service delivery components, demand creation, equitable access, transportation interventions for improved referrals, availability of medicines and equipment, and health workforce needs. In addition to these tangible elements, the health system 'software', i.e. the power and the political and social contexts, is also represented in the collection. These articles highlight three considerations for the future: the growing

  12. Molecular evidence for a functional ecdysone signaling system in Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tzertzinis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filarial nematodes, including Brugia malayi, the causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, undergo molting in both arthropod and mammalian hosts to complete their life cycles. An understanding of how these parasites cross developmental checkpoints may reveal potential targets for intervention. Pharmacological evidence suggests that ecdysteroids play a role in parasitic nematode molting and fertility although their specific function remains unknown. In insects, ecdysone triggers molting through the activation of the ecdysone receptor: a heterodimer of EcR (ecdysone receptor and USP (Ultraspiracle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report the cloning and characterization of a B. malayi EcR homologue (Bma-EcR. Bma-EcR dimerizes with insect and nematode USP/RXRs and binds to DNA encoding a canonical ecdysone response element (EcRE. In support of the existence of an active ecdysone receptor in Brugia we also cloned a Brugia rxr (retinoid X receptor homolog (Bma-RXR and demonstrate that Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR interact to form an active heterodimer using a mammalian two-hybrid activation assay. The Bma-EcR ligand-binding domain (LBD exhibits ligand-dependent transactivation via a GAL4 fusion protein combined with a chimeric RXR in mammalian cells treated with Ponasterone-A or a synthetic ecdysone agonist. Furthermore, we demonstrate specific up-regulation of reporter gene activity in transgenic B. malayi embryos transfected with a luciferase construct controlled by an EcRE engineered in a B. malayi promoter, in the presence of 20-hydroxy-ecdysone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies and characterizes the two components (Bma-EcR and Bma-RXR necessary for constituting a functional ecdysteroid receptor in B. malayi. Importantly, the ligand binding domain of BmaEcR is shown to be capable of responding to ecdysteroid ligands, and conversely, ecdysteroids can activate transcription of genes downstream of an EcRE in live B. malayi embryos. These results together

  13. Visual Cortex Plasticity Following Peripheral Damage To The Visual System: fMRI Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, João; Pereira, Daniela; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Over the last two decades, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful research method to investigate cortical visual plasticity. Abnormal fMRI response patterns have been occasionally detected in the visually deprived cortex of patients with bilateral retinal diseases. Controversy remains whether these observations indicate structural reorganization of the visual cortex or unmasking of previously silent cortico-cortical connections. In optic nerve diseases, there is weak evidence showing that early visual cortex seems to lack reorganization, while higher-order visual areas undergo plastic changes which may contribute to optimise visual function. There is however accumulating imaging evidence demonstrating trans-synaptic degeneration of the visual cortex in patients with disease of the anterior visual pathways. This may preclude the use of restorative treatments in these patients. Here, we review and update the body of fMRI evidence on visual cortical plasticity. PMID:27542799

  14. Evidence that deletion at FCGR3B is a risk factor for systemic sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, C.; Broen, J.C.A.; Vonk, M.C.; Beretta, L.; Hesselstrand, R.; Hunzelmann, N.; Riemekasten, G.; Scorza, R.; Simeon, C.P.; Fonollosa, V.; Carreira, P.E.; Ortego-Centeno, N.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Airo, P.; Coenen, M.J.; Martin, J.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Merriman, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that gene copy number (CN) variation influences clinical phenotype. The low-affinity Fc receptor 3B (FCGR3B) located in the FCGR gene cluster is a CN polymorphic gene involved in the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to sites of inflammation and their activati

  15. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  16. Language Learning as Chaos/Complexity System: Evidence Based on Iranian EFL Learners’ Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Safari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Language learning process was traditionally investigated through the reductionist perspective treating language learning as a fixed, linear, cause and effect phenomenon in addition to imposing three levels of reductionism including context reduction, data reduction, and complexity reduction on the field of SLA. With the emergence of Chaos/Complexity Theory (CC/T, language learning was considered as a nonlinear, complex, and dynamic system evolving, growing, and changing from the bottom-up in an organic and unpredictable manner through the dynamics of language. In complex systems such as language learning, the Language learning process was traditionally investigated through the reductionist perspective as a fixed, linear, cause and effect phenomenon in addition to imposing three levels of reductionism including context reduction, data reduction, and complexity reduction on the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA. With the emergence of Chaos/Complexity Theory (CC/T, language learning was considered as a nonlinear, complex, and dynamic system evolving, growing, and changing from the bottom-up in an organic and unpredictable manner through the dynamics of language. Considering language learning as a complex system, its complex behavior as a whole is influenced by a large number of factors, forces, and agents within or beyond its boundaries which is more than the behavior of its individual components. Despite the fact that C/CT provides new insights, understandings, and implications for researchers in the field of SLA, very few practical attempts are available which investigate the complexities of language learning. Accordingly, ten male/ female Iranian EFL learners participated in this narrative research based on purposive sampling. The researcher used semi- structured interview to elicit participants’ histories and stories concerning their language learning process. After the transcription of the data, the participants’ personal

  17. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California

    OpenAIRE

    Holston, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and...

  18. Complaints of rape and the criminal justice system: Fresh evidence on the attrition problem in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Hohl, K; Stanko, E.

    2015-01-01

    The UK has one of the lowest conviction rates for rape in Europe. This article presents unique evidence on the factors that influence the attrition of rape allegations in the English criminal justice system. The study is based on a large, representative sample of rape allegations reported to the London Metropolitan Police, the UK’s biggest police force. The dataset contains unprecedented detail on the incident, victim, suspect and police investigation. The results lend support to the influenc...

  19. Organic foods in Danish municipal school food systems – a multistakeholder analysis of available evidence on constraints and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Olsen, Tenna Doktor

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic supply and healthy eating initiatives in school food services share common features. Both types involves changes in supply, the collaboration of a number of different stakeholders and both include a physical food part as well as a non physical symbolic aspect. Studies have shown that introducing organic food in public food systems seems to affect the nutritional profile of the food service and anecdotal evidence suggest that organic supply forces food ...

  20. fMRI evidence for the involvement of the procedural memory system in morphological processing of a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Pliatsikas , Christos; Johnstone, Tom; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural evidence suggests that English regular past tense forms are automatically decomposed into their stem and affix (played  = play+ed) based on an implicit linguistic rule, which does not apply to the idiosyncratically formed irregular forms (kept). Additionally, regular, but not irregular inflections, are thought to be processed through the procedural memory system (left inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia, cerebellum). It has been suggested that this distinction does not to apply ...

  1. A Novel Evaluation Model for Hybrid Power System Based on Vague Set and Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because clean energy and traditional energy have different advantages and disadvantages, it is of great significance to evaluate comprehensive benefits for hybrid power systems. Based on thorough analysis of important characters on hybrid power systems, an index system including security, economic benefit, environmental benefit, and social benefit is established in this paper. Due to advantages of processing abundant uncertain and fuzzy information, vague set is used to determine the decision matrix. Convert vague decision matrix to real one by vague combination ruleand determine uncertain degrees of different indexes by grey incidence analysis, then the mass functions of different comment set in different indexes are obtained. Information can be fused in accordance with Dempster-Shafer (D-S combination rule and the evaluation result is got by vague set and D-S evidence theory. A simulation of hybrid power system including thermal power, wind power, and photovoltaic power in China is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed design scheme. It can be clearly seen that the uncertainties in decision making can be dramatically decreased compared with existing methods in the literature. The actual implementation results illustrate that the proposed index system and evaluation model based on vague set and D-S evidence theory are effective and practical to evaluate comprehensive benefit of hybrid power system.

  2. Evaluating Systems Change Efforts to Support Evidence-Based Home Visiting: Concepts and Methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Hargreaves; Diane Paulsell

    2009-01-01

    This report grounds the cross-site systems domain evaluation approach in the system literature. It focuses on three aspects: (1) the system-based evaluation approach and theory of change, (2) core infrastructure concepts, and (3) system-based evaluation methods.

  3. Migration, gender, and farming systems in Asia: Evidence, data, and knowledge gaps:

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Valerie; Kovarik, Chiara; Sproule, Kathryn; Quisumbing, Agnes R

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on migration in Asia, with specific attention given to how gendered migration may influence future agricultural productivity. The first section examines the current body of evidence on the state of international and internal migration, using large-scale datasets that cover several Asian countries. The second section summarizes the findings of an extensive literature review on gendered determinants of migration, employment, and remittances. The third section l...

  4. Foreign subsidiaries in the East German innovation system: Evidence from manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Jutta; Jindra, Björn; Stephan, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the extent of technological capability of foreign subsidiaries located in East Germany, and looks at the determinants of foreign subsidiaries’ technological sourcing behaviour. The theory of international production underlines the importance of strategic and regional level variables. However, existing empirical approaches omit by and large regional level factors. We employ survey evidence from the “FDI micro data- base” of the IWH, that was only recently made available, to...

  5. Tissue sodium storage: evidence for kidney-like extrarenal countercurrent systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Perisic, Stojan; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from chemical analysis of tissue electrolyte and water composition has shown that body Na+ content in experimental animals is not constant, does not always readily equilibrate with water, and cannot be exclusively controlled by the renal blood purification process. Instead, large amounts of Na+ are stored in the skin and in skeletal muscle. Quantitative non-invasive detection of Na+ reservoirs with 23NaMRI suggests that this mysterious Na+ storage is not only an animal researc...

  6. Can Advocacy-Led Certification Systems Transform Global Corporate Practices? Evidence, and Some Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Conroy

    2001-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that globalization is beginning to provide new opportunities for global coalitions of advocacy groups to bring market-based pressures to bear upon major transnational firms in a way that promotes higher standards of social and environmental responsibility in production processes and trade relations. This can be seen as successful citizen-led attention to the “production and process methods” which the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations explicitly chose to omit. More...

  7. The Political Economy of Financial Systems: Evidence from Suffrage Reforms in the Last Two Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Degryse, H.A.; Lambert, T.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the uncertainty and financial returns from stock markets. Our panel data evidence covering 1830-1999 shows that tighter restrictions on the voting franchise induce a greater stock market development, whereas...

  8. The political economy of financial systems: Evidence from suffrage reforms in the last two centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Degryse, Hans; Lambert, Thomas; Schwienbacher, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the uncertainty and financial returns from stock markets. Our panel data evidence covering 1830-1999 shows that tighter restrictions on the voting franchise induce a greater stock market development, whereas...

  9. The Political Economy of Financial Systems: Evidence from Suffrage Reforms in the Last Two Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Degryse, Hans; Lambert, Thomas; Schwienbacher, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the uncertainty and financial returns from stock markets. Our panel data evidence covering 1830-1999 shows that tighter restrictions on the voting franchise induce a greater stock market development, whereas a broader...

  10. Towards sustainable systems of land administration: Recent evidence and challenges for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Deininger, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    A number of factors, including a recent rediscovery of the agricultural sector, growing demands for large-scale land acquisition, and economic growth, have increased demand for land registration in Africa. On the basis of a review of evidence, we argue that, in most cases, a key benefit from such interventions will be greater tenure security and the associated investment or rental market participation rather than credit effects. Interventions to formalize rights in the African context need to...

  11. The European VCD System: Facilitating Public Procurement through Criteria-to-Evidence Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Mondorf, Ansgar; Wimmer, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate European Union (EU)-wide interoperability in public eProcurement, the European Commission co-funds the PEPPOL project. PEPPOL aims at setting up pan-European pilot solutions that conjointly exist with national infrastructures. One of the key building blocks is the Virtual Company Dossier (VCD), an electronic cross-border document container that carries attestations and candidate statements required to evidence the fulfilment of non-exclusion and selection criteria in public tend...

  12. Do emerging markets matter in the world oil pricing system? - evidence of imported crude by China and India

    OpenAIRE

    LI Hong; Lin, Xiaowen

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the changing structure of world oil price system by identifying an additional driver – emerging market factor. We choose China and India as a representative of emerging markets to examine if the quantity of crude oil imported by China and India is significant in the existing oil pricing system (Kaufmann et.al. (2004). Our data starts from January 2002 and ends in March 2010 which includes the oil shock of 2007-2008. We utilize cointegration and Error-...

  13. Bench-to-bedside review: Current evidence for extracorporeal albumin dialysis systems in liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Karvellas, Constantine J.; Gibney, Noel; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios; Wendon, Julia; Bain, Vincent G

    2007-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) and acute on chronic liver failure (AoCLF) carry a high mortality. The rationale for extracorporeal systems is to provide an environment facilitating recovery or a window of opportunity for liver transplantation. Recent technologies have used albumin as a scavenging molecule. Two different albumin dialysis systems have been developed using this principle: MARS (Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System) and SPAD (Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis). A third system, Promethe...

  14. Evidences of Polymorphism Associated with Circadian System and Risk of Pathologies: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, F. J.; Vera, J.; Venegas, C.; S Muñoz; Oyarce, S.; K. Muñoz; Lagunas, C.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian system is a supraphysiological system that modulates different biological functions such as metabolism, sleep-wake, cellular proliferation, and body temperature. Different chronodisruptors have been identified, such as shift work, feeding time, long days, and stress. The environmental changes and our modern lifestyle can alter the circadian system and increase the risk of developing pathologies such as cancer, preeclampsia, diabetes, and mood disorder. This system is organized b...

  15. The Status of the Far Eastern Civilization/World System: Evidence from City Data

    OpenAIRE

    David Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    T. Chandlers city data are used to inquire whether, and when, East Asia was a world system in itself, or part of a larger Old World world-system; and whether, and when, the east end of the Old World oikumene was more advanced than the west end. On the available data, (1) A.G. Franks thesis of a single Old World world-system is less well supported than the thesis of a long coexistence of a plurality of world systems, including a separate Far Eastern system; (2) Franks thesis of the general eco...

  16. Genetic evidence of a redox-dependent systemic wound response via Hayan Protease-Phenoloxidase system in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hyuck-Jin; Jang, In-Hwan; You, Hyejin; Lee, Kyung-Ah; Lee, Won-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Melanin production is a rapid response to wounding in Drosophila. The enzymatic reactions generate reactive oxygen species. ROS-dependent activation of JNK signalling in the nervous system contributes to the systemic wound response and promotes survival upon physical trauma.

  17. Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Relation to a Clinical Nursing Ladder System: A National Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Chen, Chiehfeng; Kuo, Ken N; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lo, Heng-Lien; Chen, Kee-Hsin; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has been widely investigated, few studies have investigated its correlation with a clinical nursing ladder system. The current national study evaluates whether EBP implementation has been incorporated into the clinical ladder system. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted nationwide of registered nurses among regional hospitals of Taiwan in January to April 2011. Subjects were categorized into beginning nurses (N1 and N2) and advanced nurses (N3 and N4) by the clinical ladder system. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to adjust for possible confounding demographic factors. Results Valid postal questionnaires were collected from 4,206 nurses, including 2,028 N1, 1,595 N2, 412 N3, and 171 N4 nurses. Advanced nurses were more aware of EBP than beginning nurses (p < 0.001; 90.7% vs. 78.0%). In addition, advanced nurses were more likely to hold positive beliefs about and attitudes toward EBP (p < 0.001) and possessed more sufficient knowledge of and skills in EBP (p < 0.001). Furthermore, they more often implemented EBP principles (p < 0.001) and accessed online evidence-based retrieval databases (p < 0.001). The most common motivation for using online databases was self-learning for advanced nurses and positional promotion for beginning nurses. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed advanced nurses were more aware of EBP, had higher knowledge and skills of EBP, and more often implemented EBP than beginning nurses. Linking Evidence to Action The awareness of, beliefs in, attitudes toward, knowledge of, skills in, and behaviors of EBP among advanced nurses were better than those among beginning nurses. The data indicate that a clinical ladder system can serve as a useful means to enhance EBP implementation. PMID:25588625

  18. INSTABILITY IN THE CEE BANKING SYSTEM. EVIDENCE FROM THE RECENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Karkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sparked by the recent great recession and the role of financial markets, considerable interest exists among researchers within both the academic and public community in measuring and modeling systemic risk. This article introduces a new framework for measuring systemic risk by using a risk-adjusted balance sheet approach. In this regard, the analysis of 21 largest commercial banks operating in 7 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, shows potential risk which could threaten all the financial system. The paper concludes new directions for measuring systemic risk by using Merton model. It shows how risk management tools can be applied in new ways to measure and analyze systemic risk in European banking system.

  19. Electricity demand response in Japan:Experimental evidence from a residential photovoltaic generation system

    OpenAIRE

    Takanori Ida; Kayo Murakami; Makoto Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    We report on a randomized controlled trial used to examine the effect of dynamic pricing when applied to households with rooftop photovoltaic (PV) power-generation systems. Using high-frequency data on household-level electricity use, PV generation, purchases, and sales, we find that critical peak pricing induced significant usage reductions of 3-4% among households with PV systems, a quarter of the effect size seen among average households without solar PV systems. In addition, we investigat...

  20. Do entrepreneurial food systems innovations impact rural economies and health? Evidence and gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaker, Marilyn; Kolodinsky, Jane; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Seguin, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    A potential solution for weakened rural economies is the development of local food systems, which include affordable foods sources for consumers and economically feasible structures for producers. Local food systems are purported to promote sustainability, improve local economies, increase access to healthy foods, and improve the local diets. Four entrepreneurial food systems innovations that support local economies include farmers’ markets, community supported agriculture, farm to institutio...

  1. Scientific Evidence-Based Effects of Hydrotherapy on Various Systems of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Mooventhan, A; L Nivethitha

    2014-01-01

    The use of water for various treatments (hydrotherapy) is probably as old as mankind. Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body. Many studies/reviews reported the effects of hydrotherapy only on very few systems and there is lack...

  2. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sionnadh Mairi; Booth, Andrew; Gee, Melanie; Salway, Sarah; Cobb, Mark; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Nancarrow, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Missed appointments are an avoidable cost and resource inefficiency which impact upon the health of the patient and treatment outcomes. Health care services are increasingly utilizing reminder systems to manage these negative effects. This study explores the effectiveness of reminder systems for promoting attendance, cancellations, and rescheduling of appointments across all health care settings and for particular patient groups and the contextual factors which indicate that reminders are being employed sub-optimally. We used three inter-related reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Firstly, using pre-existing models and theories, we developed a conceptual framework to inform our understanding of the contexts and mechanisms which influence reminder effectiveness. Secondly, we performed a review following Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines to investigate the effectiveness of different methods of reminding patients to attend health service appointments. Finally, to supplement the effectiveness information, we completed a review informed by realist principles to identify factors likely to influence non-attendance behaviors and the effectiveness of reminders. We found consistent evidence that all types of reminder systems are effective at improving appointment attendance across a range of health care settings and patient populations. Reminder systems may also increase cancellation and rescheduling of unwanted appointments. "Reminder plus", which provides additional information beyond the reminder function may be more effective than simple reminders (ie, date, time, place) at reducing non-attendance at appointments in particular circumstances. We identified six areas of inefficiency which indicate that reminder systems are being used sub-optimally. Unless otherwise indicated, all patients should receive a reminder to facilitate attendance at their health care appointment. The choice of reminder system should be tailored to the individual service

  3. The Approximate Number System and Its Relation to Early Math Achievement: Evidence from the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Justin W.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans rely on two main systems of quantification; one is nonsymbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), and the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged…

  4. Cross-border regional innovation systems: Conceptual backgrounds, empirical evidence and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...

  5. Profitability of Western European banking systems: panel evidence on structural and cyclical determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and cyclical determinants of banking profitability in 16 Western European countries. We find that financial structure matters, particularly through the beneficial effect of the capital market orientation in the respective national financial system. Furthermore, higher diversification regarding banks' income sources shows a positive effect. The industry concentration of national banking systems, though, does not significantly affect aggregate profitability. Busin...

  6. An Update on the Conceptual-Production Systems Model of Apraxia: Evidence from Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, Vessela; Black, Sandra E.; Roy, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Limb apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by an inability to pantomime and/or imitate gestures. It is more commonly observed after left hemisphere damage (LHD), but has also been reported after right hemisphere damage (RHD). The Conceptual-Production Systems model (Roy, 1996) suggests that three systems are involved in the control of…

  7. Assessing the competitive conditions in the Italian banking system: some empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. COCCORESE

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The European banking industry is currently facing the effects arising from the increasing integration of national financial markets. In adapting to this new scenario, the Italian banking system has undergone a considerable transformation. The degree of competition in the Italian banking system is evaluated using a sample of banks during the period 1988-96.

  8. The Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Inflammatory Processes in Atherosclerosis: Evidence from Basic Research and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Montecucco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that the renin-angiotensin system is a crucial player in atherosclerotic processes. The regulation of arterial blood pressure was considered from its first description of the main mechanism involved. Vasoconstriction (mediated by angiotensin II and salt and water retention (mainly due to aldosterone were classically considered as pivotal proatherosclerotic activities. However, basic research and animal studies strongly support angiotensin II as a proinflammatory mediator, which directly induces atherosclerotic plaque development and heart remodeling. Furthermore, angiotensin II induces proatherosclerotic cytokine and chemokine secretion and increases endothelial dysfunction. Accordingly, the pharmacological inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system improves prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease even in settings of normal baseline blood pressure. In the present review, we focused on angiotensin-convertingenzyme (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs, and renin inhibitors to update the direct activities of the renin-angiotensin system in inflammatory processes governing atherosclerosis.

  9. Electroencephalogram evidence for the activation of human mirror neuron system during the observation of intransitive shadow and line drawing actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaping Zhu; Yaoru Sun; Fang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that hand shadows may activate the motor cortex associated with the mirror neuron system in human brain. However, there is no evidence of activity of the human mirror neuron system during the observation of intransitive movements by shadows and line drawings of hands. This study examined the suppression of electroencephalography mu waves hand actions, hand shadow actions and actions made by line drawings of hands. The results showed significant desynchronization of the mu rhythm ("mu suppression") across the sensorimotor cortex (recorded at C3, Cz and C4), the frontal cortex (recorded at F3, Fz and F4) and the central and right posterior parietal cortex (recorded at Pz and P4) under all three conditions. Our experimental findings suggest that the observation of "impoverished hand actions", such as intransitive movements of shadows and line drawings of hands, is able to activate widespread cortical areas related to the putative human mirror neuron system.

  10. Serological and Genetic Evidence for Altered Complement System Functionality in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Findings of the GAPAID Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Prechl, József; Papp, Krisztián; Hérincs, Zoltán; Péterfy, Hajna; Lóránd, Veronika; Szittner, Zoltán; Estonba, Andone; Rovero, Paolo; Paolini, Ilaria; del Amo, Jokin; Uribarri, Maria; Alcaro, Maria Claudia; Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Migliorini, Paola; Czirják, László

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with multifactorial ethio- pathogenesis. The complement system is involved in both the early and late stages of dis- ease development and organ damage. To better understand autoantibody mediated complement consumption we examined ex vivo immune complex formation on autoantigen arrays. We recruited patients with SLE (n = 211), with other systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 65) and non-autoimmune control subjects (n = 149). Standard cli...

  11. Seismic evidence of methane cycling between deep and shallow fluid flow systems along the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Faverola, A.; Pecher, I.; Klaeschen, D.; Henrys, S.

    2012-04-01

    Determining the source of the main natural gas, methane, forming gas hydrates, i.e. whether it is microbial or thermogenic, remains one of the main challenges in gas hydrate research. Geochemical data suggest that most of the methane that seep out from the seafloor above gas hydrate zones is microbial. However, significant volumes of free gas trapped beneath the base of the gas hydrate stability zone and the presence of faults and gas chimneys that link deep sited thermogenic gas reservoirs with the hydrate zones are evidence of fluid exchange between deep and shallow systems. We have reprocessed 10 and 12 km long surface streamer multi-channel seismic data from the Opouawe Bank and Porangahau Ridge regions along the Hikurangi Margin in order to obtain realistic geometries of fluid escape features associated with the subduction interface. Pre-stack depth migrated images of the subsurface show thrust faults linking the subduction interface with the gas hydrate zone. Anticlinal features with deeply rooted gas chimneys at their flanks and polygonal faults above the subduction interface are also evidence of fluid expulsion from the subdcuted sediments towards the gas hydrate zone. Further, anomalous low velocity zones in P-wave velocity macro models indicate preferred locations for fluid accumulations in sediments between the gas hydrate zone and the subduction interface. In order to explain the dominant microbial signature of methane sampled at the surface in spite of evident migration of fluids from well beneath the microbial zone, we present a model where microbial methane has been expelled from buried sediments together with thermogenic methane at different periods of overpressure related to the subduction system. We expect signatures for thermogenic methane to be found deeper than maximum depths of conventional coring (i.e. > 30 mbsf) in the sedimentary column. Our results complement an ongoing multidisciplinary investigation of gas hydrate systems along Hikurangi

  12. EVIDENCE OF POSSIBLE SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT IN TRANSITING EXOPLANET SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the 26 transiting exoplanet systems with measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, eight have now been found to be significantly spin-orbit misaligned in the plane of the sky (i.e., RM misalignment angle |λ| ∼> 300 and inconsistent with λ = 00). Unfortunately, the RM effect does not constrain the complement misalignment angle between the orbit of the planet and the spin of its host star along the line of sight (LOS). I use a simple model of stellar rotation benchmarked with observational data to statistically identify 10 exoplanet systems from a sample of 75 for which there is likely a significant degree of spin-orbit misalignment along the LOS: HAT-P-7, HAT-P-14, HAT-P-16, HD 17156, Kepler-5, Kepler-7, TrES-4, WASP-1, WASP-12, and WASP-14. All 10 systems have host stellar masses M * in the range 1.2 M sun ∼* ∼sun, and the probability of this occurrence by chance is less than one in ten thousand. In addition, the planets in the candidate-misaligned systems are preferentially massive and eccentric. The coupled distribution of misalignment from the RM effect and from this analysis suggests that transiting exoplanets are more likely to be spin-orbit aligned than expected given predictions for a transiting planet population produced entirely by planet-planet scattering or Kozai cycles and tidal friction. For that reason, there are likely two populations of close-in exoplanet systems: a population of aligned systems and a population of apparently misaligned systems in which the processes that lead to misalignment or to the survival of misaligned systems operate more efficiently in systems with massive stars and planets.

  13. The magmatic model for the origin of Archean Au-quartz vein ore systems: an assessment of the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magmatic model for the origin of Archean Au-quartz vein ore systems suggests that Au was derived by partition between silicate (± sulphide) melts of certain compositions and H2 O-CO2-NaCl magmatic fluids. Supporting evidence includes partial/structural geological relationships, timing relationships, H and C isotope geochemistry, probable primary Au enrichment in the Lamaque stocks, and fluid inclusion volatile geochemistry. Evidence is currently negative with respect to various within- and sub-greenstone belt metamorphic/deep crustal fluid models for primary Au mineralization; however a U-Pb age for vein stage 3 sphene from the Camflo deposit, Quebec which is ∼ 55-60 Ma younger than the host stock at 2685-2680 Ma indicates dissolution/reprecipitation of Au by late, (?) upper crustal saline fluids. Evidence is accumulating that epithermal-meso thermal Au-Ag mineralization in island arc and cordilleran settings may also have been magmatically derived ± high level fluid mixing from calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and other igneous compositions. (author)

  14. The Approximate Number System and its Relation to Early Math Achievement: Evidence from the Preschool Years

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny, Justin W.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on two main systems of quantification - one is non-symbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged children point to individual differences in the precision of these representations, which, importantly, have been shown to relate to symbolic math competenc...

  15. Do Management Systems Foster Social Capital? Empirical Evidence from Japanese Surf Clam Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Tegawa, Mihoko; Uchida, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    We empirically examine the social effect of management systems. We focus on a particular management practice employed in self-governed coastal fisheries in Japan—revenue sharing arrangement. We hypothesize that management systems affect cooperative relationships and information network in a community; broadly termed as social capital. We quantified social capital using controlled economic experiments with fisherman subjects as well as surveys. Using wild cluster bootstrap for small sample inf...

  16. Reasoning for Public Transportation Systems Planning: Use of Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kronprasert, Nopadon

    2012-01-01

    Policy-makers of todayâ s public transportation investment projects engage in debates in which the reasonableness and clarity of their judgment are tested many times. How to recommend the transportation system that achieves projectâ s goals and different stakeholdersâ needs in a most logical and justifiable manner is the main question of this dissertation. This study develops a new decision-making approach, Belief Reasoning method, for evaluating public transportation systems in the...

  17. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Anh D; Rao Chalapati; Phuong Hoa Nguyen; Hoy Damian G; Thi Quynh Trang Khieu; Hill Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to...

  18. Student Acceptance of Knowledge Management Systems: Evidence from a Canadian Business School

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Muazzem Hossain; Noufou Ouedraogo; Davar Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the factors affecting the perceived usefulness of and the intention to use knowledgemanagement (KM) systems by students. The research model posits that the intention to use KM systems inhigher education depends on perceived usefulness, perceived user-friendliness, organizational rewards, andcommunity of practice. A survey method was used to collect the data for the study. We used a conveniencesample consisting of undergraduate students enrolled in various business cour...

  19. Consequences of the New UK Tax Exemption System: Evidence from Micro-level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Merlo, Valeria; Ruf, Martin; Wamser, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Until 2009, the United Kingdom operated a system of worldwide taxation. Taxation of foreign income was deferred until repatriated as dividends, leaving UK-owned multinational firms the possibility of avoiding UK taxation by delaying dividend payments and keeping earnings abroad. In 2009, the UK switched to a system under which all foreign-earned income is exempted from taxation. This fundamental change had a number of straightforward implications for UK-owned multinational firms and particula...

  20. Investigating the Governmental Accounting Reform of Greek National Health System (ESY): Some preliminary Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    FILIPPOS STAMATIADIS, Mr

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, several countries worldwide have introduced financial management reforms as an important part of the New Public Management (NPM) initiative at one or more levels of government sector, by replacing or transforming their traditional budgetary cash accounting systems towards business-like accrual accounting. Following the example of this upcoming managerial trend, the Greek government introduced in 1997 an accrual based accounting system (ABAS) and double-entry book-keep...

  1. Systemic Inflammatory Response to Smoking in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence of a Gender Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Faner, Rosa; Gonzalez, Nuria; Cruz, Tamara; Kalko, Susana Graciela; Agustí, Alvar

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but not all smokers develop the disease. An abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response to smoking is thought to play a major pathogenic role in COPD, but this has never been tested directly. Methods We studied the systemic biomarker and leukocyte transcriptomic response (Affymetrix microarrays) to smoking exposure in 10 smokers with COPD and 10 smokers with normal spirometry. We also ...

  2. Targeting the Glutamatergic System to Treat Pathological Gambling: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Pettorruso; Luisa De Risio; Giovanni Martinotti; Marco Di Nicola; Filippo Ruggeri; Gianluigi Conte; Massimo Di Giannantonio; Luigi Janiri

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A t...

  3. Evidence of Encapsulated Learning Systems in an Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task

    OpenAIRE

    McConville, Dan

    2011-01-01

    A model of learning systems that has received wide acknowledgment is that promulgated by Squire (1992). The model describes explicit and implicit learning systems as being encapsulated and operating in parallel. This paper aimed to investigate if implicit procedural sequence learning could be affected by explicit learning processes in an alternating serial reaction time task (ASRTT). The ASRTT involved visual-stimuli appearing in one of four spatial-locations placed horizo...

  4. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ling Lai; Kwai-Fatt Choong

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing) system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i) to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii) to solicit their usage experience and (iii) to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals...

  5. Regulation in the face of uncertainty: the evidence on electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Le Houezec, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the largest single preventable cause of many chronic diseases and death. Effective treatments exist; however, few smokers use them and most try to quit by themselves. Most of the tobacco cigarette's toxicity is related to the combustion process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that switching from inhalation of combustible products to a noncombustible nicotine delivery product would likely result in a vast reduction in tobacco-related death and illness. Currently available evidence raises no doubt that electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are by far less harmful than smoking (although probably not absolutely safe) and have the potential to be the most effective tobacco harm reduction products due to their unique property of resembling smoking and providing satisfaction to the user. A lot of controversy is surrounding e-cigs and their regulation, much of which is based on the precautionary principle. Although monitoring and further research is definitely needed, the arguments used to implement severe restrictions or bans are mostly hypothetical, weakly supported by evidence, and, in some cases, derived from mispresentation or misinterpretation of the study findings. Regulators should keep in mind that the target population is smokers who want to reduce or quit their deadly tobacco consumption. To achieve this goal, smokers should be honestly informed on the relative harmfulness of the different products. E-cigs are not tobacco products and are not used as medications. For this reason, a specific regulatory scheme is needed, separate from tobacco or medicinal products regulation. Regulation should implement specific quality criteria for products, rules for the exclusion of chemicals of reasonable concern, and appropriate testing for possible contaminants. Additionally, manufacturing standards derived from the food industry should be implemented and adjusted for specific conditions related to e-cigs. Finding the appropriate balance

  6. Do emerging markets matter in the world oil pricing system? Evidence of imported crude by China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the changing structure of world oil price system by identifying an additional driver-emerging market factor. We choose China and India as a representative of emerging markets to examine if the quantity of crude oil imported by China and India is significant in the existing oil pricing system (. Our data starts from January 2002 and ends in March 2010, which includes the oil shock of 2007-2008. We utilize cointegration and error correction model framework developed by and in the analysis. Our results indicate that demand from emerging markets has become a significant factor in the world oil pricing system since 2003. This result is significant as it lends empirical support to the widely held conjecture that the oil shock of 2007-2008 is a demand-led shock (). Our result also has significant policy implications that go beyond the oil shock. The emerging market factor is there to stay and reflects the changing power between emerging and developed economies in the world economic system as a result of decades of fast economic development in the former. It will certainly influence policy issues related to oil and beyond. - Highlights: → We test the existing oil price modelling with data from 2002-2010. → We find evidence of structural breaks in the world oil pricing model. → We find that emerging market factor is a new driver in the world oil pricing system since 2003. → The emerging market factor lends empirical support to 'consumption-led' conjecture of oil shock. → New factor reflects significant changes of oil demand landscape following shifting economic power.

  7. Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: Evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ClaireMarieFletcher-Flinn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centred, and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000; 2004. At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention.

  8. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  9. Genetic evidence implicates the immune system and cholesterol metabolism in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Late Onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified the first strongly supported LOAD susceptibility genes since the discovery of the involvement of APOE in the early 1990s. We have now exploited these GWAS datasets to uncover key LOAD pathophysiological processes. METHODOLOGY: We applied a recently developed tool for mining GWAS data for biologically meaningful information to a LOAD GWAS dataset. The principal findings were then tested in an independent GWAS dataset. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a significant overrepresentation of association signals in pathways related to cholesterol metabolism and the immune response in both of the two largest genome-wide association studies for LOAD. SIGNIFICANCE: Processes related to cholesterol metabolism and the innate immune response have previously been implicated by pathological and epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease, but it has been unclear whether those findings reflected primary aetiological events or consequences of the disease process. Our independent evidence from two large studies now demonstrates that these processes are aetiologically relevant, and suggests that they may be suitable targets for novel and existing therapeutic approaches.

  10. Ontology supported system for searching evidence of wild animals trafficking in social network posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Carrasco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O comércio ilegal de animais silvestres é uma das atividades criminais mais lucrativas da atualidade. No Brasil, a grande variedade de fauna nativa tem alimentado o mercado ilegal, o que gera sérias implicações ambientais e sociais. A luta contra o comércio ilegal de animais silvestres é crucial para ajudar a proteger os recursos naturais e evitar a disseminação de outras formas de crime. Esse tipo de comércio ilegal usa cada vez mais, a internet para realizar suas atividades. A fim de combater tal crime, um sistema automático de monitorização é essencial. No entanto, para realizar essa tarefa de forma eficaz, o sistema deve ser capaz de analisar as mensagens trocadas durante essa prática. Para isso, é necessário o conhecimento dos conceitos e relações que ocorrem nesse domínio. Este artigo apresenta um sistema multiagente apoiado por ontologia de domínio e frames semânticos para buscar evidências de comércio ilegal de animais silvestres. No artigo, é mostrado como o sistema pode ser usado na tarefa de rastreamento do comércio ilegal de animais silvestres, além de apresentar os resultados da aplicação do sistema em um pequeno corpus.

  11. Palaeomagnetic evidence for non-rotational deformation along the Nea Anchialos Fault System, Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caputo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Four sites in 1.4 Ma old basaltic lavas and two sites in upper Pliocene-lower Quaternary sediments, located both in the hanging-wall and in the footwall blocks of the Nea Anchialos Fault System, have been sampled. This fault system is one of the major E-W trending structures affecting the Thessaly region during Quaternary times.It is possibly connected with the North Aegean Trough to the E and displays recent seismic activity (1980, Volos earthquake. Standard techniques have been used for both field sampling and laboratory analyses. The magnetic carriers were characterised by measuring the thermomagnetic curves, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the isothermal remanent magnetisation of the samples. Almost all the samples exhibit a reverse polarity. The overall mean paleomagnetic direction is defined by D = 174°, I = –54°, confirming the non-rotational deformation pattern of the Nea Anchialos Fault System as independently inferred from structural investigations.

  12. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii to solicit their usage experience and (iii to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals from tax practice and commercial sectors who attended "Budget 2008" Tax Seminars, organized by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants in Peninsular Malaysia. In total, 456 usable responses from accounting and tax professionals were collected and analyzed. Results: The survey found out of 456 respondents, just 23.7% had used e-filing in 2007 to file personal tax return forms. Majority of the e-filers opted to use e-filing for the sake of convenience (55.8%, in faith to get faster tax refund (16.8% and speed of filing (15.9%. For those who did not use e-filing, the key impediments were concerned over the security and did not trust of e-filing system. Some (4.8% were unable to access to the e-filing website. Overall, just 26.1% of the professionals surveyed had confidence in the IRBM in managing the e-filing system successfully. Majority (41.2% thought that 'speedy tax refund' to be the most desirable incentive to motivate individuals to use e-filing. Conclusion: As the IRBM is counting on professional accountants to promote the usage of e-filing system, this study provided important insights to the IRBM to developing marketing and business strategies to motivate professional accountant in business to use e-filing in order to accelerate the diffusion of e-filing system in a developing country like Malaysia.

