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Sample records for aquaporin content translate

  1. Coordinated post-translational responses of aquaporins to abiotic and nutritional stimuli in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pietro, Magali; Vialaret, Jérôme; Li, Guo-Wei; Hem, Sonia; Prado, Karine; Rossignol, Michel; Maurel, Christophe; Santoni, Véronique

    2013-12-01

    In plants, aquaporins play a crucial role in regulating root water transport in response to environmental and physiological cues. Controls achieved at the post-translational level are thought to be of critical importance for regulating aquaporin function. To investigate the general molecular mechanisms involved, we performed, using the model species Arabidopsis, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of root aquaporins in a large set of physiological contexts. We identified nine physiological treatments that modulate root hydraulics in time frames of minutes (NO and H2O2 treatments), hours (mannitol and NaCl treatments, exposure to darkness and reversal with sucrose, phosphate supply to phosphate-starved roots), or days (phosphate or nitrogen starvation). All treatments induced inhibition of root water transport except for sucrose supply to dark-grown plants and phosphate resupply to phosphate-starved plants, which had opposing effects. Using a robust label-free quantitative proteomic methodology, we identified 12 of 13 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) aquaporin isoforms, 4 of the 10 tonoplast intrinsic protein isoforms, and a diversity of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, methylation, deamidation, and acetylation. A total of 55 aquaporin peptides displayed significant changes after treatments and enabled the identification of specific and as yet unknown patterns of response to stimuli. The data show that the regulation of PIP and tonoplast intrinsic protein abundance was involved in response to a few treatments (i.e. NaCl, NO, and nitrate starvation), whereas changes in the phosphorylation status of PIP aquaporins were positively correlated to changes in root hydraulic conductivity in the whole set of treatments. The identification of in vivo deamidated forms of aquaporins and their stimulus-induced changes in abundance may reflect a new mechanism of aquaporin regulation. The overall work provides deep insights into the in vivo post-translational

  2. Aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, M; Ilundáin, A A

    1998-06-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are members of the major intrinsic protein superfamily of integral membrane proteins, which function as specialized water channels to facilitate the passage of water through the cell membrane in animals, plants and bacterias. Ten AQP homologues named from 0 to 9 have been clones so far in mammals. They are widely distributed and more than one AQP could be present in the same cell. Most of the AQPs are only permeable to water and impermeable to small organic and inorganic molecules, except for AQP 3, 7 and 9 which are also permeable to urea and glycerol. From the hydrophobicity profile all AQPs seem to have six transmembrane domains with five connecting loops and with the amino and carboxyl termini in the cytoplasm. They are synthesized as monomers, but there is evidence suggesting that AQPs are formed in the membrane as tetrameric units, each of which has four water pores. The primary amino acid sequence contains putative phosphorylation sites for protein kinasses A and/or C or casein kinase II, and the expression and membrane protein abundance of some AQPs are known to be under hormonal regulation. The human genes for several AQPs have been cloned and an increasing number of disturbances associated to abnormal functioning of these proteins had been identified. PMID:9858131

  3. Change of translation teaching contents in the information age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    the development of information technology, especially that of multimedia and network communication technology, has offered good material conditions and effective support means for reform of translation teaching. The teaching contents of translation have undergone profound changes. This paper discusses these changes and advocates that teachers should adapt their teaching to the requirements of the information age.

  4. Detecting aquaporin function and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa; Soveral, Graça

    2016-02-01

    Water is the major component of cells and tissues throughout all forms of life. Fluxes of water and solutes through cell membranes and epithelia are essential for osmoregulation and energy homeostasis. Aquaporins are membrane channels expressed in almost every organism and involved in the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Aquaporins have important biological roles and have been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions suggesting a great translational potential in aquaporin-based diagnostic and therapeutics. Detecting aquaporin function is critical for assessing regulation and screening for new activity modulators that can prompt the development of efficient medicines. Appropriate methods for functional analysis comprising suitable cell models and techniques to accurately evaluate water and solute membrane permeability are essential to validate aquaporin function and assess short-term regulation. The present review describes established assays commonly used to assess aquaporin function in cells and tissues, as well as the experimental biophysical strategies required to reveal functional regulation and identify modulators, the first step for aquaporin drug discovery.

  5. Dynamic regulation of aquaporin-4 water channels in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying; Tran, Minh; Linninger, Andreas A

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporin-4 water channels play a central role in brain water regulation in neurological disorders. Aquaporin-4 is abundantly expressed at the astroglial endfeet facing the cerebral vasculature and the pial membrane, and both its expression level and subcellular localization significantly influence brain water transport. However, measurements of aquaporin-4 levels in animal models of brain injury often report opposite trends of change at the injury core and the penumbra. Furthermore, aquaporin-4 channels play a beneficial role in brain water clearance in vasogenic edema, but a detrimental role in cytotoxic edema and exacerbate cell swelling. In light of current evidence, we still do not have a complete understanding of the role of aquaporin-4 in brain water transport. In this review, we propose that the regulatory mechanisms of aquaporin-4 at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels jointly regulate water permeability in the short and long time scale after injury. Furthermore, in order to understand why aquaporin-4 channels play opposing roles in cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, we discuss experimental evidence on the dynamically changing osmotic gradients between blood, extracellular space, and the cytosol during the formation of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. We conclude with an emerging picture of the distinct osmotic environments in cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, and propose that the directions of aquaporin-4-mediated water clearance in these two types of edema are distinct. The difference in water clearance pathways may provide an explanation for the conflicting observations of the roles of aquaporin-4 in edema resolution. PMID:26526878

  6. Electron Crystallography of Aquaporins

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Simeon; Reichow, Steve L; Gonen, Tamir

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporins are a family of ubiquitous membrane proteins that form a pore for the permeation of water. Both electron and X-ray crystallography played major roles in determining the atomic structures of a number of aquaporins. This review focuses on electron crystallography, and its contribution to the field of aquaporin biology. We briefly discuss electron crystallography and the two-dimensional crystallization process. We describe features of aquaporins common to both electron and X-ray cryst...

  7. Can multilingual machine translation help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Kim, Hyeoneui; Rosemblat, Graciela; Keselman, Alla

    2010-01-01

    With the development of electronic personal health records, more patients are gaining access to their own medical records. However, comprehension of medical record content remains difficult for many patients. Because each record is unique, it is also prohibitively costly to employ human translators to solve this problem. In this study, we investigated whether multilingual machine translation could help make medical record content more comprehensible to patients who lack proficiency in the language of the records. We used a popular general-purpose machine translation tool called Babel Fish to translate 213 medical record sentences from English into Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Korean. We evaluated the comprehensibility and accuracy of the translation. The text characteristics of the incorrectly translated sentences were also analyzed. In each language, the majority of the translations were incomprehensible (76% to 92%) and/or incorrect (77% to 89%). The main causes of the translation are vocabulary difficulty and syntactical complexity. A general-purpose machine translation tool like the Babel Fish is not adequate for the translation of medical records; however, a machine translation tool can potentially be improved significantly, if it is trained to target certain narrow domains in medicine.

  8. Ontology Translation: The Semiotic Engineering of Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villamarin M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes the application of Semiotic Engineering theory to Content Management Systems (CMS focusing on the analysis of how the use of different ontologies can affect the user’s efficiency when performing tasks in a CMS. The analysis is performed using the theoretical semiotic model Web-Semiotic Interface Design Evaluation (W-SIDE model.