  13. Evidence for multiple sources of 10Be in the early solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, D.; Nagashima, K.; Krot, A.N.;

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li......-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle...

  14. Theory of Evidence-Based Automated Decision Making in Cyber-Physical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    SIATERLIS CHRISTOS; GENGE BELA

    2011-01-01

    The Smart Grid is a complex cyber-physical system that is evolving rapidly from a relatively isolated to an open and diverse environment. Within this context, enhancing the security of the future Smart Grid becomes a major priority. In this paper we introduce the use of data fusion for automated decision making in cyber-physical systems such as the Smart Grid. One of the most important applications of decision making is in the field of anomaly detection. This can enable the detection of attac...

  15. FMRI evidence for the involvement of the procedural memory system in morphological processing of a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Johnstone, Tom; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural evidence suggests that English regular past tense forms are automatically decomposed into their stem and affix (played  = play+ed) based on an implicit linguistic rule, which does not apply to the idiosyncratically formed irregular forms (kept). Additionally, regular, but not irregular inflections, are thought to be processed through the procedural memory system (left inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia, cerebellum). It has been suggested that this distinction does not to apply to second language (L2) learners of English; however, this has not been tested at the brain level. This fMRI study used a masked-priming task with regular and irregular prime-target pairs (played-play/kept-keep) to investigate morphological processing in native and highly proficient late L2 English speakers. No between-groups differences were revealed. Compared to irregular pairs, regular pairs activated the pars opercularis, bilateral caudate nucleus and the right cerebellum, which are part of the procedural memory network and have been connected with the processing of morphologically complex forms. Our study is the first to provide evidence for native-like involvement of the procedural memory system in processing of regular past tense by late L2 learners of English. PMID:24819196

  16. FMRI evidence for the involvement of the procedural memory system in morphological processing of a second language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Pliatsikas

    Full Text Available Behavioural evidence suggests that English regular past tense forms are automatically decomposed into their stem and affix (played  = play+ed based on an implicit linguistic rule, which does not apply to the idiosyncratically formed irregular forms (kept. Additionally, regular, but not irregular inflections, are thought to be processed through the procedural memory system (left inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia, cerebellum. It has been suggested that this distinction does not to apply to second language (L2 learners of English; however, this has not been tested at the brain level. This fMRI study used a masked-priming task with regular and irregular prime-target pairs (played-play/kept-keep to investigate morphological processing in native and highly proficient late L2 English speakers. No between-groups differences were revealed. Compared to irregular pairs, regular pairs activated the pars opercularis, bilateral caudate nucleus and the right cerebellum, which are part of the procedural memory network and have been connected with the processing of morphologically complex forms. Our study is the first to provide evidence for native-like involvement of the procedural memory system in processing of regular past tense by late L2 learners of English.

  17. Evidences of Polymorphism Associated with Circadian System and Risk of Pathologies: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, F J; Vera, J; Venegas, C; Muñoz, S; Oyarce, S; Muñoz, K; Lagunas, C

    2016-01-01

    The circadian system is a supraphysiological system that modulates different biological functions such as metabolism, sleep-wake, cellular proliferation, and body temperature. Different chronodisruptors have been identified, such as shift work, feeding time, long days, and stress. The environmental changes and our modern lifestyle can alter the circadian system and increase the risk of developing pathologies such as cancer, preeclampsia, diabetes, and mood disorder. This system is organized by transcriptional/tranductional feedback loops of clock genes Clock, Bmal1, Per1-3, and Cry1-2. How molecular components of the clock are able to influence the development of diseases and their risk relation with genetic components of polymorphism of clock genes is unknown. This research describes different genetic variations in the population and how these are associated with risk of cancer, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemias, and also mood disorders such as depression, bipolar disease, excessive alcohol intake, and infertility. Finally, these findings will need to be implemented and evaluated at the level of genetic interaction and how the environment factors trigger the expression of these pathologies will be examined. PMID:27313610

  18. Supervisory Neglect and Risk of Harm. Evidence from the Canadian Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Trocme, Nico; Fallon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explores prevalence and characteristics associated with supervisory neglect and physical harm in children in the child welfare system in Canada. Methods: The sample included all substantiated primary maltreatment investigations in the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect excluding cases where…

  19. Imaging Evidence for Disturbances in Multiple Learning and Memory Systems in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. Method: We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms "autism,""learning,""memory," and "neuroimaging." We limited our review to studies…

  20. Are Performance-Based Accountability Systems Effective? Evidence from Five Sectors. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Kristin J.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, performance-based accountability systems (PBASs), which link financial or other incentives to measured performance as a means of improving services, have gained popularity among policymakers. Although PBASs can vary widely across sectors, they share three main components: goals (i.e., one or more long-term outcomes to…

  1. Evidences of Polymorphism Associated with Circadian System and Risk of Pathologies: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Valenzuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian system is a supraphysiological system that modulates different biological functions such as metabolism, sleep-wake, cellular proliferation, and body temperature. Different chronodisruptors have been identified, such as shift work, feeding time, long days, and stress. The environmental changes and our modern lifestyle can alter the circadian system and increase the risk of developing pathologies such as cancer, preeclampsia, diabetes, and mood disorder. This system is organized by transcriptional/tranductional feedback loops of clock genes Clock, Bmal1, Per1–3, and Cry1-2. How molecular components of the clock are able to influence the development of diseases and their risk relation with genetic components of polymorphism of clock genes is unknown. This research describes different genetic variations in the population and how these are associated with risk of cancer, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemias, and also mood disorders such as depression, bipolar disease, excessive alcohol intake, and infertility. Finally, these findings will need to be implemented and evaluated at the level of genetic interaction and how the environment factors trigger the expression of these pathologies will be examined.

  2. The Environmental Belief Systems of Organic and Conventional Farmers: Evidence from Central-Southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kings, David; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Little comparative work has been conducted on the environmental belief systems and behaviours of conventional and organic farmers, especially in relation to farming culture, the environment and lowland farmland avifauna. Adopting a modified behavioural approach, this paper analyses the ways in which the environmental attitudes and understandings…

  3. Evidences of Polymorphism Associated with Circadian System and Risk of Pathologies: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, F. J.; Vera, J.; Venegas, C.; Muñoz, S.; Oyarce, S.; Muñoz, K.; Lagunas, C.

    2016-01-01

    The circadian system is a supraphysiological system that modulates different biological functions such as metabolism, sleep-wake, cellular proliferation, and body temperature. Different chronodisruptors have been identified, such as shift work, feeding time, long days, and stress. The environmental changes and our modern lifestyle can alter the circadian system and increase the risk of developing pathologies such as cancer, preeclampsia, diabetes, and mood disorder. This system is organized by transcriptional/tranductional feedback loops of clock genes Clock, Bmal1, Per1–3, and Cry1-2. How molecular components of the clock are able to influence the development of diseases and their risk relation with genetic components of polymorphism of clock genes is unknown. This research describes different genetic variations in the population and how these are associated with risk of cancer, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemias, and also mood disorders such as depression, bipolar disease, excessive alcohol intake, and infertility. Finally, these findings will need to be implemented and evaluated at the level of genetic interaction and how the environment factors trigger the expression of these pathologies will be examined. PMID:27313610

  4. Decentralization and the development of nationalized party systems in new democracies: evidence from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Harbers

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which a party system is nationalized—with nationalization being defined as the degree to which major political parties obtain similar vote shares throughout the national territory—has considerable consequences for political representation, public policy making, and even the survival of

  5. What role can information play in improved equity in Pakistan's irrigation system? Evidence from an experimental game in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indus Basin Irrigation System suffers significant inequity in access to surface water across its millions of users. Information, i.e., monitoring and reporting of water availability, may be of value in improving conditions across the basin, and we investigated this via an experimental game of water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. We found evidence that flow information allowed players to take more effective action to target overuse, and that overall activities that might bring social disapproval were reduced with information. However, we did not find any overall improvement in equity across the system, suggesting that information on its own might not be sufficient to lead to better water distribution among irrigators.

  6. Evidence for an efficient dynamical nuclear polarization process in a high-mobility (110)-grown two-dimensional electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the limited electron spin lifetime, the intensively studied concept of dynamical nuclear polarization (DNP) using two-dimensional electron gases still lacks an experimental implementation. Recently, the spin dephasing time along the growth direction in (110)-grown zinkblende-based heterostructures, especially in symmetrically grown and doped two-dimensional electron systems, has been demonstrated to reach extremely high values. By means of the all-optical resonant spin amplification technique, we study the anisotropic spin dynamics. Our sample consists of a 30 nm wide double-sided δ-doped single quantum well with a very high mobility of about 3 million cm2/Vs. At low temperatures, we find evidence for a very efficient DNP process. We clearly map the expected strong dependence of the DNP on the initial spin polarization of the electron system.

  7. Regulation in the face of uncertainty: the evidence on electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsalinos KE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Konstantinos E Farsalinos,1,2 Jacques Le Houezec3,4 1Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Kallithea, 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras, Greece; 3Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England, UK; 4Addiction Research Unit, INSERM 1178 (Mental and Public Health, Paris, France Abstract: Tobacco smoking is the largest single preventable cause of many chronic diseases and death. Effective treatments exist; however, few smokers use them and most try to quit by themselves. Most of the tobacco cigarette's toxicity is related to the combustion process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that switching from inhalation of combustible products to a noncombustible nicotine delivery product would likely result in a vast reduction in tobacco-related death and illness. Currently available evidence raises no doubt that electronic cigarettes (e-cigs are by far less harmful than smoking (although probably not absolutely safe and have the potential to be the most effective tobacco harm reduction products due to their unique property of resembling smoking and providing satisfaction to the user. A lot of controversy is surrounding e-cigs and their regulation, much of which is based on the precautionary principle. Although monitoring and further research is definitely needed, the arguments used to implement severe restrictions or bans are mostly hypothetical, weakly supported by evidence, and, in some cases, derived from mispresentation or misinterpretation of the study findings. Regulators should keep in mind that the target population is smokers who want to reduce or quit their deadly tobacco consumption. To achieve this goal, smokers should be honestly informed on the relative harmfulness of the different products. E-cigs are not tobacco products and are not used as medications. For this reason, a specific regulatory

  8. Geochemistry of petroleum systems in the eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin: evidence for mixed oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuichang Zhang; Digang Liang; Fuqing Song; Dajiang Zhang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Petro China Key Laboratory of Petroleum Geochemistry; Petro China Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China); Zaisheng Gong [China National Offshore Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China); Keqiang Wu [CNOOC Research Institute, Hebei (China); Maowen Li [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (Canada); Zhiguang Song [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry (China); Peirong Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Petro China Key Laboratory of Petroleum Geochemistry

    2003-07-01

    Detailed analyses of crude oils and source rock extracts indicate the presence of two effective petroleum source rocks in the eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin of the South China Sea region. Oils derived from the lacustrine source rocks in the Eocene Wenchang Formation are characterized by abundant C{sub 30} 4-methyl steranes with relatively few C{sub 19} tricyclic terpane and bicadinanes. In contrast, oils from the Eocene-Oligocene Enping Formation source typically contain significant amounts of C{sub 19} tricyclic terpane and bicadinanes, with relatively few 4-methyl steranes and high pristane/phytane ratios. However, the chemical compositions of a large number of oils do not conform to those of the unknown source rocks, consistent with mixing of the two sources. Mixed oils occur mainly in the Huizhou Sag and along its south margin, and the highest proportion of the Enping Formation source in the reservoired mixed oils is estimated to be around 80%. Laboratory mixing experiments using selected end-member oils indicate that, even with 50-80% contribution from the Enping Formation source, the mixtures still display sterane biomarker ratio signatures diagnostic of the Wenchang Formation source. Therefore, the presence of abundant 4-methyl steranes is a necessary but not sufficient indicator for the Wenchang Formation source in the eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin. Although our results support the Wenchang Formation as a major source to the known oil discoveries in the study area, the contribution of the Enping Formation source to traps in the Huizhou Sag and surrounding area cannot be ignored. There is clear evidence for the recharge of Enping Formation derived oils into early-biodegraded oil accumulations to form light oil accumulations. (author)

  9. New evidence for the Storegga tsunami event in lake basins systems: western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, N.; Vasskog, K.; Nesje, A.; Chapron, E.; Ariztegui, D.; Bondevik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Between 8180 and 8070 years ago, one of the largest known submarine slides occurred off the coast of mid-Norway. This event displaced about 3500 km3 of sediment, affected an area of 95,000 km2 and triggered a large tsunami that inundated coastal areas around the North Atlantic and the North Sea. In this contribution, we present first geological evidence from a high resolution geophysical survey and shallow sediment coring for the presence of a large tsunamite related to the Storegga event, in shallow lacustrine basins of Western Norway. A unique Rapidly Deposited Layer (RDL) discovered in the sedimentary infill of the lakes Nerfloen and Oppstrynsvatnet (29 m a.s.l.) is interpreted as a deposit from this tsunami. Two radiocarbon dates from within the deposit itself yield a combined age estimate of 8180-8030 cal a BP (2σ) for the RDL, which is in agreement with robust age-depth modelling of the overlying sediments and strongly supporting the correlation with the Storegga event. In the outer lake basins, where both high-resolution seismic profiles and sediment cores are available, the up to 3.5 m thick RDL covers an area of ~1.1 km2 and features an estimated sediment volume of ~1.2x106 m3. More tentatively we suggest that a ~5x106 m3 semi-transparent seismic unit in the main Oppstrynsvatnet basin could also be connected to the tsunami. Tsunami deposits of this magnitude have not been documented previously in Norwegian lakes, suggesting that the physiographic setting of the study area may have significantly amplified the tsunami wave.

  10. Pioglitazone (Actos) and bladder cancer: Legal system triumphs over the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Mayer B

    2016-08-01

    In preclinical studies, pioglitazone was associated with bladder cancer in male rats (but not in female rats, mice dogs or monkeys). Because of this association, the Federal Drug Administration requested a large 10year epidemiological study to evaluate whether there was an association between bladder cancer and exposure to pioglitazone in patients. A 5-year interim report published in 2011 showed no significant association between ever vs never exposure to the drug but a significant association in patients exposed to pioglitazone for >2years. Importantly, the final 10year report did not confirm the 5year interim report finding no association between bladder cancer and pioglitazone, even after >4years of exposure to the drug. However, as would be expected, following the 5-year interim report, many epidemiological studies were carried out and civil litigation lawsuits began to be filed. Of the 23 epidemiological studies that have been published to date, 18 showed no association between bladder cancer and pioglitazone (5 with a combination of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone). Of the five that did show a significant association with pioglitazone, three could not be confirmed in the same population and in one of them there were significantly more risk factors for bladder cancer in the patients exposed to pioglitazone. In the fourth one, a significant association became non-significant when patients >79years were included. In the fifth one, detection bias was a major flaw. Currently, >11,000 legal cases have been filed, many of which claim emotional distress due to the fear of bladder cancer. To limit their legal costs, the pharmaceutical company has established a 2.4 billion dollar settlement pool. So much for evidence-based medicine. PMID:27133452

  11. Evidence for a specialized role of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system in cortical circuitries and behavioral operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Daniel J

    2016-06-15

    The brainstem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) innervates the entire central nervous system and is the primary source of norepinephrine (NE) to the neocortex. While classically considered a homogenous modulator of forebrain activity by virtue of highly widespread and divergent axons, recent behavioral and pharmacological evidence suggest this nucleus may execute distinct operations within functionally distinct terminal fields. Summarized in this review are the anatomical and physiological properties of the nucleus within a historical context that led to the interpretation of the nucleus as a homogeneous entity with uniform and simultaneous actions throughout its terminal fields. Also included are findings from several laboratories which point to a more nuanced model of LC/NE function that parallels that seen in other forebrain-projecting monoaminergic nuclei. Such compartmentalized models of the nucleus promote the idea that specific LC circuits are involved in discrete behavioral operations, and therefore, by identifying the networks that are engaged by LC, the substrates for these behaviors can be identified and manipulated. Perturbations in the functional anatomy and physiology of this system may be related to neuropsychiatric conditions associated with dysregulation of the LC-noradrenergic system such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Recent findings regarding the organization and operation of the LC/NE system collectively challenge the classical view of the nucleus as a relatively homogenous modulator of forebrain activity and provide the basis for a renewed scientific interest in this region of the brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26607255

  12. Chinese Currency Unit and Financial Crisis: Evidence from Early Warning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Hui, Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with currency crises and the Chinese currency unification (CCU. It used an ordered probit model in comparing the accuracy of three different early warning systems and analyzing the key factors. The results showed that real exchange rate and consumer price index (CPI changes are the most significant variables. Real interest rates significantly influence the probability of currency crises, revealing a greater marginal effect in the CCU regime. Hence, CCU members should maintain higher real interest rates to attract capital inflow and to fend off speculative attacks. Further, to alleviate the impacts of crises on the CCU regime, policy makers should stimulate the stock market to avoid overheating and to stabilize GDP growth. The predictive accuracy of the CCU regime is higher than specific exchange rates. Reliability thresholds also revealed that the CCU regime is a feasible economic system capable of preventing currency crises.

  13. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT): Description of approach, theoretical advances, and published longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David W; Doell, Faye K; Dalton, E Jane; Ahmad, Saunia

    2008-12-01

    The systemic-constructivist approach to studying and benefiting couples was derived from qualitative and quantitative research on distressed couples over the past 10 years. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) is the clinical intervention that accompanies the approach. SCCT guides the therapist to work with both the intrapersonal and the interpersonal aspects of marriage while also integrating the social-environmental context of the couple. The theory that underlies SCCT is explained, including concepts such as we-ness and interpersonal processing. The primary components of the therapy are described. Findings described previously in an inaugural monograph containing extensive research demonstrating the long-term utility of SCCT are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122535

  14. Experimental evidence for phase synchronization transitions in human cardio-respiratory system

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, R; Kantelhardt, J W; Penzel, T; Bartsch, Ronny; Havlin, Shlomo; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Penzel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Transitions in the dynamics of complex systems can be characterized by changes in the synchronization behavior of their components. Taking the human cardio-respiratory system as an example and using an automated procedure for screening the synchrograms of 112 healthy subjects we study the frequency and the distribution of synchronization episodes under different physiological conditions that occur during sleep. We find that phase synchronization between heartbeat and breathing is significantly enhanced during non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep (deep sleep and light sleep) and reduced during REM sleep. Our results suggest that the synchronization is mainly due to a weak influence of the breathing oscillator upon the heartbeat oscillator, which is disturbed in the presence of long-term correlated noise, superimposed by the activity of higher brain regions during REM sleep.

  15. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...

  16. Dynamics of an Interacting Particle System: Evidence of Critical Slowing Down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurberg, Claes; Svedlindh, Peter; Nordblad, Per;

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of a magnetic particle system consisting of ultrafine Fe-C particles of monodisperse nature has been investigated in a large time window, 10(-9)-10(4) s, using Mossbauer spectroscopy, ac susceptibility, and zero field cooled magnetic relaxation measurements. By studying two samples...... from the same dilution series, with concentrations of 5 and 6 x 10(-3) vol%, respectively, it has been found that dipole-dipole interaction increases the characteristic relaxation time of the particle system at all temperatures investigated. The results for the most concentrated particle assembly are...... indicative of collective magnetic dynamics and critical slowing down at a finite temperature, T-g approximate to 40 K. Close to and below the transition temperature, an aging phenomenon is observed, another manifestation of collective magnetic dynamics....

  17. LEADERSHIP STYLES, MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND GROWTH: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM UK OWNER-MANAGED SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    YONG WANG; PANIKKOS POUTZIOURIS

    2010-01-01

    Apart from starting, growing and/or sustaining a business, owner-managers in small firms have the responsibility to balance business goals and managerial priorities, with ownership control tendencies and family values (as in the case of the prolific family enterprise) in a fashion that can comfort all business stakeholders. Understanding the inter-relationship among owner-manager's leadership style, intra-organisational management systems, and business growth can enable us to develop insights...

  18. Banking System Resilience and Financial Stability - An Evidence from Indian Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, Vighneswara

    2013-01-01

    This paper while emphasising the importance of the concept of financial stability in wake of recent global financial crisis in particular and other (banking and financial) crises in general attempts to highlight the significance of the soundness of banking sector in emerging economies where banking sector constitutes a lion’s share in the financial system. This study examines banking sector stability by constructing a micro vector auto regressive (VAR) model and establishes the significan...

  19. When does Inter-School Competition Matter? Evidence from the Chilean 'Voucher' System

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Gallego

    2012-01-01

    I investigate the effects of voucher-school competition on educational outcomes. I test whether voucher-school competition 1) improves student outcomes and 2) has stronger effects when public schools face a hard budget constraint. Since both voucher school competition and the degree of hardness of the budget constraint for public schools are endogenous to public school quality, I exploit (i) the interaction of the number of Catholic priests in 1950 and the institution of the voucher system in...

  20. Does capital account liberalisation promote economic growth? Evidence from system estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Carmignani

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-equations empirical representation of the channels linking capital account liberalization (CAL) and economic growth. System estimates indicate that CAL determines growth through financial development and openness to trade. The residual effect of CAL on growth after accounting for these two channels is negligible. These results call for a reconsideration of the conclusions on the growth-effect of CAL drawn from single-equation empirical models.

  1. Foreign Ownership, Listed Status and the Financial System in East Asia: Evidence from Thailand and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mieno, Fumiharu

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on the financial system in East Asia have emphasized its excessive debt financing, the lack of a bond market and its limited function on corporate governance. Other apparent facts, such as the average low debt ratio, the existence of large but unlisted firms, and the significance of foreign firms in its economy are generally ignored. Based on a uniquely compiled database for the top 1000 firms in Thailand and Malaysia, we examined the distributional feature of listed status a...

  2. Empirical Evidence of Contribution to E-Tourism by Application of Personalized Tourism Recommendation System

    OpenAIRE

    Koceski, Saso; Petrevska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the necessity of applying recommendations by introducing web portal in the line of enriching e-tourism. It argues the dramatically change of tourist motives and interests due to the rapid usage of Internet. In order to cope with ever-changing tourist preferences and to contribute to tourism and economic development, a tourism recommendation system is proposed. Hence, a software module is developed based on collaborative filtering method which accuracy testing performed s...

  3. Iodine mobilization in groundwater system at Datong basin, China: Evidence from hydrochemistry and fluorescence characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterizing the speciation of iodine in groundwater is essential for understanding its hydrogeochemical behavior in aquifer systems. To quantify the variations in iodine speciation and assess factors controlling the distribution and transformation of iodine, 82 groundwater samples and 1 rain water were collected from the Datong basin, northern China in this study. Factor analysis (FA) and excitation emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (EEM–PARAFAC) were used to clarify the potential relationships among iodine species and other hydrochemical parameters. The iodine concentrations of groundwater range from 6.23 to 1380 μg L−1 with 47% of samples exceeding its drinking water level of 150 μg L−1 as recommended by the Chinese government. 57% of samples have ratios of iodate to total iodine greater than 60%, while iodide as the major species in 22% of the samples. Significant amounts of organic iodine with concentrations higher than 100 μg L−1 were observed in 9 groundwater samples. Redox conditions of groundwater system strongly affect iodine concentration and speciation of inorganic iodine in groundwater, and extremely reducing condition restricts the iodine release from sediments into groundwater. The results of FA show that iodine mobilization in groundwater is related to the nature of dissolved organic matter. EEM-PARAFAC model demonstrates the dominance of terrestrial DOM sources and the presence of microbial activities in groundwater system of the Datong basin. It is proposed that degradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides are major hydrogeochemical processes responsible for the mobilization of iodine release and the genesis of organic iodine. - Highlights: • Iodine species in groundwater was studied from Datong basin, northern China. • Weakly alkaline environment favors the accumulation of iodine in groundwater. • Iodate is the major species of iodine in groundwater from Datong basin. • Redox

  4. High-performance work systems and organizational performance in emerging economies: evidence from MNEs in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Demirbag, Mehmet; Collings, David; Tatoglu, Ekrem; Mellahi, Kamel; Wood, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    •This study examines the association between the usage of high-performance work systems (HPWS) by subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Turkey and employee and subsidiary level outcomes. •The study is based on a survey of 148 MNE subsidiaries operating in Turkey. •The results show that the usage of HPWS has a significant positive impact on employee effectiveness. However, their impact on employee skills and development, and organizational financial performance are far le...

  5. Evidence for superconductivity above 40 K in the La-Ba-Cu-O compound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. W.; Hor, P. H.; Meng, R. L.; Gao, L.; Huang, Z. J.

    1987-01-01

    An apparent superconducting transition with an onset temperature above 40 K has been detected under pressure in the La-Ba-Cu-O compound system synthesized directly from a solid-state reaction of La2O3, CuO, and BaCO3 followed by a decomposition of the mixture in a reduced atmosphere. The experiment is described and the results of effects of magnetic field and pressure are discussed.

  6. Dysregulation of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Review of Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Urošević, Snez̆ana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a call for increased research on bipolar disorder has been answered with methodologically diverse studies exploring goal striving, life events, cognitive style, decision-making, and neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder. In order to further this spurt of research and to systematize our understanding of bipolar disorder, an integrative perspective is warranted. The behavioral approach system (BAS) dysregulation theory, proposed by Richard Depue and colleagues, prov...

  7. Prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and the immune system: experimental data and clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Frei, Remo; Akdis, Mübeccel; O'Mahony, Liam

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW The intestinal immune system is constantly exposed to foreign antigens, which for the most part should be tolerated. Certain probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are able to influence immune responses. In this review, we highlight the recent publications (within the last 2 years) that have substantially progressed this field. RECENT FINDINGS The immunological mechanisms underpinning probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics effects continue to be better defined with novel ...

  8. The nervous system of Paludicella articulata - first evidence of a neuroepithelium in a ctenostome ectoproct

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Anna V; Wanninger, Andreas; Schwaha, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Comparatively few data are available concerning the structure of the adult nervous system in the Ectoprocta or Bryozoa. In contrast to all other ectoprocts, the cerebral ganglion of phylactolaemates contains a central fluid-filled lumen surrounded by a neuroepithelium. Preliminary observations have shown a small lumen within the cerebral ganglion of the ctenostome Paludicella articulata. Ctenostome-grade ectoprocts are of phylogenetic relevance since they are considered to have r...

  9. Evidence for the widespread distribution of CRISPR-Cas system in the Phylum Cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Fei; Axen, Seth D.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the phylum Cyanobacteria inhabit ecologically diverse environments. However, the CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, CRISPR associated genes), an extremely adaptable defense system, has not been surveyed in this phylum. We analyzed 126 cyanobacterial genomes and, surprisingly, found CRISPR-Cas in the majority except the marine subclade (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), in which cyanophages are a known force shaping their evolution. Multiple obs...

  10. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, F.; Jefferies, C.; K. V. Heal; Fogg, P.; Arcy, B. J. D.; Clarke, R.

    2009-01-01

    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies an...

  11. An Economic Analysis of Deferred Examination System: Evidence from Policy Reforms in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAUCHI Isamu; NAGAOKA, SADAO

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how a deferred patent examination system promotes ex-ante screening of patent applications, which reduces both the number of granted patents and the use of economic resources for examinations, without reducing the return from R&D. Based on a real option theory, we develop a model of examination request behaviors. Exploiting the responses of Japanese firms to recent policy reform, we find that the shortening of the allowable period for an examination request significantly increa...

  12. Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov Mitko; Stojan Jure; Girard Emmanuelle; Fournier Didier; Pennetier Cédric; Stankiewicz Maria; Corbel Vincent; Molgó Jordi; Hougard Jean-Marc; Lapied Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) remains the gold standard for insect repellents. About 200 million people use it every year and over 8 billion doses have been applied over the past 50 years. Despite the widespread and increased interest in the use of deet in public health programmes, controversies remain concerning both the identification of its target sites at the olfactory system and its mechanism of toxicity in insects, mammals and humans. Here, we investigated the...

  13. Inequity in a market-based health system: evidence from Canada's dental sector

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Grignon; Jeremiah Hurley; Li Wang; Sara Allin

    2008-01-01

    We study the extent and drivers of income-related inequity in utilization of dental services in Canada using the concentration-index approach that has been widely applied to study equity in physician and hospital services. Because dental care is almost wholly privately financed in Canada, our estimates provide a benchmark for income-related inequity of utilization in private health systems. Although a number of studies document a link between income and utilization, our study is one of the fe...

  14. Achieving Competitive Advantage through Enterprise Resource Planning System Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Business world has witnessed huge challenges today, resembled in; speed technological changes and the companies work for achieving the competitive advantage. This study aims to investigate the effects of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems on gaining competitive advantage in Jordanian companies from manager's viewpoint .21 questionnaires were analyzed to achieve the research objective. The results of the study show that there is a significant association between the adoption of ERP sys...

  15. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task. PMID:26713228

  16. Geometric and featural systems, separable and combined: Evidence from reorientation in people with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Katrina; Landau, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Spatial reorientation by humans and other animals engages geometric representations of surface layouts as well as featural landmarks; however, the two types of information are thought to be behaviorally and neurally separable. In this paper, we examine the use of these two types of information during reorientation among children and adults with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder accompanied by abnormalities in brain regions that support use of both geometry and landmarks. Previous studies of reorientation in adolescents and adults with WS have shown deficits in the ability to use geometry for reorientation, but intact ability to use features, suggesting that the two systems can be differentially impaired by genetic disorder. Using a slightly modified layout, we found that many WS participants could use geometry, and most could use features along with geometry. However, the developmental trajectories for the two systems were quite different from one other, and different from those found in typical development. Purely geometric responding was not correlated with age in WS, and search processes appeared similar to those in typically developing (TD) children. In contrast, use of features in combination with geometry was correlated with age in WS, and search processes were distinctly different from TD children. The results support the view that use of geometry and features stem from different underlying mechanisms, that the developmental trajectories and operation of each are altered in WS, and that combination of information from the two systems is atypical. Given brain abnormalities in regions supporting the two kinds of information, our findings suggest that the co-operation of the two systems is functionally altered in this genetic syndrome. PMID:26275835

  17. Making Questionnaire for Studying Barriers of Utilizing the Scientific Evidence in Health Care System in Islamic Republic of Iran from the View point of Decision Makers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki; Hossein Jabbari; Barmak Yaaghoobian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Inappropriate utilization of scientific evidence in health systems has led to a motivation for designing different studies by various stakeholders to identify the dimensions of this problem and the proper solution for them. In health system of Islamic republic of Iran, among the most important stakeholders are senior and middle managers whose opinions about barriers of utilization of scientific evidence can be studied by questionnaire. This study has been done to make this quest...

  18. Council-based approaches to intimate partner violence: evidence for distal change in the system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicole E; Todd, Nathan R; Anderson, Carolyn J; Davis, Shara M; Javdani, Shabnam; Bruehler, Vernie; Dorsey, Heather

    2013-09-01

    Communities across the United States are collaborating to create a coordinated response to intimate partner violence (IPV); ideally, this involves promoting best practices in the justice and human service systems and engaging a broad array of community sectors (e.g., human service; criminal justice; faith; business; education) to promote victim safety and batterer accountability (Pence, 1999). The current study examined the extent to which Family Violence Coordinating Councils resulted in change in the systems' response to IPV. Specifically, we examined judicial order of protection data from 1990 to 2005 to establish whether the formation and development of councils across the state of Illinois promoted the issuance of plenary orders of protection following the initial granting of emergency orders of protection. Such a pattern would indicate implementation of a best practice in the system response to IPV. Utilizing a multilevel logistic modeling approach, we found that the introduction and development of councils was indeed related to the accessibility of plenary orders of protection. The specific ways in which councils may have influenced such an outcome and the implications of this approach for research on council effectiveness are discussed. PMID:23494267

  19. Performance of the internal audit department under ERP systems: empirical evidence from Taiwanese firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Hui-Chiao; Chang, Jui-Chu; Leu, Jun-Der; Chao Chen, Der; Purbokusumo, Yuyun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the performance of the internal audit department (IAD) and its contribution to a company under enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems was examined. It is anticipated that this will provide insight into the factors perceived to be crucial to a company's effectiveness. A theoretical framework was developed and tested using the sample of Taiwanese companies. Using mail survey procedures, we elicited perceptions from key internal auditors about the ERP system and auditing software, as well as their opinions concerning the IAD's effectiveness and its contribution within a company. Data were analysed using the partial least square (PLS) regression to test the hypotheses. Drawing upon a sample of Taiwanese firms, the study suggests that a firm can improve the performance of the IAD through an enterprise-wide integrated, effective ERP system and appropriate auditing software. At the same time, the performance of the IAD can also contribute significantly to the company. The results also show that investments in computer-assisted auditing techniques (CAATs) are crucial due to their tremendous effectiveness in regard to the performance of the IAD and for the contributions CAATs can make to a company.

  20. The Adaptability of Marketing Systems to Interventions in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Pineapple System in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    In general marketing theory, marketing systems are assumed to adapt to facilitate further economic development. However, such adaptability may be less obvious in the context of developing countries due to features in the social matrix of these countries. The present study explores adaptation in the

  1. Evidence Suggesting a Role of Iron in a Mouse Model of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Chhanda; Megyesi, Judit K; Shah, Sudhir V; Hiatt, Kim M; Hall, Kimberly A; Karaduta, Oleg; Swaminathan, Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is associated with gadolinium contrast exposure in patients with reduced kidney function and carries high morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that gadolinium contrast agents induce in vivo systemic iron mobilization and in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin (iron exporter)-expressing fibrocytic cells. In the present study we examined the role of iron in a mouse model of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease was induced in 8-week-old male Balb/C mice with a two-step 5/6 nephrectomy surgery. Five groups of mice were studied: control (n = 5), sham surgery control (n = 5), chronic kidney disease control (n = 4), chronic kidney disease injected with 0.5 mmol/kg body weight of Omniscan 3 days per week, for a total of 10 injections (n = 8), and chronic kidney disease with Omniscan plus deferiprone, 125 mg/kg, in drinking water (n = 9). Deferiprone was continued for 16 weeks until the end of the experiment. Mice with chronic kidney disease injected with Omniscan developed skin changes characteristic of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis including hair loss, reddening, ulceration, and skin tightening by 10 to 16 weeks. Histopathological sections demonstrated dermal fibrosis with increased skin thickness (0.25±0.06 mm, sham; 0.34±+0.3 mm, Omniscan-injected). Additionally, we observed an increase in tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells accompanied by tissue iron accumulation in the skin of the Omniscan-treated mice. The deferiprone-treated group had significantly decreased skin thickness (pfibrocyte-like cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to Omniscan resulted in the release of catalytic iron and this was prevented by the iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone inhibited the differentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin-expressing cells by immunohistochemical staining and western blot

  2. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based "and" Information-Integration Category Learning: A Reassessment of Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Roger D.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on…

  3. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean SM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sionnadh Mairi McLean,1 Andrew Booth,2 Melanie Gee,3 Sarah Salway,2 Mark Cobb,4 Sadiq Bhanbhro,3 Susan A Nancarrow5 1Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 2School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 3Centre for Health and Social Care Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 4Therapeutics & Palliative Care, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, UK; 5School of Health and Human Science, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, Australia Abstract: Missed appointments are an avoidable cost and resource inefficiency which impact upon the health of the patient and treatment outcomes. Health care services are increasingly utilizing reminder systems to manage these negative effects. This study explores the effectiveness of reminder systems for promoting attendance, cancellations, and rescheduling of appointments across all health care settings and for particular patient groups and the contextual factors which indicate that reminders are being employed sub-optimally. We used three inter-related reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Firstly, using pre-existing models and theories, we developed a conceptual framework to inform our understanding of the contexts and mechanisms which influence reminder effectiveness. Secondly, we performed a review following Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines to investigate the effectiveness of different methods of reminding patients to attend health service appointments. Finally, to supplement the effectiveness information, we completed a review informed by realist principles to identify factors likely to influence non-attendance behaviors and the effectiveness of reminders. We found consistent evidence that all types of reminder systems are effective at improving appointment attendance across a range of health care settings and patient populations. Reminder systems may also increase cancellation and

  4. A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, M.; Gregorio, J.; Boué, G.; Mortier, A.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Maturi, M.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S.; Santos, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bound with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet gathered between 2009 May and 2011 September by using the 30-cm telescope at the Crow Observatory-Portalegre, and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O - C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M ≳ 100 Mearth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon in this system and determine that considering the scatter of the O - C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is however apparently ruled out by observations conducted by other researchers. In the case where the orbit of the moon is not coplanar, the accuracy of our transit timing and transit duration measurements prevents any significant statement. Interestingly, on the basis of our reanalysis of SOPHIE data we noted that WASP-3 passed from a less active (logR HK '=-4.95) to a more active (logR HK '=-4.8) state during the 3 yr monitoring period spanned by the observations. Despite the fact that no clear spot crossing has been reported for this system, this analysis suggests a more intensive monitoring of the activity level of this star in order to understand its impact on photometric and radial velocity measurements.

  5. Evidence of New Risk Genetic Factor to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The UBASH3A Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Lina-Marcela Diaz-Gallo; Elena Sánchez; Norberto Ortego-Centeno; Jose Mario Sabio; García-Hernández, Francisco J; Enrique de Ramón; Miguel A. González-Gay; Torsten Witte; Hans-Joachim Anders; María F González-Escribano; Javier Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin associated and Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain containing A (UBASH3a) is a suppressor of T-cell receptor signaling, underscoring antigen presentation to T-cells as a critical shared mechanism of diseases pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the UBASH3a gene influence the susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Caucasian populations. We evaluated five UBASH3a polymorphisms (rs2277798, rs2277800, rs9976767, rs13048049 and rs17114930), usi...