  9. Translation, adaptation and validation the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; da Silva, Daniel Dutra Romualdo; Bosco, Adriana Aparecida; Gabriel, Beatriz Diniz; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Rodrigues, Júlia Santos Nunes; Pagano, Adriana Silvina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to translate, adapt and validate the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context. This protocol was developed by the American Diabetes Association and guides the procedure of educators for the care of children and adolescents with diabetes in schools. Method: this methodological study was conducted in four stages: initial translation, synthesis of initial translation, back translation and content validation by an expert committee, composed of 94 specialists (29 applied linguists and 65 health professionals), for evaluation of the translated version through an online questionnaire. The concordance level of the judges was calculated based on the Content Validity Index. Data were exported into the R program for statistical analysis: Results: the evaluation of the instrument showed good concordance between the judges of the Health and Applied Linguistics areas, with a mean content validity index of 0.9 and 0.89, respectively, and slight variability of the index between groups (difference of less than 0.01). The items in the translated version, evaluated as unsatisfactory by the judges, were reformulated based on the considerations of the professionals of each group. Conclusion: a Brazilian version of Diabetes Medical Management Plan was constructed, called the Plano de Manejo do Diabetes na Escola. PMID:27508911

  10. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI%Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test-Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test- Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  11. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

    OpenAIRE

    Sayaka Oshikawa; Hiroko Sonoda; Masahiro Ikeda

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper’s group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs fro...

  12. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters(CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test-Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  13. Recombinant production of human Aquaporin-1 to an exceptional high membrane density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bomholt

    Full Text Available In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tagged with yeast enhanced GFP for quantification of functional expression, determination of sub-cellular localization, estimation of in vivo folding efficiency and establishment of a purification protocol. Aquaporin-1 was found to constitute 8.5 percent of total membrane protein content after expression at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction of the expression temperature to 15°C almost completely prevented Aquaporin-1 mal-folding. Bioimaging of live yeast cells revealed that recombinant Aquaporin-1 accumulated in the yeast plasma membrane. A detergent screen for solubilization revealed that CYMAL-5 was superior in solubilizing recombinant Aquaporin-1 and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes.

  14. Aquaporins in complex tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, S; Zeuthen, T; La Cour, M;

    1998-01-01

    Multiple physiological fluid movements are involved in vision. Here we define the cellular and subcellular sites of aquaporin (AQP) water transport proteins in human and rat eyes by immunoblotting, high-resolution immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3 is abundant in bulbar conj......, predicting specific roles for each in the complex network through which water movements occur in the eye....

  15. Aquaporin Tetramer Composition Modifies the Function of Tobacco Aquaporins*

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Beate; Uehlein, Norbert; Sdorra, Sven; Fischer, Matthias; Ayaz, Muhammad; Belastegui-Macadam, Xana; Heckwolf, Marlies; Lachnit, Magdalena; Pede, Nadine; Priem, Nadine; Reinhard, André; Siegfart, Sven; Urban, Michael; Kaldenhoff, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Heterologous expression in yeast cells revealed that NtAQP1, a member of the so-called PIP1 aquaporin subfamily, did not display increased water transport activity in comparison with controls. Instead, an increased CO2-triggered intracellular acidification was observed. NtPIP2;1, which belongs to the PIP2 subfamily of plant aquaporins, behaved as a true aquaporin but lacked a CO2-related function. Results from split YFP experiments, protein chromatography, and gel electrophoresis indicated th...

  16. Immunochemical determination of cellular content of translation release factor RF4 in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Manuel Palacios Moreno, Juan; Clark, Brian F. C.;

    1999-01-01

    The biosynthesis of proteins in prokaryotes is terminated when a stop codon is present in the A-site of the 70S ribosomal complex. Four different translation termination factors are known to participate in the termination process. Release factor RF1 and RF2 are responsible for the recognition...... of RF1, RF2, and RF3 were determined earlier. Here we report the cellular content of RF4 in Escherichia coli to be approximately 16,500 molecules per cell. The cells were grown in a rich medium and harvested in the beginning of the exponential growth phase. The quantifications were performed by using...

  17. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikawa, Sayaka; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper’s group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs from their discovery to clinical application. PMID:27322253

  18. Aquaporins in Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikawa, Sayaka; Sonoda, Hiroko; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the successful characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) by Knepper's group in 2004, these vesicles have been a focus of intense basic and translational research worldwide, with the aim of developing novel biomarkers and therapeutics for renal disease. Along with these studies, there is growing evidence that aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins, in uEVs have the potential to be diagnostically useful. In this review, we highlight current knowledge of AQPs in uEVs from their discovery to clinical application. PMID:27322253

  19. Aquaporin-10 represents an alternative pathway for glycerol efflux from human adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Laforenza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycerol outflow from adipocytes has been considered for a decade to be mediated by aquaporin-7, an aquaglyceroporin highly expressed in the adipose tissue. Its involvement in glycerol metabolism has been widely studied also in humans. Recent studies in different aquaporin-7 KO mice models pose two different questions 1 the exact localization of aquaporin-7 in human white adipose tissue; 2 the existence of other aquaglyceroporins that work with aquaporin-7 to guarantee glycerol efflux and thus a normal adiposity in humans. To this purpose we investigated the expression, the localization and the functioning of aquaglyceroporin-10 in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, in isolated and cultured differentiated adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aquaporin-7 and -10 were expressed in the white adipose tissue both at mRNA and at protein level. Immunofluorescence revealed aquaporin-7 and -10 labelling in the human adipose tissue both to the plasma membrane and to a thin rim of cytoplasm of adipocytes. Aquaporin-7, but not aquaporin-10, colocalized with the endothelial marker CD34. Human cultured differentiated adipocytes showed an aquaporin-7 and -10 labelling mainly in the cytoplasm and in the lipid droplets with insulin reinforcing the lipid droplets staining and isoproterenol inducing its translocation to the plasma membrane compartment. Water and glycerol permeability measurements using adipocytes and adipose membrane vesicles confirmed the presence of functioning aquaglyceroporins. Aquaporin-10 silencing in human differentiated adipocytes resulted in a 50% decrease of glycerol and osmotic water permeability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that aquaporin-7, differently from mice, is present in both adipocyte and capillary plasma membranes of human adipose tissue. Aquaporin-10, on the contrary, is expressed exclusively in the adipocytes. The expression of two aquaglyceroporins in human adipose tissue is

  20. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  1. Aquaporin tetramer composition modifies the function of tobacco aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Beate; Uehlein, Norbert; Sdorra, Sven; Fischer, Matthias; Ayaz, Muhammad; Belastegui-Macadam, Xana; Heckwolf, Marlies; Lachnit, Magdalena; Pede, Nadine; Priem, Nadine; Reinhard, André; Siegfart, Sven; Urban, Michael; Kaldenhoff, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    Heterologous expression in yeast cells revealed that NtAQP1, a member of the so-called PIP1 aquaporin subfamily, did not display increased water transport activity in comparison with controls. Instead, an increased CO(2)-triggered intracellular acidification was observed. NtPIP2;1, which belongs to the PIP2 subfamily of plant aquaporins, behaved as a true aquaporin but lacked a CO(2)-related function. Results from split YFP experiments, protein chromatography, and gel electrophoresis indicated that the proteins form heterotetramers when coexpressed in yeast. Tetramer composition had effects on transport activity as demonstrated by analysis of artificial heterotetramers with a defined proportion of NtAQP1 to NtPIP2;1. A single NtPIP2;1 aquaporin in a tetramer was sufficient to significantly increase the water permeability of the respective yeast cells. With regard to CO(2)-triggered intracellular acidification, a cooperative effect was observed, where maximum rates were measured when the tetramer consisted of NtAQP1 aquaporins only. The results confirm the model of an aquaporin monomer as a functional unit for water transport and suggest that, for CO(2)-related transport processes, a structure built up by the tetramer is the basis of this function. PMID:20657033