  6. Chorea in systemic lupus erythematosus: evidence for bilateral putaminal hypermetabolism on F-18 FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who suddenly presented with chorea and had positive antiphospholipid antibodies. F-18 FDG PET showed abnormally increased glucose metabolism in bilateral putamen and primary motor cotex. Tc-99m ECD SPECT also showed abnormally increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral putamen. She was treated with corticosteroid and aspirin after which the symptoms improved. Four months later, follow up F-18 FDG PET showed improvement with resolution of hypermetabolism in bilateral putamen. This case suggests that striatal hypermetabolism is associated with chorea in SLE

  7. Iodine mobilization in groundwater system at Datong basin, China: Evidence from hydrochemistry and fluorescence characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Guo, Wei; Xie, Xianjun; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Yaqing; Kong, Shuqiong

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the speciation of iodine in groundwater is essential for understanding its hydrogeochemical behavior in aquifer systems. To quantify the variations in iodine speciation and assess factors controlling the distribution and transformation of iodine, 82 groundwater samples and 1 rain water were collected from the Datong basin, northern China in this study. Factor analysis (FA) and excitation emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (EEM–PARAFAC) were used to clarify the potential relationships among iodine species and other hydrochemical parameters. The iodine concentrations of groundwater range from 6.23 to 1380 μg L{sup −1} with 47% of samples exceeding its drinking water level of 150 μg L{sup −1} as recommended by the Chinese government. 57% of samples have ratios of iodate to total iodine greater than 60%, while iodide as the major species in 22% of the samples. Significant amounts of organic iodine with concentrations higher than 100 μg L{sup −1} were observed in 9 groundwater samples. Redox conditions of groundwater system strongly affect iodine concentration and speciation of inorganic iodine in groundwater, and extremely reducing condition restricts the iodine release from sediments into groundwater. The results of FA show that iodine mobilization in groundwater is related to the nature of dissolved organic matter. EEM-PARAFAC model demonstrates the dominance of terrestrial DOM sources and the presence of microbial activities in groundwater system of the Datong basin. It is proposed that degradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides are major hydrogeochemical processes responsible for the mobilization of iodine release and the genesis of organic iodine. - Highlights: • Iodine species in groundwater was studied from Datong basin, northern China. • Weakly alkaline environment favors the accumulation of iodine in groundwater. • Iodate is the major species of iodine in groundwater from Datong

  8. Evidence of an XX/XY sex chromosome system in the fish Dormitator maculatus (Teleostei, Eleotrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish Dormitator maculatus has a chromosomes number of 2n = 46, females having a karyotype of 14 M, 28 SM, 2 ST and 2A and males 13 M, 28 SM, 3 ST and 2A. The presence of a heteromorphic pair in the males and a corresponding homomorphic pair in the females suggest the occurrence of an XX/XY sex chromosome system in D. maculatus. The putative X chromosome has a pericentromeric C-band positive segment and the putative Y chromosome a C-band positive short arm.

  9. Evidence for a PGF2α auto-amplification system in the endometrium in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Keisuke; Tokuyama, Shota; Szóstek, Anna Z; Toishi, Yuko; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Sakatani, Miki; Takahashi, Masashi; Nambo, Yasuo; Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-05-01

    In mares, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secreted from the endometrium is a major luteolysin. Some domestic animals have an auto-amplification system in which PGF2α can stimulate its own production. Here, we investigated whether this is also the case in mares. In an in vivo study, mares at the mid-luteal phase (days 6-8 of estrous cycle) were injected i.m. with cloprostenol (250 µg) and blood samples were collected at fixed intervals until 72 h after treatment. Progesterone (P4) concentrations started decreasing 45 min after the injection and continued to decrease up to 24 h (P mares. PMID:26908917

  10. The self-adjusting file (SAF) system: An evidence-based update

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Metzger

    2014-01-01

    Current rotary file systems are effective tools. Nevertheless, they have two main shortcomings: They are unable to effectively clean and shape oval canals and depend too much on the irrigant to do the cleaning, which is an unrealistic illusion They may jeopardize the long-term survival of the tooth via unnecessary, excessive removal of sound dentin and creation of micro-cracks in the remaining root dentin. The new Self-adjusting File (SAF) technology uses a hollow, compressible NiTi fi...

  11. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  12. Pannexin-1 expression in developing mouse nervous system: new evidence for expression in sensory ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslan, Abdulrahman; Hainz, Nadine; Beckmann, Anja; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-04-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1) is one of three members of the pannexin protein family. The expression of Panx1 mRNA has been extensively investigated from late embryonic to adult stages. In contrast, expression during early embryonic development is largely unknown. Our aim is to examine the temporal and spatial expression of Panx1 in mouse embryonic development by focusing on embryonic days (E) 9.5 to 12.5. Whole embryos are investigated in order to provide a comprehensive survey. Analyses were performed at the mRNA level by using reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Panx1 mRNA was detected in the heads and bodies of embryos at all developmental stages investigated (E9.5, E10.5, E11.5, E12.5). In particular, the nervous system expressed Panx1 at an early time point. Interestingly, Panx1 expression was found in afferent ganglia of the cranial nerves and spinal cord. This finding is of particular interest in the context of neuropathic pain and other Panx1-related neurological disorders. Our study shows, for the first time, that Panx1 is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system during early developmental stages. The consequences of Panx1 deficiency or inhibition in a number of experimental paradigms might therefore be predicated on changes during early development. PMID:26453396

  13. Systemic inflammatory response to smoking in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evidence of a gender effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Faner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD but not all smokers develop the disease. An abnormal pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response to smoking is thought to play a major pathogenic role in COPD, but this has never been tested directly. METHODS: We studied the systemic biomarker and leukocyte transcriptomic response (Affymetrix microarrays to smoking exposure in 10 smokers with COPD and 10 smokers with normal spirometry. We also studied 10 healthy never smokers (not exposed to smoking as controls. Because some aspects of COPD may differ in males and females, and the inflammatory response to other stressors (infection might be different in man and women, we stratified participant recruitment by sex. Differentially expressed genes were validated by q-PCR. Ontology enrichment was evaluated and interaction networks inferred. RESULTS: Principal component analysis identified sex differences in the leukocyte transcriptomic response to acute smoking. In both genders, we identified genes that were differentially expressed in response to smoking exclusively in COPD patients (COPD related signature or smokers with normal spirometry (Smoking related signature, their ontologies and interaction networks. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an experimental intervention (smoking exposure to investigate the transcriptomic response of peripheral leukocytes in COPD is a step beyond the standard case-control transcriptomic profiling carried out so far, and has facilitated the identification of novel COPD and Smoking expression related signatures which differ in males and females.

  14. Targeting the Glutamatergic System to Treat Pathological Gambling: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pettorruso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical trial and case series using glutamatergic drugs (N-acetylcysteine, memantine, amantadine, topiramate, acamprosate, baclofen, gabapentin, pregabalin, and modafinil will be presented to elucidate the effectiveness on gambling behaviors and on the related clinical dimensions (craving, withdrawal, and cognitive symptoms in PG patients. The results have been discussed to gain more insight in the pathophysiology and treatment of PG. In conclusion, manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be promising in developing improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of gambling disorders. Further studies are required. Finally, we propose future directions and challenges in this research area.

  15. How does private finance affect public health care systems? Marshaling the evidence from OECD nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes; Flood, Colleen M; Stabile, Mark

    2004-06-01

    The impact of private finance on publicly funded health care systems depends on how the relationship between public and private finance is structured. This essay first reviews the experience in five nations that exemplify different ways of drawing the public/private boundary to address the particular questions raised by each model. This review is then used to interpret aggregate empirical analyses of the dynamic effects between public and private finance in OECD nations over time. Our findings suggest that while increases in the private share of health spending substitute in part for public finance (and vice versa), this is the result of a complex mix of factors having as much to do with cross-sectoral shifts as with deliberate policy decisions within sectors and that these effects are mediated by the different dynamics of distinctive national models. On balance, we argue that a resort to private finance is more likely to harm than to help publicly financed systems, although the effects will vary depending on the form of private finance. PMID:15328871

  16. A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

    CERN Document Server

    Montalto, M; Boue', G; Mortier, A; Boisse, I; Oshagh, M; Maturi, M; Figueira, P; Sousa, S; Santos, N C

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bounded with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O-C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 per cent and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M \\gtrsim 100 M_Earth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon on this system and determined that considering the scatter of the O-C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is howeve...

  17. Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Mitko

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet remains the gold standard for insect repellents. About 200 million people use it every year and over 8 billion doses have been applied over the past 50 years. Despite the widespread and increased interest in the use of deet in public health programmes, controversies remain concerning both the identification of its target sites at the olfactory system and its mechanism of toxicity in insects, mammals and humans. Here, we investigated the molecular target site for deet and the consequences of its interactions with carbamate insecticides on the cholinergic system. Results By using toxicological, biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, we show that deet is not simply a behaviour-modifying chemical but that it also inhibits cholinesterase activity, in both insect and mammalian neuronal preparations. Deet is commonly used in combination with insecticides and we show that deet has the capacity to strengthen the toxicity of carbamates, a class of insecticides known to block acetylcholinesterase. Conclusion These findings question the safety of deet, particularly in combination with other chemicals, and they highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the development of safer insect repellents for use in public health.

  18. Photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a dense ring system around Centaur Chariklo

    CERN Document Server

    Duffard, R; Ortiz, J L; Alvarez-Candal, A; Sicardy, B; Santos-Sanz, P; Morales, N; Colazo, C; Fernández-Valenzuela, E; Braga-Ribas, F

    2014-01-01

    In this work we aim to study if the variability in the absolute magnitude of Chariklo and the temporal variation of the spectral ice feature, even its disappearance in 2007, can be explained by an icy ring system whose aspect angle changes with time. We modeled the light reflected by a system as the one described above to explain the variations on the absolute magnitude of Chariklo and its rings. Using X-Shooter at VLT we obtained a new reflectance spectra, here we compared this new set of data with the ones available in the literature. We showed how the water ice feature is visible in 2013 in accordance with the ring configuration, which had an opening angle of nearly 34$^o$ in 2013. Finally we also used models of the scattering of light to fit the visible and near-infrared spectra showing different characteristic to obtain information on the composition of Chariklo and its rings. {We showed that past absolute photometry of Chariklo from the literature and new photometric data that we obtained in 2013 can be...

  19. Periodontal Systemic Connections-Novel Associations-A Review of the Evidence with Implications for Medical Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Koppolu, Pradeep; Baroudi, Kusai; Mishra, Ashank

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, considered as inflammatory diseases have proved to have a spectrum of systemic implications. Earliest research has associated periodontal disease with common systemic aliments such as hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis to name a few. The evolution of advanced diagnostic aids let researchers make vast inroads in linking periodontal diseases to systemic diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and even Schizophrenia. Our aim was to review and critically evaluate comprehensive literature and provide knowledge to medical practitioners on these associations so as to pave way for closer interactions between medical and dental practitioners in implementing better health care. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases were used as source of the data for relevant studies published from 2005 up to 2015 with the following keywords, “‘Periodontal disease”, “systemic conditions”, “periodontal disease and Alzheimer’s”, “Periodontal disease and Schizophrenia”, “Periodontal disease and Psoriasis” and “Periodontal disease and erectile dysfunction”. The evidence presented ascertains that a reasonable and modest association does exist between Periodontal disease and Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia, Erectile dysfunction, as well as Psoriasis and thus establishes periodontal disease as a potential risk factor. PMID:27103910

  20. Periodontal Systemic Connections-Novel Associations-A Review of the Evidence with Implications for Medical Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Koppolu, Pradeep; Baroudi, Kusai; Mishra, Ashank

    2016-04-01

    Periodontal diseases, considered as inflammatory diseases have proved to have a spectrum of systemic implications. Earliest research has associated periodontal disease with common systemic aliments such as hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis to name a few. The evolution of advanced diagnostic aids let researchers make vast inroads in linking periodontal diseases to systemic diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and even Schizophrenia. Our aim was to review and critically evaluate comprehensive literature and provide knowledge to medical practitioners on these associations so as to pave way for closer interactions between medical and dental practitioners in implementing better health care. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases were used as source of the data for relevant studies published from 2005 up to 2015 with the following keywords, "'Periodontal disease", "systemic conditions", "periodontal disease and Alzheimer's", "Periodontal disease and Schizophrenia", "Periodontal disease and Psoriasis" and "Periodontal disease and erectile dysfunction". The evidence presented ascertains that a reasonable and modest association does exist between Periodontal disease and Alzheimer's, Schizophrenia, Erectile dysfunction, as well as Psoriasis and thus establishes periodontal disease as a potential risk factor. PMID:27103910

  1. Physiochemical Evidence of Faulting Processes and Modeling of Fluid in Evolving Fault Systems in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, James [Professor

    2013-05-24

    Our study targets recent (Plio-Pleistocene) faults and young (Tertiary) petroleum fields in southern California. Faults include the Refugio Fault in the Transverse Ranges, the Ellwood Fault in the Santa Barbara Channel, and most recently the Newport- Inglewood in the Los Angeles Basin. Subsurface core and tubing scale samples, outcrop samples, well logs, reservoir properties, pore pressures, fluid compositions, and published structural-seismic sections have been used to characterize the tectonic/diagenetic history of the faults. As part of the effort to understand the diagenetic processes within these fault zones, we have studied analogous processes of rapid carbonate precipitation (scaling) in petroleum reservoir tubing and manmade tunnels. From this, we have identified geochemical signatures in carbonate that characterize rapid CO2 degassing. These data provide constraints for finite element models that predict fluid pressures, multiphase flow patterns, rates and patterns of deformation, subsurface temperatures and heat flow, and geochemistry associated with large fault systems.

  2. EVIDENCE OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE LEARNING SYSTEM BASED ON THE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Francisco Hernández-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The research-based learning system, SABI, (Hernández, 2011 1 is a response to the philosophy, principles and guidelines of the educational model of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, whose objective is to promote the learning of students with the support of the teacher, and consists of two axes: from domination and exploitation. The first axis aims to cover the conceptual theoretical framework of the area of expertise addressing the contents of units of learning, through the investigation of the State of the corresponding art. The second axis, domain, allows to evaluate the learning process and skills setting as a strategy to support alternatives of solution to a social problem in the area of health through the implementation of a protocol of scientific research-based studies.

  3. Evidence of a suffocation alarm system within the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimitel, F G; de Almeida, G M; Pitol, D N; Armini, R S; Tufik, S; Schenberg, L C

    2012-01-01

    Dyspnea, hunger for air, and urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by infusion of sodium lactate and inhalation of 5% CO₂ in predisposed patients but not in healthy volunteers or patients without panic disorder. Accordingly, Klein [Klein (1993) Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:306-317] suggested that clinical panic is the misfiring of an as-yet-unidentified suffocation alarm system. In rats, selective anoxia of chemoreceptor cells by potassium cyanide (KCN) and electrical and chemical stimulations of periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) produce defensive behaviors, which resemble panic attacks. Thus, here we examined the effects of single or combined administrations of CO₂ (8% and 13%) and KCN (10-80 μg, i.v.) on spontaneous and PAG-evoked behaviors of rats either intact or bearing electrolytic lesions of PAG. Exposure to CO₂ alone reduced grooming while increased exophthalmus, suggesting an arousal response to non-visual cues of environment. Unexpectedly, however, CO₂ attenuated PAG-evoked immobility, trotting, and galloping while facilitated defecation and micturition. Conversely, KCN produced all defensive behaviors of the rat and facilitated PAG-evoked trotting, galloping, and defecation. There were also facilitatory trends in PAG-evoked exophthalmus, immobility, and jumping. Moreover, whereas the KCN-evoked defensive behaviors were attenuated or even suppressed by discrete lesions of PAG, they were markedly facilitated by CO₂. Authors suggest that the PAG harbors an anoxia-sensitive suffocation alarm system which activation precipitates panic attacks and potentiates the subject responses to hypercapnia. PMID:22062132

  4. Error awareness revisited: accumulation of multimodal evidence from central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The differences between erroneous actions that are consciously perceived as errors and those that go unnoticed have recently become an issue in the field of performance monitoring. In EEG studies, error awareness has been suggested to influence the error positivity (Pe) of the response-locked event-related brain potential, a positive voltage deflection prominent approximately 300 msec after error commission, whereas the preceding error-related negativity (ERN) seemed to be unaffected by error awareness. Erroneous actions, in general, have been shown to promote several changes in ongoing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, yet such investigations have only rarely taken into account the question of subjective error awareness. In the first part of this study, heart rate, pupillometry, and EEG were recorded during an antisaccade task to measure autonomic arousal and activity of the CNS separately for perceived and unperceived errors. Contrary to our expectations, we observed differences in both Pe and ERN with respect to subjective error awareness. This was replicated in a second experiment, using a modified version of the same task. In line with our predictions, only perceived errors provoke the previously established post-error heart rate deceleration. Also, pupil size yields a more prominent dilatory effect after an erroneous saccade, which is also significantly larger for perceived than unperceived errors. On the basis of the ERP and ANS results as well as brain-behavior correlations, we suggest a novel interpretation of the implementation and emergence of error awareness in the brain. In our framework, several systems generate input signals (e.g., ERN, sensory input, proprioception) that influence the emergence of error awareness, which is then accumulated and presumably reflected in later potentials, such as the Pe. PMID:21268673

  5. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF {sup 10}Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielandt, Daniel; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1350 (Denmark); Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R. [Hawai' i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Ivanova, Marina A. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t{sub 1/2} = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of {sup 10}Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of {sup 10}Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for {sup 10}Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  6. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF 10Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical 26Al/27Al ratio of ∼5 × 10–5 (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by 26Al/27Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil 10Be/9Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the 10Be/9Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10Be/9Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  7. Evidence of consumers' willingness to pay for the national animal identification system of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Resende Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the United States National Animal Identification System (NAIS in place, consumers' concerns about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE are mitigated and, by inference, consumers will be willing to pay for the NAIS. We estimated twelve alternative specifications of the generalized almost ideal demand system for beef, pork, and poultry, including indexes of news coverage of BSE in the U.S. as proxies for consumers' risk perception on BSE. Using the preferred model, we constructed scenarios on the basis of hypothesized impacts of the NAIS on consumers' risk perception on BSE inmeat. We found that the impact of BSE on consumer demand for meat was in itself sufficient to cover previously estimated costs of implementing the NAIS.Com a implantação do sistema de rastreamento animal (NAIS dos EUA, as preocupações dos consumidores com respeito ao mal da vaca louca (BSE serão atenuadas e, por conseguinte, os consumidores estariam dispostos a pagar pelo NAIS. Foram estimadas doze especificações alternativas do sistema de equações de demanda generalizado quase ideal para as carnes bovina, suína e de frango, incorporando índices com o número de notícias sobre BSE nos EUA como proxies da percepção de risco dos consumidores. O modelo preferido serviu para construir cenários considerando impactos hipotéticos do NAIS sobre a percepção de risco dos consumidores. Conclui-se que o impacto da BSE sobre a demanda por carnes seria suficiente para cobrir estimativas prévias dos custos com a implantação do NAIS.

  8. Provincial Health Accounts in Kerman, Iran: An Evidence of a “Mixed” Healthcare Financing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Mehrolhassani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Provincial Health Accounts (PHA as a subset of National Health Accounts (NHA present financial information for health sectors. It leads to a logical decision making for policy-makers in order to achieve health system goals, especially Fair Financial Contribution (FFC. This study aimed to examine Health Accounts in Kerman Province. Methods The present analytical study was carried out retrospectively between 2008 and 2011. The research population consisted of urban and rural households as well as providers and financial agents in health sectors of Kerman Province. The purposeful sampling included 16 provincial organizations. To complete data, the report on Kerman household expenditure was taken as a data source from the Governor-General’s office. In order to classify the data, the International Classification for Health Accounts (ICHA method was used, in which data set was adjusted for the province. Results During the study, the governmental and non-governmental fund shares of the health sector in Kerman were 27.22% and 72.78% respectively. The main portion of financial sources (59.41 was related to private household funds, of which the Out-of-Pocket (OOP payment mounted to 92.35%. Overall, 54.86% of all financial sources were covered by OOP. The greatest portion of expenditure of Total Healthcare Expenditures (THEs (65.19% was related to curative services. Conclusion The major portion of healthcare expenditures was related to the OOP payment which is compatible with the national average rate in Iran. However, health expenditure per capita, was two and a half times higher than the national average. By performing the Family Physician Program (FPP and emphasizing Social Determinant of Health (SDH approach in the Iranian health system, the portion of OOP payment and curative expenditure are expected to be controlled in the medium term. It is suggested that PHA should be examined annually in a more comprehensive manner to monitor

  9. Social roles and performance of social-ecological systems: evidence from behavioral lab experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Perez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as

  10. Serological and Genetic Evidence for Altered Complement System Functionality in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Findings of the GAPAID Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechl, József; Papp, Krisztián; Hérincs, Zoltán; Péterfy, Hajna; Lóránd, Veronika; Szittner, Zoltán; Estonba, Andone; Rovero, Paolo; Paolini, Ilaria; Del Amo, Jokin; Uribarri, Maria; Alcaro, Maria Claudia; Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Migliorini, Paola; Czirják, László

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with multifactorial ethiopathogenesis. The complement system is involved in both the early and late stages of disease development and organ damage. To better understand autoantibody mediated complement consumption we examined ex vivo immune complex formation on autoantigen arrays. We recruited patients with SLE (n = 211), with other systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 65) and non-autoimmune control subjects (n = 149). Standard clinical and laboratory data were collected and serum complement levels were determined. The genotype of SNP rs1143679 in the ITGAM gene was also determined. Ex vivo formation of immune complexes, with respect to IgM, IgG, complement C4 and C3 binding, was examined using a functional immunoassay on autoantigen microarray comprising nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Complement consumption of nucleic acids increased upon binding of IgM and IgG even when serum complement levels were decreased due to consumption in SLE patients. A negative correlation between serum complement levels and ex vivo complement deposition on nucleic acid autoantigens is demonstrated. On the contrary, complement deposition on tested protein and lipid autoantigens showed positive correlation with C4 levels. Genetic analysis revealed that the non-synonymous variant rs1143679 in complement receptor type 3 is associated with an increased production of anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies. Notwithstanding, homozygous carriers of the previously reported susceptible allele (AA) had lower levels of dsDNA specific IgM among SLE patients. Both the non-synonymous variant rs1143679 and the high ratio of nucleic acid specific IgG/IgM were associated with multiple organ involvement. In summary, secondary complement deficiency in SLE does not impair opsonization of nucleic-acid-containing autoantigens but does affect other antigens and potentially other complement dependent processes. Dysfunction of the receptor recognizing complement

  11. Serological and Genetic Evidence for Altered Complement System Functionality in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Findings of the GAPAID Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Prechl

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with multifactorial ethiopathogenesis. The complement system is involved in both the early and late stages of disease development and organ damage. To better understand autoantibody mediated complement consumption we examined ex vivo immune complex formation on autoantigen arrays. We recruited patients with SLE (n = 211, with other systemic autoimmune diseases (n = 65 and non-autoimmune control subjects (n = 149. Standard clinical and laboratory data were collected and serum complement levels were determined. The genotype of SNP rs1143679 in the ITGAM gene was also determined. Ex vivo formation of immune complexes, with respect to IgM, IgG, complement C4 and C3 binding, was examined using a functional immunoassay on autoantigen microarray comprising nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Complement consumption of nucleic acids increased upon binding of IgM and IgG even when serum complement levels were decreased due to consumption in SLE patients. A negative correlation between serum complement levels and ex vivo complement deposition on nucleic acid autoantigens is demonstrated. On the contrary, complement deposition on tested protein and lipid autoantigens showed positive correlation with C4 levels. Genetic analysis revealed that the non-synonymous variant rs1143679 in complement receptor type 3 is associated with an increased production of anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies. Notwithstanding, homozygous carriers of the previously reported susceptible allele (AA had lower levels of dsDNA specific IgM among SLE patients. Both the non-synonymous variant rs1143679 and the high ratio of nucleic acid specific IgG/IgM were associated with multiple organ involvement. In summary, secondary complement deficiency in SLE does not impair opsonization of nucleic-acid-containing autoantigens but does affect other antigens and potentially other complement dependent processes. Dysfunction of the receptor

  12. Insulator–metal transition in a conservative system: An evidence for mobility coalescence in island silver films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manjunatha Pattabi

    2002-05-01

    Aging, which manifests itself as an irreversible increase in electrical resistance in island metal films is of considerable interest from both academic as well as applications point of view. Aging is attributed to various causes, oxidation of islands and mobility of islands followed by coalescence (mobility coalescence) being the main contenders. The effect of parameters like substrate temperature, substrate cleaning, residual gases in the vacuum chamber, ultrasonic vibration of the substrate, suggest that the mobility coalescence is responsible for the aging in island metal films. Electron microscopy studies show evidence for mobility of islands at high substrate temperatures. The comparison of aging data of island silver films deposited on glass substrates in ultra high vacuum and high vacuum suggests that the oxidation of islands, as being responsible for aging in these films, can be ruled out. Further, under certain conditions of deposition, island silver films exhibit a dramatic and drastic fall in electrical resistance, marking the insulator–metal transition. This interesting transition observed in a conservative system – after the stoppage of deposition of the film – is a clear evidence for mobility coalescence of islands even at room temperature. The sudden fall in resistance is preceded by fluctuations in resistance with time and the fluctuations are attributed to the making and breaking of the percolation path in the film

  13. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  14. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picking Wendy L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. Results In this study, we present the 3.3 Å crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155 of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC1-151. Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric "head-to- head" dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC1-151. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II

  15. Evidence of a large seasonal coastal upwelling system along the southern shelf of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Jochen; Doubell, Mark; Griffin, David; Matthews, Roger L.; Ward, Tim M.

    2004-05-01

    We report observational existence of a large seasonal coastal upwelling system that establishes in austral summer (December-April) along Australian southern shelves. Wind-driven upwelling events occur simultaneously in three upwelling centres spanning a distance of ~800 km. During each summer period there are ~2-3 major upwelling events, each lasting ~1 week. The simultaneous, rapid response of SST to wind forcing in the upwelling centres, which display vastly different shelf widths, points to the existence of a larger-scale process that carries cold water onto the shelf prior to the upwelling season. Exploration of a major upwelling event in March 1998 shows the evolution of peak surface chlorophyll-a concentrations of >4 μg/L lagging the onset of upwelling by ~1 week. The associated (exponential) growth rate can be estimated at 0.4 d-1. Another week later we found a distinct sub-surface chlorophyll-a maximum at a depth of 50 m centred along the upwelling front. Reasons for the formation of this maximum are not fully understood.

  16. Evidence of intermediate structure in 12C plus 24Mg system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of backward resonance structures have been performed for the 12C, 24Mg system at 1800 c.m. Excitation functions were measured using the 24Mg beam of the Saclay F.N. Van de Graaff and by detecting at 00 the 12C recoil nuclei with a QDDD magnetic spectrometer. Havar and/or gold foils were placed in front of the focal plane gas counter in order to stop the 24Mg beam. The target was made of a 50 μg/cm2 carbon layer plus a 10 μg/cm2 gold deposit for beam intensity monitoring. The results are presented between 11- and 27 MeV c.m. for the g.s. 0+, first 2+ state of 24Mg and first 2+ state of 12C. The step in energy is 133 keV c.m. The coulomb barrier is about 12 MeV. A certain correlation can be observed between the elastic and inelastic excitation functions. The coherence width calculated is about 600 keV for a average interval of 4.1 MeV c.m. The normalized cross-correlation coefficients are respectively -0.33 and -0.37 for correlation between g.s. and first 2+ of 24Mg and first 2+ of 12C. The cross-correlation cofficient between the two 2+ states is 0.01

  17. Evidence of Long Range Dependence and Self-similarity in Urban Traffic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Gautam S [ORNL; Helmy, Ahmed [University of Florida, Gainesville; Hui, Pan [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Transportation simulation technologies should accurately model traffic demand, distribution, and assignment parame- ters for urban environment simulation. These three param- eters significantly impact transportation engineering bench- mark process, are also critical in realizing realistic traffic modeling situations. In this paper, we model and charac- terize traffic density distribution of thousands of locations around the world. The traffic densities are generated from millions of images collected over several years and processed using computer vision techniques. The resulting traffic den- sity distribution time series are then analyzed. It is found using the goodness-of-fit test that the traffic density dis- tributions follows heavy-tail models such as Log-gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull in over 90% of analyzed locations. Moreover, a heavy-tail gives rise to long-range dependence and self-similarity, which we studied by estimating the Hurst exponent (H). Our analysis based on seven different Hurst estimators strongly indicate that the traffic distribution pat- terns are stochastically self-similar (0.5 H 1.0). We believe this is an important finding that will influence the design and development of the next generation traffic simu- lation techniques and also aid in accurately modeling traffic engineering of urban systems. In addition, it shall provide a much needed input for the development of smart cities.

  18. Evidence for an accretion origin for the outer halo globular cluster system of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Dougal; Ferguson, Annette; Irwin, Mike; Tanvir, Nial; McConnachie, Alan; Ibata, Rodrigo; Chapman, Scott; Lewis, Geraint

    2010-01-01

    We use a sample of newly-discovered globular clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) in combination with previously-catalogued objects to map the spatial distribution of globular clusters in the M31 halo. At projected radii beyond ~30 kpc, where large coherent stellar streams are readily distinguished in the field, there is a striking correlation between these features and the positions of the globular clusters. Adopting a simple Monte Carlo approach, we test the significance of this association by computing the probability that it could be due to the chance alignment of globular clusters smoothly distributed in the M31 halo. We find the likelihood of this possibility is low, below 1%, and conclude that the observed spatial coincidence between globular clusters and multiple tidal debris streams in the outer halo of M31 reflects a genuine physical association. Our results imply that the majority of the remote globular cluster system of M31 has been assembled as a consequence of the accre...

  19. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile's universal voucher system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9-12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  20. Evidence for hydrogen two-level systems in atomic layer deposition oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Gladchenko, S.; Holder, A. M.; Musgrave, C. B.; Kozen, A. C.; Rubloff, G.; Liu, Y. Q.; Gordon, R. G.; Yum, J. H.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lobb, C. J.; Osborn, K. D.

    2013-10-01

    Two-level system (TLS) defects in dielectrics are known to limit the performance of electronic devices. We study TLS using millikelvin microwave (6.4 GHz) loss measurements of three atomic layer deposited (ALD) oxide films-crystalline BeO (c-BeO), amorphous Al2O3 (a-Al2O3), and amorphous LaAlO3 (a-LaAlO3)-and interpret them with room temperature characterization measurements. We find that the bulk loss tangent in the crystalline film is 6 times higher than in the amorphous films. In addition, its power saturation agrees with an amorphous distribution of TLS. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) impurity analysis of the c-BeO film showed excess surface carbon (C) impurities and a uniform hydrogen (H) impurity distribution, which coupled with the analysis of loss tangent strongly suggests H limited loss. Impurity analysis of the amorphous films reveals that they have excess H impurities at the ambient-exposed surface, and we extract the associated H-based surface loss tangent. We compare two a-Al2O3 films with drastically different C impurity concentrations and similar H impurity concentrations and conclude that H rather than C is the likely source of loss in the amorphous films and we find the loss per H concentration in a-Al2O3 to be KH =3×10-24 cm3.

  1. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Heal, K V; Fogg, P; Arcy, B J D; Clarke, R

    2009-01-01

    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies and field measurements at soft-engineered SUDS undertaken in the UK, observing the accumulation and behaviour of traffic-related heavy metals, oil and PAHs. The field data presented were collected from two extended detention basins serving the M74 motorway in the south-west of Scotland. Additional data were supplied from an experimental lysimeter soil core leaching study. Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. Management and/or control strategies are discussed for reducing the impact of traffic-related pollutants on the aqueous environment. PMID:19587419

  2. Nanofibrous scaffolds supporting optimal central nervous system regeneration: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamudzandu M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Munyaradzi Kamudzandu, Paul Roach, Rosemary A Fricker, Ying Yang Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK Abstract: Restoration of function following damage to the central nervous system (CNS is severely restricted by several factors. These include the hindrance of axonal regeneration imposed by glial scars resulting from inflammatory response to damage, and limited axonal outgrowth toward target tissue. Strategies for promoting CNS functional regeneration include the use of nanotechnology. Due to their structural similarity, synthetic nanofibers could play an important role in regeneration of CNS neural tissue toward restoration of function following injury. Two-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used to provide contact guidance for developing brain and spinal cord neurites, particularly from neurons cultured in vitro. Three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used, both in vitro and in vivo, for creating cell adhesion permissive milieu, in addition to contact guidance or structural bridges for axons, to control reconnection in brain and spinal cord injury models. It is postulated that nanofibrous scaffolds made from biodegradable and biocompatible materials can become powerful structural bridges for both guiding the outgrowth of neurites and rebuilding glial circuitry over the “lesion gaps” resulting from injury in the CNS. Keywords: scaffold, nanofibrous scaffold, CNS, regeneration, alignment

  3. Local Government Systems and Decentralization: Evidence from Pakistan’s Devolution Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of governance and development practitioners continues to embrace community participation and community empowerment as an elementary means of building local capacity for poverty reduction, development and change at the local level. This article is a review of the decentralization initiatives of local government systems after the announcement of the devolution plan in Pakistan. It evaluates the initiatives’ participatory methods to ascertain the extent to which they have improved the process of community development at the local level. This article also measures the impact of community empowerment on the sustainability of community-driven projects implemented under the decentralization initiative through community-based organizations known as Citizen Community Boards (CCBs. Document analysis and literature review methodologies were employed to gain further insight into the decentralization phenomenon in Pakistan. The results describe human development, improvements in community empowerment and the sustainability of local projects; however, the sense of community has yet to be translated into shared benefits for rural communities. The fundamental goal of decentralization seems to be elusive because only power was transferred to the local level, whereas there is little support for community capacity building and community access to resources and the elites still control the electoral process. It is argued that community development initiatives in Pakistan require continuous support from local governments to boost local rural economies. Likewise, community-local government participatory development strategies can lead to strong local ownership and empowerment in rural communities.

  4. Oblique fault systems crossing the Seattle Basin: Geophysical evidence for additional shallow fault systems in the central Puget Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Chris G.; Keranen, Katie M.

    2012-03-01

    Upper plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. We map fault networks in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using existing marine multichannel seismic reflection data sets with widely distributed profiles to extend the results of previous work. We identify a NE-SW zone of recent high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone and is distinct from previously mapped fault systems. Faults in this zone cut or deform sediments at the seafloor, and the zone trends across the central Puget Lowland at an oblique angle to major regional structures. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. Aeromagnetic lineations extend the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation of shallow sediment in the Puget Sound with deformation of shallow sediment in the Hood Canal. These oblique fault structures may partially control the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland and should be considered in seismic hazard assessments.

  5. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of sucrose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum ZJU 8235: evidence for the phosphotransferase transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Cai, Jin; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Xu, Zhinan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2010-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of sucrose, the major sugar in industrial cane molasses, by Clostridium tyrobutyricum ZJU 8235 was investigated and this study provided the first definitive evidence for phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) activity in butyric acid-producing bacteria. Glucose was utilized preferentially to sucrose when both substrates were present in the medium. The PEP-dependent sucrose: PTS was induced by growing C. tyrobutyricum on sucrose (but not glucose) as the sole carbon source. Extract fractionation and PTS reconstitution experiments revealed that both soluble and membrane components were required for bioactivity. Sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase and fructokinase activities were also detected in sucrose-grown cultures. Based on these findings, a pathway of sucrose metabolism in this organism was proposed that includes the forming of sucrose-6-phosphate via the PTS and its further degradation into glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. PMID:19726178

  6. The therapeutic potential of sigma (σ) receptors for the treatment of central nervous system diseases: evaluation of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Samuel D; Kassiou, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since their proposal in 1976, sigma (σ) receptors have been increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of virtually all major central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Due to their involvement in motor function and higher cognitive function,σ receptors have also been implicated in movement disorders (such as Parkinson's disease) and memory deficits (including Alzheimer's disease). In most cases the precise mechanism(s) linking σ receptors to CNS disease are unknown or yet to be fully elucidated. However, many σ ligands have shown promise in pharmacological studies and animal models of the aforementioned diseases, and some have entered clinical trials. This review will assess the validity of receptors as a target for various CNS diseases based on evidence from animal models of human diseases, preclinical studies in humans, and full clinical trials. PMID:22288410

  7. Isotopic evidences and constraints in the chemoautotrophic system of the Movile cave, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stable isotope (2H, 13C, 34S) content for samples from the chemoautotrophic ecosystem of the Movile cave have been used to provide information about the life in this closed system.. The groundwater is rich in H2S (8-12 mg/l) and the cave atmosphere is poor in oxygen (7-10%), rich in CO2 (2-3.5%) and contains a significant amount of CH4 (1-2%). The 13C content of cave organic matter exhibits low values of δ13C (between -47.5 and -37.5 0/00) and does not reflect the isotopic composition of the local organic materials from surface and subsurface. The concentration of 13C in the area near to cave is typical for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that use photoautotrophic carbon fixation (between -30 and -23 0/00). This discrepancy suggests other way of carbon fixation in the trophic web and it is possible that the organic matter is derived from lipid-rich organisms biosynthesized by chemosynthetic microorganisms which use H2S as energy source for carbon fixation. Gases collected from the groundwater (H2S) and the cave atmosphere (CH4 and CO2) have isotope ratios that point out the following: the groundwater from cave is not originated from Black Sea. The δ34S values range between +3.5 to +4.2 0/00 for cave being rich in 34S versus isotopic composition of deep water from Black Sea (-40 0/00); the sulphur isotope content from H2S (+5.9 to +8.3 0/00) and SO42-(+1.1 0/00) presents a contrast trend versus the general trend of the isotopic fractionation of the microbially mediated sulphur transformations. In the cave, H2S with δ34S values lower than that of the SO42- reactant were not recorded; the carbon isotope data for CO2-CH4 pairs (-23 0/00 for CO2 and -56.5 0/00 for CH4) of the cave gases cannot clearly delineate the biogenic methane origin as marine or non-marine provenance; the equilibrium carbon isotope fractionation between CH4 and CO2 is αc = 1. 35 indicating that the CO2 reduction pathway for methanogenesis is very improbable and the natural conditions of

  8. Evidence of new risk genetic factor to systemic lupus erythematosus: the UBASH3A gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina-Marcela Diaz-Gallo

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin associated and Src-homology 3 (SH3 domain containing A (UBASH3a is a suppressor of T-cell receptor signaling, underscoring antigen presentation to T-cells as a critical shared mechanism of diseases pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the UBASH3a gene influence the susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in Caucasian populations. We evaluated five UBASH3a polymorphisms (rs2277798, rs2277800, rs9976767, rs13048049 and rs17114930, using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays, in a discovery cohort that included 906 SLE patients and 1165 healthy controls from Spain. The SNPs that exhibit statistical significance difference were evaluated in a German replication cohort of 360 SLE patients and 379 healthy controls. The case-control analysis in the Spanish population showed a significant association between the rs9976767 and SLE (Pc = 9.9E-03 OR = 1.21 95%CI = 1.07-1.37 and a trend of association for the rs2277798 analysis (P = 0.09 OR = 0.9 95%CI = 0.79-1.02. The replication in a German cohort and the meta-analysis confirmed that the rs9976767 (Pc = 0.02; Pc = 2.4E-04, for German cohort and meta-analysis, respectively and rs2277798 (Pc = 0.013; Pc = 4.7E-03, for German cohort and meta-analysis, respectively UBASH3a variants are susceptibility factors for SLE. Finally, a conditional regression analysis suggested that the most likely genetic variation responsible for the association was the rs9976767 polymorphism. Our results suggest that UBASH3a gene plays a role in the susceptibility to SLE. Moreover, our study indicates that UBASH3a can be considered as a common genetic factor in autoimmune diseases.

  9. Evidence of additional excitation energy transfer pathways in the phycobiliprotein antenna system of Acaryochloris marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganou, A C; David, L; Adir, N; Pouhe, D; Deen, M J; Mkandawire, M

    2015-02-01

    To improve the energy conversion efficiency of solar organic cells, the clue may lie in the development of devices inspired by an efficient light harvesting mechanism of some aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms that are adapted to low light intensity. Consequently, we investigated the pathways of excitation energy transfer (EET) from successive light harvesting pigments to the low energy level inside the phycobiliprotein antenna system of Acaryochloris marina, a cyanobacterium, using a time resolved absorption difference spectroscopy with a resolution time of 200 fs. The objective was to understand the actual biochemical process and pathways that determine the EET mechanism. Anisotropy of the EET pathway was calculated from the absorption change trace in order to determine the contribution of excitonic coupling. The results reveal a new electron energy relaxation pathway of 14 ps inside the phycocyanin component, which runs from phycocyanin to the terminal emitter. The bleaching of the 660 nm band suggests a broader absorption of the terminal emitter between 660 nm and 675 nm. Further, there are trimer depolarization kinetics of 450 fs and 500 fs in high and low ionic strength, respectively, which arise from the relaxation of the β84 and α84 in adjacent monomers of phycocyanin. Under conditions of low ionic strength buffer solution, the evolution of the kinetic amplitude during the depolarization of the trimer is suggestive of trimer conservation within the phycocyanin hexamer. The anisotropy values were 0.38 and 0.40 in high and in low ionic strength, respectively, indicating that there is no excitonic delocalization in the high energy level of phycocyanin hexamers. PMID:25470281

  10. Positive spill-over effects of ART scale up on wider health systems development: evidence from Ethiopia and Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasschaert Freya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global health initiatives have enabled the scale up of antiretroviral treatment (ART over recent years. The impact of HIV-specific funds and programmes on non-HIV-related health services and health systems in genera has been debated extensively. Drawing on evidence from Malawi and Ethiopia, this article analyses the effects of ART scale-up interventions on human resources policies, service delivery and general health outcomes, and explores how synergies can be maximized. Methods Data from Malawi and Ethiopia were compiled between 2004 and 2009 and between 2005 and 2009, respectively. We developed a conceptual health systems framework for the analysis. We used the major changes in human resources policies as an entry point to explore the wider health systems changes. Results In both countries, the need for an HIV response triggered an overhaul of human resources policies. As a result, the health workforce at health facility and community level was reinforced. The impact of this human resources trend was felt beyond the scale up of ART services; it also contributed to an overall increase in functional health facilities providing curative, mother and child health, and ART services. In addition to a significant increase in ART coverage, we observed a remarkable rise in user rates of non-HIV health services and an improvement in overall health outcomes. Conclusions Interventions aimed at the expansion of ART services and improvement of long-term retention of patients in ART care can have positive spill-over effects on the health system. The responses of Malawi and Ethiopia to their human resources crises was exceptional in many respects, and some of the lessons learnt can be useful in other contexts. The case studies show the feasibility of obtaining improved health outcomes beyond HIV through scaled-up ART interventions when these are part of a long-term, system-wide health plan supported by all decision makers and funders.

  11. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    OpenAIRE

    El-Jardali Fadi; Lavis John N; Ataya Nour; Jamal Diana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Research...

  12. Climate for evidence-informed health systems: A print media analysis in 44 low- and middle-income countries that host knowledge-translation platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Lavis John N; Cheung Andrew; Hamandi Ali; El-Jardali Fadi; Sachs Jonathan; Sewankambo Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We conducted a print media analysis in 44 countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean in order to understand one dimension of the climate for evidence-informed health systems and to provide a baseline for an evaluation of knowledge-translation platforms. Our focus was whether and how policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers talk in the media about three topics: policy priorities in the health sector, health research evidence, and policy dialog...

  13. Anatomical evidence for ileal Peyer's patches innervation by enteric nervous system: a potential route for prion neuroinvasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetti, Roberto; Mazzuoli, Gemma; Albanese, Valeria; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Clavenzani, Paolo; Lalatta-Costerbosa, Giovanna; Lucchi, Maria L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Furness, John B

    2008-05-01

    We have examined the innervation of the gut-associated lymphoid system of the sheep ileum, with a view to identifying potential sites for neuroinvasion by pathogens, such as prions (PrP(Sc)). Special attention has been paid to the follicles of Peyer's patches (PPs), which are major sites of PrP(Sc) accumulation during infection. Evidence exists that the enteric nervous system, together with the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways projecting to the intestine, are important for PrP(Sc) entry into the central nervous system. Thus, PrP(Sc) might move from PPs to the neurons and nerve fibres that innervate them. We investigated, by immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing (DiI) from the follicles, the distribution and phenotype of enteric neurons innervating the follicles. Antibodies against protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase, calbindin (CALB), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and nitric oxide synthase were used to characterise the neurons. Immunoreactivity for each of these was observed in fibres around and inside PP follicles. CGRP-immunoreactive fibres were mainly seen at the follicular dome. Retrograde tracing revealed submucosal neurons that contributed to the innervation of PPs, including Dogiel type II neurons and neurons immunoreactive for CALB and CGRP. The major source of the adrenergic fibres are the sympathetic ganglia. Our results thus suggest that enteric and sympathetic neurons are involved during the first stage of neuroinvasion, with neurons connecting to them acting as potential carriers of PrP(Sc) to the central nervous system. PMID:18317812

  14. The physical and hydrothermal regime of tectonic vein systems: evidence from stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of mineralisation in tectonic vein systems and pressure shadows is investigated using oxygen isotope analysis to evaluate equilibrium between the rock matrix and secondary minerals. The delta18O of vein quartz is controlled by that of detrital quartz in the country rock. It is concluded that ein systems in rocks deformed under conditions of low grade metamorphism form principally by local diffusional mass transport. The abundance of veining under these conditions coincides with the low-temperature deformation regime dominated by pressure solution processes, and it is not necessary to appeal to hydrothermal transport in solution. However, coexisting minerals in country rock and veins display isotopic disquilibrium. Examination of primary fluid inclusions in vein quartz reveals that the fluids are high density, subcritical aqueous chloride solutions with a small component of CO2. The delta18O vales of fluids calculated to be in equilibrium with vein quartz fall between 4 promille and 10 promille, consistent with the accepted range of isotopic compositions of fluids implicated in diagenesis and metamorphism. From several lines of evidence it is suggested that the water/rock ratio during deformation and veining is low. (orig./HK) 891 HK

  15. Relationships between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity: a short review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzullo, P; Barbato, A; Vuotto, P; Galletti, F

    2001-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies provided evidence in favor of complex relationships between sympathetic nervous system activity and salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. Genetic and acquired metabolic alterations associated with a tendency to retain salt and water may generate salt-sensitivity of blood pressure and shift the pressure-natriuresis curve to the right, promoting an increase in blood pressure. Sympathetic activation is a factor contributing to this result. Chronic high dietary salt intake is followed by a derangement in mechanisms of central sympathetic inhibition and then by an enhanced peripheral sympathetic tone. This, in turn, may generate salt-sensitivity of blood pressure by affecting renal hemodynamics, tubular sodium and water handling. Insulin resistance and sodium and water retention are prompted by high-fat (as well as high carbohydrate) diets, and by an increase in body fat mass. Also, aging is a condition of impaired interactions of the above factors. A gain in weight due to reduced physical activity, not followed by a parallel decrease in calorie intake, brings to a fall in insulin sensitivity. In many cases, the natural age-related decline of renal function is associated with a reduced physical exercise, hyperinsulinemia and sodium retention; sympathetic nervous system activity is enhanced and causes an increase in blood pressure. PMID:11270585

  16. Evidence of transfer by conjugation of type IV secretion system genes between Bartonella species and Rhizobium radiobacter in amoeba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharee Saisongkorh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4(T circular plasmid (pNH4 that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae and plants (Rhizobiales. We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.

  17. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holston, Kevin C

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  18. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela R González

    Full Text Available Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg, cocaine (3×10mg/kg, or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology.

  19. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, María E.; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Vitullo, Alfredo D.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology. PMID:26560700

  20. Is there evidence for the use of art therapy in treatment of psychosomatic disorders, eating disorders and crisis? A comparative study of two different systems for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Gärd; Lundqvist Persson, Cristina

    2012-02-01

    A comparative study of two different systems for evaluation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 47-53. As with any type of treatment the requirement for evidence based practice (EBP) has also affected art therapy (AT) when used as an intervention. This review evaluates the available evidence for using AT for psychosomatic disorders, eating disorders and crisis. The search in Cochrane, Best Practice, AMED, CINAHL, PION, PsycINFO and PubMed from 1987 until now resulted in a huge number of articles but only 32 articles met our criteria for evaluations. The articles were assessed with two evaluation systems, the GRADE system used by the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU) and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF/Task Force). When comparing the results we found that the GRADE evaluation system rejected the quality in 84% of the 32 studies and the USPSTF/Task Force 41% of these studies. An evidence base for AT was found only according to the criteria of USPSTF/Task Force. Hence, the evidence concept is not explicit, which means that effective treatments run a risk of not being implemented in health care. We suggest a broader view of what constitutes evidence in order to make it possible to include different types of research designs and methods. PMID:22023072

  1. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  2. Impact of a computerized system for evidence-based diabetes care on completeness of records: a before–after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanov Pavel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians practicing in ambulatory care are adopting electronic health record (EHR systems. Governments promote this adoption with financial incentives, some hinged on improvements in care. These systems can improve care but most demonstrations of successful systems come from a few highly computerized academic environments. Those findings may not be generalizable to typical ambulatory settings, where evidence of success is largely anecdotal, with little or no use of rigorous methods. The purpose of our pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a diabetes specific chronic disease management system (CDMS on recording of information pertinent to guideline-concordant diabetes care and to plan for larger, more conclusive studies. Methods Using a before–after study design we analyzed the medical record of approximately 10 patients from each of 3 diabetes specialists (total = 31 who were seen both before and after the implementation of a CDMS. We used a checklist of key clinical data to compare the completeness of information recorded in the CDMS record to both the clinical note sent to the primary care physician based on that same encounter and the clinical note sent to the primary care physician based on the visit that occurred prior to the implementation of the CDMS, accounting for provider effects with Generalized Estimating Equations. Results The CDMS record outperformed by a substantial margin dictated notes created for the same encounter. Only 10.1% (95% CI, 7.7% to 12.3% of the clinically important data were missing from the CDMS chart compared to 25.8% (95% CI, 20.5% to 31.1% from the clinical note prepared at the time (p p  Conclusions The CDMS chart captured information important for the management of diabetes more often than dictated notes created with or without its use but we were unable to detect a difference in completeness between notes dictated in CDMS-associated and usual-care encounters. Our sample of

  3. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelina S. Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods: Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed. Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results: The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions: Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research

  4. A Neural Dissociation Within Language: Evidence that the Mental Dictionary is Part of Declarative Memory, and that Grammatical Rules are Processed by the Procedural System

    OpenAIRE

    Ullman, Michael T.; Corkin, Suzanne; Coppola, Marie; Hickok, Gregory; Growdon, John Herbert; Walter J Koroshetz; Pinker, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Language comprises a lexicon for storing words and a grammar for generating rule-governed forms. Evidence is presented that the lexicon is part of a temporal-parietalhnedial-temporal “declarative memory” system and that granlmatical rules are processed by a frontamasal-ganglia “procedural” system. Patients produced past tenses of regular and novel verbs (looked and plagged), which require an -ed-suffixation rule, and irregular verbs (dug), which are retrieved from memory. Word-finding difficu...

  5. Molecular cloning of the crr gene and evidence that it is the structural gene for IIIGlc, a phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system.

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, N.D.; Saffen, D W; Dottin, R P; Roseman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Sugar substrates of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS) normally prevent bacterial cells from utilizing sugars that are not substrates of this system (diauxic growth, "the glucose effect"). We have previously shown that this type of PTS-mediated repression can be completely reversed by a single mutation, designated crr. Two lines of evidence are presented in this report showing that crr is the structural gene for IIIGlc, one of the proteins of the PTS. First, homog...

  6. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  7. Climate for evidence-informed health systems: A print media analysis in 44 low- and middle-income countries that host knowledge-translation platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavis John N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted a print media analysis in 44 countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean in order to understand one dimension of the climate for evidence-informed health systems and to provide a baseline for an evaluation of knowledge-translation platforms. Our focus was whether and how policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers talk in the media about three topics: policy priorities in the health sector, health research evidence, and policy dialogues regarding health issues. Methods We developed a search strategy consisting of three progressively more delimited phases. For each jurisdiction, we searched Major World Publications in LexisNexis Academic News for articles published in 2007, selected relevant articles using one set of general criteria and three sets of concept-specific criteria, and coded the selected articles to identify common themes. Second raters took part in the analysis of Lebanon and Malaysia to assess inter-rater reliability for article selection and coding. Results We identified approximately 5.5 and 5 times more articles describing health research evidence compared to the number of articles describing policy priorities and policy dialogues, respectively. Few articles describing health research evidence discussed systematic reviews (2% or health systems research (2%, and few of the policy dialogue articles discussed researcher involvement (9%. News coverage of these concepts was highly concentrated in several countries like China and Uganda, while few articles were found for many other jurisdictions. Kappa scores were acceptable and consistently greater than 0.60. Conclusions In many countries the print media, at least as captured in a global database, are largely silent about three topics central to evidence-informed health systems. These findings suggest the need for proactive-media engagement strategies.

  8. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....

  9. The Impact of State-Level Nutrition-Education Program Funding on BMI: Evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Anne McGeary

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding which policies will improve nutrition, reduce BMI, the probability of obesity and the probability of overweight nationwide. This preliminary study investigates the impact of a nutrition-education policy relative to price policy as a means to improve nutrition and reduce BMI. Model estimations are created with pooled cross-sectional data from the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), American...

  10. Implementing an evidence-based computerized decision support system to improve patient care in a general hospital: the CODES study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Moja, Lorenzo; Polo Friz, Hernan; Capobussi, Matteo; Kwag, Koren; Banzi, Rita; Ruggiero, Francesca; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Mangia, Massimo; Nyberg, Peter; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Cimminiello, Claudio; Vighi, Giuseppe; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2016-01-01

    Background Computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) are information technology-based software that provide health professionals with actionable, patient-specific recommendations or guidelines for disease diagnosis, treatment, and management at the point-of-care. These messages are intelligently filtered to enhance the health and clinical care of patients. CDSSs may be integrated with patient electronic health records (EHRs) and evidence-based knowledge. Methods/design We designed a pragm...

  11. First evidence of a potential antibacterial activity involving a laccase-type enzyme of the phenoloxidase system in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas haemocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Saulnier, Denis; Pommier, Mylene; Haffner, Philippe; De Decker, Sophie; Renault, Tristan; Thomas-Guyon, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Phenoloxidases (POs) are a group of copper proteins including tyrosinase, catecholase and laccase. In several insects and crustaceans, antibacterial substances are produced through the PO cascade, participating in the direct killing of invading microorganisms. However, although POs are widely recognised as an integral part of the invertebrate immune defence system, experimental evidence is lacking that these properties are conserved in molluscs, and more particularly in the Pacific oyster Cra...

  12. Similarities and differences of doctor-patient co-operated evidence-based medical record of treating digestive system diseases with integrative medicine compared with traditional medical records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Li; Wen-Hong Shao; Yan-Da Li; Ying-Pan Zhao; Qing-Na Li; Zhao Yang; Hong-Cai Shang

    2016-01-01

    遵循叙事循证医学理念,咨询中西医消化内科及循证医学专家,凝练医患共建式病历的理论,建立医患共建式病历的范本,对比医患共建式病历与传统病历记录的不同,分析医患共建式病历的优缺点。思考与展望:医患共建式病历有可能成为中西医合作治疗脾胃病疗效评价方法学体系的一个要素。%Objective: To establish the model of doctor-patient cooperated record, based on the concepts of narrative evidence-based medicine and related theories on Doctor-Patient Co-operated Evidence-Based Medical Record. Methods: We conducted a literature search from Pubmed, following the principles of narrative evidence-based medicine, and refer to the advice of experts of digestive system and EBM in both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Result: This research is a useful attempt to discuss the establishment of doctor-patient co-operated evidence-based medical record guided by narrative evidence-based medicine. Conclusion:Doctor-patient co-operated medical record can become a key factor of the curative effect evaluation methodology system of integrated therapy of tradition Chinese medicine and Western medicine on spleen and stomach diseases.

  13. Ethics issues in scientific data and service provision: evidence and challenges for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Freda, Carmela; Haslinger, Florian; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    Addressing Ethics issues is nowadays a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including society. This is corroborated by the evidence that Ethics has very high priority in EU funded research. Indeed, all the activities carried out under Horizon 2020 must comply with ethical principles and national, Union and international legislation. This implies that "For all activities funded by the European Union, Ethics is an integral part of research from beginning to end, and ethical compliance is seen as pivotal to achieve real research excellence." Here, we present the experience of EPOS, a public pan-European research infrastructure. EPOS aims at integrating data, data products, services and software (DDSS) for solid Earth science generated and provided by monitoring networks, observing systems and facilities belonging to European countries. EPOS fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS integration plan will make significant contributions to understanding and mitigating geo-hazards, yielding data for hazard assessment, data products for engaging different stakeholders, and services for training, education and communication to society. Numerous national research infrastructures engaged in EPOS are deployed for the monitoring of areas prone to geo-hazards and for the surveillance of the national territory including areas used for exploiting geo-resources. The EPOS community is therefore already trained to provide services to public (civil defence agencies, local and national authorities) and private (petroleum industry, mining industry, geothermal companies, aviation security) stakeholders. Our ability to

  14. Evidence that the Agr-like quorum sensing system regulates the toxin production, cytotoxicity and pathogenicity of Clostridium perfringens type C isolate CN3685.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge E; Ma, Menglin; Saputo, Julian; Garcia, Jorge; Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens possesses at least two functional quorum sensing (QS) systems, i.e. an Agr-like system and a LuxS-dependent AI-2 system. Both of those QS systems can reportedly control in vitro toxin production by C. perfringens but their importance for virulence has not been evaluated. Therefore, the current study assessed whether these QS systems might regulate the pathogenicity of CN3685, a C. perfringens type C strain. Since type C isolates cause both haemorrhagic necrotic enteritis and fatal enterotoxemias (where toxins produced in the intestines are absorbed into the circulation to target other internal organs), the ability of isogenic agrB or luxS mutants to cause necrotizing enteritis in rabbit small intestinal loops or enterotoxemic lethality in mice was evaluated. Results obtained strongly suggest that the Agr-like QS system, but not the LuxS-dependent AI-2 QS system, is required for CN3685 to cause haemorrhagic necrotizing enteritis, apparently because the Agr-like system regulates the production of beta toxin, which is essential for causing this pathology. The Agr-like system, but not the LuxS-mediated AI-2 system, was also important for CN3685 to cause fatal enterotoxemia. These results provide the first direct evidence supporting a role for any QS system in clostridial infections. PMID:22150719

  15. The use of evidence-based outcomes in systems and organizations providing services and supports to persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Jos H M; Bonham, Gordon S; Peterson, Dale D; Schalock, Robert L; Claes, Claudia; Decramer, Adelien E M

    2013-02-01

    This article describes how evidence-based outcomes (EBOs) can be used to improve clinical, managerial, and policy decisions. As a component of evidence-based practices, EBOs are defined as measures obtained from the assessment of quality of life-related indicators that are based on a cross-culturally validated quality of life conceptual and measurement model, have utility in that they can be used for multiple purposes, and have robustness in reference to reliability and validity of the assessment strategy employed. A 5-component EBO model is described that provides a framework for the activities involved in selecting, developing, and implementing evidence-based outcomes. Three international examples based on the reliable, valid, and standardized assessment of individual quality of life outcomes are presented that demonstrate how EBOs can be used to improve clinical, managerial, and policy decision making. The article concludes with a discussion of guidelines for developing and using EBOs, and the challenges involved in their use. PMID:22982162

  16. How to Present Evidence-Based Usability Design Principles Dedicated to Medication-Related Alerting Systems to Designers and Evaluators? Results from a Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Monkman, Helen; Villumsen, Sidsel; Kaufman, David; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Medication alerting system use errors and lack of adoption are often attributed to usability issues. Previous work has used evidence from the literature to reveal usability principles specific to medication alerting systems and identify potential consequences of violating these principles. The current study sought to explore how best to convey these principles to designers and evaluators of these systems to facilitate their work. To this aim, a workshop with 19 participants was used to generate ideas and opinions on how to deliver these topic-specific design principles in a way that would be most helpful for them. Participants generated ideas for how (e.g., a collaborative, continuously updated forum) and what (e.g., illustrations, checklists, evidence sources and strength, consequences of violations) information is most useful to disseminate usability principles for medication alerting systems. Participants, especially designers, expressed desire to use these principles in practice and avoid previously documented mistakes and therefore make design and evaluation of these systems more effective and efficient. Those insights are discussed in terms of feasibility and logistical challenges to developing the proposed documentation). To move this work forward, a more collaborative approach of Human Factors specialists in medical informatics is necessary. PMID:27577456

  17. Factors that influenced county system leaders to implement an evidence-based program: a baseline survey within a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown C Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the burgeoning number of well-validated interventions that have been shown in randomized trials to produce superior outcomes compared to usual services, it is estimated that only 10% of public systems deliver evidence-based mental health services. In California, for example, more than 15,000 children are placed in group homes or residential centers with some evidence of iatrogenic effects. The present study evaluates the willingness among county leaders of child public service systems to adopt a new evidence-based model, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, (MTFC, as a way to decrease the prevalence of out-of-home placements. Specifically, the study examines how county-level socio-demographic factors and child public service system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate influence their decision of whether or not to consider adopting MTFC. Methods Two levels were examined in this study: Stable and historical factors from 40 California counties gathered from public records including population size, number of entries into out-of-home care, financing of mental health services, and percent minority population; and system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate and readiness for change measured via a web-based survey. The number of days-to-consent was the primary outcome variable defined as the duration of time between being notified of the opportunity to implement MTFC and the actual signing of a consent form indicating interest in considering implementation. Survival analysis methods were used to assess the predictors of this time-to-event measure. The present study is part of a larger randomized trial comparing two methods of implementation where counties are randomized to one of three time cohorts and two implementation conditions. Results The number of entries into care was the primary predictor of days-to-consent. This variable was significantly correlated to county

  18. Evidence-based design and development of a VR-based treadmill system for gait research and rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanpablo, Alberto Isaac; González-Mendoza, Arturo; Quiñones-Uriostegui, Ivett; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Núñez-Carrera, Lidia; Hernández-Arenas, Claudia; Boll-Woehrlen, Marie Catherine; Alessi Montero, Aldo

    2014-07-01

    Virtual reality (VR) in neurorehabilitation allows to reduce patient's risk and allows him to learn on a faster way. Up to now VR has been used in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) as a research tool and none of the developed systems are used in clinical practice. The goal of this project is to develop a VR-based system for gait therapy, and gait research of patients with PD designed based on published evidence. The developed system uses a digital camera to measure spatiotemporal gait parameters. The software was developed in C#, using Open-Source libraries that facilitates VR programming. The system has potential uses in clinical and research settings. PMID:25264796

  19. The Collapse of the United States Banking System During the Great Depression, 1929 to 1933. New Archival Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Great Depression, one third of all banks in the United States failed. Scholarsdispute reason for their demise. This essay analyzes new evidence on the sources of bankdistress. The data demonstrates that contagion via correspondent networks and bank runspropagated the initial banking panics in the fall of 1930. As the depression deepened and assetvalues declined, insolvency loomed as the principal threat to depository institutions. Thesepatterns corroborate some and question other conjectures concerning the causes andconsequences of the financial crisis during the Great Contraction.

  20. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    aspect of the legal system: the evidence standard. We recast the conventional rent-seeking model to consider how alternative evidence standards affect litigation choices. We analyze the interrelation between different evidence standards, the effectiveness of the parties’ efforts, and the merits of the...... case. We study how these factors jointly affect the parties’ litigation expenditures and the selection of cases brought to the courts. The evidence standard has different effects on different types of cases, reducing litigation for high-merit cases when standards are set low and increasing litigation...... for low-merit cases when standards are set high. This provides a valuable key for understanding the sorting effect of evidence standards and their role as a policy instrument in civil litigation....

  1. Integration of an Evidence Base into a Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model. The Integrated Medical Model Database: An Organized Evidence Base for Assessing In-Flight Crew Health Risk and System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saile, Lynn; Lopez, Vilma; Bickham, Grandin; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary; Kerstman, Eric; Byrne, Vicky; Butler, Douglas; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) database, which is an organized evidence base for assessing in-flight crew health risk. The database is a relational database accessible to many people. The database quantifies the model inputs by a ranking based on the highest value of the data as Level of Evidence (LOE) and the quality of evidence (QOE) score that provides an assessment of the evidence base for each medical condition. The IMM evidence base has already been able to provide invaluable information for designers, and for other uses.

  2. A Novel Evaluation Model for Hybrid Power System Based on Vague Set and Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dongxiao Niu; Yanan Wei; Yan Shi; Hamid Reza Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Because clean energy and traditional energy have different advantages and disadvantages, it is of great significance to evaluate comprehensive benefits for hybrid power systems. Based on thorough analysis of important characters on hybrid power systems, an index system including security, economic benefit, environmental benefit, and social benefit is established in this paper. Due to advantages of processing abundant uncertain and fuzzy information, vague set is used to determine the decision...

  3. Agricultural Technology Adoption and Land Productivity: Evidence from the Rice-Prawn Gher Farming System in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Barmon, Basanta Kumar; Kondo, Takumi; Osanami, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    Rice-prawn gher (RPG) farming system is an indigenous agricultural technology solely developed by farmers since mid 1980s. The present study aims to estimate the land productivity of modern varieties (MV) paddy production under RPG and (year-round modern varieties) YRMV paddy farming systems in the southwest Bangladesh. The RPG farming system has significant impacts on inputs used in MV boro paddy production. The findings of the study indicate that more chemical fertilizers were used in per h...

  4. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  5. Social Ecology of Asthma: Engaging Stakeholders in Integrating Health Behavior Theories and Practice-Based Evidence through Systems Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Emily M.; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B.; Hernandez, Michelle L.; Smith, Timothy W.; Lewis, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process for integrating health behavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and health behavior by offering…

  6. Towards Evidence-Based, Quality-Controlled Health Promotion: The Dutch Recognition System for Health Promotion Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; van Dale, Djoeke; Lanting, Loes; Kremers, Stef; Veenhof, Cindy; Leurs, Mariken; van Yperen, Tom; Kok, Gerjo

    2010-01-01

    Registration or recognition systems for best-practice health promotion interventions may contribute to better quality assurance and control in health promotion practice. In the Netherlands, such a system has been developed and is being implemented aiming to provide policy makers and professionals with more information on the quality and…

  7. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life. PMID:27138971

  8. National systems of innovation: determinants and industrial policy measures, empirical evidence for OECD; Sistemas nacionales de innovacion: determinantes y acciones de politica industrial. Evidencia empirica para la OCDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, J. L.; Rojas, R.; Sempere, F.; Albors, J.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents an attempt to tackle the main gaps in the national innovation systems (NIS) literature: the problem specifying the boundaries of the NIS and the lack of connection between theory and empirics. For this purpose, the paper uses 55 countries as sample and constructs an NIS index based on a factor analysis of 28 variables. Empirical evidence shows that a firm's strategies, technology infrastructure, government governance, education and linkages are the main components of the NIS. The implications are important for policy-makers and the academia. (Author) 49 refs.

  9. Dermal inorganic gadolinium concentrations: evidence for in vivo transmetallation and long-term persistence in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, J L; Thakral, C; Skov, L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance contrast agents (GBMCA), including gadodiamide, have been identified as the probable causative agents of the serious disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). OBJECTIVES: To investigate retained Gd-containing deposits in skin biopsies from...

  10. Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gathara, David; Mwinga, Stephen; Mulaku, Mercy; Kosgei, Rose; Mogoa, Wycliffe; Nyamai, Rachel; English, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hospital management information systems (HMIS) is a key component of national health information systems (HIS), and actions required of hospital management to support information generation in Kenya are articulated in specific policy documents. We conducted an evaluation of core functions of data generation and reporting within hospitals in Kenya to facilitate interpretation of national reports and to provide guidance on key areas requiring improvement to support data use in decis...

  11. THE EFFECT OF E-COMMERCE ON MALAYSIAN TAX SYSTEM: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ACADEMICIANS AND MALAYSIAN TAX PRACTITIONERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rizal Palil

    2004-01-01

    The explosion of information technology (IT) nowadays has created new phenomena in shopping activities. Consumers can easily buy products via Internet. Within a minute, the products will be delivered instantly and accurately. This scenario is known as e-commerce. The emergence of e-commerce affects consumers' shopping behavior as well as taxation system. The objective of this research is to reveal the effects of e-commerce upon Malaysian taxation system by emphasizing in scope of charge 'deri...

  12. The Impact of Supervisory Board Composition on CSR Reporting. Evidence from the German Two-Tier System

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Dienes; Patrick Velte

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting is becoming increasingly relevant in light of modern corporate governance. There is growing activity among empirical research in one-tier systems that considers the link between board composition and CSR reporting. This study is the first of its kind on the German two-tier system with special regard for the supervisory board. We analyze gender diversity, expertise, the presence of former managers, frequency of meetings, and the size of the super...

  13. Can portfolio diversification increase systemic risk? evidence from the U.S and European mutual funds market

    OpenAIRE

    Dicembrino, Claudio; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that portfolio diversification can increase the threat of systemic financial risk. The paper provides first a theoretical rationale for the possibility that systemic risk may be increased by the proliferation of financial instruments that lead operators to hold increasingly similar portfolios. Secondly, the paper tests the hypothesis that diversification may result in increasing systematic risk, by analyzing the portfolio dynamics of some of the major world ope...

  14. Evidence for covalently cross-linked dimers and trimers of enzyme I of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase system.

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, F C; Reizer, J; Waygood, E B; Saier, M H

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme I of the bacterial phosphotransferase system catalyzes transfer of the phosphoryl moiety from phosphoenolpyruvate to both of the heat-stable phosphoryl carrier proteins of the phosphotransferase system, HPr and FPr. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we demonstrated the existence of covalently cross-linked enzyme I dimers and trimers. Enzyme I exchange assays and phosphorylation experiments with [32P]phosphoenolpyruv...

  15. The role of geographical labelling in inserting extensive cattle systems into beef marketing channels. Evidence from three Spanish case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Bardají Azcaráte, Isabel; Atance Muñiz, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    The beef cattle sector is adapting to increasing demand-side requirements. Customers are looking for a differentiated product of constant quality in a market that is beginning to be dominated by major distribution companies. In this background, mechanisms to differentiate production are being implemented to co-ordinate both production and marketing processes and integrate livestock farmers into the commercial system. Extensive cattle systems carry an important weight in Spain because of their...

  16. Association between GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and urinary system cancer risk: evidence from 51 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Yuan, Yeqing; Chen, Yufang; Wang, Zhao; Li, Fangfang; Zhao, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    The GSTP1 gene plays an important role in detoxification of carcinogens. GSTP1 gene polymorphisms may alter the susceptibility of urinary system cancer. Numerous studies have been performed to investigate the association between GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695 A>G) polymorphism and urinary system cancer risk. Nevertheless, the results remain controversial and only prostate cancer and bladder cancer are covered. We identified eligible studies from PubMed, Elsevier, and three equivalent Chinese databases including the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Weipu. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the association between GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and urinary system cancer risk. In total, 11,762 cases and 15,150 controls from 51 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled results from all included studies showed a statistically significant association between GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and urinary system cancer. In the subgroup analyses, the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with prostate cancer risk and also a risk factor for urinary system cancer among Asians. In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicated that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was associated with urinary system cancer susceptibility, which needs to be validated by more rigorous data from further large-scale population studies with different ethnicities. PMID:27366093

  17. The Kongsfjorden Channel System offshore NW Spitsbergen, European Arctic: evidence of down-slope processes in a contour-current dominated setting on the continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, Matthias; Sverre Laberg, Jan; Hass, H. Christian; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The Kongsfjorden Channel System (KCS) is located on the continental slope in the eastern Fram Strait, off northwest Spitsbergen. It provides evidence that the influence of down-slope sedimentary processes locally exceeds regional along-slope sedimentation. Compared to other submarine channel systems on and off glaciated continental margins, it is a relatively short system (~120 km) occurring at a large range of water depths (~250-4000 m). It originates with multiple gullies on the Kongsfjorden Trough Mouth Fan merging to small channels that further downslope merge to a main channel. The overall location of the channel system is controlled by variations in slope gradients (0-20°) and the ambient regional bathymetry: widest and deepest incisions occur in areas of steepest slope gradients. The KCS has probably been active since ~1 Ma when glacial activity on Svalbard increased and grounded ice expanded to the shelf break off Kongsfjorden repeatedly. Activity within the system was probably highest during glacials. However, reduced activity presumably took place also during interglacials. The presentation summarizes the work of Forwick et al. (2015). Reference: Forwick, M., Laberg, J.S., Hass, H.C. & Osti, C., 2015. The Kongsfjorden Channel System offshore NW Svalbard: downslope sedimentary processes in a contour-current-dominated setting. Arktos 1, DOI: 10.1007/s41063-015-0018-4.

  18. ALMA observations of the T Tauri binary system AS 205: evidence for molecular winds and/or binary interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyk, Colette [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Pontoppidan, Klaus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Corder, Stuartt [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Muñoz, Diego [Center for Space Research, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Zhang, Ke; Blake, Geoffrey A., E-mail: csalyk@noao.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Mail Code 150-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we present high-resolution millimeter observations of the dust and gas disk of the T Tauri star AS 205 N and its companion, AS 205 S, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The gas disk around AS 205 N, for which infrared emission spectroscopy demonstrates significant deviations from Keplerian motion that has been interpreted as evidence for a disk wind, also displays significant deviations from Keplerian disk emission in the observations presented here. Detections near both AS 205 N and S are obtained in 1.3 mm continuum, {sup 12}CO 2-1, {sup 13}CO 2-1, and C{sup 18}O 2-1. The {sup 12}CO emission is extended up to ∼2'' from AS 205 N, and both {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO display deviations from Keplerian rotation at all angular scales. Two possible explanations for these observations hold up best to close scrutiny—tidal interaction with AS 205 S or disk winds (or a combination of the two)—and we discuss these possibilities in some detail.

  19. ALMA observations of the T Tauri binary system AS 205: evidence for molecular winds and/or binary interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we present high-resolution millimeter observations of the dust and gas disk of the T Tauri star AS 205 N and its companion, AS 205 S, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The gas disk around AS 205 N, for which infrared emission spectroscopy demonstrates significant deviations from Keplerian motion that has been interpreted as evidence for a disk wind, also displays significant deviations from Keplerian disk emission in the observations presented here. Detections near both AS 205 N and S are obtained in 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO 2-1, 13CO 2-1, and C18O 2-1. The 12CO emission is extended up to ∼2'' from AS 205 N, and both 12CO and 13CO display deviations from Keplerian rotation at all angular scales. Two possible explanations for these observations hold up best to close scrutiny—tidal interaction with AS 205 S or disk winds (or a combination of the two)—and we discuss these possibilities in some detail.