  2. Osmotic water transport in aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Beitz, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    molecules give rise to no water transport. Accordingly, the rate of water transport is proportional to the reflection coefficient σ, while the solute permeability, P(S), is proportional to 1 - σ. The model was tested in aquaporins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. A variety of aquaporin channel...... sizes and geometries were obtained with the two aquaporins AQP1 and AQP9 and mutant versions of these. Osmotic water transport was generated by adding 20 mM of a range of different-sized osmolytes to the outer solution. The osmotic water permeability and the reflection coefficient were measured......Abstract  We test a novel, stochastic model of osmotic water transport in aquaporins. A solute molecule present at the pore mouth can either be reflected or permeate the pore. We assume that only reflected solute molecules induce osmotic transport of water through the pore, while permeating solute...

  3. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  4. What are aquaporins for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A E; Shachar-Hill, B; Shachar-Hill, Y

    2004-01-01

    The prime function of aquaporins (AQPs) is generally believed to be that of increasing water flow rates across membranes by raising their osmotic or hydraulic permeability. In addition, this applies to other small solutes of physiological importance. Notable applications of this 'simple permeability hypothesis' (SPH) have been epithelial fluid transport in animals, water exchanges associated with transpiration, growth and stress in plants, and osmoregulation in microbes. We first analyze the need for such increased permeabilities and conclude that in a range of situations at the cellular, subcellular and tissue levels the SPH cannot satisfactorily account for the presence of AQPs. The analysis includes an examination of the effects of the genetic elimination or reduction of AQPs (knockouts, antisense transgenics and null mutants). These either have no effect, or a partial effect that is difficult to explain, and we argue that they do not support the hypothesis beyond showing that AQPs are involved in the process under examination. We assume that since AQPs are ubiquitous, they must have an important function and suggest that this is the detection of osmotic and turgor pressure gradients. A mechanistic model is proposed--in terms of monomer structure and changes in the tetrameric configuration of AQPs in the membrane--for how AQPs might function as sensors. Sensors then signal within the cell to control diverse processes, probably as part of feedback loops. Finally, we examine how AQPs as sensors may serve animal, plant and microbial cells and show that this sensor hypothesis can provide an explanation of many basic processes in which AQPs are already implicated. Aquaporins are molecules in search of a function; osmotic and turgor sensors are functions in search of a molecule. PMID:15014915

  5. Revisiting the Translation of Nature of Science Understandings into Instructional Practice: Teachers' nature of science pedagogical content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Nader; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2014-02-01

    This study (a) assessed the influence of an integrated nature of science (NOS) instructional intervention on inservice secondary science teachers' understandings, retention of those understandings, and their NOS instructional planning and practices; and (b) examined factors that mediated the translation of teachers' NOS understandings into practice. Nineteen teachers participated in an intensive, 6-week NOS course, which concluded with teachers developing plans to address NOS in their classrooms. Next, 6 participants were observed as they implemented their instructional plans. Data sources included pretest, posttest, and delayed-test NOS assessments, classroom observations, and several teacher-generated artifacts. The NOS course was effective in helping teachers develop informed NOS conceptions and retain those understandings 5 months after its conclusion. Teachers met with challenges and successes as they attempted to address NOS instructionally. The translation of NOS conceptions into practice was primarily mediated by the very nature of teachers' newly acquired NOS understandings, which were situated within the science contents, contexts, and experiences in which they were developed (i.e. the NOS course); thus, limiting participants' abilities to transfer their understandings into novel contexts and contents. The results helped build a model of the sources of science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge for teaching about NOS in content-rich contexts.

  6. "Professional Corpora":Teaching Strategies for Work with Online Documentation,Translation Memories and Content Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Pym

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of electronic memorv capacity is having fundamental long-term effects on the way texts are produced and used,and thus on the way they are translated.Translators are increasingly working on data bases in non-linear ways,separated from awareness of any active communicative context.This enhances productivity and consistency but challenges more humanistic values like understanding,cooperation,and job satisfaction.In order to address these changes,teaching prices should 1)make students aware of the communicative functions of texts,particularly the ways in which particular parts of texts become high-risk in particular situations,2)teach students how to use electronic tech-nologies within such a flame,and how to teach themselves about the technologies,and 3)train students for arange of professional communica-tion jobs,incorporating both the technical sides and the various revision and editing techniques now required by the technologies.

  7. Aquaporin 9 in rat brain after severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liu; Mei Yang; Guo-ping Qiu; Fei Zhuo; Wei-hua Yu; Shan-quan Sun; Yun Xiu

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reveal the expression and possible roles of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) in rat brain, after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Brain water content (BWC), tetrazolium chloride staining, Evans blue staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used. RESULTS: The BWC reached the first and second (highest) peaks at 6 and 72 hours, and the blood brain barrier (BBB) was severely destroyed at six hours after ...

  8. Aquaporin 4 expression and ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier following cerebral contusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjun Li; Yangyun Han; Hong Xu; Zhongshu Sun; Zengjun Zhou; Xiaodong Long; Yumin Yang; Linbo Zou

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate aquaporin 4 expression and the ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier at 2–72 hours following cerebral contusion injury, and correlate these changes to the formation of brain edema. Results revealed that at 2 hours after cerebral contusion and laceration injury, aquaporin 4 expression significantly increased, brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability increased, and the number of pinocytotic vesicles in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells increased. In addition, the mitochondrial accumulation was observed. As contusion and laceration injury became aggravated, aquaporin 4 expression continued to increase, brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability gradually increased, brain capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes swelled, and capillary basement membrane injury gradually increased. The above changes were most apparent at 12 hours after injury, after which they gradually attenuated. Aquaporin 4 expression positively correlated with brain water content and the blood-brain barrier index. Our experimental findings indicate that increasing aquaporin 4 expression and blood-brain barrier permeability after cerebral contusion and laceration injury in humans is involved in the formation of brain edema.

  9. Mutual interactions between aquaporins and membrane components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCarmen Martinez-Ballesta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, a number of studies have been focused on the structural evaluation of protein complexes in order to get mechanistic insights into how proteins communicate at the molecular level within the cell. Specific sites of protein-aquaporin interaction have been evaluated and new regulations of aquaporins described based on these associations. Aquaporin isoforms heterotetramerizations are considered as novel regulatory mechanisms for plasma membrane (PIPs and tonoplast (TIPs proteins, influencing their intrinsic permeability and trafficking dynamics in the adaptive response to changing environmental conditions. However, protein-protein interaction is an extensive theme that is difficult to tackle and new methodologies of physical interactions are being used in approaches to its study. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC and the identification of cross-linked peptides based on tandem mass spectra, which resulted complementary to other methodologies such as heterologous expression, co-precipitation assays or confocal fluorescence microscopy, have been discussed in this review. The chemical composition or physical characteristics of the lipid bilayer also influences many aspects of membrane aquaporins, including their functionality. The molecular driving forces stabilizing the observed lipid positions around aquaporins could define their activity, which could alter the conformational properties. Therefore, an integrative approach to the relevance of the membrane-aquaporin interaction to different processes related to plant cell physiology is shown. Finally, the interactions between aquaporins and copolymer matrixes or biological compounds offer an opportunity for the functional incorporation of aquaporins into new biotechnological advances.