  20. Evidence for a Common Physical Description of Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior in Chemically Substituted f -Electron Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior observed in the low temperature specific heat C(T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) of many chemically substituted f -electron systems is analyzed within the context of a recently developed theory based on Griffiths close-quote singularities. Measurements of C(T) and χ(T) in the systems Th1-xU xPd2Al3 , Y1-xU xPd3 , and UCu5-x Mx (M=Pd,Pt ) are found to be consistent with C(T)/T∝χ(T)∝T-1+λ predicted by this model with λ<1 in the NFL regime. These results suggest that the NFL properties observed in a wide variety of disordered f -electron systems can be described within the context of a common physical picture. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Joint impact of ERP systems and non financial performance indicators on corporate financial performance: Evidence from French listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kouki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the joint impact of Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP systems and Non Financial Performance Indicators (NFPI on corporate financial performance. Our study is based on a comparative analysis between firms that adopt ERP only, firms that use NFPI only and firms that combining both strategies (ERP and NFPI during the period from 2001 to 2006.The implementation process remains highly uncertain. In fact, the use of Non Financial performance indicators is an important determinant of corporate financial performance. At the operational level, combining ERP systems with NFPI reflects a long-term business strategy to improve business process. In summary, the ERP and NFPI literatures demonstrate the vital importance of aligning business process, information technologies and key performance indicators with the strategic objectives of the firm. Results support the hypothesis in which firms that combining ERP and NFPI have significantly higher ROA than either ERP-only or NFPI-only firms.

  2. The Impact of Supervisory Board Composition on CSR Reporting. Evidence from the German Two-Tier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Dienes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting is becoming increasingly relevant in light of modern corporate governance. There is growing activity among empirical research in one-tier systems that considers the link between board composition and CSR reporting. This study is the first of its kind on the German two-tier system with special regard for the supervisory board. We analyze gender diversity, expertise, the presence of former managers, frequency of meetings, and the size of the supervisory board. Our multiple regressions indicate that gender diversity has a positive impact on CSR disclosure intensity, which is in line with prior studies on one-tier systems. Our findings have implications for both users and public policy and suggest that current European corporate governance regulations could help to increase the decision usefulness of CSR reporting.

  3. Informing energy and climate policies using energy systems models insights from scenario analysis increasing the evidence base

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakidis, George; Ó Gallachóir, Brian; Tosato, GianCarlo

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights how energy-system models are used to underpin and support energy and climate mitigation policy decisions at national, multi-country and global levels. It brings together, for the first time in one volume, a range of methodological approaches and case studies of good modeling practice on a national and international scale from the IEA-ETSAP energy technology initiative. It provides insights for the reader into the rich and varied applications of energy-system models and the underlying methodologies and policy questions they can address. The book demonstrates how these mode

  4. Development of electronic document management system for scientific and technical design administration automation (evidence from European Organization for Nuclear Research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new principles and methods of electronic document management system construction are developed. The software package for electronic document handling is made, it provides automation of work flow management and permits to trace and correct on-line the flow of documents. The formal models of electronic documents describing complex hierarchic structures of data with the use of XML-trees are considered. On the base of investigations conducted the CERN electronic document management system has been upgraded, it allowed to shorten more than twofold the time for automation of new business processes

  5. Mu-wave Activity in Schizophrenia: Evidence of a Dysfunctional Mirror Neuron System from an Indian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sayantanava Mitra; S Haque Nizamie; Nishant Goyal; Sai Krishna Tikka

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ′mirror-neuron system′ is thought to play an important role in automatic decoding of biological motions and interpretation of socially adaptive environmental stimuli. Accordingly, a dysfunction in this system in schizophrenia has been hypothesised to mediate the psychotic manifestations. Materials and Methods: As a part of an ongoing study, we evaluated the mirror neuron system using ′EEG mu-wave (8-13 Hz) suppression′ paradigm in 15 drug naïve/drug free patients and compared ...

  6. Temporal Issues in Information and Communication Technology-Enabled Organizational Change: Evidence from an Enterprise Systems Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Steve; Southwick, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Examines how temporality influences the phenomena of organizational change associated with the implementation of enterprise-wide information systems. Presents an example of temporal issues and organizational change in a university setting and suggests how a temporal perspective provides insight into both the social and technical aspects of the…

  7. Mapping the Identity of a Viewed Hand in the Motor System: Evidence from Stimulus-Response Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Lari; Mustonen, Terhi

    2011-01-01

    Brain-imaging research has shown that a viewed acting hand is mapped to the observer's hand representation that corresponds with the identity of the hand. In contrast, behavioral research has suggested that rather than representing a seen hand in relation to one's own manual system, it is represented in relation to the midline of an imaginary…

  8. Case study of ecstatic meditation: fMRI and EEG evidence of self-stimulating a reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Michael R; Isaacs, Julian; Brasington, Leigh; Shupe, Larry; Fetz, Eberhard E; Cramer, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    We report the first neural recording during ecstatic meditations called jhanas and test whether a brain reward system plays a role in the joy reported. Jhanas are Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) that imply major brain changes based on subjective reports: (1) external awareness dims, (2) internal verbalizations fade, (3) the sense of personal boundaries is altered, (4) attention is highly focused on the object of meditation, and (5) joy increases to high levels. The fMRI and EEG results from an experienced meditator show changes in brain activity in 11 regions shown to be associated with the subjective reports, and these changes occur promptly after jhana is entered. In particular, the extreme joy is associated not only with activation of cortical processes but also with activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the dopamine/opioid reward system. We test three mechanisms by which the subject might stimulate his own reward system by external means and reject all three. Taken together, these results demonstrate an apparently novel method of self-stimulating a brain reward system using only internal mental processes in a highly trained subject. PMID:23738149

  9. A Neural Dissociation within Language: Evidence that the Mental Dictionary Is Part of Declarative Memory, and that Grammatical Rules Are Processed by the Procedural System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, M T; Corkin, S; Coppola, M; Hickok, G; Growdon, J H; Koroshetz, W J; Pinker, S

    1997-03-01

    Language comprises a lexicon for storing words and a grammar for generating rule-governed forms. Evidence is presented that the lexicon is part of a temporal-parietalhnedial-temporal "declarative memory" system and that granlmatical rules are processed by a frontamasal-ganglia "procedural" system. Patients produced past tenses of regular and novel verbs (looked and plagged), which require an -ed-suffixation rule, and irregular verbs (dug), which are retrieved from memory. Word-finding difficulties in posterior aphasia, and the general declarative memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease, led to more errors with irregular than regular and novel verbs. Grammatical difficulties in anterior aphasia, and the general impairment of procedures in Parkinson's disease, led to the opposite pattern. In contrast to the Parkinson's patients, who showed sup pressed motor activity and rule use, Huntington's disease patients showed excess motor activity and rule use, underscoring a role for the basal ganglia in grammatical processing. PMID:23962016

  10. Study of very heavy systems by means of INDRA: First evidence for a volume effect in the nuclear multifragmentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of Gd+U collisions at 36 AMeV measured with the INDRA multidetector, permitting almost complete detection (over 80%) of all the reaction products. We show that events exist which correspond to the multifragmentation of a single system comprising the majority of the nucleons for a cross-section of 2.6 mbarn, by isolating reactions for which the emitted fragments have lost all memory of the entrance channel. Such reactions correspond to neither the most central collisions nor the most isotropic events (in the fragments' momentum space), and therefore cannot be correctly distinguished from the dominant binary deeply-inelastic collisions using these criteria. An initial comparison of the selected data with a statistical code indicates that fragments are formed in a dilute, compact system, undergoing a self-similar expansion corresponding to a collective energy of between 1 and 1.5 MeV. Comparison with the same type of events observed in Xe+Sn collisions at 32 AMeV reveals the existence of a scaling law for the multifragmentation of systems of different mass at the same excitation energy per nucleon: fragment Z distributions are identical while their multiplicity increases proportionally to the mass of the multi-fragmenting system. This observation is interpreted as an experimental signal that this multifragmentation originates in a bulk instability of low-density nuclear matter (spinodal region). A complete semi-classical microscopic calculation for the two reactions, including the formation and multifragmentation by spinodal decomposition of very heavy, low-density systems, reproduces very well not only the experimental fragment multiplicities and Z distributions but also their mean kinetic energies, as well as the size distributions of the largest fragments. (author)

  11. Evidence for the involvement of two heterodisulfide reductases in the energy-conserving system of Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröninger, Lena; Berger, Stefanie; Welte, Cornelia; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis was isolated from the human gut, and requires H2 and methanol or methylamines to produce methane. The organism lacks cytochromes, indicating that it cannot couple membrane-bound electron transfer reactions with extrusion of H(+) or Na(+) ions using known methanogenic pathways. Furthermore, M. luminyensis contains a soluble hydrogenase/heterodisulfide reductase complex (MvhAGD/HdrABC) as found in obligate hydrogenotrophic methanogens, but the energy-conserving methyltransferase (MtrA-H) is absent. Thus, the question arises as to how this species synthesizes ATP. We present evidence that M. luminyensis uses two types of heterodisulfide reductases (HdrABC and HdrD) in a novel process for energy conservation. Quantitative RT-PCR studies revealed that genes encoding these heterodisulfide reductases showed high expression levels. Other genes with high transcript abundance were fpoA (part of the operon encoding the 'headless' F420 H2 dehydrogenase) and atpB (part of the operon encoding the A1 Ao ATP synthase). High activities of the soluble heterodisulfide reductase HdrABC and the hydrogenase MvhADG were found in the cytoplasm of M. luminyensis. Also, heterologously produced HdrD was able to reduce CoM-S-S-CoB using reduced methylviologen as an electron donor. We propose that membrane-bound electron transfer is based on conversion of two molecules of methanol and concurrent formation of two molecules of the heterodisulfide CoM-S-S-CoB. First the HdrABC/MvhADG complex catalyzes the H2 -dependent reduction of CoM-S-S-CoB and formation of reduced ferredoxin. In a second cycle, reduced ferredoxin is oxidized by the 'headless' F420 H2 dehydrogenase, thereby translocating up to 4 H(+) across the membrane, and electrons are channeled to HdrD for reduction of the second heterodisulfide. PMID:26573766

  12. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  13. Role of albumin in diseases associated with severe systemic inflammation: Pathophysiologic and clinical evidence in sepsis and in decompensated cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, Antonio; Wernerman, Jan; Arroyo, Vicente; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Levy, Mitchell

    2016-06-01

    The metabolism of albumin in inflammatory states such as sepsis or major surgery is complex and still not well characterized. Nevertheless, in inflammatory states, albumin synthesis has been observed to increase. By contrast, in decompensated cirrhosis, a disease characterized by systemic inflammation, albumin synthesis by the liver may decrease to 30% to 50% of normal values. Furthermore, in these conditions, there are high capillary leakage and altered albumin kinetics. The discussion regarding the effect of exogenous albumin administration on intravascular volume in inflammatory states should therefore address albumin turnover. To add complexity to our understanding of the effects of albumin, there are many data indicating that the therapeutic action of albumin is mediated not only through the impact on plasma volume expansion but also through a modulatory effect on inflammation and oxidative stress. All these characteristics are relevant to diseases associated with systemic inflammation including sepsis and decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26831575

  14. Inspecting the circulating water system at Crystal River Unit 3 for evidence of microbial corrosion: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayner, G.O.

    1989-03-01

    Portions of the circulating water system (CWS) at the Crystal River-3 nuclear plant were examined for indications of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). This system uses untreated seawater from the Gulf of Mexico for tertiary cooling and has been in operation since 1977. The inspection results indicated that active MIC was present in the inlet piping and probably in other areas in the CWS. Samples removed from nodules and pitted areas revealed high concentrations of viable microorganisms, corrosion products and fatty acids indicative of anaerobic metabolism. MIC was seen only in association with stainless steel weldments. The principal attack was on the interdendritic ferrite in the weld fusion zone. Several changes made over a period of time have apparently resulted in an improvement in condenser tube performance and a reduction in MIC activity in the water boxes since 1986. Several recommendations were made to further reduce or eliminate MIC in the inlet piping. 18 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Thermopower evidence for Wigner crystallization in the insulating phase of two-dimensional GaAs bilayer hole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniel, S.; Tutuc, E.; De Poortere, E. P.; Gustin, C.; Vlad, A.; Moldovan, L.; Melinte, S.; Shayegan, M.; Bayot, V.

    2006-08-01

    We report on low-temperature thermopower measurements of interacting GaAs bilayer hole systems in the limit of no interlayer tunneling. These systems exhibit a reentrant insulating phase near the many-body quantum Hall state (QHS) at total filling factor ν=1, when both layers have the same density. The diffusion thermopower is expected to diverge as T-1 in the presence of an energy gap (Wigner crystal) or to vanish in the case of a disordered induced mobility gap. Our results show that, as the temperature is decreased, the diffusion thermopower exhibits a T-1 dependence in the insulating phase around ν=1. This behavior clearly indicates the opening of an energy gap at low temperature, in agreement with the formation of a pinned Wigner solid. Finally, we report on the T-dependence of the thermopower at ν=1.

  16. Firm-based Training and Innovative Strategies in the Manufacturing Sector. Empirical Evidence for a local industrial System

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Guidetti; Massimiliano Mazzanti

    2005-01-01

    The paper investigates the driving factors of firm training using a survey-based dataset concerning manufacturing firms in the Emilia Romagna Region, located in Northern Italy. Data derive from a structured questionnaire administered in 2002 to the management of a representative sample of firms with more than 50 employees in a highly industrialised local production system. The applied analysis explores the linkages between firm training activities and its driving forces. The main potential fa...

  17. Carbon Monoxide in the Ambient Air and Blood Pressure: Evidence From NHANES II and the SAROAD System

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Coate; Michael Grossman

    1988-01-01

    Prior to 1985, ten states adopted some kind of indexing provisions for their personal income tax systems. Seven of these states subsequently suspended their indexing laws for one or more years. In this paper we examine the states' experience with income tax indexing and see what lessons can be drawn from it. We describe the indexing statutes, and estimate simple econometric models of both the decisions to adopt indexing and to renege on a promise to index.

  18. Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation: evidence from a randomized trial in women[S

    OpenAIRE

    Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.; Pedersen, Steen B.; Basu, Samar; Hellgren, Lars I.; Newman, John W.; Larsen, Thomas M.; Haugaard, Steen B; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) has been positively associated with systemic markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in cross-sectional studies, but results from intervention studies are inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a 16 week double-blind parallel intervention study with the objective to examine the effect of IP-TFA intake on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Fifty-two healthy overweight po...

  19. The long-wavelength thermal emission of the Pluto-Charon system from Herschel observations. Evidence for emissivity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Fornasier, S.; Lim, T.; Stansberry, J.; Vilenius, E.; Kiss, Cs.; Müller, T.; Marton, G.; Protopapa, S.; Panuzzo, P.; Moreno, R.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal observations of the Pluto-Charon system acquired by the Herschel Space Observatory in February 2012 are presented. They consist of photometric measurements with the PACS and SPIRE instruments (nine visits to the Pluto system each), covering six wavelengths from 70 to 500 μm altogether. The thermal light curve of Pluto-Charon is observed in all filters, albeit more marginally at 160 and especially 500 μm. Putting these data into the context of older ISO, Spitzer and ground-based observations indicates that the brightness temperature (TB) of the system (rescaled to a common heliocentric distance) drastically decreases with increasing wavelength, from ~53 K at 20 μm to ~35 K at 500 μm, and perhaps ever less at longer wavelengths. Considering a variety of diurnal and/or seasonal thermophysical models, we show that TB values of 35 K are lower than any expected temperature for the dayside surface or subsurface of Pluto and Charon, implying a low surface emissivity. Based on multiterrain modeling, we infer a spectral emissivity that decreases steadily from 1 at 20-25 μm to ~0.7 at 500 μm. This kind of behavior is usually not observed in asteroids (when proper allowance is made for subsurface sounding), but is found in several icy surfaces of the solar system. We tentatively identify that a combination of a strong dielectric constant and a considerable surface material transparency (typical penetration depth ~1 cm) is responsible for the effect. Our results have implications for the interpretation of the temperature measurements by REX/New Horizons at 4.2 cm wavelength. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. The Impact of Management Accounting Systems on International Markets: Theory and Evidence Using the Balanced Scorecard Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Ramos, Laura; Aparisi Caudeli, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Information from the Port Authorities that make up the Spanish Port System before and after the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard has been used to analyse whether changes in management accounting play a role in international markets by means of analysing their effect on regional competitiveness. This study makes three contributions to the literature. First, it is of great interest for the Spanish economy as a whole, due to the special importance of shipping as a way to access the ma...

  1. Molecular dynamics evidence of a three-term kinetic friction law for mixed- and boundary-lubricated nanotribological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a three-term kinetic friction law at nanoscale is proposed and proven to hold. It includes the Amontons-Coulomb term describing the load-controlled contribution and the Bowden-Tabor term providing the adhesion-controlled contribution to the friction force, as well as the load-independent Derjaguin-offset ascribed to adhesion in the lubricant. The proposed law can reproduce the non-linearities and discontinuities in the load-vs.-friction behavior commonly encountered when shearing atomistic tribological systems under mixed lubrication conditions. The solid-solid contact area occurring between two rough solid surfaces when the lubrication film fails is calculated using a self-developed smooth particle approach (SPM) which allows one to map the discrete data obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to continuum. This MD+SPM method is successfully applied to analyze the run-in period of nanotribological systems exhibiting strong solid-solid contact at the beginning and almost none at the end. Furthermore, an attempt is made to relate the Derjaguin-offset in boundary lubricated systems without solid-solid contact to the degree of disorder in the lubricant, which is quantified by its configurational entropy and estimated using the single macromolecule approach based on covariance (super)matrices of the carbon backbone atoms in the lubricant. The main finding of this work is that the coefficient of friction loses its macroscopic meaning, i.e., it cannot be identified with the friction force per applied load as the lubrication gap thickness decreases to a few monolayers of lubricant molecules, which eventually may lead to lubricant failure and subsequent solid-solid contact. However, the coefficient of friction, effective shear strength, and Derjaguin-offset following from the proposed three-term kinetic friction law constitute the three load-independent system parameters which uniquely characterize the tribological response of nanosystems. (author)

  2. Case Study of Ecstatic Meditation: fMRI and EEG Evidence of Self-Stimulating a Reward System

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Hagerty; Isaacs, Julian; Brasington, Leigh; Shupe, Larry; Fetz, Eberhard E.; Cramer, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first neural recording during ecstatic meditations called jhanas and test whether a brain reward system plays a role in the joy reported. Jhanas are Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) that imply major brain changes based on subjective reports: (1) external awareness dims, (2) internal verbalizations fade, (3) the sense of personal boundaries is altered, (4) attention is highly focused on the object of meditation, and (5) joy increases to high levels. The fMRI and EEG results ...

  3. Will imitators follow pioneer consumers in the adoption of solar thermal systems? : Empirical evidence for North-West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wörsdorfer, Julia Sophie; Kaus, Wolfhard

    2010-01-01

    In Germany, solar thermal systems (STS) have only diffused to a minor extent yet. This paper analyzes, which demand side factors are decisive for the further proliferation of this environmentally benign technology. Making use of a consumer survey in North-West Germany in 2007, we examine the following parameters: positive environmental attitude, knowledge of the applicability of STS to satisfy consumer needs, and the presence of STS among peer consumers. Drawing upon theoretical foundations f...

  4. What is the productivity change of a university TTOs system at its early stage of development? Evidence from France

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Curi; Cinzia Daraio; Patrick Llerena

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the performance in technology transfer operated by the French university system adopting a Malmquist approach within an inferential setting. It investigates an original and unique database of French TTOs over their first development time. We find an overall weak increase in productivity, driven by technology and organisational improvement related to a small number of TTOs. More specifically, most TTOs show a stable innovative behaviour (i.e. no significant technical change...

  5. Sources of local knowledge spillover within the Algarve tourism region: evidence to identify a regional innovation system

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, Mauricio Maldonado

    2011-01-01

    Tourism sector in Algarve region is the main engine of regional economy. Although frequently, tourism is considered as a low – moderate innovative sector, tourism competitiveness is still highly dependent on specific features of a Regional Innovation Platform, highlighting the crucial importance of knowledge creation and diffusion, learning, cooperative and collaborative interaction that may evolve to a Regional Innovation System (RIS). Studies of Local Knowledge Spillovers have been frequent...

  6. Predictive Validity of Stated Preference Data: Evidence from Mountain Bike Park Visits Before and After Trail System Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Atkinson; John C. Whitehead

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of stated preference data for use in recreation demand estimation. We use stated preference and revealed preference data from users of a mountain bike park collected before and after an expansion of the trail system. The ex-ante stated preference data elicited before the change exhibits hypothetical bias, but, it would provide useful information for demand prediction. Key Words: hypothetical bias, recreation demand, revealed preference, stated preference

  7. Supply chains for innovation activity in regional industrial systems in Poland – some evidence from empirical research

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Swiadek

    2015-01-01

    Space and relations with suppliers and customers are significant determinants of innovativeness in industry not only in Poland, but also in much more developed countries. In industrial systems at their early phases of development, high tech solutions are usually owned by a relatively small number of enterprises, usually foreign ones. It affects the slow and limited diffusion of knowledge in regions without connection to an international chains of knowledge flow. In a such cases enclaves of in...

  8. Regional innovation systems and knowledge-sourcing activities in traditional industries—evidence from the Vienna food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Trippl

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial pattern of knowledge links in traditional, long-established, and less-research-intensive sectors and to contribute to a better understanding of the role of the regional innovation system (RIS) as space for knowledge-sourcing activities in such industries. Departing from conceptual work on the science, technology, and innovation (STI) and the doing, using, and interacting (DUI) modes of learning, it is argued that the relation between mature ...

  9. The Examination of the Corporate Governance System at Supplier Companies: Empirical Evidence from Hungarian Automotive Industry Ercsey Ida

    OpenAIRE

    Ercsey Ida

    2016-01-01

    Information management and the organizational structure can contribute to the firms’ competitive advantage and business success. In the first part of our study we summarize the results we obtained by analyzing the corporate governance system in connection with the structure of enterprises and their decision making. Then we have an insight into the leadership style of the suppliers from the point of view of the participation of the staff in decision making. In the second part we analyze the in...

  10. Angular momentum loss in the envelope-disk transition region of HH 111 protostellar system: evidence for magnetic braking?

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    HH 111 is a Class I protostellar system at a distance of ~ 400 pc, with the central source VLA 1 associated with a rotating disk deeply embedded in a flattened envelope. Here we present the observations of this system at ~ 0.6" (240 AU) resolution in C18O (J=2-1) and 230 GHz continuum obtained with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, and in SO obtained with Submillimeter Array. The observations show for the first time how a Keplerian rotating disk can be formed inside a flattened envelope. The flattened envelope is detected in C18O, extending out to >~ 2400 AU from the VLA 1 source. It has a differential rotation, with the outer part (>~ 2000 AU) better described by a rotation that has constant specific angular momentum and the innermost part (<~ 160 AU) by a Keplerian rotation. The rotationally supported disk is therefore relatively compact in this system, which is consistent with the dust continuum observations. Most interestingly, if the flow is in steady state, there is a substantial drop in ...

  11. The long-wavelength thermal emission of the Pluto-Charon system from Herschel observations. Evidence for emissivity effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lellouch, E; Fornasier, S; Lim, T; Stansberry, J; Vilenius, E; Kiss, Cs; Müller, T; Marton, G; Protopapa, S; Panuzzo, P; Moreno, R

    2016-01-01

    Thermal observations of the Pluto-Charon system acquired by the Herschel Space Observatory in February 2012 are presented. They consist of photometric measurements with the PACS and SPIRE instruments (nine visits to the Pluto system each), covering six wavelengths from 70 to 500 $\\mu$m altogether. The thermal light curve of Pluto-Charon is observed in all filters, albeit more marginally at 160 and especially 500 $\\mu$m. Putting these data into the context of older ISO, Spitzer and ground-based observations indicates that the brightness temperature (T$_B$) of the system (rescaled to a common heliocentric distance) drastically decreases with increasing wavelength, from $\\sim$53 K at 20 $\\mu$m to $\\sim$35 K at 500 $\\mu$m, and perhaps ever less at longer wavelengths. Considering a variety of diurnal and/or seasonal thermophysical models, we show that T$_B$ values of 35 K are lower than any expected temperature for the dayside surface or subsurface of Pluto and Charon, implying a low surface emissivity. Based on m...

  12. Mu-wave activity in schizophrenia: Evidence of a dysfunctional mirror neuron system from an Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantanava Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ′mirror-neuron system′ is thought to play an important role in automatic decoding of biological motions and interpretation of socially adaptive environmental stimuli. Accordingly, a dysfunction in this system in schizophrenia has been hypothesised to mediate the psychotic manifestations. Materials and Methods: As a part of an ongoing study, we evaluated the mirror neuron system using ′EEG mu-wave (8-13 Hz suppression′ paradigm in 15 drug naïve/drug free patients and compared the working to 15 age, sex and education matched controls. We also correlated the psychopathology scores on PANSS with the mu wave suppression in the schizophrenia patients, at baseline. We used high (192-channel resolution EEG to record the mu rhythm while the subjects watched alternating sequences of a socially-relevant biological motion and white visual-noise on a custom made video-clip. Results: We found a significant difference in the degree of mu wave suppression between the two groups. We also found that the degree of mu suppression over right sensorimotor cortex at presentation correlated significantly and negatively with thought disorder in the patient group, and had a strong linear relationship. Conclusion: This study replicates past findings regarding a dysfunctional mirror neuron system in schizophrenia patients, and also emphasizes the role of rMNS in schizophrenic thought disorders.

  13. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  14. History of Plant Phenological Observation in Hungary and Plans for Renewal of System to detect Evidence of the Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkar, M.; Dunkel, Z.

    2009-04-01

    The first plant protection warning was issued 1760 by the Senate of the Town of Debrecen concerning the destruction of caterpillar's nest. In the middle of the 19th century the first responsible Hungarian Government issued a note in which the minister takes measurements for the phytosanitary safety of agricultural products. Though Hungary had not got independent institutional system for plant protection at the end of the 19th c., still in the middle of the 1870s, the territory of the country was protected with harmonised quarantine measures from the introduction of Colorado beetle. A new era started both in Europe and in Hungary with the devastation caused by Phylloxera vastatrix in vineyards. In 1876, the Act 29 definitely specified the measures to be taken for preventing the spread of the pest and the damages caused by it; and it was proclaimed in both Chambers of the Parliament. This incident resulted basically in the launching for the establishment of an independent plant protection institution. In l880, the National Committee on Phylloxera, then in 1881, the National Experimental Station for Phylloxera was set up, this latter considered as the first nucleus of the Hungarian plant protection organisation. The international plant protection convention, concluded in 1929 and signed by our country, had a great role in the history of the development of the plant protection organisation. Hungary agreed to establish an official plant protection organization which should consist of a plant protection service and a research institute. In compliance with the Ministerial Decree 49.000/1932 the Hungarian Plant Protection Service was set up which can now be taken for the first organisation of the uniform national plant protection administration system. Plant protection stations were established in 1954. The plant phenological observation network was run by the plant protection administration but financially was maintained by OMSZ therefore the main aim of the phenological

  15. Biometric System Vulnerability as a Compromising Factor for Integrity of Chain of Custody and Admissibility ofDigitalEvidence in Court of Justice: Analysis and Improvement Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Cosic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems play an important role in digital investigation process as a important factor of authentication and verification applications, since they are strongly linked to the holder of a biometric  traits  and  possible  suspect.  Thus  it  is  important  that  biometric  systems  can  be designed  to  withstand  attacks  when  employed  in  security-critical  applications,  especially  in unattended  remote  applications  such  as  energy  plants,  access  to  borders  at  airports,  ecommerce  etc.  Biometric  recognition  either  raises  important  legal  issues  of  remediation, authority,  and  reliability,  and,  of  course,  privacy.  The  standard  assumptions  of  the technologists  who  design  new  techniques,  capabilities,  and  systems  are  very  different  from those embedded in the legal  system.  Legal precedent on the  use of biometric technology is growing, with some key cases going back decades and other more recent cases having raised serious questions about the admissibility of biometric evidence in court. In this paper authors is about to explain influence of reliability of biometric system on general acceptance of digital evidence  in  Court  of  Justice  process.  Through  paper  authors  are  also  about  to  propose vulnerability assessment of biometric system as improvementfactor of reliability of existing methodology  for  preserving  chain  of  custody  of  digital  evidence  called  DEMF  (Digital Evidence Management Framework. Improvement proposal is presented as an introduction of phase  of  biometric  vulnerability  evaluation  methodology  within  proposedframework called APDEMF (Admissibility procedure of DEMF. Using UML (Universal Modeling Language modeling  methodology  authors  are  about  to  represent  a  APDEMF  framework  which  will describe essential phases of the same process.

  16. Intra-day Seasonality in Activities of the Foreign Exchange Markets : Evidence from the Electronic Broking System

    OpenAIRE

    ITO Takatoshi; HASHIMOTO, YUKO

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines intra-day patterns of the exchange rate behavior, using the "firm" bid-ask quotes and transactions of USD-JPY (Alec: The EBS notations define the base currency as the first currency in the name of the currency pair. Note that trading in EBS is done in millions of the base currency) and Euro-USD pairs recorded in the electronic broking system of the spot foreign exchange markets. The U-shape of intra-day activities is confirmed for Tokyo and London participants, but not for...

  17. "Intra-day Seasonality in Activities of the Foreign Exchange Markets: Evidence from the Electronic Broking System"

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito; Yuko Hashimoto

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines intra-day patterns of the exchange rate behavior, using the "firm" bid-ask quotes and transactions of USD-JPY (Alec: The EBS notations define the base currency as the first currency in the name of the currency pair. Note that trading in EBS is done in millions of the base currency) and Euro-USD pairs recorded in the electronic broking system of the spot foreign exchange markets. The U-shape of intra-day activities is confirmed for Tokyo and London participants, but not for...

  18. ASTRONOMICAL OXYGEN ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE FOR SUPERNOVA ENRICHMENT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM BIRTH ENVIRONMENT BY PROPAGATING STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New infrared absorption measurements of oxygen isotope ratios in CO gas from individual young stellar objects confirm that the solar system is anomalously high in its [18O]/[17O] ratio compared with extrasolar oxygen in the Galaxy. We show that this difference in oxygen isotope ratios is best explained by ∼1% enrichment of the protosolar molecular cloud by ejecta from Type II supernovae from a cluster having of order a few hundred stars that predated the Sun by at least 10-20 Myr. The likely source of exogenous oxygen was the explosion of one or more B stars during a process of propagating star formation.

  19. Gas Absorption in the KH 15D System: Further Evidence for Dust Settling in the Circumbinary Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, S. M.; Herbst, W.; Redfield, S.; Hamilton, C. M.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Winn, J. N.; Johnson, J.A.; Mundt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Na I D lines in the spectrum of the young binary KH 15D have been analyzed in detail. We find an excess absorption component that may be attributed to foreground interstellar absorption, and to gas possibly associated with the solids in the circumbinary disk. The derived column density is log $N_{\\rm Na\\,\\mathsc{i}}$ = 12.5 cm–2, centered on a radial velocity that is consistent with the systemic velocity. Subtracting the likely contribution of the interstellar medium leaves log $N_{\\rm Na\\,\\m...

  20. Mineralogical Evidence for the Palaeohydrogeological Stability of a Deep Groundwater System in Fractured Rock, in West Cumbria, Northwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milodowski, A. E.; Gillespie, M. R.; Chenery, S. R. N.; Naden, J.; Shaw, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    An important requirement of the safety assessment for a geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste is to be able to demonstrate the long-term chemical stability of the groundwater system at repository depth over the long period of time during which the waste will be a hazard, typically up to one million years. Of particular concern in the UK is the potential for oxidising groundwater to penetrate to repository depth during periods of glaciation, thereby increasing the mobility of some transuranic radionuclides.Between 1990 and 1998, United Kingdom Nirex Limited carried out geological investigations into the suitability of a potential site in the Sellafield area of NW England, for a GDF for L/ILW. As part of these investigations, detailed petrological analysis of fracture mineralisation in 23 deep boreholes identified a complex sequence of mineralisation events referred to as ME1-ME9. The distribution of the ME9 calcite mineralisation correlates closely with present-day groundwater flows. The ME9 calcite has been studied in more detail to understand the evolution of the deep groundwater system. The morphology and growth zoning characteristics of the calcites reflects the groundwater chemistry. Freshwater calcites display c-axis flattened to equant crystals, and are non-ferroan and strongly zoned with Mn-rich and Mn-free bands. Deeper saline-zone calcites display c-axis elongated crystals, with high Mn:Fe and low Mn:Fe growth zones. Calcite in the transition zone between the saline and fresh groundwater display saline-type cores overgrown by freshwater-type calcite, indicating a small depression of the position of the transition zone during the growth of the calcites. Sr isotope ratios and fluid inclusion chemistry confirm a link between ME9 calcite and the present regional groundwater system. Modelling of the oxygen isotope data indicates that some growth zones in the ME9 calcite precipitated from groundwater potentially containing a significant

  1. Current Evidence for Extracorporeal Liver Support Systems in Acute Liver Failure and Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Subramanian, Ram M

    2016-07-01

    Artificial (nonbiological) extracorporeal liver support devices aim to remove albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins to restore and preserve hepatic function and mitigate or limit the progression of multiorgan failure while hepatic recovery or liver transplant occurs. The following beneficial effects have been documented: improvement of jaundice, amelioration of hemodynamic instability, reduction of portal hypertension, and improvement of hepatic encephalopathy. The only randomized prospective multicenter controlled trial to show an improvement in transplant-free survival was for high-volume plasmapheresis. Biological (cell-based) extracorporeal liver support systems aim to support the failing liver through detoxification and synthetic function and warrant further study for safety and benefit. PMID:27339682

  2. Evidence of an immune system to brain communication axis that affects central opioid functions: muramyl peptides attenuate opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, P M; Drath, D B; Dafny, N

    1987-09-11

    Muramyl peptides are metabolic breakdown products of bacterial cell walls formed in vivo by the reticuloendothelial system. These agents have a variety of immune modulatory and neuropharmacologic effects. It has previously been demonstrated that a variety of immune modifying agents can induce alterations in certain behaviors elicited by opiates. In the present study we investigate possible reciprocal interactions between muramyl dipeptides (MDPs) and central opioid systems using three different experimental models: (1) naloxone-precipitated withdrawal behavior in morphine-dependent rats; (2) the tail immersion assay for determination of morphine-induced antinociception and (3) rectal temperature measurement of the pyrogenic activity of MDP. It is shown that two derivatives of MDP attenuate the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal and morphine-induced antinociception. In addition, it is demonstrated that the pyrogenic activity of a stearoyl derivative of MDP is altered by chronic morphine treatment. These findings suggest both novel neuropharmacologic properties of muramyl dipeptides, as well as demonstrate that yet another immune modifier interacts with centrally mediated opioid phenomena. PMID:2824218

  3. The Examination of the Corporate Governance System at Supplier Companies: Empirical Evidence from Hungarian Automotive Industry Ercsey Ida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercsey Ida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information management and the organizational structure can contribute to the firms’ competitive advantage and business success. In the first part of our study we summarize the results we obtained by analyzing the corporate governance system in connection with the structure of enterprises and their decision making. Then we have an insight into the leadership style of the suppliers from the point of view of the participation of the staff in decision making. In the second part we analyze the information management of the supplier companies on the basis of the answers from the management. We evaluate the strategic and the operational concept of information management, proceeding from the strategy-making activity. The accomplishment of permanent renewal and willingness to innovate are both indispensable for achieving elasticity in organizations. We explore how the suppliers introduce innovation in connection with the firm structure and the information system. Finally, we consider how some essential company characteristics, namely company size, ownership, region, and the width of the product assortment, affect various company functions.

  4. Molecular Evidence for Convergence and Parallelism in Evolution of Complex Brains of Cephalopod Molluscs: Insights from Visual Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M A; Ogura, A; Ikeo, K; Shigeno, S; Moritaki, T; Winters, G C; Kohn, A B; Moroz, L L

    2015-12-01

    Coleoid cephalopods show remarkable evolutionary convergence with vertebrates in their neural organization, including (1) eyes and visual system with optic lobes, (2) specialized parts of the brain controlling learning and memory, such as vertical lobes, and (3) unique vasculature supporting such complexity of the central nervous system. We performed deep sequencing of eye transcriptomes of pygmy squids (Idiosepius paradoxus) and chambered nautiluses (Nautilus pompilius) to decipher the molecular basis of convergent evolution in cephalopods. RNA-seq was complemented by in situ hybridization to localize the expression of selected genes. We found three types of genomic innovations in the evolution of complex brains: (1) recruitment of novel genes into morphogenetic pathways, (2) recombination of various coding and regulatory regions of different genes, often called "evolutionary tinkering" or "co-option", and (3) duplication and divergence of genes. Massive recruitment of novel genes occurred in the evolution of the "camera" eye from nautilus' "pinhole" eye. We also showed that the type-2 co-option of transcription factors played important roles in the evolution of the lens and visual neurons. In summary, the cephalopod convergent morphological evolution of the camera eyes was driven by a mosaic of all types of gene recruitments. In addition, our analysis revealed unexpected variations of squids' opsins, retinochromes, and arrestins, providing more detailed information, valuable for further research on intra-ocular and extra-ocular photoreception of the cephalopods. PMID:26002349

  5. Mesothelioma incidence surveillance systems and claims for workers’ compensation. Epidemiological evidence and prospects for an integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaccio Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal tumour strongly associated with exposure to asbestos (mainly occupational. In Italy a large proportion of workers are protected from occupational diseases by public insurance and an epidemiological surveillance system for incident mesothelioma cases. Methods We set up an individual linkage between the Italian national mesothelioma register (ReNaM and the Italian workers’ compensation authority (INAIL archives. Logistic regression models were used to identify and test explanatory variables. Results We extracted 3270 mesothelioma cases with occupational origins from the ReNaM, matching them with 1625 subjects in INAIL (49.7%; 91.2% (1,482 of the claims received compensation. The risk of not seeking compensation is significantly higher for women and the elderly. Claims have increased significantly in recent years and there is a clear geographical gradient (northern and more developed regions having higher claims rates. The highest rates of compensation claims were after work known to involve asbestos. Conclusions Our data illustrate the importance of documentation and dissemination of all asbestos exposure modalities. Strategies focused on structural and systematic interaction between epidemiological surveillance and insurance systems are needed.

  6. The Three-Dimensional Structure of the M31 Satellite System; Strong Evidence for an Inhomogeneous Distribution of Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Conn, Anthony R; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Parker, Quentin A; Zucker, Daniel B; McConnachie, Alan W; Martin, Nicolas F; Valls-Gabaud, David; Tanvir, Nial; Irwin, Michael J; Ferguson, Annette M N; Chapman, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    We undertake an investigation into the spatial structure of the M31 satellite system utilizing the distance distributions presented in a previous publication. These distances make use of the unique combination of depth and spatial coverage of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) to provide a large, homogeneous sample consisting of 27 of M31's satellites, as well as M31 itself. We find that the satellite distribution, when viewed as a whole, is no more planar than one would expect from a random distribution of equal size. A disk consisting of 15 of the satellites is however found to be highly significant, and strikingly thin, with a root-mean-square thickness of just $12.34^{+0.75}_{-0.43}$ kpc. This disk is oriented approximately edge on with respect to the Milky Way and almost perpendicular to the Milky Way disk. It is also roughly orthogonal to the disk like structure regularly reported for the Milky Way satellite system and in close alignment with M31's Giant Stellar Stream. A similar analysis ...

  7. Dermal inorganic gadolinium concentrations: evidence for in vivo transmetallation and long-term persistence in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, J.L.; Thakral, C.; Skov, L.;

    2008-01-01

    Background Gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance contrast agents (GBMCA), including gadodiamide, have been identified as the probable causative agents of the serious disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Objectives To investigate retained Gd-containing deposits in skin biopsies from...... patients with NSF and to determine their relative concentrations over time from administration of GBMCA. Methods An investigator-blinded retrospective study, analysing 43 skin biopsies from 20 patients with gadodiamide-related NSF and one NSF-negative gadodiamide-exposed dialysis patient, ranging from 16...... days to 1991 days after Gd contrast dose. Utilizing automated quantitative scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy we determined the concentration of Gd and associated elements present as insoluble deposits in situ in the tissues. Results We detected Gd in skin lesions of all...

  8. Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation: evidence from a randomized trial in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.;

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) has been positively associated with systemic markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in cross-sectional studies, but results from intervention studies are inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a 16 week double......-blind parallel intervention study with the objective to examine the effect of IP-TFA intake on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Fifty-two healthy overweight postmenopausal women (49 completers) were randomly assigned to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil...... (15.7 g/day IP-TFA) or control oil without IP-TFA. After 16 weeks, IP-TFA intake increased baseline-adjusted serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α by 12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5–20; P = 0.002] more in the IP-TFA group compared with controls. Plasma soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 were also...

  9. Research on early warning of food security using a system dynamics model: evidence from Jiangsu province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the early warning of food security, this paper sets the self-sufficiency rate as the principal indicator in a standpoint of supplement. It is common to use the quantitative methods to forecast and warning the insecurity. However, this paper considers more about the probable outcome when the government intervenes. By constructing the causal feedbacks among grain supplement, demand, productive input, and the policy factors to simulate the future food security in Jiangsu province, conclusions can be drawn as the following: (1) The situation of food security is insecure if the self-sufficiency rate is under 68.3% according to the development of system inertia. (2) it is difficult to guarantee the food security in Jiangsu just depending on the increase of grain sown area. (3) The valid solution to ensure the food security in Jiangsu is to improve the productivity. PMID:25603845

  10. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As major changes in the ecological and social system occurred over this lengthy period, persistence in the fishery is not due simply to a lack of perturbation, but rather indicates resilience in the ecological–human system. Of several factors possibly contributing to resilience, low human population size and harvesting pressure, habitat enhancement, and suppression of competing predators do not appear to be of major importance. Flexible resource use, including human use of a range of local resources, many of which are linked in a food web with salmon, likely contributed to resilience. Most important were the beliefs and social institutions (including ownership, regulation, rituals, and monitoring that placed restraints on salmon use as a common pool resource. In contrast, only a small fraction of our modern society relies economically on or has direct interaction with the fish, which limits our concern and willingness to fundamentally change behaviors that contribute to habitat degradation and loss, the main challenges facing salmon populations today. Salmon recovery efforts may benefit substantially from investing more resources into establishing links between community groups and actual fish populations, which would create a sense of proprietorship, one of the keys to resilience in the indigenous salmon fishery.

  11. Evidence for the involvement of the CXCL12 system in the adaptation of skeletal muscles to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchert, Malte; Adams, Volker; Linke, Axel; Engele, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, not only promote developmental myogenesis, but also muscle regeneration. CXCL12 chemoattracts CXCR4-positive satellite cells/blood-borne progenitors to the injured muscle, promotes myoblast fusion, partially with existing myofibers, and induces angiogenesis in regenerating muscles. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration are in part identical to those involved in muscular adaptation to intensive physical exercise. These similarities now prompted us to determine whether physical exercise would impact the CXCL12 system in skeletal muscle. We found that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are upregulated in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats that underwent a four-week period of constrained daily running exercise on a treadmill. Double-staining experiments confirmed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are predominantly expressed in MyHC-positive muscle fibers. Moreover, these training-dependent increases in CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression also occurred in rats with surgical coronary artery occlusion, implying that the muscular CXCL12 system is still active in skeletal myopathy resulting from chronic heart failure. Expression of the second CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, which presumably acts as a scavenger receptor in muscle, was not affected by training. Attempts to dissect the molecular events underlying the training-dependent effects of CXCL12 revealed that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis activates anabolic mTOR-p70S6K signaling and prevents upregulation of the catabolic ubiquitin ligase MurF-1 in C2C12 myotubes, eventually increasing myotube diameters. Together, these findings point to a pivotal role of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in exercise-induced muscle maintenance and/or growth. PMID:27237374

  12. Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesban Kihuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital management information systems (HMIS is a key component of national health information systems (HIS, and actions required of hospital management to support information generation in Kenya are articulated in specific policy documents. We conducted an evaluation of core functions of data generation and reporting within hospitals in Kenya to facilitate interpretation of national reports and to provide guidance on key areas requiring improvement to support data use in decision making. Design: The survey was a cross-sectional, cluster sample study conducted in 22 hospitals in Kenya. The statistical analysis was descriptive with adjustment for clustering. Results: Most of the HMIS departments complied with formal guidance to develop departmental plans. However, only a few (3/22 had carried out a data quality audit in the 12 months prior to the survey. On average 3% (range 1–8% of the total hospital income was allocated to the HMIS departments. About half of the records officer positions were filled and about half (13/22 of hospitals had implemented some form of electronic health record largely focused on improving patient billing and not linked to the district HIS. Completeness of manual patient registers varied, being 90% (95% CI 80.1–99.3%, 75.8% (95% CI 68.7–82.8%, and 58% (95% CI 50.4–65.1% in maternal child health clinic, maternity, and pediatric wards, respectively. Vital events notification rates were low with 25.7, 42.6, and 71.3% of neonatal deaths, infant deaths, and live births recorded, respectively. Routine hospital reports suggested slight over-reporting of live births and under-reporting of fresh stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that the HMIS does not deliver quality data. Significant constraints exist in data quality assurance, supervisory support, data infrastructure in respect to information and communications technology application, human resources, financial

  13. THE EFFECT OF E-COMMERCE ON MALAYSIAN TAX SYSTEM: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ACADEMICIANS AND MALAYSIAN TAX PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizal Palil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of information technology (IT nowadays has created new phenomena in shopping activities. Consumers can easily buy products via Internet. Within a minute, the products will be delivered instantly and accurately. This scenario is known as e-commerce. The emergence of e-commerce affects consumers' shopping behavior as well as taxation system. The objective of this research is to reveal the effects of e-commerce upon Malaysian taxation system by emphasizing in scope of charge 'derive and remittance'. Research was conducted through questionnaires of 82 tax practitioners and 22 academicians. The research findings shown that derive and remittance basis is no longer appropriate in e-commerce environment. Scope of charge derives and remittances, which are practicing in Malaysia right now, are unable to maximized e-commerce tax revenue. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan dalam dunia teknologi akhir-akhir ini telah membawa banyak arus perubahan terutamanya dalam aktivitas belanja. Konsumen dapat membeli barang dengan mudah melalui internet. Dalam waktu beberapa menit, barang sampai di tangan konsumen. Skenario demikian dikenal sebagai perdagangan elektronis. Kemunculan perdagangan elektronis mengubah prilaku belanja konsumen serta sistem perpajakan di Malaysia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek perdagangan elektronis terhadap sistem perpajakan di Malaysia dengan penekanan pada pengenaan pajak dan hak pemajakan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan 82 sample praktisi perpajakan dan 22 akademisi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa praktek pengenaan pajak dalam perdagangan elektronis belum sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku, sehingga tidak dapat memaksimalkan penerimaan pajak dari perdagangan elektronis. Kata kunci: sistem perpajakan Malaysia, perdagangan elektronik, akademik, praktisi perpajakan, pengenaan pajak.

  14. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE M31 SATELLITE SYSTEM; STRONG EVIDENCE FOR AN INHOMOGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, A. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Zucker, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lewis, G. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); McConnachie, A. W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Valls-Gabaud, D. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Tanvir, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Irwin, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, A. M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    We undertake an investigation into the spatial structure of the M31 satellite system utilizing the distance distributions presented in a previous publication. These distances make use of the unique combination of depth and spatial coverage of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey to provide a large, homogeneous sample consisting of 27 of M31's satellites, as well as M31 itself. We find that the satellite distribution, when viewed as a whole, is no more planar than one would expect from a random distribution of equal size. A disk consisting of 15 of the satellites is however found to be highly significant, and strikingly thin, with an rms thickness of just 12.34{sup +0.75}{sub -0.43} kpc. This disk is oriented approximately edge-on with respect to the Milky Way and almost perpendicular to the Milky Way disk. It is also roughly orthogonal to the disk-like structure regularly reported for the Milky Way satellite system and in close alignment with M31's Giant Stellar Stream. A similar analysis of the asymmetry of the M31 satellite distribution finds that it is also significantly larger than one would expect from a random distribution. In particular, it is remarkable that 20 of the 27 satellites most likely lie on the Milky Way side of the galaxy, with the asymmetry being most pronounced within the satellite subset forming the aforementioned disk. This lopsidedness is all the more intriguing in light of the apparent orthogonality observed between the satellite disk structures of the Milky Way and M31.

  15. Exploring the link between products and services in low-income markets—Evidence from solar home systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key challenges of energy access in emerging markets and developing countries is how to reach households and communities that are unlikely to get a grid connection in the long term or those that are connected to the grid but suffer from regular blackouts or low voltage. By surveying entrepreneurs selling Solar Home Systems (SHSs) on a commercial basis in emerging and developing countries, this study is one of the first attempts to quantify the key elements of four potential Product Service Systems (PSSs): Cash, Credit, Leasing and Fee-for-Service. Whereas the Fee-for-Service approach was found to be suitable only under certain conditions, all PSSs share two key elements for successful market deployment: one or more years of maintenance, and customer support in financing these customers' new asset. Moreover, it appears that private sector companies are in principle able to deliver SHSs to households with incomes greater than USD 1000 per year. The implications for policy makers and development aid agencies are, first, to include maintenance services into public programmes or public–private partnerships and, second, to explicitly consider financial risks for entrepreneurs (e.g., customer commitment and repayment conditions). - Highlights: ► Explorative quantitative study among entrepreneurs across different low-income markets. ► Specific combinations of product and service are identified and evaluated. ► Cash, Credit and Leasing can be feasible from a private sector point of view. ► Fee-for-Service is very challenging for the private sector without any policy support. ► Combining the SHS with services such as finance and maintenance is key to success.

  16. Decreased complexity of glucose dynamics in diabetes: evidence from multiscale entropy analysis of continuous glucose monitoring system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Chen, Pin-Fan; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2014-07-15

    Parameters of glucose dynamics recorded by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help in the control of glycemic fluctuations, which is important in diabetes management. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has recently been developed to measure the complexity of physical and physiological time sequences. A reduced MSE complexity index indicates the increased repetition patterns of the time sequence, and, thus, a decreased complexity in this system. No study has investigated the MSE analysis of glucose dynamics in diabetes. This study was designed to compare the complexity of glucose dynamics between the diabetic patients (n = 17) and the control subjects (n = 13), who were matched for sex, age, and body mass index via MSE analysis using the CGMS data. Compared with the control subjects, the diabetic patients revealed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the mean (diabetic patients 166.0 ± 10.4 vs. control subjects 93.3 ± 1.5 mg/dl), the standard deviation (51.7 ± 4.3 vs. 11.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl), and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (127.0 ± 9.2 vs. 27.7 ± 1.3 mg/dl) of the glucose levels; and a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the MSE complexity index (5.09 ± 0.23 vs. 7.38 ± 0.28). In conclusion, the complexity of glucose dynamics is decreased in diabetes. This finding implies the reactivity of glucoregulation is impaired in the diabetic patients. Such impairment presenting as an increased regularity of glycemic fluctuating pattern could be detected by MSE analysis. Thus, the MSE complexity index could potentially be used as a biomarker in the monitoring of diabetes. PMID:24808497

  17. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shude; Wang, Xianghui; Zhong, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole–dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge–Kutta method and Pang’s soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs) depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the corresponding theory

  18. Evidence for chronic inflammation as a component of the interstitial lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a generalized disorder characterized by fibrosis of many organs including the lung parenchyma. Unlike most other interstitial disorders, traditional concepts of the interstitial lung disease associated with PSS have held it to be a ''pure'' fibrotic disorder without a significant inflammatory component. To directly evaluate whether an active alveolitis is associated with this disorder, patients with chronic interstitial lung disease and PSS were studied by open lung biopsy, gallium-67 scanning, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Histologic evaluation of the biopsies demonstrated that the interstitial fibrosis of PSS is clearly associated with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, both in the interstitium and on the alveolar epithelial surface. Gallium-67 scans were positive in 77% of the patients, showing diffuse, primarily lower zone uptake, suggestive of active inflammation. Consistent with the histologic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage studies demonstrated a mild increase in the proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils with occasional increased numbers of lymphocytes. Importantly, alveolar macrophages from patients with PSS showed increased release of fibronectin and alveolar-macrophage-derived growth factor, mediators that together stimulate lung fibroblasts to proliferate, thus suggesting at least one mechanism modulating the lung fibrosis of these patients

  19. The Transiting System GJ1214: High-Precision Defocused Transit Observations and a Search for Evidence of Transit Timing Variation

    CERN Document Server

    Harpsøe, K B W; Hinse, T C; Jørgensen, U G; Mancini, L; Southworth, J; Alsubai, K A; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Burgdorf, M J; Novati, S Calchi; Dodds, P; Dominik, M; Finet, F; Gerner, T; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Mathiasen, M; Nesvorný, D; Nikolov, N; Penny, M T; Proft, S; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Sahu, K C; Scarpetta, G; Schäfer, S; Schönebeck, F; Snodgrass, C; Skottfelt, J; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wertz, O

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We present 11 high-precision photometric transit observations of the transiting super-Earth planet GJ1214b. Combining these data with observations from other authors, we investigate the ephemeris for possible signs of transit timing variations (TTVs) using a Bayesian approach. Methods: The observations were obtained using telescope-defocusing techniques, and achieve a high precision with random errors in the photometry as low as 1mmag per point. To investigate the possibility of TTVs in the light curve, we calculate the overall probability of a TTV signal using Bayesian methods. Results: The observations are used to determine the photometric parameters and the physical properties of the GJ1214 system. Our results are in good agreement with published values. Individual times of mid-transit are measured with uncertainties as low as 10s, allowing us to reduce the uncertainty in the orbital period by a factor of two. Conclusions: A Bayesian analysis reveals that it is highly improbable that the observed tra...

  20. Evidence of heterosynaptic LTD in the human nociceptive system: superficial skin neuromodulation using a matrix electrode reduces deep pain sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mücke

    Full Text Available Long term depression (LTD is a neuronal learning mechanism after low frequency stimulation (LFS. This study compares two types of electrodes (concentric vs. matrix and stimulation frequencies (4 and 30 Hz to examine homo- and heterosynaptic effects indirectly depicted from the somatosensory profile of healthy subjects. Both electrodes were compared in a prospective, randomized, controlled cross-over study using 4 Hz as the conditioning LFS compared to 30 Hz (intended sham condition. Quantitative sensory testing (QST was used to examine 13 thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds. Sixteen healthy volunteers (10 women, age 31.0 ± 12.7 years were examined. Depending on the electrodes and frequencies used a divergent pattern of sensory minus signs occurred. Using LFS the concentric electrode increased thermal thresholds, while the matrix electrode rather increased mechanical including deep pain thresholds. Findings after cutaneous neuromodulation using LFS and a matrix electrode are consistent with the concept of heterosynaptic LTD in the human nociceptive system, where deep pain sensitivity was reduced after superficial stimulation of intraepidermal nerve fibres. Cutaneous neuromodulation using LFS and a matrix electrode may be a useful tool to influence deep pain sensitivity in a variety of chronic pain syndromes.

  1. Evidence of limited carbon sequestration in soils under no-tillage systems in the Cerrado of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeels, Marc; Marchão, Robelio Leandro; Neto, Marcos Siqueira; Ferreira, Eliann Garcia; Madari, Beata Emöke; Scopel, Eric; Brito, Osmar Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different age since conversion from conventional tillage (CT) was sampled in 2003 and 2011. Soil C levels of native Cerrado and pasture were measured for comparison. After about 11 to 14 years, soil C stocks under NT were highest and at the levels of those under natural Cerrado. Average annual rates of soil C sequestration estimated using the chronosequence approach were respectively 1.61 and 1.48 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for the 2003 and 2011 sampling, and were higher than those observed using repeated sampling after eight years. The diachronic sampling revealed that the younger NT fields tended to show higher increases in soil C stocks than the older fields. Converting an extra 8 million ha of cropland from CT to NT represents an estimated soil C storage of about 8 Tg C yr(-1) during 10 to 15 years. PMID:26907731

  2. Redshifted emission lines and radiative recombination continuum from the Wolf-Rayet binary theta Muscae: evidence for a triplet system?

    CERN Document Server

    Sugawara, Yasuharu; Maeda, Yoshitomo

    2008-01-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of the WC binary Theta Muscae (WR 48), the second brightest Wolf-Rayet binary in optical wavelengths. The system consists of a short-period (19.1375 days) WC5/WC6 + O6/O7V binary and possibly has an additional O supergiant companion (O9.5/B0Iab) which is optically identified at a separation of ~46 mas. Strong emission lines from highly ionized ions of C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe are detected. The spectra are fitted by a multi-temperature thin-thermal plasma model with an interstellar absorption N_H = 2--3*10**21 cm**-2. Lack of nitrogen line indicates that the abundance of carbon is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of nitrogen. A Doppler shift of ~630 km/s is detected for the OVIII line, while similar shifts are obtained from the other lines. The reddening strongly suggests that the emission lines originated from the wind-wind shock zone, where the average velocity is ~600 km/s. The red-shift motion is inconsistent with a scenario in which the X-rays or...

  3. Gas Absorption in the KH 15D System: Further Evidence for Dust Settling in the Circumbinary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, S M; Redfield, S; Hamilton, C M; Johns-Krull, C M; Winn, J N; Johnson, J A; Mundt, R

    2010-01-01

    Na I D lines in the spectrum of the young binary KH 15D have been analyzed in detail. We find an excess absorption component that may be attributed to foreground interstellar absorption, and to gas possibly associated with the solids in the circumbinary disk. The derived column density is log N_NaI = 12.5 cm^-2, centered on a radial velocity that is consistent with the systemic velocity. Subtracting the likely contribution of the ISM leaves log N_NaI ~ 12.3 cm^-2. There is no detectable change in the gas column density across the "knife edge" formed by the opaque grain disk, indicating that the gas and solids have very different scale heights, with the solids being highly settled. Our data support a picture of this circumbinary disk as being composed of a very thin particulate grain layer composed of millimeter-sized or larger objects that are settled within whatever remaining gas may be present. This phase of disk evolution has been hypothesized to exist as a prelude to the formation of planetesimals through...

  4. Short-term and long-term plasticity in the visual-attention system: Evidence from habituation of attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turatto, Massimo; Pascucci, David

    2016-04-01

    Attention is known to be crucial for learning and to regulate activity-dependent brain plasticity. Here we report the opposite scenario, with plasticity affecting the onset-driven automatic deployment of spatial attention. Specifically, we showed that attentional capture is subject to habituation, a fundamental form of plasticity consisting in a response decrement to repeated stimulations. Participants performed a visual discrimination task with focused attention, while being occasionally exposed to a distractor consisting of a high-luminance peripheral onset. With practice, short-term and long-term habituation of attentional capture emerged, making the visual-attention system fully immune to distraction. Furthermore, spontaneous recovery of attentional capture was found when the distractor was temporarily removed. Capture, however, once habituated was surprisingly resistant to spontaneous recovery, taking from several minutes to days to recover. The results suggest that the mechanisms subserving exogenous attentional orienting are subject to profound and enduring plastic changes based on previous experience, and that habituation can impact high-order cognitive functions. PMID:26927305

  5. Semantic memory is an amodal, dynamic system: Evidence from the interaction of naming and object use in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Michela; Bartolini, Marco; Luzzi, Simona; Provinciali, Leandro; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2004-07-01

    Classic neurological accounts and some contemporary theories of semantic memory assume that concepts are acquired through a learning process that draws together information experienced in each of our verbal and nonverbal modalities. These accounts embody three critical assumptions: semantic representations are amodal; the mapping between surface form and meaning varies for different modalities; and the representations are dynamic. The influence of these three factors was revealed in data collected over a 4-year longitudinal period in two patients with semantic dementia. Semantic assessment revealed a parallel decline in verbal and nonverbal aspects of conceptual knowledge, reflecting a gradual degradation of a single amodal semantic system. As expected, when the patients' semantic impairment was mild, they presented with profound anomia but relatively preserved object use. Over time, performance on all semantic tasks including object use declined. High item-by-item consistency across these tasks was observed in all testing sessions. The impact of dynamic semantic representations was revealed by a striking clinical finding. Although unable to name many of the objects in isolation, their performance was significantly facilitated if they were asked to name while they demonstrated the use of each object. These results are discussed in the context of contemporary models of semantic memory. PMID:21038218

  6. Rigidity Emerges during Antibody Evolution in Three Distinct Antibody Systems: Evidence from QSFR Analysis of Fab Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of somatic mutations that transform polyspecific germline (GL antibodies to affinity mature (AM antibodies with monospecificity are compared among three GL-AM Fab pairs. In particular, changes in conformational flexibility are assessed using a Distance Constraint Model (DCM. We have previously established that the DCM can be robustly applied across a series of antibody fragments (VL to Fab, and subsequently, the DCM was combined with molecular dynamics (MD simulations to similarly characterize five thermostabilizing scFv mutants. The DCM is an ensemble based statistical mechanical approach that accounts for enthalpy/entropy compensation due to network rigidity, which has been quite successful in elucidating conformational flexibility and Quantitative Stability/Flexibility Relationships (QSFR in proteins. Applied to three disparate antibody systems changes in QSFR quantities indicate that the VH domain is typically rigidified, whereas the VL domain and CDR L2 loop become more flexible during affinity maturation. The increase in CDR H3 loop rigidity is consistent with other studies in the literature. The redistribution of conformational flexibility is largely controlled by nonspecific changes in the H-bond network, although certain Arg to Asp salt bridges create highly localized rigidity increases. Taken together, these results reveal an intricate flexibility/rigidity response that accompanies affinity maturation.

  7. Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens: further evidence for involvement in ascites syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Gilanpour, Hassan; Charkhkar, Saied; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the related physiological parameters in these chickens were followed. Lung weight as a percentage of body weight, the relative lung and heart volume, and the volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared with the layer and native chickens. Additionally, most of these parameters (e.g. relative lung weight, lung volume and thorax cavity) were significantly decreased with age in broiler chickens but were increased in layer and native chickens, which was concomitant with the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. Our data indicate that all cardiopulmonary parameters investigated are extremely unfavourable to broiler chickens and suggest a reduction in gas exchange area in broilers, and therefore higher susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension and ascites. PMID:16191701

  8. GAS ABSORPTION IN THE KH 15D SYSTEM: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR DUST SETTLING IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na I D lines in the spectrum of the young binary KH 15D have been analyzed in detail. We find an excess absorption component that may be attributed to foreground interstellar absorption, and to gas possibly associated with the solids in the circumbinary disk. The derived column density is log NNaI = 12.5 cm-2, centered on a radial velocity that is consistent with the systemic velocity. Subtracting the likely contribution of the interstellar medium leaves log NNaI∼ 12.3 cm-2. There is no detectable change in the gas column density across the 'knife edge' formed by the opaque grain disk, indicating that the gas and solids have very different scale heights, with the solids being highly settled. Our data support a picture of this circumbinary disk as being composed of a very thin particulate grain layer composed of millimeter-sized or larger objects that are settled within whatever remaining gas may be present. This phase of disk evolution has been hypothesized to exist as a prelude to the formation of planetesimals through gravitational fragmentation, and is expected to be short-lived if much gas were still present in such a disk. Our analysis also reveals the presence of excess Na I emission relative to the comparison spectrum at the radial velocity of the currently visible star that plausibly arises within the magnetosphere of this still-accreting young star.

  9. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Graham, E-mail: grb@aber.ac.uk [Centre for Catchment and Coastal Research and River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology Research Group, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB (United Kingdom); Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G. [Centre for Catchment and Coastal Research and River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology Research Group, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB (United Kingdom); Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan [Institute of Geography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ' Acad. G. Bonchev' , bl.3, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mollov, Mihail [Executive Environmental Agency - Ministry of Environment and Waters, ' Tzar Boris III' Boulevard, No. 136, Sofia (Bulgaria); Swain, Catherine [Centre for Catchment and Coastal Research and River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology Research Group, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Lead isotope signatures ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb), determined by magnetic sector ICP-MS in river channel sediment, metal ores and mine waste, have been used as geochemical tracers to quantify the delivery and dispersal of sediment-associated metals in the lower Danube River catchment. Due to a diverse geology and range of ore-body ages, Pb isotope signatures in ore-bodies within the lower Danube River catchment show considerable variation, even within individual metallogenic zones. It is also possible to discriminate between the Pb isotopic signatures in mine waste and river sediment within river systems draining individual ore bodies. Lead isotopic data, along with multi-element data; were used to establish the provenance of river sediments and quantify sedimentary contributions to mining-affected tributaries and to the Danube River. Data indicate that mining-affected tributaries in Serbia and Bulgaria contribute up to 30% of the river channel sediment load of the lower Danube River. Quantifying relative sediment contributions from mining-affected tributaries enables spatial patterns in sediment-associated metal and As concentrations to be interpreted in terms of key contaminant sources. Combining geochemical survey data with that regarding the provenance of contaminated sediments can therefore be used to identify foci for remediation and environmental management strategies.

  10. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. PMID:25754516

  11. Contrasts within an outlier-reef system: Evidence for differential quaternary evolution, south Florida windward margin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidz, B.H.; Shinn, E.A.; Hine, A.C.; Locker, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Closely spaced, high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles acquired off the upper Florida Keys (i.e., north) reveal a platform-margin reef-and-trough system grossly similar to, yet quite different from, that previously described off the lower Keys (i.e., south). Profiles and maps generated for both areas show that development was controlled by antecedent Pleistocene topography (presence or absence of an upper-slope bedrock terrace), sediment availability, fluctuating sea level, and coral growth rate and distribution. The north terrace is sediment-covered and exhibits linear, buried, low-relief, seismic features of unknown character and origin. The south terrace is essentially sediment-free and supports multiple, massive, high-relief outlier reefs. Uranium disequilibrium series dates on outlier-reef corals indicate a Pleistocene age (~83-84 ka). A massive Pleistocene reef with both aggradational (north) and progradational (south) aspects forms the modern margin escarpment landward of the terrace. Depending upon interpretation (the north margin-escarpment reef may or may not be an outlier reef), the north margin is either more advanced or less advanced than the south margin. During Holocene sea-level rise, Pleistocene bedrock was inundated earlier and faster first to the north (deeper offbank terrace), then to the south (deeper platform surface). Holocene overgrowth is thick (8 m) on the north outer-bank reefs but thin (0.3 m) on the south outlier reefs. Differential evolution resulted from interplay between fluctuating sea level and energy regime established by prevailing east-southeasterly winds and waves along an arcuate (ENE-WSW) platform margin.

  12. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhingra Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium sativum L. (Family: Lilliaceae, commonly known as garlic, on depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of garlic (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered orally for 14 successive days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex and antidepressant-like activity was evaluated employing tail suspension test (TST and forced swim test (FST. The efficacy of the extract was compared with standard antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine and imipramine. The mechanism of action of the extract was investigated by co-administration of prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist, baclofen (GABA B agonist and p-CPA (serotonin antagonist separately with the extract and by studying the effect of the extract on brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels. Results: Garlic extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy of the extract was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o. and imipramine (15 mg/kg p.o. in both TST and FST. The extract did not show any significant effect on the locomotor activity of the mice. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Garlic extract (100 mg/kg administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Garlic extract showed significant antidepressant-like activity probably by inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B levels and through interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems.

  13. Muscle activation during maximal effort tasks: evidence of the selective forces that shaped the musculoskeletal system of humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Carrier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The selective forces that played a role in the evolution of the musculoskeletal system of the genus Homo have long been debated and remain poorly understood. In this investigation, we introduce a new approach for testing alternative hypotheses. Our analysis is based on the premise that natural selection can be expected to have resulted in muscles that are large enough to achieve necessary levels of maximum performance in essential behaviors, but not larger. We used surface electromyography in male subjects to identify maximum activation levels in 13 muscles of the back and leg during eight behaviors that have been suggested to have been important to foraging, hunting and fighting performance in early humans. We asked two questions: (1 what behaviors produce maximum activation in each of the investigated muscles and (2 are there specific behaviors that elicit maximum recruitment from all or most of the muscles? We found that in eight of the 13 muscles, the highest activity occurred during maximal effort vertical jumping (i.e. whole-body acceleration. Punching produced the highest median activity in the other five muscles. Together, jumping and punching accounted for 73% of the incidences of maximum activity among all of the muscles and from all of the subjects. Thus, the size of the muscles of the back and leg appear to be more related to the demands of explosive behaviors rather than those of high speed sprinting or sustained endurance running. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection on aggressive behavior played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo.

  14. Leptin enhances insulin sensitivity by direct and sympathetic nervous system regulation of muscle IGFBP-2 expression: evidence from nonrodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Steven W; Henry, Belinda A; Russo, Vincenzo C; McConell, Glenn K; Clarke, Iain J; Werther, George A; Sabin, Matthew A

    2014-06-01

    Leptin is produced from white adipose tissue and acts primarily to regulate energy balance. Obesity is associated with leptin resistance and increased circulating levels of leptin. Leptin has recently been shown to influence levels of IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2), a protein that is reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Overexpression of IGFBP-2 protects against obesity and type 2 diabetes. As such, IGFBP-2 signaling may represent a novel pathway by which leptin regulates insulin sensitivity. We sought to investigate how leptin regulates skeletal muscle IGFBP-2 levels and to assess the impact of this on insulin signaling and glucose uptake. In vitro experiments were undertaken in cultured human skeletal myotubes, whereas in vivo experiments assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular leptin on peripheral skeletal muscle IGFBP-2 expression and insulin sensitivity in sheep. Leptin directly increased IGFBP-2 mRNA and protein in human skeletal muscle through both signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, in parallel with enhanced insulin signaling. Silencing IGFBP-2 lowered leptin- and insulin-stimulated protein kinase B phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In in vivo experiments, intracerebroventricular leptin significantly increased hind-limb skeletal muscle IGFBP-2, an effect completely blocked by concurrent peripheral infusion of a β-adrenergic blocking agent. Sheep receiving central leptin showed improvements in glucose tolerance and circulating insulin levels after an iv glucose load. In summary, leptin regulates skeletal muscle IGFBP-2 by both direct peripheral and central (via the sympathetic nervous system) mechanisms, and these likely impact on peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. PMID:24654786

  15. Application of an almost ideal demand system (AIDS) to Ethiopian rural residential energy use: Panel data evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that poor rural households in low-income economies are reliant on traditional fuels to meet basic domestic energy needs, but little is known about the specific underlying socio-economic drivers of residential fuel choices in Ethiopia. I used the linear approximation almost ideal demand system (LAAIDS) with normalized prices to compute expenditure elasticity and a multinomial logit model (MLM) to examine household fuel use. The LAAIDS model result showed that expenditure was elastic for modern fuels, but inelastic for traditional fuels. Regression results from the MLM indicated that fuel choice behaviour of rural households could be more accurately described as ‘fuel stacking’ behaviour as opposed to the ‘energy ladder’ hypothesis. In rural areas household fuel choice may be constrained by limited access to commercial fuels and efficient cook stoves, supply dependency and affordability, consumer preferences and a web of other intricate factors. Rural households had less incentive for fuel switching due to underlying factors and the availability of fuel wood without direct financial cost. With continued deforestation and receding forests, households are expected to develop inter fuel substitution and switching behaviour conditional on access to modern energy technologies. - Highlights: ► Two step LAAIDS model and MLM were applied to analysis of residential fuel use. ► I examined issues of ‘energy ladder’ versus ‘fuel stacking’ behavior of households. ► Controlling other factors increase in welfare increases demand for modern fuel. ► Traditional fuels are income inelastic but not necessarily cheaper. ► Residential fuel choice is determined by intricate web of socio-economic factors.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of serum from patients with systemic sclerosis and sclerodermatous GVHD. Evidence of defective function of factor H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scambi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disease characterized by immunological and vascular abnormalities. Until now, the cause of SSc remains unclear. Sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease (ScGVHD is one of the most severe complications following bone marrow transplantation (BMT for haematological disorders. Since the first cases, the similarity of ScGVHD to SSc has been reported. However, both diseases could have different etiopathogeneses. The objective of this study was to identify new serum biomarkers involved in SSc and ScGVHD. METHODOLOGY: Serum was obtained from patients with SSc and ScGVHD, patients without ScGVHD who received BMT for haematological disorders and healthy controls. Bi-dimensional electrophoresis (2D was carried out to generate maps of serum proteins from patients and controls. The 2D maps underwent image analysis and differently expressed proteins were identified. Immuno-blot analysis and ELISA assay were used to validate the proteomic data. Hemolytic assay with sheep erythrocytes was performed to evaluate the capacity of Factor H (FH to control complement activation on the cellular surface. FH binding to endothelial cells (ECs was also analysed in order to assess possible dysfunctions of this protein. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified. We detected pneumococcal antibody cross-reacting with double stranded DNA in serum of all bone marrow transplanted patients with ScGVHD. We documented higher levels of FH in serum of SSc and ScGVHD patients compared healthy controls and increased sheep erythrocytes lysis after incubation with serum of diffuse SSc patients. In addition, we observed that FH binding to ECs was reduced when we used serum from these patients. CONCLUSIONS: The comparative proteomic analysis of serum from SSc and ScGVHD patients highlighted proteins involved in either promoting or maintaining an inflammatory state. We also found a defective function

  17. Evidence of the presence of a functional Dot/Icm type IV-B secretion system in the fish bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Gómez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is a fish bacterial pathogen that has severely challenged the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry since its appearance in 1989. As this Gram-negative bacterium has been poorly characterized, relevant aspects of its life cycle, virulence and pathogenesis must be identified in order to properly design prophylactic procedures. This report provides evidence of the functional presence in P. salmonis of four genes homologous to those described for Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion Systems. The Dot/Icm System, the major virulence mechanism of phylogenetically related pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, is responsible for their intracellular survival and multiplication, conditions that may also apply to P. salmonis. Our results demonstrate that the four P. salmonis dot/icm homologues (dotB, dotA, icmK and icmE are expressed both during in vitro tissue culture cells infection and growing in cell-free media, suggestive of their putative constitutive expression. Additionally, as it happens in other referential bacterial systems, temporal acidification of cell-free media results in over expression of all four P. salmonis genes, a well-known strategy by which SSTIV-containing bacteria inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion to survive. These findings are very important to understand the virulence mechanisms of P. salmonis in order to design new prophylactic alternatives to control the disease.