  10. Mutual Interactions between Aquaporins and Membrane Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballesta, Maria Del Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have been focused on the structural evaluation of protein complexes in order to get mechanistic insights into how proteins communicate at the molecular level within the cell. Specific sites of protein-aquaporin interaction have been evaluated and new forms of regulation of aquaporins described, based on these associations. Heterotetramerizations of aquaporin isoforms are considered as novel regulatory mechanisms for plasma membrane (PIPs) and tonoplast (TIPs) proteins, influencing their intrinsic permeability and trafficking dynamics in the adaptive response to changing environmental conditions. However, protein-protein interaction is an extensive theme that is difficult to tackle and new methodologies are being used to study the physical interactions involved. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and the identification of cross-linked peptides based on tandem mass spectra, that are complementary to other methodologies such as heterologous expression, co-precipitation assays or confocal fluorescence microscopy, are discussed in this review. The chemical composition and the physical characteristics of the lipid bilayer also influence many aspects of membrane aquaporins, including their functionality. The molecular driving forces stabilizing the positions of the lipids around aquaporins could define their activity, thereby altering the conformational properties. Therefore, an integrative approach to the relevance of the membrane-aquaporin interaction to different processes related to plant cell physiology is provided. Finally, it is described how the interactions between aquaporins and copolymer matrixes or biological compounds offer an opportunity for the functional incorporation of aquaporins into new biotechnological advances. PMID:27625676

  11. Biomimetic aquaporin membranes coming of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Chuyang; Wang, Zhining; Petrinić, Irena;

    2015-01-01

    membranes, on the other hand, can perform transport in some cases with exceptional flux and rejection properties. In particular the discovery of selective water channel proteins - aquaporins - has prompted interest in using these proteins as building blocks for new types of membranes. The major challenge...... in developing an aquaporin-based membrane technology stems from the fact that the aquaporin protein spans a membrane only a few nanometers thick. Such ultrathin membranes will not be able to withstand any substantial pressures, nor being industrially scalable without supporting structures. Incorporating...

  12. Ammonia and urea permeability of mammalian aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Søgaard, Rikke; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The human aquaporins,AQP3,AQP7, AQP8,AQP9, and possibly AQP10, are permeable to ammonia, and AQP7, AQP9, and possibly AQP3, are permeable to urea. In humans, these aquaporins supplement the ammonia transport of the Rhesus (Rh) proteins and the urea transporters (UTs). The mechanism by which...... and 9 are found together with Rh proteins in cells exposed to portal blood coming from the intestine. In the kidney, AQP3 might participate in the excretion of NH(4) (+) in the collecting duct. The interplay between the ammonia-permeable aquaporins and the other types of ammonia- and urea...

  13. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    -terminally tagged with yeast enhanced GFP for quantification of functional expression, determination of sub-cellular localization, estimation of in vivo folding efficiency and establishment of a purification protocol. Aquaporin-1 was found to constitute 8.5 percent of total membrane protein content after expression...

  14. Desalination by biomimetic aquaporin membranes: Review of status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, C.Y.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Based on their unique combination of offering high water permeability and high solute rejection aquaporin proteins have attracted considerable interest over the last years as functional building blocks of biomimetic membranes for water desalination and reuse. The purpose of this review...... is to provide an overview of the properties of aquaporins, their preparation and characterization. We discuss the challenges in exploiting the remarkable properties of aquaporin proteins for membrane separation processes and we present various attempts to construct aquaporin in membranes for desalination......; including an overview of our own recent developments in aquaporin-based membranes. Finally we outline future prospects of aquaporin based biomimetic membrane for desalination and water reuse....

  15. Comparative functional analysis of aquaporins/glyceroporins in mammals and anurans

    OpenAIRE

    Krane, Carissa M.; Goldstein, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of fluid homeostasis is critical to establishing and maintaining normal physiology. The landmark discovery of membrane water channels (aquaporins; AQPs) ushered in a new area in osmoregulatory biology that has drawn from and contributed to diverse branches of biology, from molecular biology and genomics to systems biology and evolution, and from microbial and plant biology to animal and translational physiology. As a result, the study of AQPs provides a unique and integrated backd...

  16. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA

    2006-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  17. Aquaporin 4 as a NH3 Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assentoft, Mette; Kaptan, Shreyas; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Deitmer, Joachim W; de Groot, Bert L; MacAulay, Nanna

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia is a biologically potent molecule, and the regulation of ammonia levels in the mammalian body is, therefore, strictly controlled. The molecular paths of ammonia permeation across plasma membranes remain ill-defined, but the structural similarity of water and NH3 has pointed to the aquaporins as putative NH3-permeable pores. Accordingly, a range of aquaporins from mammals, plants, fungi, and protozoans demonstrates ammonia permeability. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is highly expressed at perivascular glia end-feet in the mammalian brain and may, with this prominent localization at the blood-brain-interface, participate in the exchange of ammonia, which is required to sustain the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Here we observe that AQP4-expressing Xenopus oocytes display a reflection coefficient permeable water channels. PMID:27435677

  18. Identification and role of plasma membrane aquaporin in maize root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using antiserum against expressed aquaporin fusion protein, GST-RD28, the distribution of aquaporin in the plasma membrane of maize root protoplasts has been examined under confocal laser scanning microscopy by indirect fluorescence staining. Results indicate that there are abundant aquaporins in maize roots, which are distributed in plasma membrane unevenly. Western blotting analysis of total protein solubilized from maize root plasma membrane shows that antiserum against GST-RD28 can cross-react with one protein around 55 ku. Another 28 ku protein can also be detected when the concentration of SDS and DTT in SDS-PAGE sample buffer is increased. The 55 and 28 ku proteins may be dimeric and monomeric of aquaporin respectively. Functional experiments show that aquaporin blocker HgCl2 and aquaporin antiserum can suppress the swelling of maize root protoplasts in hypotonic solution, indicating that aquaporin in plasma membrane of protoplast facilitates rapid transmembrane water flow.

  19. Projection map of aquaporin-9 at 7 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadiu, Hector; Gonen, Tamir; Walz, Thomas

    2007-03-16

    Aquaporin-9, an aquaglyceroporin present in diverse tissues, is unique among aquaporins because it is not only permeable to water, urea and glycerol, but also allows passage of larger uncharged solutes. Single particle analysis of negatively stained recombinant rat aquaporin-9 revealed a particle size characteristic of the tetrameric organization of all members of the aquaporin family. Reconstitution of aquaporin-9 into two-dimensional crystals enabled us to calculate a projection map at 7 A resolution. The projection structure indicates a tetrameric structure, similar to GlpF, with each square-like monomer forming a pore. A comparison of the pore-lining residues between the crystal structure of GlpF and a homology model of aquaporin-9 locates substitutions in these residues predominantly to the hydrophobic edge of the tripathic pore of GlpF, providing first insights into the structural basis for the broader substrate specificity of aquaporin-9. PMID:17239399

  20. Aquaporin, forward osmosis and biomimetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherginsky, Nikolai

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporin attracted attention not only of physiologists and biophysicists, but also of chemical engineers. Here we critically analyze a paper describing aquaporin-based artificial membranes, suggested for forward osmosis-based water purification (Wang et al. 2012, Small 8, pp. 1185-1190). Related papers published later by the same group are also discussed. We indicate recently developed general approach to describe membrane transport, membrane permeability and selectivity, which is applicable for forward osmosis. In addition, we also mention our papers describing simple nitrocellulose-based membranes, which have selective aqueous channels without proteins, but successfully imitate many properties of biomembranes. PMID:24434310

  1. Aquaporins are major determinants of water use efficiency of rice plants in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Reham M; Abogadallah, Gaber M

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed at specifying the reasons of unbalanced water relations of rice in the field at midday which results in slowing down photosynthesis and reducing water use efficiency (WUE) in japonica and indica rice under well-watered and droughted conditions. Leaf relative water content (RWC) decreased in the well-watered plants at midday in the field, but more dramatically in the droughted indica (75.6 and 71.4%) than japonica cultivars (85.5 and 80.8%). Gas exchange was measured at three points during the day (9:00, 13:00 and 17:00). Leaf internal CO2 (Ci) was not depleted when midday stomatal depression was highest indicating that Ci was not limiting to photosynthesis. Most aquaporins were predominantly expressed in leaves suggesting higher water permeability in leaves than in roots. The expression of leaf aquaporins was further induced by drought at 9:00 without comparable responses in roots. The data suggest that aquaporin expression in the root endodermis was limiting to water uptake. Upon removal of the radial barriers to water flow in roots, transpiration increased instantly and photosynthesis increased after 4h resulting in increasing WUE after 4h, demonstrating that WUE in rice is largely limited by the inadequate aquaporin expression profiles in roots.

  2. 中国古诗中引述成分的英译%On the Translation of the Quotation Contents in the Ancient Chinese Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏霞

    2015-01-01

    中国古诗以抒发个人情感的抒情诗居多,但也有不少诗歌涉及交流情境,隐含提问、回答、对话、转述等引述成分。由于中国古诗严格的音韵格律、含蓄尚简的审美传统,以及诗歌本身的开放性,不少古诗中说话人等引述信息并不明确。翻译这类古诗时,译者应根据上下文语境和暗示交流情境的动词正确地理解原诗中的引述成分,并适当地补译原诗中所隐匿或缺省的引述成分,使之更加符合英文的句法习惯与西方读者的逻辑思维和审美取向。对于古诗中的引述成分,译者在英译过程中面临直接引语与间接引语的选择,不同的处理对于译诗意境的构建起着重要的作用。%Although a great number of ancient Chinese poems are lyrics expressing poets’personal emo-tions,there are still not a few involving communication context and entailing question,reply,dialogue, reported speech and other quotation contents. Owing to the strict meter of ancient Chinese poems,Chi-nese aesthetic pursuit of brevity,and the openness of poems,the speaker and other quotation contents in the ancient Chinese poems are often implicit. While translating this kind of poems into English,the trans-lator should discern and comprehend the involved quotation contents on the basis of poem context and the verbs implying communication. To fit English grammar and meet western readers ’logical thinking and aesthetic tradition,the implicit or omitted quotation contents in the original poems could be supplemented in the translated version. The quotation contents in the ancient Chinese poems could be translated into di-rect speech or indirect speech;different disposals are of great importance to the construction of the artistic conception of the translated version.

  3. Fragment Screening of Human Aquaporin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet To

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are membrane proteins that enable water transport across cellular plasma membranes in response to osmotic gradients. Phenotypic analyses have revealed important physiological roles for AQPs, and the potential for AQP water channel modulators in various disease states has been proposed. For example, AQP1 is overexpressed in tumor microvessels, and this correlates with higher metastatic potential and aggressiveness of the malignancy. Chemical modulators would help in identifying the precise contribution of water channel activity in these disease states. These inhibitors would also be important therapeutically, e.g., in anti-cancer treatment. This perceived importance contrasts with the lack of success of high-throughput screens (HTS to identify effective and specific inhibitors of aquaporins. In this paper, we have screened a library of 1500 “fragments”, i.e., smaller than molecules used in HTS, against human aquaporin (hAQP1 using a thermal shift assay and surface plasmon resonance. Although these fragments may not inhibit their protein target, they bound to and stabilized hAQP1 (sub mM binding affinities (KD, with an temperature of aggregation shift ΔTagg of +4 to +50 °C in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chemically expanded versions of these fragments should follow the determination of their binding site on the aquaporin surface.

  4. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.;

    2013-01-01

    -free ABMs that can be easily scaled up. We have constructed robust thin film composite (TFC) ABMs with surface areas up to 600 cm2 prepared by interfacial polymerization where Aquaporin Z-containing proteoliposomes were added to a m-phenylene-diamine aqueous solution thereby creating a polymer-rich film...

  5. Vanillin inhibits translation and induces messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granule formation in saccharomyces cerevisiae: application and validation of high-content, image-based profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Aya; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Suga, Yohei; Izawa, Shingo; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin, generated by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose, acts as a potent inhibitor of the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the cellular processes affected by vanillin using high-content, image-based profiling. Among 4,718 non-essential yeast deletion mutants, the morphology of those defective in the large ribosomal subunit showed significant similarity to that of vanillin-treated cells. The defects in these mutants were clustered in three domains of the ribosome: the mRNA tunnel entrance, exit and backbone required for small subunit attachment. To confirm that vanillin inhibited ribosomal function, we assessed polysome and messenger ribonucleoprotein granule formation after treatment with vanillin. Analysis of polysome profiles showed disassembly of the polysomes in the presence of vanillin. Processing bodies and stress granules, which are composed of non-translating mRNAs and various proteins, were formed after treatment with vanillin. These results suggest that vanillin represses translation in yeast cells.

  6. Agmatine attenuates brain edema through reducing the expression of aquaporin-1 after cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Jong Eun LEE

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema is frequently shown after cerebral ischemia. It is an expansion of brain volume because of increasing water content in brain. It causes to increase mortality after stroke. Agmatine, formed by the decarboxylation of -arginine by arginine decarboxylase, has been shown to be neuroprotective in trauma and ischemia models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agmatine for brain edema in ischemic brain damage and to evaluate the expression of aquaporins (AQPs). Res...

  7. The gating mechanism of the human aquaporin 5 revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorant Janosi

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are protein channels located across the cell membrane with the role of conducting water or other small sugar alcohol molecules (aquaglyceroporins. The high-resolution X-ray structure of the human aquaporin 5 (HsAQP5 shows that HsAQP5, as all the other known aquaporins, exhibits tetrameric structure. By means of molecular dynamics simulations we analyzed the role of spontaneous fluctuations on the structural behavior of the human AQP5. We found that different conformations within the tetramer lead to a distribution of monomeric channel structures, which can be characterized as open or closed. The switch between the two states of a channel is a tap-like mechanism at the cytoplasmic end which regulates the water passage through the pore. The channel is closed by a translation of the His67 residue inside the pore. Moreover, water permeation rate calculations revealed that the selectivity filter, located at the other end of the channel, regulates the flow rate of water molecules when the channel is open, by locally modifying the orientation of His173. Furthermore, the calculated permeation rates of a fully open channel are in good agreement with the reported experimental value.