  18. Late Noachian and early Hesperian ridge systems in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation, Mars: Evidence for two stages of melting of an extensive late Noachian ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Ailish M.; Head, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF), extending from 270°-100° E and 70°-90° S, is a huge circumpolar deposit surrounding and underlying the Late Amazonian South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) of Mars. Currently mapped as Early-Late Hesperian in age, the Dorsa Argentea Formation has been interpreted as volatile-rich, possibly representing the remnants of an ancient polar ice cap. Uncertain are its age (due to the possibility of poor crater retention in ice-related deposits), its mode of origin, the origin of the distinctive sinuous ridges and cavi that characterize the unit, and its significance in the climate history of Mars. In order to assess the age of activity associated with the DAF, we examined the ridge populations within the Dorsa Argentea Formation, mapping and characterizing seven different ridge systems (composed of nearly 4,000 ridges covering a total area of ~300,000 km2, with a cumulative length of ridges of ~51,000 km) and performing crater counts on them using the method of buffered crater counting to determine crater retention ages of the ridge populations. We examined the major characteristics of the ridge systems and found that the majority of them were consistent with an origin as eskers, sediment-filled subglacial drainage channels. Ridge morphologies reflect both distributed and channelized esker systems, and evidence is also seen that some ridges form looping moraine-like termini distal to some distributed systems. The ridge populations fall into two age groups: ridge systems between 270° and 0° E date to the Early Hesperian, but to the east, the Promethei Planum and the Chasmata ridge systems date to the Late Noachian. Thus, these ages, and esker and moraine-like morphologies, support the interpretation that the DAF is a remnant ice sheet deposit, and that the esker systems represent evidence of significant melting and drainage of meltwater from portions of this ice sheet, thus indicating at least some regions and/or periods of wet

  19. Evidence for sites of methylmercury formation in a flowing water system: Impact of anthropogenic barriers and water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Truckee River, California-Nevada, USA is impacted by mercury (Hg) contamination associated with legacy gold mining. In this work, we investigated the potential for hot-spots of methylmercury (MeHg) formation in the river. Mercury concentrations in multiple media were also used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic barriers, restoration, and water management in this flowing water ecosystem. Water samples were collected on a seasonal time step over 3 years, and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, along with a variety of other water quality parameters. In addition, we measured THg and MeHg in sediments, THg in macroinvertebrates, and THg and δ15N and δ13C concentrations in fish. Differences in stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in fish were applied to understand the mobility of fish in the river. Mercury concentrations of specific macroinvertebrate species were used to identify sites of MeHg production. In general, loads of Hg and nutrients in the river reach above the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area were similar to that reported for pristine systems, while within and below the city, water quality impacts were observed. Fish isotope data showed that in the city reach food resources were different than those upriver and downriver. Based on Hg and isotope data, mobility of the fish in the river is impacted by anthropogenic obstructions and water manipulation. Below the city, particle bound Hg, derived from the legacy mining, continues to be input to the Truckee River. This Hg is deposited in riparian habitats and areas of river restoration, where it is methylated and becomes available to biota. During spring, when flows were highest, MeHg produced and stored in the sediments is mobilized and transported downriver. Fish and macroinvertebrate concentrations increased downriver indicating passive uptake from water. The information presented here could be useful for those doing river restoration and water manipulation in mercury contaminated

  20. Evidence for sites of methylmercury formation in a flowing water system: Impact of anthropogenic barriers and water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro-Barraza, Claudia [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Peacock, Mary [Department of Biology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Miller, Matthieu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Truckee River, California-Nevada, USA is impacted by mercury (Hg) contamination associated with legacy gold mining. In this work, we investigated the potential for hot-spots of methylmercury (MeHg) formation in the river. Mercury concentrations in multiple media were also used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic barriers, restoration, and water management in this flowing water ecosystem. Water samples were collected on a seasonal time step over 3 years, and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, along with a variety of other water quality parameters. In addition, we measured THg and MeHg in sediments, THg in macroinvertebrates, and THg and δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C concentrations in fish. Differences in stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in fish were applied to understand the mobility of fish in the river. Mercury concentrations of specific macroinvertebrate species were used to identify sites of MeHg production. In general, loads of Hg and nutrients in the river reach above the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area were similar to that reported for pristine systems, while within and below the city, water quality impacts were observed. Fish isotope data showed that in the city reach food resources were different than those upriver and downriver. Based on Hg and isotope data, mobility of the fish in the river is impacted by anthropogenic obstructions and water manipulation. Below the city, particle bound Hg, derived from the legacy mining, continues to be input to the Truckee River. This Hg is deposited in riparian habitats and areas of river restoration, where it is methylated and becomes available to biota. During spring, when flows were highest, MeHg produced and stored in the sediments is mobilized and transported downriver. Fish and macroinvertebrate concentrations increased downriver indicating passive uptake from water. The information presented here could be useful for those doing river restoration and water manipulation in mercury

  1. Comparing causes of death between formal and informal neighborhoods in urban Africa: evidence from Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdramane Bassiahi Soura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The probable coexistence of two or more epidemiological profiles in urban Africa is poorly documented. In particular, very few studies have focused on the comparison of cause-specific mortality between two types of neighborhoods that characterize contemporary southern cities: formal neighborhoods, that is, structured or delineated settlements (planned estates that have full access to public utilities (electricity and water services, and the informal neighborhoods, that is, spontaneous and unplanned peri-urban settlements where people live in slum-like conditions, often with little or no access to public utilities. Objective: To compare the causes of death between the formal and informal neighborhoods covered by the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS. Design: The data used come from the INDEPTH pooled dataset which includes the contribution of Ouagadougou HDSS and are compiled for the INDEPTH Network Data repository. The data were collected between 2009 and 2011 using verbal autopsy (VA questionnaires completed by four fieldworkers well trained in the conduction of VAs. The VA data were then interpreted using the InterVA-4 program (version 4.02 to arrive at the causes of death. Results: Communicable diseases are the leading cause of death among children (aged between 29 days and 14 years in both formal and informal neighborhoods, contributing more than 75% to the mortality rate. Mortality rates from non-communicable diseases (NCDs are very low before age 15 but are the leading causes from age 50, especially in formal neighborhoods. Mortality from injuries is very low, with no significant difference between the two neighborhoods. Conclusions: The fact that mortality from NCDs is higher among adults in formal neighborhoods seems consistent with the idea of a correlation between modern life and epidemiological transition. However, NCDs do affect informal neighborhoods as well. They consist mainly of

  2. The hedgehog system in ovarian follicles of cattle selected for twin ovulations and births: evidence of a link between the IGF and hedgehog systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hedgehog system is involved in the regulation of ovarian function in drosophila, but its role in regulating ovarian follicular function in mammals is unclear. Therefore, gene expression of Indian hedgehog ligand (Ihh), its type 1 receptor (patched 1; Patch1), and IGF type 2 receptor (IGF2R) were...

  3. Social Inequality and the Reduction of Ideological Dissonance on Behalf of the System: Evidence of Enhanced System Justification among the Disadvantaged

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, John T.; Pelham, Brett W.; Sullivan, Bilian Ni; Sheldon, Oliver

    2001-01-01

    According to system justification theory, people are motivated to preserve the belief that existing social arrangements are fair, legitimate, and justifiable (Jost & Banaji, 1994). The strongest form of this hypothesis, which draws on the logic of cognitive dissonance theory, holds that people who are most disadvantaged by the status quo would have the greatest psychological need to reduce ideological dissonance and would therefore be most likely to support, defend, and justify existing socia...

  4. Ambulance officers' use of online clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrook Mary T; Westbrook Johanna I; Gosling A Sophie

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Hospital-based clinicians have been shown to use and attain benefits from online evidence systems. To our knowledge there have been no studies investigating whether and how ambulance officers use online evidence systems if provided. We surveyed ambulance officers to examine their knowledge and use of the Clinical Information Access Program (CIAP), an online evidence system providing 24-hour access to information to support evidence-based practice. Methods A questionnaire w...

  5. Isotopic evidence for the infiltration of mantle and metamorphic CO2-H2O fluids from below in faulted rocks from the San Andreas Fault System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pili, E.; Kennedy, B.M.; Conrad, M.E.; Gratier, J.-P.

    2010-12-15

    To characterize the origin of the fluids involved in the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system, we carried out an isotope study of exhumed faulted rocks from deformation zones, vein fillings and their hosts and the fluid inclusions associated with these materials. Samples were collected from segments along the SAF system selected to provide a depth profile from upper to lower crust. In all, 75 samples from various structures and lithologies from 13 localities were analyzed for noble gas, carbon, and oxygen isotope compositions. Fluid inclusions exhibit helium isotope ratios ({sup 3}He/{sup 4}He) of 0.1-2.5 times the ratio in air, indicating that past fluids percolating through the SAF system contained mantle helium contributions of at least 35%, similar to what has been measured in present-day ground waters associated with the fault (Kennedy et al., 1997). Calcite is the predominant vein mineral and is a common accessory mineral in deformation zones. A systematic variation of C- and O-isotope compositions of carbonates from veins, deformation zones and their hosts suggests percolation by external fluids of similar compositions and origin with the amount of fluid infiltration increasing from host rocks to vein to deformation zones. The isotopic trend observed for carbonates in veins and deformation zones follows that shown by carbonates in host limestones, marbles, and other host rocks, increasing with increasing contribution of deep metamorphic crustal volatiles. At each crustal level, the composition of the infiltrating fluids is thus buffered by deeper metamorphic sources. A negative correlation between calcite {delta}{sup 13}C and fluid inclusion {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He is consistent with a mantle origin for a fraction of the infiltrating CO{sub 2}. Noble gas and stable isotope systematics show consistent evidence for the involvement of mantle-derived fluids combined with infiltration of deep metamorphic H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} in faulting, supporting the involvement of

  6. GLIMPCE Seismic reflection evidence of deep-crustal and upper-mantle intrusions and magmatic underplating associated with the Midcontinent Rift system of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, J. C.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Lee, M.; Thornber, C. R.; Tréhu, A.; Cannon, W.; Green, A.

    1990-02-01

    Deep-crustal and Moho reflections, recorded on vertical incidence and wide angle ocean bottom Seismometer (OBS) data in the 1986 GLIMPCE (Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution) experiment, provide evidence for magmatic underplating and intrusions within the lower crust and upper mantle contemporaneous with crustal extension in the Midcontinent Rift system at 1100 Ma. The rift fill consists of 20-30 km (7-10 s) of basalt flows, secondary syn-rift volcaniclastic and post-basalt sedimentary rock. Moho reflections recorded in Lake Superior over the Midcontinent Rift system have times from 14-18 s (about 46 km to as great as 58 km) in contrast to times of about 11-13 s (about 36-42 km crustal thickness) beneath the surrounding Great Lakes. The Seismically complex deep-crust to mantle transition zone (30-60 km) in north-central Lake Superior, which is 100 km wider than the rift half-graben, reflects the complicated products of tectonic and magmatic interaction of lower-crustal and mantle components during evolution or shutdown of the aborted Midcontinent Rift. In effect, mantle was changed into crust by lowering Seismic velocity (through intrusion of lower density magmatic rocks) and increasing Moho (about 8.1 km s-1 depth.

  7. The what, when, and why of implementation frameworks for evidence-based practices in child welfare and child mental health service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Rochelle F; Self-Brown, Shannon; Rostad, Whitney L; Jackson, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that children in the child welfare system are particularly vulnerable to the adverse health and mental effects associated with exposure to abuse and neglect, making it imperative to have broad-based availability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) that can prevent child maltreatment and reduce the negative mental health outcomes for youth who are victims. A variety of EBPs exist for reducing child maltreatment risk and addressing the associated negative mental health outcomes, but the reach of these practices is limited. An emerging literature documents factors that can enhance or inhibit the success of EBP implementation in community service agencies, including how the selection of a theory-driven conceptual framework, or model, might facilitate implementation planning by providing guidance for best practices during implementation phases. However, limited research is available to guide decision makers in the selection of implementation frameworks that can boost implementation success for EBPs that focus on preventing child welfare recidivism and serving the mental health needs of maltreated youth. The aims of this conceptual paper are to (1) provide an overview of existing implementation frameworks, beginning with a discussion of definitional issues and the selection criteria for frameworks included in the review; and (2) offer recommendations for practice and policy as applicable for professionals and systems serving victims of child maltreatment and their families. PMID:26547360

  8. Evidence-based development and first usability testing of a social serious game based multi-modal system for early screening for atypical socio-cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyori, Miklos; Borsos, Zsófia; Stefanik, Krisztina

    2015-01-01

    At current, screening for, and diagnosis of, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are based on purely behavioral data; established screening tools rely on human observation and ratings of relevant behaviors. The research and development project in the focus of this paper is aimed at designing, creating and evaluating a social serious game based multi-modal, interactive software system for screening for high functioning cases of ASD at kindergarten age. The aims of this paper are (1) to summarize the evidence-based design process and (2) to present results from the first usability test of the system. Game topic, candidate responses, and candidate game contents were identified via an iterative literature review. On this basis, the 1st partial prototype of the fully playable game has been created, with complete data recording functionality but without the decision making component. A first usability test was carried out on this prototype (n=13). Overall results were unambiguously promising. Although sporadic difficulties in, and slightly negative attitudes towards, using the game occasionally arose, these were confined to non-target-group children only. The next steps of development include (1) completing the game design; (2) carrying out first large-n field test; (3) creating the first prototype of the decision making component. PMID:26294452

  9. New geochronology and evidence for magma mixing and comingling in the linked River Mountains-Wilson Ridge system, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honn, D. K.; Smith, E. I.; Simon, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    The application of micro-techniques (SIMS, LA-ICPMS, EPMA, CL and BSE imaging) provides evidence for magma mixing/comingling and supports the link between the coeval River Mountains (RM) volcanic suite and the Wilson Ridge pluton (WRP) of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Previously, the RM-WRP link was based on similar lithology, structure, geochronology, magnesio-riebeckite mineralization, and geochemistry (immobile trace elements, REE distributions, Sr and Nd isotopes). New evidence for this link includes high Ba concentrations (2.9 wt. %; EPMA) in feldspars from both the RM and WRP. Ba-rich feldspars are not present in nearby igneous systems. New U/Pb SIMS dates (± 1 sigma) for zircon bracket the lifetime of magmatic activity in the RM-WRP to between 14.11 ± 0.87 Ma and 12.19 ± 0.72 Ma. This magmatic timeframe is shorter than that previously determined by using U/Pb LA-ICP-MS dates for zircon of 17.0 ± 0.6 to 13.9 ± 0.6 Ma. The longer timeframe suggested by LA-ICPMS likely reflects the presence of xenocrysts and inherited cores in the sampled population. Evidence for magma mixing and comingling in the RM-WRP includes several populations of mafic enclaves with crenulate margins, comagmatic mafic dikes, and schlieren. Detailed thin section petrography and EPMA BSE imaging demonstrate the presence of dissolution surfaces, overgrowths, and resorbed cores in feldspars. CL images of zircons show dissolution surfaces and antecrystic cores. LA-ICP-MS dates of antecrystic cores were as much as 4.2 m.y. older than their rims. EPMA rim-core-rim traverses on zircon phenocrysts indicate order of magnitude changes in Y2O3 (0.05 to 0.6 wt. %) and ThO2 (0.01 to 0.14 wt. %) within single grains, suggesting new growth of zircon during magma mixing events. Ti-in-quartz thermometry is also being used to test the magma mixing hypothesis. The sum of field and analytical data support the conclusion that the RM and WRP represent a linked volcano-plutonic complex.

  10. Oblique Fault Systems Crossing the Seattle Basin: Seismic and Aeromagnetic Evidence for Additional Shallow Fault Systems in the Central Puget Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keranen, K. M.; Mace, C.

    2011-12-01

    Upper-plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. To extend the results of the previous work, we mapped fault networks and patterns of sediment deposition in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using a combination of existing multi-channel seismic reflection datasets with widely distributed profiles and aeromagnetic data. We identify a NE-SW zone of high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone (SFZ), offsetting aeromagnetic anomalies along the SFZ by 1.2 km in a dextral sense. Aeromagnetic lineations trace the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation within the Puget Sound and the Hood Canal. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. We also interpreted five regional seismic horizons, representing erosional unconformities, throughout our dataset, and created sediment thickness maps for each time interval. The thickness maps reveal changing patterns of sediment deposition through time, possibly controlled by changes in the regional pattern of deformation. Holocene sediment deposition shows strong control by the oblique fault systems. These oblique fault structures may be partially responsible for the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SYSTEM FIRST J102347.6+003841

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system FIRST J102347.6+003841 hosts a newly born millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J1023+0038 that was revealed as the first and only known rotation-powered MSP in a quiescent LMXB. While the system is shown to have an accretion disk before 2002, it remains unclear how the accretion disk has been removed in order to reveal the radio pulsation in 2007. In this Letter, we report the discovery of γ-rays spatially consistent with FIRST J102347.6+003841, at a significance of seven standard deviations, using data obtained by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The γ-ray spectrum can be described by a power law (PL) with a photon index of 2.9 ± 0.2, resulting in an energy flux above 200 MeV of (5.5 ± 0.9) x 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. The γ-rays likely originate from the MSP PSR J1023+0038, but also possibly from an intrabinary shock between the pulsar and its companion star. To complement the γ-ray study, we also re-investigate the XMM-Newton data taken in 2004 and 2008. Our X-ray spectral analysis suggests that a broken PL with two distinct photon indices describes the X-ray data significantly better than a single PL. This indicates that there exists two components and that both components appear to vary with the orbital phase. The evidence for γ-ray emission conforms with a recent suggestion that γ-rays from PSR J1023+0038 may be responsible for ejecting the disk material out of the system.

  12. Severe winter cooling during the Younger Dryas in northern Alaska - evidence from the stable isotope composition of a buried ice-wedge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Opel, Thomas; Wetterich, Sebastian; Hubberten, Hans-W.; Brown, Jerry

    2010-05-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) interval, from approximately 12.9 to 11.5 kyr cal BP, a rapid reversion to glacial climate conditions at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, has generally been attributed to the release of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet to the North Atlantic or Arctic oceans. The reaction of the North Pacific region to this "shutdown" of the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic during Younger Dryas is, however, little understood. The YD cold interval is of great interest for understanding rapid natural climate change, especially with regard to recent global warming scenarios. Various archives such as glacier ice, tree rings, lacustrine and marine sediments provide evidence for strong climate variability during the Late Glacial-Holocene transition. In our study, we investigated a relict, buried ice-wedge system within the continuous permafrost zone near Barrow, northern Alaska (71°18'N, 156°40'W). The Barrow ice-wedge system is buried under about three meters of Late Glacial/early Holocene ice-rich sediments. The ice wedges are accessible through a shaft which extends into an underground excavation, where a detailed description and sampling with an electrical chain saw were carried out. Permafrost is not only susceptible to recent climate change, it also may store evidence of these changes in ground ice, especially in ice wedges. Ice wedges can be assessed by stable water isotope methods similar to glacier ice climate reconstructions. Ice wedges are assumed to be indicative of winter climate conditions, because the seasonality of thermal contraction cracking and of the infill of frost cracks are generally related to winter and spring, respectively. In this paper, we present a winter climate record from ice wedges in permafrost of northern Alaska, a region, where paleoclimate records extending beyond the Late Glacial-Holocene transition are generally rather sparse, often restricted to lake sediments and rely mostly on summer indicators

  13. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  14. The Quaternary uplift history of central southern England: evidence from the terraces of the Solent River system and nearby raised beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Rob; Bridgland, David; White, Mark

    2006-09-01

    We have used fluvial (Solent River system) and marine terraces to reconstruct the uplift history of central southern England. In the case of the former, we make the assumption that fluvial incision has been a direct response to surface uplift, with its precise timing controlled by climatic forcing of fluvial activity, such that height of terrace gravel above modern river is a consequence of uplift since deposition. In the case of the marine sequence, we take the height of interglacial raised beaches above a calculated contemporaneous sea-level as a measure of uplift, the calculation involving an adjustment from modern sea-level using the deep oceanic oxygen isotope signal as an indication of global ice volume at the time of deposition. This exercise requires some degree of dating constraint, which is problematic for both environments. The Solent terraces have yielded little biostratigraphical evidence, whereas the south coast raised beaches have either been poorly exposed in recent years or their ages have been controversial because of disputes between biostratigraphy and geochronological data. We have supplemented the evidence available from these sources by using key aspects of the archaeological record as dating constraints, in particular the first appearances of Levallois technique (a marker for MIS 9-8) and of bout coupé handaxes (MIS 3). The first of these has been particularly useful in modelling of the Middle Pleistocene parts of the river terrace staircases of the Solent system. In undertaking this reappraisal, we have noted several inconsistencies and disagreements between past correlation schemes for the terraces of the Solent and its various tributaries. We find that versions involving shallower downstream gradients in the main Solent River are most likely to be correct and that revisions on this basis solve a number of problems in interpretation encountered previously. Our results show that most of this region has uplifted by ˜70 m since the late

  15. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Brien, Daniel B.; Massari, Aaron M., E-mail: massari@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  16. Evidence for a role of the reticulospinal system in recovery of skilled reaching after cortical stroke: initial results from a model of ischemic cortical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Wendy J; Powell, Kimerly; Buford, John A

    2015-11-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were to create a model of focal cortical ischemia in Macaca fascicularis and to explore contributions of the reticulospinal system in recovery of reaching. Endothelin-1 was used to create a focal lesion in the shoulder/elbow representation of left primary motor cortex (M1) of two adult female macaques. Repetitive microstimulation was used to map upper limb motor outputs from right and left cortical motor areas and from the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF). In subject 1 with a small lesion and spontaneous recovery, reaching was mildly impaired. Changes were evident in the shoulder/elbow representations of both the lesioned and contralesional M1, and there appeared to be fewer than expected upper limb responses from the left (ipsilesional) PMRF. In subject 2 with a substantial lesion, reaching was severely impaired immediately after the lesion. After 12 weeks of intensive rehabilitative training, reach performance recovered to near-baseline levels, but movement times remained about 50% slower. Surprisingly, the shoulder/elbow representation in the lesioned M1 remained completely absent after recovery, and there was a little change in the contralesional M1. There was a definite difference in motor output patterns for left versus right PMRF for this subject, with an increase in right arm responses from right PMRF and a paucity of left arm responses from left PMRF. The results are consistent with increased reliance on PMRF motor outputs for recovery of voluntary upper limb motor control after significant cortical ischemic injury. PMID:26231990

  17. High hydrogen loading of thin palladium wires through alkaline earth carbonates' precipitation on the cathodic surface - evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity. Mainly for this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanically deposed on the cathodic surface, in order to prevent any H deloading during the measurements. The results have been fully reproduced in other 2 well equipped and experienced Laboratories (Italy, USA)

  18. Morphological plasticity in a calcifying modular organism: evidence from an in situ transplant experiment in a natural CO2 vent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Chiara; Cocito, Silvia; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Taylor, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding is currently limited of the biological processes underlying the responses of modular organisms to climate change and the potential to adapt through morphological plasticity related to their modularity. Here, we investigate the effects of ocean acidification and seawater warming on the growth, life history and morphological plasticity in the modular bryozoan Calpensia nobilis using transplantation experiments in a shallow Mediterranean volcanic CO2 vents system that simulates pH values expected for the year 2100. Colonies exposed at vent sites grew at approximately half the rate of those from the control site. Between days 34 and 48 of the experiment, they reached a possible ‘threshold’, due to the combined effects of exposure time and pH. Temperature did not affect zooid length, but longer zooids with wider primary orifices occurred in low pH conditions close to the vents. Growth models describing colony development under different environmental scenarios suggest that stressed colonies of C. nobilis reallocate metabolic energy to the consolidation and strengthening of existing zooids. This is interpreted as a change in life-history strategy to support persistence under unfavourable environmental conditions. Changes in the skeletal morphology of zooids evident in C. nobilis during short-time (87 days) exposure experiments reveal morphological plasticity that may indicate a potential to adapt to the more acidic Mediterranean predicted for the future. PMID:26064601

  19. Evidence for a role of the oxytocin system, indexed by genetic variation in CD38, in the social bonding effects of expressed gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoe, Sara B; Way, Baldwin M

    2014-12-01

    Oxytocin is thought to play a central role in promoting close social bonds via influence on social interactions. The current investigation targeted interactions involving expressed gratitude between members of romantic relationships because recent evidence suggests gratitude and its expression provides behavioral and psychological 'glue' to bind individuals closer together. Specifically, we took a genetic approach to test the hypothesis that social interactions involving expressed gratitude would be associated with variation in a gene, CD38, which has been shown to affect oxytocin secretion. A polymorphism (rs6449182) that affects CD38 expression was significantly associated with global relationship satisfaction, perceived partner responsiveness and positive emotions (particularly love) after lab-based interactions, observed behavioral expression of gratitude toward a romantic partner in the lab, and frequency of expressed gratitude in daily life. A separate polymorphism in CD38 (rs3796863) previously associated with plasma oxytocin levels and social engagement was also associated with perceived responsiveness in the benefactor after an expression of gratitude. The combined influence of the two polymorphisms was associated with a broad range of gratitude-related behaviors and feelings. The consistent pattern of findings suggests that the oxytocin system is associated with solidifying the glue that binds adults into meaningful and important relationships. PMID:24396004

  20. Bayesian integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization potency assessment: a decision support system for quantitative weight of evidence and adaptive testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna S; Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy; Strickland, Judy; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The presented Bayesian network Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS-3) for skin sensitization potency assessment is a decision support system for a risk assessor that provides quantitative weight of evidence, leading to a mechanistically interpretable potency hypothesis, and formulates adaptive testing strategy for a chemical. The system was constructed with an aim to improve precision and accuracy for predicting LLNA potency beyond ITS-2 (Jaworska et al., J Appl Toxicol 33(11):1353-1364, 2013) by improving representation of chemistry and biology. Among novel elements are corrections for bioavailability both in vivo and in vitro as well as consideration of the individual assays' applicability domains in the prediction process. In ITS-3 structure, three validated alternative assays, DPRA, KeratinoSens and h-CLAT, represent first three key events of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization. The skin sensitization potency prediction is provided as a probability distribution over four potency classes. The probability distribution is converted to Bayes factors to: 1) remove prediction bias introduced by the training set potency distribution and 2) express uncertainty in a quantitative manner, allowing transparent and consistent criteria to accept a prediction. The novel ITS-3 database includes 207 chemicals with a full set of in vivo and in vitro data. The accuracy for predicting LLNA outcomes on the external test set (n = 60) was as follows: hazard (two classes)-100 %, GHS potency classification (three classes)-96 %, potency (four classes)-89 %. This work demonstrates that skin sensitization potency prediction based on data from three key events, and often less, is possible, reliable over broad chemical classes and ready for practical applications. PMID:26612363

  1. High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Barcellos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene(s on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99 x 10(-16. The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53 x 10(-12, *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002, and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032. The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80 x 10(-13. Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE-associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006, CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01, and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004. Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006 also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.

  2. FT-IR Spectroscopic Evidence Of Phase Transition For NaA-ROH-Kerosine-H2O Microemulsion System Containing Nd3+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Xu, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Nai; Wu, Jin-Guang; Xu, Guang-Xian

    1989-12-01

    In the previous investigation, the saponification of naphthenic acid extractant system has been proved to be a process of the formation of a microemulsion of 14/0 type, and its full extraction of rare earths is a process of destruction of the W/O microemulsion[1]. When NdCl3 is partially extracted with NaA (sodium naphthenate) secoctylalcohol-- kerosine-- water microemulsion system (ME), both the NdA3 and the NaA co-exist in the same organic phase. However,the formation mechanism of microemulsion containing neodymium has not been much studied. In this paper, 10 aliquots of fully saponificated extractants were equilibrated with various amounts of NdC13 solutions respectively, then ten organic phases with different extraction efficiencies of neodymium from 094 to 9094 were obtained. After extraction,the volume of neodymium containing organic phase increased by 5 to 4594, because of the transfer of water molecules. The appearance of these organic phase still remained clear and transparent. The average hydrodynamic radius of the drops were found to be 100-300 Angstrom by using light scattering techniques. The results give a direct evidence of the microemulsion formation in the organic phase. Their FT-IR spectra were measured with CaFa liquid cells utilizing a Nicolet 7199B FT-IR spectrometer. The presence of various amounts of water in the organic phases was clearly detected from the relative intensity changes of 1644 cm-I, which is assigned to the bending mode of 1110 molecules. Fig.1 shows the change of water contents to the percent extraction of neodymium. Comparsion with the FT-IR spectra, it is seen that the 1560 cm-1 peak of the full saponificated extractant is attributed to the asym. stretching vibration of COO''' group, it shifted to 1536 for 100% extration of Nd ions, indicating the formation of neodymium naphthenate (NdA ) from ionic sodium naphthenate. The sym. strethching vibration of COO''' located at 1406 cm-1, it shifted to 1408 cm in 45% Nd extration

  3. To what extent have relaxed eligibility requirements and increased generosity of disability benefits acted as disincentives for employment? A systematic review of evidence from countries with well-developed welfare systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barr, Ben; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret;

    2010-01-01

    Reductions in the eligibility requirements and generosity of disability benefits have been introduced in several Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in recent years, on the assumption that this will increase work incentives for people with chronic illness and...... disabilities. This paper systematically reviews the evidence for this assumption in the context of well-developed welfare systems....

  4. From Augustine of Hippo’s Memory Systems to Our Modern Taxonomy in Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience of Memory: A 16-Century Nap of Intuition before Light of Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Cassel; Lilianne Manning; Daniel Cassel

    2012-01-01

    Over the last half century, neuropsychologists, cognitive psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists interested in human memory have accumulated evidence showing that there is not one general memory function but a variety of memory systems deserving distinct (but for an organism, complementary) functional entities. The first attempts to organize memory systems within a taxonomic construct are often traced back to the French philosopher Maine de Biran (1766–1824), who, in his book f...

  5. Using decision-analytic modelling to transfer international evidence from health technology assessment to the context of the German health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebert, Uwe

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA methods report was to examine and to assess decision analysis (DA as a method to transfer and adapt international scientific evidence in HTA to the German health care context. Furthermore, we sought to develop a systematic framework to facilitate the selection, transfer, adaptation, and synthesis of these data in German HTA projects. In this report, we review and summarise the concepts and methods of DA; present potential areas of applications, and provide a basis for the critical assessment of decision-analytic studies. The two main methods of DA, decision trees and Markov models, as well as various approaches to sensitivity analyses are described. Examples of typical situations for the use of DA in scientific evidence transfer are described, and a list of main health care domains and parameters in evidence transfer is presented. Finally, we developed a framework to transfer and apply international evidence to the national health care context. The strengths and limitations of the decision-analytic approach are critically examined. In summary, this HTA report describes different situations, in which decision-analytic models can be useful, and demonstrates the utility of DA in transferring and applying international evidence to the national health care context. We developed a systematic instrument to transfer international evidence to the context of other countries and successfully applied this instrument in two German HTA projects. The use of this instrument is recommended in further HTA projects dealing with the application of international evidence to the German health care context. The use of decision-analytic models to transfer international evidence is endorsed. However, the limitations of DA should be clearly stated discussed transparently in all HTA reports.

  6. 我国实行刑事证据开示制度的可行性探析%A Feasibility Study of Criminal Evidence Discovery System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杰

    2014-01-01

    证据开示制度是刑事司法中实现控辩双方平等对抗的重要保障。英美等国家的证据开示制度已相当完善,但我国对刑事证据开示制度的研究尚显滞后。近年来,要求在我国确立刑事证据开示制度的呼声变得越来越强烈,对此,许多省份在司法实践中都进行了相应探索和实践,为证据开示制度的建立奠定了基础。我国现有的良好立法基础、实践中积累的丰富经验、对国外成果的借鉴,可以确保我们能够建立具有中国特色的社会主义刑事证据开示制度。探析刑事证据开示制度在我国实行的可行性问题,不仅符合刑事司法改革的趋势和要求,而且有利于建立平等的诉讼对抗模式,平衡控辩双方的诉讼地位。%Evidence discovery is an important way to achieve equality for prosecutors and defendants in criminal jus-tice. Some countries such as the UK and the US have established a fully developed evidence discovery system,but studies on criminal evidence discovery system in China lags behind them. In recent years,appeals for establishing criminal evidence discovery system in China have become increasingly urgent. Many provinces have made explora-tion in practice,wihch has laid a foundation for the establishment of the system. China is to establish socialist crimi-nal evidence discovery with Chinese characteristics as it has a good legislation foundation and rich experiences in practice ,and it can learn from foreign evidence discovery systems. Feasibility studies of criminal evidence discovery system in China not only meets requirements of criminal justice reform,but also is conducive to the realization of e-quality of confrontation between the prosecutor and the defendant in criminal justice.

  7. 8 CFR 315.3 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 315.3 Section 315.3 Aliens and...: EXEMPTION FROM MILITARY SERVICE § 315.3 Evidence. (a) The records of the Selective Service System and the military department under which the alien served shall be conclusive evidence of whether the alien...

  8. 5 CFR 842.905 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 842.905 Section 842.905... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Nuclear Materials Couriers § 842.905 Evidence. (a) The Secretary... official position description and any other evidence deemed appropriate by the agency head for making...

  9. Analysis of Reinforcement of Civil Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Corroborative evidence is the basis for ascertaining and corroboration rules are proof the rules, plays a corroborative proof function and limiting the discretion of judges. Full study of corroborative evidence in civil procedure rules to use, helps to perfect evidence rules of civil procedure and civil systems.

  10. Geomorphic evidence of active tectonics in the San Gorgonio Pass region of the San Andreas Fault system: an example of discovery-based research in undergraduate teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.; Yule, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Student-conducted research in courses during the first two undergraduate years can increase learning and improve student self-confidence in scientific study, and is recommended for engaging and retaining students in STEM fields (PCAST, 2012). At Pomona College, incorporating student research throughout the geology curriculum tripled the number of students conducting research prior to their senior year that culminated in a professional conference presentation (Reinen et al., 2006). Here we present an example of discovery-based research in Neotectonics, a second-tier course predominantly enrolling first-and second-year students; describe the steps involved in the four week project; and discuss early outcomes of student confidence, engagement and retention. In the San Gorgonio Pass region (SGPR) in southern California, the San Andreas fault undergoes a transition from predominantly strike-slip to a complex system of faults with significant dip-slip, resulting in diffuse deformation and raising the question of whether a large earthquake on the San Andreas could propagate through the region (Yule, 2009). In spring 2014, seven students in the Neotectonics course conducted original research investigating quantifiable geomorphic evidence of tectonic activity in the SGPR. Students addressed questions of [1] unequal uplift in the San Bernardino Mountains, [2] fault activity indicated by stream knick points, [3] the role of fault style on mountain front sinuosity, and [4] characteristic earthquake slip determined via fault scarp degradation models. Students developed and revised individual projects, collaborated with each other on methods, and presented results in a public forum. A final class day was spent reviewing the projects and planning future research directions. Pre- and post-course surveys show increases in students' self-confidence in the design, implementation, and presentation of original scientific inquiries. 5 of 6 eligible students participated in research the

  11. Health inequalities among older men and women in Africa and Asia: evidence from eight Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawi Ng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Declining rates of fertility and mortality are driving demographic transition in all regions of the world, leading to global population ageing and consequently changing patterns of global morbidity and mortality. Understanding sex-related health differences, recognising groups at risk of poor health and identifying determinants of poor health are therefore very important for both improving health trajectories and planning for the health needs of ageing populations. Objectives: To determine the extent to which demographic and socio-economic factors impact upon measures of health in older populations in Africa and Asia; to examine sex differences in health and further explain how these differences can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic determinants. Methods : A total of 46,269 individuals aged 50 years and over in eight Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites within the INDEPTH Network were studied during 2006–2007 using an abbreviated version of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave I instrument. The survey data were then linked to longitudinal HDSS background information. A health score was calculated based on self-reported health derived from eight health domains. Multivariable regression and post-regression decomposition provide ways of measuring and explaining the health score gap between men and women. Results: Older men have better self-reported health than older women. Differences in household socio-economic levels, age, education levels, marital status and living arrangements explained from about 82% and 71% of the gaps in health score observed between men and women in South Africa and Kenya, respectively, to almost nothing in Bangladesh. Different health domains contributed differently to the overall health scores for men and women in each country. Conclusion: This study confirmed the existence of sex differences in self-reported health in low- and middle-income countries

  12. Are mangroves in arid environments isolated systems? Life-history and evidence of dietary contribution from inwelling in a mangrove-resident shrimp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maslamani, I.; Walton, M. E. M.; Kennedy, H. A.; Al-Mohannadi, M.; Le Vay, L.

    2013-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents one of the more northerly extremes of mangrove distribution in the Indo-Pacific, and is populated only by Avicennia marina, due to its tolerance of high salinity and wide temperature extremes. Recent studies suggest that in the arid coastal environment of the western Arabian Gulf, export of carbon and nitrogen from mangroves to adjacent habitats may be limited, though it is not clear if this is due to low productivity or physical factors such as the lack of freshwater flow and the tidal regime. Although seagrass and macroalgal habitats are relatively much more dominant by area, with only small pockets of mangrove around the edges of embayments, it is not evident if inwelling from these habitats support mangrove fauna. Year-round sampling in mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar, indicates that Palaemon khori, an endemic shrimp species, is strongly associated with mangroves throughout its post-settlement life cycle, from recruitment as small 9-10 mm juveniles through to mating and egg production. Rapid post-recruitment growth (k = 1.8, L∞ = 42 mm for females, k = 1.5, L∞ = 35 mm for male) means that most individuals reached adult size in the first few months after settlement, with reproduction occurring in the following spring. As might be expected from year-round residence in the mangrove, dual 13C and 15N isotope analysis indicated a strong contribution of mangroves to shrimp tissue growth (Mean and 95% confidence range, 37% and 27-48%), but with a weaker significant contribution from particulate organic matter (20% and 1-37%), mangrove epiphytes (16% and 2-33%) and seagrasses (9% and 0.2-18%). Other primary producers contribute the remaining 18% to shrimp nutrition but the 95% confidence ranges include zero, suggesting possibly non-significant roles in supporting the shrimp population. This dietary information supports the view that fauna resident within arid mangrove systems are mainly dependent on localised retention and cycling of

  13. Evidence for a role of the oxytocin system, indexed by genetic variation in CD38, in the social bonding effects of expressed gratitude

    OpenAIRE

    Algoe, Sara B.; Way, Baldwin M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is thought to play a central role in promoting close social bonds via influence on social interactions. The current investigation targeted interactions involving expressed gratitude between members of romantic relationships because recent evidence suggests gratitude and its expression provides behavioral and psychological ‘glue’ to bind individuals closer together. Specifically, we took a genetic approach to test the hypothesis that social interactions involving expressed gratitude w...