  8. Increased aquaporin 1 and 5 membrane expression in the lens epithelium of cataract patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandika, Olatz; Ezquerra-Inchausti, Maitane; Anasagasti, Ander; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara; Llarena, Irantzu; Bascaran, Lucia; Alberdi, Txomin; De Benedetti, Giacomo; Mendicute, Javier; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In this work we have analyzed the expression levels of the main aquaporins (AQPs) expressed in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) using 112 samples from patients treated with cataract surgery and 36 samples from individuals treated with refractive surgery, with transparent lenses as controls. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the main AQP, representing 64.1% of total AQPs in HLECs, with aquaporin-5 (AQP5) representing 35.9% in controls. A similar proportion of each AQP in cataract was found. Although no differences were found at the mRNA level compared to controls, a significant 1.65-fold increase (p=0.001) in AQP1protein expression was observed in HLECs from cataract patients, with the highest differences being found for nuclear cataracts (2.1-fold increase; p<0.001). A similar trend was found for AQP5 (1.47-fold increase), although the difference was not significant (p=0.161). Moreover we have shown increased membrane AQP5 protein expression in HLECs of patients with cataracts. No association of AQP1 or AQP5 expression levels with age or sex was observed in either group. Our results suggest regulation of AQP1 and AQP5 at the post-translational level and support previous observations on the implication of AQP1 and 5 in maintenance of lens transparency in animal models. Our results likely reflect a compensatory response of the crystalline lens to delay cataract formation by increasing the water removal rate.

  9. Book received: Alois Riegl, The Origins of Baroque Art in Rome, edited and translated by Andrew Hopkins and Arnold Witte, with essays by Alina Payne, Arnold Witte, and Andrew Hopkins; Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute including contents, acknowledgments and a note on the translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Riegl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alois Riegl, The Origins of Baroque Art in Rome, edited and translated by Andrew Hopkins and Arnold Witte, with essays by Alina Payne, Arnold Witte, and Andrew Hopkins; Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute including contents, acknowledgments and a note on the translation.

  10. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delporte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  11. Correlation of aquaporin-4 expression to blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengcheng Xu; Haorong Feng; Jinbu Xu; Yongping Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic cerebrovascular disease causes injury to the blood-brain barrier. The occurrence of brain edema is associated with aquaporin expression following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of aquaporin-4 expression to brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability in brain tissues of rat models of ischemia/reperfusion. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized control experiment was performed at the Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Medical College, China from December 2006 to October 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 112 adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 220-250 g, were used to establish rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion by the suture method. Rabbit anti-aquaporin-4 (Santa Cruz, USA) and Evans blue (Sigma, USA) were used to analyze the tissue. METHODS: The rats were randomized into sham-operated (n = 16) and ischemia/reperfusion (n = 96) groups. There were 6 time points in the ischemia/reperfusion group, comprising 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after reperfusion, with 16 rats for each time point. Rat models in the sham-operated group at 4 hours after surgery and rat models in the ischemia/reperfusion group at different time points were equally and randomly assigned into 4 different subgroups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain water content on the ischemic side and the control side was measured using the dry-wet weight method. Blood-brain barrier function was determined by Evans Blue. Aquaporin-4 expression surrounding the ischemic focus, as well as the correlation of aquaporin-4 expression with brain water content and Evans blue staining, were measured using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Brain water content on the ischemic side significantly increased at 12 hours after reperfusion, reached a peak at 48 hours, and was still high at 72 hours. Brain water content was greater on the ischemic hemispheres, compared with the control hemispheres

  12. Astrocyte Aquaporin Dynamics in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potokar, Maja; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Zorec, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), membrane water channels, consists of diverse types of proteins that are mainly permeable to water; some are also permeable to small solutes, such as glycerol and urea. They have been identified in a wide range of organisms, from microbes to vertebrates and plants, and are expressed in various tissues. Here, we focus on AQP types and their isoforms in astrocytes, a major glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have anatomical contact with the microvasculature, pia, and neurons. Of the many roles that astrocytes have in the CNS, they are key in maintaining water homeostasis. The processes involved in this regulation have been investigated intensively, in particular regulation of the permeability and expression patterns of different AQP types in astrocytes. Three aquaporin types have been described in astrocytes: aquaporins AQP1 and AQP4 and aquaglyceroporin AQP9. The aim here is to review their isoforms, subcellular localization, permeability regulation, and expression patterns in the CNS. In the human CNS, AQP4 is expressed in normal physiological and pathological conditions, but astrocytic expression of AQP1 and AQP9 is mainly associated with a pathological state. PMID:27420057

  13. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G disrupts blood brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Berg, Carsten Tue; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the significance of immunoglobulin G autoantibody specific for the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 in cerebrospinal fluid, aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was administered intrathecally to naïve mice, and the distribution and pathogenic impact...

  15. Strategies of English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.

  16. Aquaporins: highly regulated channels controlling plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, François; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2014-04-01

    Plant growth and development are dependent on tight regulation of water movement. Water diffusion across cell membranes is facilitated by aquaporins that provide plants with the means to rapidly and reversibly modify water permeability. This is done by changing aquaporin density and activity in the membrane, including posttranslational modifications and protein interaction that act on their trafficking and gating. At the whole organ level aquaporins modify water conductance and gradients at key "gatekeeper" cell layers that impact on whole plant water flow and plant water potential. In this way they may act in concert with stomatal regulation to determine the degree of isohydry/anisohydry. Molecular, physiological, and biophysical approaches have demonstrated that variations in root and leaf hydraulic conductivity can be accounted for by aquaporins but this must be integrated with anatomical considerations. This Update integrates these data and emphasizes the central role played by aquaporins in regulating plant water relations.

  17. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  18. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  19. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...

  20. Aquaporin-1 Expressed in Cultured Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingkai Lin; Jian Ge; Yehong Zhuo; Yuqing Lan; Keming Yu; Jianliang Zheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To determine if aquaporin-1 could be detected in cultures of human trabecularshwork cells. Methods: Using primers specific for aquaporin-1, reverse transcription combined withpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) yielded a product and its size with total RNAprepared from the human trabecular meshwork cells. SDS-PAGE and immunoblottingwere also used in this study to detect the specific water channel.Results: The presence of this product and its size (298 base pairs) are consistent withthat of an aquaporin-1 message in these cells. A band of 28 kD in agreement with themolecular size of aquaporin-1 was showed in a film by immunoblotting.Conclusion: The presence of aquaporin-1 in human trabecular meshwork cells, thepredominant cell-type of the primary outflow region of the human eye, suggests that waterchannels may be involved in the movement of aqueous fluid out of the eye. In addition,the existence of aquaporin-1 on cultures of human trabecular meshwork cells provides anin vitro model to study the endogenous expression of aquaporin-1 and its possible role inthe regulation of aqueous outflow.

  1. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  2. Translators and Translation: 1974 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Pierre-Francois

    1974-01-01

    An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)

  3. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  4. Translation and Conceptualization of Pedagogical Content Knowledge(PCK)in Chinese Discourses%课目教育学知识的译名与概念辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘蕾琼; 黄甫全

    2015-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge( PCK)自1985年舒尔曼正式提出以来,经过多年的研究与开发,已被公认为是教学与教师教育领域的核心概念。国内很多人都使用译名“学科教学知识”,但是其中的“学科”和“教学”内涵过于狭窄,前者未能涵括“content”所泛指的学校教育中的“学科”和“活动”内容,后者未能表达“pedagogical”的“教育学的”涵括面。斟酌而将其译为“课目教育学知识”较为贴切。课目教育学知识实质上是课目知识的一种特殊形式,即教育学化了的课目知识,奠基了教学作为专业的认识论。它已经形成了二因素结构模型、三因素结构模型、五因素结构模型和六因素结构模型,而凸显了生成性。它启动了教师教育重建,整合了学习环境设计、学生先在概念的实证研究、课目知识分析、教师课目教育学知识研究和教师教育设计五大维度,并使这些维度紧密相连且相互影响,从而表现出超越性。%The term pedagogical content knowledge( PCK)was coined by Shulman in 1985 and now has become a key motion in domain of teaching and teacher education. It has been translated in Chinese as“学科教学知识”, which means equally English“teachable subject knowledge”. We argue that PCK should be translated into Chinese“课目教育学知识”. PCK belongs to the content knowledge,but the particular form of content knowledge that embodies the aspect of content most germane its teachability and learnability. PCK is so generative that researchers have built the 2-factor model,the 3-factor model,and the 5-factor model as well as 6-factor model respectively for it and that practitioners begin the reconstruction of teacher education,which refers to five dimensions,namely,learning environment design,empirical study of learner ’s pre-conception,analysis of content knowledge,teacher’s PCK study

  5. Compartmentalization of Aquaporins in the Human Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Improper localization of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQP induce mucosal injury which is implicated in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The amino acid sequences of AQP3 and AQP10 are 79% similar and belong to the mammalian aquaglyceroporin subfamily. AQP10 is localized on the apical compartment of the intestinal epithelium called the glycocalyx while AQP3 is selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane. Despite the high sequence similarity and evolutionary relatedness, the molecular mechanism involved in the polarity, selective targeting and function of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestine is largely unknown. Our hypothesis is that the differential polarity and selective targeting of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestinal epithelial cells is influenced by amino acid signal motifs. We performed sequence and structural alignments to determine differences in signals for localization and posttranslational glycosylation. The basolateral sorting motif “YRLL” is present in AQP3 but absent in AQP10; while Nglycosylation signals are present in AQP10 but absent in AQP3. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AQP3 is longer compared to AQP10. The sequence and structural differences between AQP3 and AQP10 provide insights into the differential compartmentalization and function of these two aquaporins commonly expressed in human intestines.

  6. Aquaporin-4 and ischemic brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saihong Dun; Yang Guo

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and brain edema.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms of "aquaporin-4, brain edema", we searched PubMed database to identify studies published from January 1997 to April 2006 in the English languages. Meanwhile, we also searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for related studies.STUDY SELECTION: The collected data were selected firstly. Studies on AQP4 and brain edema were chosen and their full-texts were searched for, and those with repetitive or review studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 146 related studies were collected, 42 of them were involved and the other 104 studies were used for reading reference data.DATA SYNTHESIS: AQP4 is a selective water permeable integral membrane protein. It is mainly expressed in astrocytes and ependymocyte, and is the important structural basis for water regulation and transportation between glial cells and cerebrospinal fluid or vessels. Phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of AQP4.AQP4 participates in the formation of brain edema caused by various factors. Studies on the structure and pathological changes of AQP4 are still in the initial stage, and the role and mechanism of AQP4 in the formation of brain edema is very unclear.CONCLUSION: AQP4 plays a critical regulating role in the formation of ischemic brain edema, but whether it is regulated by drugs lacks reliable evidence.

  7. Bilobalide inhibits the expression of aquaporin 1, 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in rat brain tissue after permanent focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiming Qin; Fulin Song; Hongguang Han; Hong Qu; Xingwen Zhai; Bin Qin; Song You

    2011-01-01

    The present results demonstrated that in an adult rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), pretreatment with bilobalide reduced brain water content and infarct area, down-regulated aquaporin 1, 4 mRNA expression in brain edema tissue, then inhibited their synthesis in the striatum, in particular at the early stage of ischemia (at 8 hours after pMCAO), inhibited glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, and lightened reactive gliosis. These data sug-gest that bilobalide attenuates brain edema formation due to reduced expression of aquaporins.

  8. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  9. Molecular dynamics insights into human aquaporin 2 water channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, A R; Kamali, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the first molecular dynamics simulation of the human aquaporin 2 is performed and for a better understanding of the aquaporin 2 permeability performance, the characteristics of water transport in this protein channel and key biophysical parameters of AQP2 tetramer including osmotic and diffusive permeability constants and the pore radius are investigated. For this purpose, recently recovered high resolution X-ray crystal structure of` the human aquaporin 2 is used to perform twenty nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated tetramer of this protein embedded in a lipid bilayer. The resulting water permeability characteristics of this protein channel showed that the water permeability of the human AQP2 is in a mean range in comparison with other human aquaporins family. Finally, the results reported in this research demonstrate that molecular dynamics simulation of human AQP2 provided useful insights into the mechanisms of water permeation and urine concentration in the human kidney. PMID:26489820

  10. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive dorsal midbrain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyoun; Jeong, Seong-Hae; Park, Sang Min; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) can cause various ocular motor disorders in addition to optic neuritis. Ocular motor findings associated with NMOSD include spontaneous vertical and gaze-evoked nystagmus, wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and trochlear nerve palsy. The association between dorsal midbrain syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody seropositivity has not been reported. Here, we report a patient displaying typical dorsal midbrain syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody seropositivity.

  11. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  12. Specific aquaporins facilitate the diffusion of hydrogen peroxide across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Gerd P; Møller, Anders L B; Kristiansen, Kim A; Schulz, Alexander; Møller, Ian M; Schjoerring, Jan K; Jahn, Thomas P

    2007-01-12

    The metabolism of aerobic organisms continuously produces reactive oxygen species. Although potentially toxic, these compounds also function in signaling. One important feature of signaling compounds is their ability to move between different compartments, e.g. to cross membranes. Here we present evidence that aquaporins can channel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Twenty-four aquaporins from plants and mammals were screened in five yeast strains differing in sensitivity toward oxidative stress. Expression of human AQP8 and plant Arabidopsis TIP1;1 and TIP1;2 in yeast decreased growth and survival in the presence of H2O2. Further evidence for aquaporin-mediated H2O2 diffusion was obtained by a fluorescence assay with intact yeast cells using an intracellular reactive oxygen species-sensitive fluorescent dye. Application of silver ions (Ag+), which block aquaporin-mediated water diffusion in a fast kinetics swelling assay, also reversed both the aquaporin-dependent growth repression and the H2O2-induced fluorescence. Our results present the first molecular genetic evidence for the diffusion of H2O2 through specific members of the aquaporin family.