  14. Evidence-Based IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based IT development aims at developing a new commercial contract model for IT projects where the cus-tomers payment is dependent on measurable effects of using the vendors system. The idea is to establish a strategic part-nership in which customer and IT vendor share the responsi-bility...

  15. Multiple sclerosis: evidence and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela María Gutiérrez-Álvarez

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis is a chronicrecurrent inflammatory disorder of the centralnervous system. The pharmacological treatmentof multiple sclerosis has been evaluated withmultiple controlled clinical trials that allow theclinician to count with evidence based informationto decide the more indicated treatmentfor each patient.Methodology: A review of the scientific literaturewas conducted to clarify controversialissues in a clinical relevant topic.Development: The diagnostic criteria ...

  16. Evidence that the Agr-like Quorum Sensing System Regulates the Toxin Production, Cytotoxicity and Pathogenicity of Clostridium perfringens Type C Isolate CN3685

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Jorge E.; Ma, Menglin; Saputo, Julian; Garcia, Jorge; Uzal, Francisco A.; McClane, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    C. perfringens possesses at least two functional quorum sensing (QS) systems, i.e., an Agr-like system and a LuxS-dependent AI-2 system. Both of those QS systems can reportedly control in vitro toxin production by C. perfringens but their importance for virulence has not been evaluated. Therefore, the current study assessed whether these QS systems might regulate the pathogenicity of CN3685, a C. perfringens type C strain. Since type C isolates cause both hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis and fa...

  17. Treatment Efficacy of Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) With and Without Consultation: The Role of Model Training in the Sustainability of Evidence-Based Family Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mo Yee; Hsu, Kai-Shyang; Liu, Chang; Greene, Gilbert J; Fraser, J Scott; Grove, David; Solovey, Andy; Edwards, Shivani G; Scott, Pam

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of the Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) training model that seeks to support development of model expertise within the agency in the context of facilitating the sustainability of evidence-based family treatment within community mental health settings. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine treatment outcomes of I-FAST among agencies that received ongoing Consultation and agencies that received No Consultation upon completion of I-FAST training. χ (2) analyses and independent samples t test analyses showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on clients who had achieved reliable change on Problem Severity and Functioning based on parents' assessments. Significance of this study is discussed in the context of the role of evidence-based family therapy (EBFT) training in facilitating its sustainability in community mental health settings. PMID:25813342

  18. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge. PMID:24066636

  19. Evidence and Lessons Learned from Long-Term On-Farm Research on Conservation Agriculture Systems in Communities in Malawi and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Thierfelder; William Trent Bunderson; Walter Mupangwa

    2015-01-01

    A long-term study was carried out in the Zidyana Extension Planning Area (EPA), Malawi and in the Zimuto Communal Area, Zimbabwe, to evaluate the effect of different conservation agriculture (CA) systems on crop productivity, soil quality and economic performance. Maize productivity results from Zidyana showed that CA systems out-yielded the conventional system in seven out of nine cropping seasons. Labour savings relative to the conventional control ranged from 34–42 labour days ha−1 due to ...

  20. On the Assessment Standardization for TCM Clinical Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yingying; Yang Jinsheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Nowadays,the evidence-based medicine has been widely used for assessment of TCM.The assessment based on clinical evidence and the quality is the core of evidence-based medicine.However,the evidencerating methods adopted in the modern medical system are only applicable in a certain degree to the assessment of TCM clinicaI evidence.

  1. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established. This...... article analyses how the idea is practised in the areas of health, social welfare and education and shows that evidence-producing organizations work differently. Some subscribe to the hierarchy of evidence, others to a typology of evidence. The consequences of these variations are discussed....

  2. How Would Programs Rate under California's Proposed Quality Rating and Improvement System? Evidence from Statewide and County Data on Early Care and Education Program Quality. Documented Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Zellman, Gail L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the California Early Learning Quality Improvement System (CAEL QIS) Advisory Committee recommended a structure for a voluntary quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) that could apply to the state's 11,000 licensed centers and 36,600 licensed family child care homes (FCCHs). The proposed design consisted of an unweighted block system…

  3. Evidence of Hydrogeological Connection between the Mountain and Plio-Plistocene Aquifer Systems, Using Pharmaceutical Residual- case study Jericho area/Lower Jordan Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Amer; Schmidt, Natali; Tiehm, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Jericho Oases (-258 m b.s.l) is known through the history for its fertile soil, date trees, and sweet fruits. Groundwater is the only water sources for domestic and agricultural activities, where about 8 MCM/a discharge form three major springs groups, in addition to 20 MCM are taped from 45 shallow boreholes (10-180 m) in the Plio-Plistocene aquifer system. The current and future availability of groundwater of the shallow Plio-Plistocene aquifer system is the key factor for the economical development of agricultural sector, where during the last 10 years around 50 million USD are invested in this sector. Green houses agriculture, and date trees farming become the major groundwater consumers. From the hydrological point view, the study area is part of the eastern Wadi Al Quilt drainage system, where recharge take place along the mountain range in the western part of the catchment area. The shallow aquifer system consists of gravel; sand and silt inter fingering with clay layers. Chalk and chalky limestone formation of Senonian age separate the shallow aquifer from Mountain aquifer which consists of limestone, and dolomite. Both aquifer systems are part from the Eastern Basin where groundwater flows towards the Jordan River-Dead Sea basin. Direct recharge from rainfall to the shallow aquifer system is neglected due to the high evaporation rates, and only about 1 MCM/a of flooding water infiltrate into this aquifer. The hypotheses of this study is an indirect groundwater replenishment take places in certain sites along the N-S-major fault system, and groundwater flow through passages into the Plio-Plistocene aquifer systems. We tried to use pharmaceutical residuals to trace groundwater flow regimes in the Mountain and Plio-Plistocene aquifer system. Twenty eight water samples were collected during the hydrological year 2011 (in March and July) from 19 sampling sites (springs and boreholes). Few samples were collected from Al Bereh waste water treatment plant as well

  4. Do financial incentives for supplementary private health insurance reduce pressure on the public system? Evidence from Australia, CHERE Working Paper 2006/11

    OpenAIRE

    Mingshan Lu; Elizabeth Savage

    2006-01-01

    In many developed countries, budgetary pressures have made government investigate private insurance to reduce pressure on their public health system. Between 1997 and 2000 the Australian government implemented a series of reforms intended to increase enrollment in private health insurance and reduce public health care costs. Using the ABS 2001 National Health Survey, we examine the impact of increased insurance coverage on use of the hospital system, in particular on public and private admiss...

  5. Evidence-based health care in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    This article examines current trends in the type and quality of systematic reviews underpinning the evidence base for pediatric health care. A case study is used to highlight the quality standards for the conduct and publication of systematic reviews and the processes being used to transition the evidence produced from systematic reviews into the everyday systems and processes of care. PMID:25458134

  6. Fluid flow rate, temperature and heat flux at Mohns Ridge vent fields: evidence from isosampler measurements for phase separated hydrothermal circulation along the arctic ridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Pedersen, R. B.; Thorseth, I. H.; Taylor, P.; Flynn, M.

    2005-12-01

    An expedition to the Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland sea was carried out in July-August 2005 as part of BIODEEP, lead by University of Bergen (UoB). UoB had previously detected water column methane along this very slow spreading ridge. Previous ROV observations along the ridge (71 deg 18'N, 5 deg 47'W, 605 mbsl) near Jan Mayen had uncovered a broad area of ferric hydroxide-rich bacterial/mineral assemblages, comprising large populations of gallionella bacteria. This area was revisted in 2005. Characteristic of sections of this area ("Gallionella Garden") are chimney-like structures standing ~15 cm tall, often topped by a sea lily (heliometra glacialis). The interior of the structures comprised quasi-concentric bands with vertically-oriented channels. The Oregon State University/Cardiff University Isosampler sensor determined that some of these assemblages support fluid flow through their interior. The outflow from the chimney structures was typically +0.5 deg C, against background temperatures of -0.3 deg C. Flow anomalies were also identified atop extensive bacterial mats. Gallionella Gardens is several km in extent with active, albeit extremely low temperature hydrothermal flow. A field of active high temperature smoker chimney structures was located near Gallionella Garden at 540 mbsl. This field extends ~500 m along a scarp wall, with hydrothermal mounds extending along faults running perpendicular to the scarp, each of which has multiple smoker vents and areas of diffuse flow. There was evidence for phase separation, with a negatively buoyant fluid phase exiting some vent orifices and descending along the vent wall; and evidence for gas phase condensing after leaving some vent orifices. Gas bubble emissions were not uncommon. Isosampler sensors were available that were configured for lower temperature measurements at Gallionella Garden. While capable of detecting variations in effluent at the 4 millidegree level, the temperature ceiling for the sensor

  7. 刑事诉讼证据开示制度与阅卷制度比较研究——兼谈我国阅卷制度的构建%A Comparative Study on Evidence-Discovering System in Criminal Suit Proof and Reviewing Case Files System——Construction of Reviewing Case Files System in our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬雪华

    2009-01-01

    在两大法系国家,虽然存在具体制度设计上的差异,但都设立相应的制度来保障控辩双方的证据知情权.在当事人主义刑事诉讼中采用证据开示制度来实现控辩双方的证据知悉权,而在职权主义诉讼中则存在广泛的阅卷制度.我国新吸收了当事人主义诉讼模式的合理因素,强化了控辩双方庭审过程中的对抗性,然而在我国未完全建立起当事人主义的情况下,不能建立证据开示制度,而是应借鉴当事人主义证据开示制度的合理成分,建立并完善阅卷制度来保障控辩双方的证据知悉权.%In the main countries of two fundamental system of law, the concrete system design exist difference, but they all sets up the corresponding system to ensure the evidence rights to know of prosecution and defense. The evidence-discovering system is adopted to realize the evidence right to know of prosecution and defense in the party-domination criminal procedure, but it is existing wide reviewing case files system in the inquisitorial system criminal procedure. The new Criminal Procedure Law of our country has adopted the reasonable factors of the party-domination criminal procedure pattern, and strengthened antagonism prosecution and defense court hearing process. However, under the situation that our country has not built up the party-domination, we should use some rational elements of the party-domination evidence-discovering system instead of being unable to build evidence-discovering system, and build and perfect the reviewing case files system to ensure evidence right to know of the prosecution and defense.

  8. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure attenuates airway immune inflammatory responses to surrogate and common environmental allergens in mice, despite evidence of increased systemic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Clinton S; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Fattouh, Ramzi; Dawe, David E; Vujicic, Neda; Richards, Carl D; Jordana, Manel; Inman, Mark D; Stampfli, Martin R

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of mainstream cigarette smoke exposure (MTS) on allergic sensitization and the development of allergic inflammatory processes. Using two different experimental murine models of allergic airways inflammation, we present evidence that MTS increased cytokine production by splenocytes in response to OVA and ragweed challenge. Paradoxically, MTS exposure resulted in an overall attenuation of the immune inflammatory response, including a dramatic reduction in the number of eosinophils and activated (CD69+) and Th2-associated (T1ST2+) CD4 T lymphocytes in the lung. Although MTS did not impact circulating levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, we observed a striking reduction in OVA-specific IgG2a production and significantly diminished airway hyperresponsiveness. MTS, therefore, plays a disparate role in the development of allergic responses, inducing a heightened state of allergen-specific sensitization, but dampening local immune inflammatory processes in the lung. PMID:16116169

  9. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. PMID:21751999

  10. A discounting approach to evidence conflict management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-zhou; Shi, Wen-kang; Deng, Yong

    2005-11-01

    By combining several belief functions from distinct information sources, data fusion aims at obtaining a single Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) function. The classical Dempster's combining rule is the most popular rule of combinations, but it is a poor solution for the management of the evidence conflict at the normalization step. When deal with high conflict information it can even involve counter-intuitive results. A discount method to combine conflicting evidence based on evidence distance is presented; and the discount coefficient of the evidence in the system is also given. Numerical examples showed that the proposed method can provide reasonable results with good convergence efficiency.

  11. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  12. Filling in the Implementation Gap? Problems in the Greek Educational System--An Evidence-Based Explanatory Framework and Critical Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyridis, Argyris; Fotopoulos, Nikos; Chronopoulou, Ageliki; Papadakis, Nikos; Zagkos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The Greek educational system during last 50 years recounts among numerous reformations and counterreformations. All the continuous changes seem not to be characterized by a clearly defined operational aim and rational continuity. Currently, educators, pupils, university students, parents, politicians and citizens criticize various structural and…

  13. Product-Service System Design Approach for the Base of the Pyramid Markets: Practical Evidence from the Energy Sector in the Brazilian Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Costa Junior, J.; Diehl, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In Emerging Markets, the product-service system (PSS) design approach may represent a promising solution as a socially and environmentally sound path to economic development. In addition, the energy sector has a major role for the social-economic development and is central to poverty alleviation. Th

  14. Evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like activity of methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekaran Girish

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect produced by Bacopa monnieri may be mediated through an interaction with the serotonergic and noradrenergic nervous system. The antidepressant doses of Bacopa monnieri had no effect on the locomotor activity of mice. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 914-922

  15. Evidence in the learning organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umscheid Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM, but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem. Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO, to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice

  16. From Augustine of Hippo’s Memory Systems to Our Modern Taxonomy in Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience of Memory: A 16-Century Nap of Intuition before Light of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Cassel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half century, neuropsychologists, cognitive psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists interested in human memory have accumulated evidence showing that there is not one general memory function but a variety of memory systems deserving distinct (but for an organism, complementary functional entities. The first attempts to organize memory systems within a taxonomic construct are often traced back to the French philosopher Maine de Biran (1766–1824, who, in his book first published in 1803, distinguished mechanical memory, sensitive memory and representative memory, without, however, providing any experimental evidence in support of his view. It turns out, however, that what might be regarded as the first elaborated taxonomic proposal is 14 centuries older and is due to Augustine of Hippo (354–430, also named St Augustine, who, in Book 10 of his Confessions, by means of an introspective process that did not aim at organizing memory systems, nevertheless distinguished and commented on sensible memory, intellectual memory, memory of memories, memory of feelings and passion, and memory of forgetting. These memories were envisaged as different and complementary instances. In the current study, after a short biographical synopsis of St Augustine, we provide an outline of the philosopher’s contribution, both in terms of questions and answers, and focus on how this contribution almost perfectly fits with several viewpoints of modern psychology and neuroscience of memory about human memory functions, including the notion that episodic autobiographical memory stores events of our personal history in their what, where and when dimensions, and from there enables our mental time travel. It is not at all meant that St Augustine’s elaboration was the basis for the modern taxonomy, but just that the similarity is striking, and that the architecture of our current viewpoints about memory systems might have preexisted as an outstanding

  17. The Impact of Integrated Practices of Lean, Green, and Social Management Systems on Firm Sustainability Performance—Evidence from Chinese Fashion Auto-Parts Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To better satisfy various stakeholders, firms are seeking integrated practices that can enhance their sustainability performance, also well known as the Triple Bottom Line (3BL. The fashion industry exhibits potential conflicts with the spirit of sustainability because of the waste created by high levels of demand uncertainty and the extant usage of resources in production. Literature suggests that selected stand-alone practices of lean, green, and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR management systems have a positive impact on firm sustainability performance. However, how the combination of selected practices from these three management systems impacts the 3BL remains unclear. Based on case studies, we build an integrated sustainable practices model incorporating the most popular lean, green, and social practices and develop propositions for future tests. Our framework suggests the implementation of integrated practices would have a stronger influence on 3BL performance than individual practice implementation.

  18. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaar Maia; Lilje Liisa; Ilves Heili; Putrinš Marta; Hõrak Rita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. Results By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of pheno...

  19. Budgeting and ERP Control Systems in Third Level Educational Institutions: Some Evidence from the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    'A budget is not simply one facet of a plan, nor is it merely an expression of organisational policy: it is also a control mechanism' (Meredith and Mantel, 1995). Following an extensive literature review on budgeting within Corporations and Third Level Educational Institutions a mail survey questionnaire on the subject of budgeting and ERP control systems was sent to a selection of universities and third level institutions in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. The compar...

  20. Do management accounting systems influence organizational change or vice-versa? Evidence from a case of constructive research in the Healthcare Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lino Cinquini; Cristina Campanale; Andrea Tenucci

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to analyze the process of change of management accounting system (MAS) as a consequence of changes in the complexity of organizational structure in healthcare. It analyzes the process of change of MAS according with the theoretical frameworks of Habermas (1987) and Laughlin (1991).In this organizational changes are seen as the consequence of the interaction between tangible and intangible elements of the organization and between the organization and the external environment. Th...

  1. The Proto-Indo-European case system and its reflexes in a diachronic typological perspective: Evidence for the linguistic prehistory of Eurasia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, L.I.

    2012-01-01

    The paper outlines a diachronic typology of changes in case systems within the Indo-European linguistic family. This study is written in the genre of identification and definition of problem: I will not attempt to offer an exhaustive treatment of the subject. Rather, I would like to draw attention to the importance of extensive research in this field in a diachronic typological perspective, which, in my opinion, may shed light on reconstruction of the linguistic prehistory of Eurasia. First, ...

  2. Evidence That p-Cresol and IL-6 Are Adsorbed by the HFR Cartridge: Towards a New Strategy to Decrease Systemic Inflammation in Dialyzed Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Riccio; Mauro Cataldi; Maristella Minco; Gennaro Argentino; Roberta Russo; Stefania Brancaccio; Andrea Memoli; Lucia Grumetto; Loredana Postiglione; Bruna Guida; Bruno Memoli

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) and hemodiafiltration clear only with a low efficiency the plasma from interleukin-6 and p-cresol, two protein-bound uremic toxins associated with high cardiovascular risk in end stage renal disease. HFR Supra is a double-chamber hemodiafiltration system in which the ultrafiltrate returns to the patient after its regeneration through a resin cartridge that binds hydrophobic and protein-bound solutes. In the present study, we evaluated whether the HFR cartridge ...

  3. Evidence for new resonances in the K-barN system: A prima facie case for the even-wave harmonic-oscillator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguments are presented to show that the new resonance parameters obtained by Alston-Garnjost et al. in a recent analysis of the K-barN system from 365 to 1320 MeV/c provide a prima facie case for the even-wave harmonic-oscillator theory of baryonic states in the framework of SU(6)/sub W/ x O(3). A new quantum classification of the Λ states belonging to the (70,1-) is also proposed

  4. Cultural contingency on the antecedents of the complexity of management accounting systems: Evidence from a meta-analysis of individual data

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Hamadi, Z.; A.B. BONACHE; Chapellier, Ph.; A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that there is a cultural contingency on the antecedents of the complexity of management accounting systems. After briefly reviewing the theoretical debate on this hypothesis, we present our results which provide support for cultural contingency on these antecedents. However, the data studied could be criticized. Thus, further research will be needed to explore this cultural contingency.

  5. Properties of QSO Metal Line Absorption Systems at High Redshifts: Nature and Evolution of the Absorbers and New Evidence on Escape of Ionizing Radiation from Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boksenberg, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Using Voigt-profile-fitting procedures on Keck HIRES spectra of nine QSOs we identify 1099 CIV absorber components clumped in 201 systems outside the Lyman forest over 1.6 < z < 4.4. With associated SiIV, CII, SiII and NV where available we investigate bulk statistical and ionization properties of the components and systems and find no significant change in redshift for CIV and SiIV while CII, SiII and NV change substantially. The CIV components exhibit strong clustering but no clustering is detected for systems on scales from 150 km/s out to 50000 km/s. We conclude the clustering is due entirely to the peculiar velocities of gas present in the circumgalactic media of galaxies. Using specific combinations of ionic ratios we compare our observations with model ionization predictions for absorbers exposed to the metagalactic ionizing radiation background augmented by proximity radiation from their associated galaxies and find the generally accepted means of radiative escape by transparent channels from th...

  6. Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes and/or Lagoons (ICOLLs) as groundwater-dominated coastal systems: Evidence from seasonal radon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Santos, Isaac R.; Tait, Douglas R.; McMahon, Ashly; Kadel, Sean; Maher, Damien T.

    2016-04-01

    Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes or Lagoons (ICOLLs) are dynamic coastal systems that may be vulnerable to changes in catchment hydrology. However, little is known regarding the role of groundwater on the hydrological cycles of ICOLLs. Groundwater discharge in two ICOLLs (Welsby and Mermaid) and a nearby wetland (South Welsby Lagoon) located on Bribie Island (Australia) was quantified using radon (222Rn, a natural geochemical groundwater tracer) during four seasonal surveys. The distribution of radon revealed temporal and spatial changes over the study period with higher surface water radon concentrations found in winter for Welsby ICOLL and in autumn for Mermaid ICOLL. The average estimated groundwater discharge rates from a radon mass balance were 3.4 ± 2.1, 7.3 ± 8.9 and 2.6 ± 1.1 cm d-1 in Welsby, South Welsby and Mermaid Lagoons, respectively. These values are at least 8-fold greater than the average annual precipitation that falls directly over the ICOLLs (1420 mm per year, or 0.4 cm d-1), which, coupled with minimal surface water runoff due to the permeable sandy soils, demonstrates that these systems are groundwater-dominated. Overall, groundwater discharge rates in these ICOLLs were much larger than has been reported in other lake systems which is most likely due to the high permeability of regional sandy soils and their large shoreline to volume ratio.

  7. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  8. Evidence based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an influential interdisciplinary movement that originated in medicine as evidence-based medicine (EBM) about 1992. EBP is of considerable interest to library and information science (LIS) because it focuses on a thorough documentation of the basis for the decision...

  9. Beyond the Methanogenic Black-Box: Greenhouse Gas Fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) as Evidence for Wetlands as Dynamic Redox Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnicol, G.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Seminal wetland research in the 1990s demonstrated that annual methane (CH4) fluxes scaled positively with ecosystem production across distinctive wetlands globally. This relationship implies a model of flooded wetland ecosystems as 'methanogenic black-boxes'; poised at a low redox state, and tending to release a fixed fraction of incoming annual productivity as CH4. In contrast, recent studies have reported high ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) to CH4 emissions, and are adding to a body of evidence suggesting wetlands can vary more widely in their redox state. To explore this apparent incongruence we used principles of redox thermodynamics and laboratory experiments to develop predictions of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes under different redox regimes. We then used a field study to test the hypothesis that ecosystem seasonality in gross primary productivity (GPP) and temperature would drive changes in GHG emissions, mediated by a dynamic - as opposed to static - redox regime. We estimated wetland GHG emissions from an emergent marsh in the Sacramento Delta, CA from March 2014-2015. We measured CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions via diffusion and ebullition with manual sampling, and whole-ecosystem fluxes of CO2 and CH4 using eddy-covariance. Ebullition and diffusive CH4 fluxes were strongly seasonal, with minimum rates (0.86 and 0.35 mg C-CH­­4 m-2 yr-1, respectively) during winter, and maximum rates (1.3 and 1.8 g C-CH­­4 m-2 yr-1, respectively) during the summer growing season. In contrast, winter diffusive CO2 fluxes (494 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) and fall bubble CO2 concentrations (1.49%) were highest, despite being seasons of lower GPP, temperature, and CH4 flux. Further, diffusive and ebullition fluxes of N2O showed zero net flux only during spring and summer months, whereas the wetland was a significant source of N2O during winter (81.2 ± 24.4 mg N-N2O m-2 yr-1). These seasonal flux dynamics contradict a 'methanogenic black box' model of wetland redox, which

  10. Evidence for early Pleistocene Glaciation(s) in tropical Africa: Stratigraphy, Paleomagnetism, Paleosols and Paleoclimate of the Gorges Moraine System, Mount Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Barendregt, R. W.; Hamilton, T.; Hancock, R.

    2011-12-01

    and paleosol evidence, at least two tropical glaciations during the Matuyama Reversed Chron are documented from Mt. Kenya, suggesting this volcanic edifice had attained sufficient relief to form an ice mass and outlet glaciers, despite its equatorial latitude.

  11. Do postures of distal effectors affect the control of actions of other distal effectors? Evidence for a system of interactions between hand and mouth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gentilucci

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining whether, in healthy humans, postures assumed by distal effectors affect the control of the successive grasp executed with other distal effectors. In experiments 1 and 2, participants reached different objects with their head and grasped them with their mouth, after assuming different hand postures. The postures could be implicitly associated with interactions with large or small objects. The kinematics of lip shaping during grasp varied congruently with the hand posture, i.e. it was larger or smaller when it could be associated with the grasping of large or small objects, respectively. In experiments 3 and 4, participants reached and grasped different objects with their hand, after assuming the postures of mouth aperture or closure (experiment 3 and the postures of toe extension or flexion (experiment 4. The mouth postures affected the kinematics of finger shaping during grasp, that is larger finger shaping corresponded with opened mouth and smaller finger shaping with closed mouth. In contrast, the foot postures did not influence the hand grasp kinematics. Finally, in experiment 5 participants reached-grasped different objects with their hand while pronouncing opened and closed vowels, as verified by the analysis of their vocal spectra. Open and closed vowels induced larger and smaller finger shaping, respectively. In all experiments postures of the distal effectors induced no effect, or only unspecific effects on the kinematics of the reach proximal/axial component. The data from the present study support the hypothesis that there exists a system involved in establishing interactions between movements and postures of hand and mouth. This system might have been used to transfer a repertoire of hand gestures to mouth articulation postures during language evolution and, in modern humans, it may have evolved a system controlling the interactions existing between speech and gestures.

  12. Response of a dryland fluvial system to climate–tectonic perturbations during the Late Quaternary: Evidence from Rukmawati River basin, Kachchh, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Das; Falguni Bhattacharya; B K Rastogi; Gaurav Chauhan; Mamata Ngangom; M G Thakkar

    2016-08-01

    Dryland rivers, dominated by short-lived, localised and highly variable flow due to discrete precipitation events, have characteristic preservation potential, which serves as suitable archives towards understanding the climate–tectonic coupling. In the present study, we have investigated the fluvial records of a major, southerly-draining river – the Rukmawati River in the dryland terrain of southern Kachchh, in western India. The sediment records along the bedrock rivers of Kachchh register imprints of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), which is the major source of moisture to the fluvial system in western India. The Rukmawati River originates from the Katrol Hill Range in the north and flows towards the south, into the Gulf of Kachchh. The field stratigraphy, sedimentology, along with the optical chronology suggeststhat a braided-meandering system existed during 37 ka period due to an overall strengthened monsoon. A gradual decline in the monsoon strength with fluctuation facilitated the development of a braided channel system between 20 and 15 ka. A renewed phase of strengthened monsoon with seasonality after around 15 ka which persisted until around 11 ka, is implicated in the development of floodplain sequences. Two zones of relatively high bedrock uplift are identified based on the geomorphometry and morphology of the fluvial landform. These zones are located in the vicinity of the North Katrol Hill Fault (NKHF) and South Katrol Hill Fault (SKHF). Geomorphic expression of high bedrock uplift is manifested by the development of beveled bedrock prior to or around 20 ka during weak monsoon. The study suggests that the terrain in the vicinity of NKHF and SKHF is uplifting at around 0.8 and >0.3 mm/a, respectively. Simultaneously, the incision in the Rukmawati River basin, post 11 ka, is ascribed to have occurred due to lowered sea level during the LGM and early Holocene period.

  13. Bridging the osteoarthritis treatment gap with the KineSpring Knee Implant System: early evidence in 100 patients with 1-year minimum follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London NJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J London,1 Jon Smith,2 Larry E Miller,3,4 Jon E Block4 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harrogate District Foundation Trust, Harrogate, UK; 2The Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Yorkshire, UK; 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Arden, NC, USA; 4The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Almost 4 million Americans are within the knee osteoarthritis (OA treatment gap, the period from unsuccessful exhaustion of conservative treatment to major surgical intervention. New treatment alternatives for symptomatic knee OA are greatly needed. The purpose of this report was to assess outcomes of a joint-unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System in patients with symptomatic medial knee OA. A total of 100 patients enrolled in three clinical trials were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All devices were successfully implanted and activated, with no operative complications. Knee pain severity improved 60% (P < 0.001 at 1 year, with 76% of patients reporting a minimum 30% improvement in pain severity. All Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC subscores significantly improved at 1 year, with a 56% improvement in pain, 57% improvement in function, and a 39% improvement in stiffness (all P < 0.001. The percentage of patients experiencing a minimum 20% improvement in WOMAC subscores was 74% for pain, 83% for function, and 67% for stiffness. During follow-up, six (6% patients required additional surgery, including four total knee arthroplasties and two high tibial osteotomies. The KineSpring System effectively bridges the treatment gap between failed conservative care and surgical joint-modifying procedures. Keywords: implant, KineSpring, knee, medial, osteoarthritis, unloading

  14. PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. INTRODUCTION AND ORBITS FOR TWO DETACHED SYSTEMS: EVIDENCE FOR A MASS DISCREPANCY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia I. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Penny, Laura R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); DeGioia-Eastwood, Kathleen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-6010 (United States); Gies, Douglas R., E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: pennyl@cofc.edu, E-mail: kathy.eastwood@nau.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The stellar mass-luminosity relation is poorly constrained by observations for high-mass stars. We describe our program to find eclipsing massive binaries in the Magellanic Clouds using photometry of regions rich in massive stars, and our spectroscopic follow-up to obtain radial velocities and orbits. Our photometric campaign identified 48 early-type periodic variables, of which only 15 (31%) were found as part of the microlensing surveys. Spectroscopy is now complete for 17 of these systems, and in this paper we present analysis of the first two, LMC 172231 and ST2-28, simple detached systems of late-type O dwarfs of relatively modest masses. Our orbit analysis yields very precise masses ({approx}2%), and we use tomography to separate the components and determine effective temperatures by model fitting, necessary for determining accurate (0.05-0.07 dex) bolometric luminosities in combination with the light-curve analysis. Our approach allows more precise comparisons with evolutionary theory than previously possible. To our considerable surprise, we find a small, but significant, systematic discrepancy: all of the stars are slightly undermassive, by typically 11% (or overluminous by 0.2 dex) compared with that predicted by the evolutionary models. We examine our approach for systematic problems, but find no satisfactory explanation. The discrepancy is in the same sense as the long-discussed and elusive discrepancy between the masses measured from stellar atmosphere analysis with the stellar evolutionary models, and might suggest that either increased rotation or convective overshooting is needed in the models. Additional systems will be discussed in future papers of this series, and will hopefully confirm or refute this trend.

  15. Evidence for a dipolar-coupled AM system in carnosine in human calf muscle from in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Leif; Bachert, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Spin systems with residual dipolar couplings such as creatine, taurine, and lactate in skeletal muscle tissue exhibit first-order spectra in in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 1.5 T because the coupled protons are represented by (nearly) symmetrized eigenfunctions. The imidazole ring protons (H2, H4) of carnosine are suspected to form also a coupled system. The ring's stiffness could enable a connectivity between these anisochronous protons with the consequence of second-order spectra at low field strength. Our purpose was to study whether this deviation from the Paschen-Back condition can be used to detect the H2-H4 coupling in localized 1D 1H NMR spectra obtained at 1.5 T (64 MHz) from the human calf in a conventional whole-body scanner. As for the hydrogen hyperfine interaction, a Breit-Rabi equation was derived to describe the transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime for two dipolar-coupled protons. The ratio of the measurable coupling strength ( Sk) and the difference in resonance frequencies of the coupled spins (Δ ω) induces quantum-state mixing of various degree upon definition of an appropriate eigenbase of the coupled spin system. The corresponding Clebsch-Gordan coefficients manifest in characteristic energy corrections in the Breit-Rabi formula. These additional terms were used to define an asymmetry parameter of the line positions as a function of Sk and Δ ω. The observed frequency shifts of the resonances were found to be consistent with this parameter within the accuracy achievable in in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Thus it was possible to identify the origin of satellite peaks of H2, H4 and to describe this so far not investigated type of residual dipolar coupling in vivo.

  16. Continuation of the San Andreas fault system into the upper mantle: Evidence from spinel peridotite xenoliths in the Coyote Lake basalt, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Sarah J.; Medaris, L. Gordon; Wang, Herbert F.; Tikoff, Basil

    2007-01-01

    The Coyote Lake basalt, located near the intersection of the Hayward and Calaveras faults in central California, contains spinel peridotite xenoliths from the mantle beneath the San Andreas fault system. Six upper mantle xenoliths were studied in detail by a combination of petrologic techniques. Temperature estimates, obtained from three two-pyroxene geothermometers and the Al-in-orthopyroxene geothermometer, indicate that the xenoliths equilibrated at 970-1100 °C. A thermal model was used to estimate the corresponding depth of equilibration for these xenoliths, resulting in depths between 38 and 43 km. The lattice preferred orientation of olivine measured in five of the xenolith samples show strong point distributions of olivine crystallographic axes suggesting that fabrics formed under high-temperature conditions. Calculated seismic anisotropy values indicate an average shear wave anisotropy of 6%, higher than the anisotropy calculated from xenoliths from other tectonic environments. Using this value, the anisotropic layer responsible for fault-parallel shear wave splitting in central California is less than 100 km thick. The strong fabric preserved in the xenoliths suggests that a mantle shear zone exists below the Calaveras fault to a depth of at least 40 km, and combining xenolith petrofabrics with shear wave splitting studies helps distinguish between different models for deformation at depth beneath the San Andrea fault system.

  17. Development of JFH1-based cell culture systems for hepatitis C virus genotype 4a and evidence for cross-genotype neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith Margarete; Jensen, Tina Birk;

    2008-01-01

    Efficient in vitro systems to study the life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were recently developed for JFH1 (genotype 2a), which has unique replication capacity in Huh7 cells. We developed 4a/JFH1 intergenotypic recombinants containing the structural genes (Core, E1, and E2), p7, and all or part...... serial passages. Sequence analysis of recovered viruses and subsequent reverse genetic studies revealed a vital dependence on one or two NS2 mutations, depending on the 4a/2a junction. Infectivity of ED43/JFH1 viruses was CD81 dependent. The genotype 4 cell culture systems permit functional analyses as...... well as drug and vaccine research on an increasingly important genotype in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. We also developed genotype 1a intergenotypic recombinants from H77C with vital mutations in NS3. Using H77C/JFH1 and ED43/JFH1 viruses, we demonstrated high homologous neutralizing antibody...

  18. Personality systems interactions theory and the theory of planned behaviour: evidence that self-regulatory volitional components enhance enactment of studying behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina

    2003-03-01

    The role of volitional components specified by personality systems interactions theory in enhancing behavioural prediction was examined in a longitudinal investigation of students' studying. Participants completed measures specified by the theory of planned behaviour and questionnaire measures of 'conscious attention control', 'implicit attention control' and 'self-determination' from the volitional components inventory. Behaviour was assessed 2 weeks later. Regression analyses showed that volitional components increased variance explained in behaviour by 10-18%, after taking into account strength of motivation to study assessed by attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention from the theory of planned behaviour. Moreover, consistent with elements of personality systems interactions theory, moderator effects were obtained. Participants who reported self-determination, conscious attention control and implicit attention control were more likely to enact their intentions. Volitional components were also associated with increased studying among participants who perceived a low subjective norm for studying. Volitional components improved prediction of studying after accounting for past behaviour in the regression models. PMID:12713758

  19. Anti-depressant-like effect of kaempferitrin isolated from Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae) in two behavior models in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Julia; Dorantes-Barrón, Ana María; Novales, Lilian Mayagoitia; Real, Guadalupe Alva; Estrada-Reyes, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of kaempferitrin (Km) isolated from the plant Justicia spicigera (Asteraceae), which is used in traditional medicine for relieving emotional disorders, such as "la tristeza" (sadness or dysthymia) and "el humor" (mood changes). The actions of Km were evaluated in a forced swimming test (FST) and a suspension tail test (TST) in mice. We explored the involvement of the serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis (HPA) in the antidepressant-like effect of Km. To evaluate nonspecific effects of Km on general activity, the open field test (OFT) was performed. Km at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg induced an antidepressant-like effect. Sub-effective dose of Km (1 mg/kg) produced a synergistic effect with imipramine (6.25 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) but not with desipramine (3.12 mg/kg). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, N-{2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl}-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and 8OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1A agonist, but not pindolol (10 mg/kg) blocked the anti- immobility effect induced by Km. Taken together, these results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of Km is related to the serotonergic system, principally 5-HT1A. This effect was not related to changes in locomotor activity. PMID:25532842

  20. Experimental evidence for simultaneous relaxation processes in super spin glass γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, V.; Perovic, M., E-mail: mara.perovic@vinca.rs; Kusigerski, V.; Boskovic, M.; Mrakovic, A.; Blanusa, J.; Spasojevic, V. [University of Belgrade, Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca (Serbia)

    2015-03-15

    Spherical γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with the narrow size distribution of (5 ± 1) nm were synthesized by the method of thermal decomposition from iron acetyl acetonate precursor. The existence of super spin-glass state at low temperatures and in low applied magnetic fields was confirmed by DC magnetization measurements on a SQUID magnetometer. The comprehensive investigation of magnetic relaxation dynamics in low-temperature region was conducted through the measurements of single-stop and multiple stop ZFC memory effects, ZFC magnetization relaxation, and AC susceptibility measurements. The experimental findings revealed the peculiar change of magnetic relaxation dynamics at T ≈ 10 K, which arose as a consequence of simultaneous existence of different relaxation processes in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle system. Complementarity of the applied measurements was utilized in order to single out distinct relaxation processes as well as to elucidate complex relaxation mechanisms in the investigated interacting nanoparticle system.