  13. Heteromerization of PIP aquaporins affects their intrinsic permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaneff, Agustín; Sigaut, Lorena; Marquez, Mercedes; Alleva, Karina; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The plant aquaporin plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily represents one of the main gateways for water exchange at the plasma membrane (PM). A fraction of this subfamily, known as PIP1, does not reach the PM unless they are coexpressed with a PIP2 aquaporin. Although ubiquitous and abundantly expressed, the role and properties of PIP1 aquaporins have therefore remained masked. Here, we unravel how FaPIP1;1, a fruit-specific PIP1 aquaporin from Fragaria x ananassa, contributes to the modulation of membrane water permeability (Pf) and pH aquaporin regulation. Our approach was to combine an experimental and mathematical model design to test its activity without affecting its trafficking dynamics. We demonstrate that FaPIP1;1 has a high water channel activity when coexpressed as well as how PIP1-PIP2 affects gating sensitivity in terms of cytosolic acidification. PIP1-PIP2 random heterotetramerization not only allows FaPIP1;1 to arrive at the PM but also produces an enhancement of FaPIP2;1 activity. In this context, we propose that FaPIP1;1 is a key participant in the regulation of water movement across the membranes of cells expressing both aquaporins. PMID:24367080

  14. Aquaporin 9 in rat brain after severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reveal the expression and possible roles of aquaporin 9 (AQP9 in rat brain, after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: Brain water content (BWC, tetrazolium chloride staining, Evans blue staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC, immunofluorescence (IF, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used. RESULTS: The BWC reached the first and second (highest peaks at 6 and 72 hours, and the blood brain barrier (BBB was severely destroyed at six hours after the TBI. The worst brain ischemia occurred at 72 hours after TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes and neurons in the hypothalamus were detected by means of IHC and IF after TBI. The abundance of AQP9 and its mRNA increased after TBI and reached two peaks at 6 and 72 hours, respectively, after TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Increased AQP9 might contribute to clearance of excess water and lactate in the early stage of TBI. Widespread AQP9-positive astrocytes might help lactate move into neurons and result in cellular brain edema in the later stage of TBI. AQP9-positive neurons suggest that AQP9 plays a role in energy balance after TBI.

  15. Changes in aquaporin-4 and Kir4.1 expression in rats with inherited retinal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiale, S; Valamanesh, F; Klein, C; Hicks, D; Abitbol, M; Versaux-Botteri, C

    2016-07-01

    Muller glial cells (MGC) are essential for normal functioning of retina. They are especially involved in potassium (K+) and water homeostasis, via inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir 4.1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels respectively. Because MGC appear morphologically and functionally altered in most retinal pathologies, we studied the expression of AQP 4 and Kir 4.1 during the time course of progressive retinal degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, an animal model for the hereditary human retinal degenerative disease Retinitis pigmentosa. Simultaneous detection of AQP4 and Kir 4.1 was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry at birth and during progression of the pathology. Although small quantities of AQP4 and Kir 4.1 mRNA were detected at birth (postnatal day (PNd) 0) in both control and dystrophic rat retinas, proteins could not be detected at this age. Detectable proteins appeared in the second week of postnatal life. From PNd15 onwards, the time course in the expression of both AQP4 and Kir 4.1 mRNAs and protein was similar in dystrophic and control rats, with a progressive increase peaking at PNd60 and a subsequent decrease by one year. AQP4 protein and mRNA content were significantly lowered in dystrophic compared to control rats. Kir 4.1 protein levels were also lower in dystrophic retinas, while mRNA concentrations were unchanged and/or slightly higher in dystrophic rats. The discrepancies between Kir4.1 mRNA and protein suggest perturbation in protein translation due to the pathology. AQP4 and Kir 4.1/vimentin co-immunolabeling showed that: 1) apical radial processes of some MGC invaded the subretinal zone, and 2) MGC morphology was distorted in advanced pathology. MGC became hypertrophic both during the pathology and also with age in control rats. In conclusion, our results confirm that this inherited photoreceptor degeneration also leads to progressive alterations in

  16. Differential aquaporin 4 expression during edema build-up and resolution phases of brain inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochet Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasogenic edema dynamically accumulates in many brain disorders associated with brain inflammation, with the critical step of edema exacerbation feared in patient care. Water entrance through blood-brain barrier (BBB opening is thought to have a role in edema formation. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of edema resolution remain poorly understood. Because the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4 provides an important route for vasogenic edema resolution, we studied the time course of AQP4 expression to better understand its potential effect in countering the exacerbation of vasogenic edema. Methods Focal inflammation was induced in the rat brain by a lysolecithin injection and was evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 20 days using a combination of in vivo MRI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements used as a marker of water content, and molecular and histological approaches for the quantification of AQP4 expression. Markers of active inflammation (macrophages, BBB permeability, and interleukin-1β and markers of scarring (gliosis were also quantified. Results This animal model of brain inflammation demonstrated two phases of edema development: an initial edema build-up phase during active inflammation that peaked after 3 days (ADC increase was followed by an edema resolution phase that lasted from 7 to 20 days post injection (ADC decrease and was accompanied by glial scar formation. A moderate upregulation in AQP4 was observed during the build-up phase, but a much stronger transcriptional and translational level of AQP4 expression was observed during the secondary edema resolution phase. Conclusions We conclude that a time lag in AQP4 expression occurs such that the more significant upregulation was achieved only after a delay period. This change in AQP4 expression appears to act as an important determinant in the exacerbation of edema, considering that AQP4 expression is insufficient to counter the water influx during the build

  17. [Roles of Aquaporins in Brain Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Masato

    2015-06-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) is a water channel protein that is expressed in the cell membranes. AQPs are related to several kinds of human diseases such as cataract. In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), AQP4 is specifically expressed in the astrocyte membranes lining the perivascular and periventricular structures. AQP4 plays a role in the development of brain edema associated with certain brain disorders. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disorder, and patients with NMO develop autoimmune antibodies against AQP4 in their serum. Therefore, AQP4 is involved in NMO pathogenesis. A new concept referred to as "glymphatic pathway" has been recently proposed to explain the lymphatic system in the CNS. Dysfunction of the "glymphatic pathway" may cause several neurodegenerative diseases and mood disorders. Importantly, AQP4 may play a role in the "glymphatic pathway". Further investigation of AQP4 in CNS disorders is necessary, and a new drug against AQP4 is expected. PMID:26062588

  18. Aquaporins in development – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wintour E Marelyn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Water homeostasis during fetal development is of crucial physiologic importance. It depends upon maternal fetal fluid exchange at the placenta and fetal membranes, and some exchange between fetus and amniotic fluid can occur across the skin before full keratinization. Lungs only grow and develop normally with fluid secretion, and there is evidence that cerebral spinal fluid formation is important in normal brain development. The aquaporins are a growing family of molecular water channels, the ontogeny of which is starting to be explored. One question that is of particular importance is how well does the rodent (mouse, rat fetus serve as a model for long-gestation mammals such as sheep and human? This is particularly important for organs such as the lung and the kidney, whose development before birth is very much less in rodents than in the long-gestation species.

  19. Altered aquaporin expression in glaucoma eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; la Cour, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5......, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma; and three eyes had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Six eyes with normal intraocular pressure...... and without glaucoma were used as control. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9. For each specimen, optical densities of immunoprecipitates were measured using Photoshop and the staining intensities were calculated. Immunostaining showed labelling...

  20. Renal aquaporins and water balance disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen; Fenton, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of proteins that can act as water channels. Regulation of AQPs is critical to osmoregulation and the maintenance of body water homeostasis. Eight AQPs are expressed in the kidney of which five have been shown to play a role in body water balance; AQP1, AQP......2, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP7. AQP2 in particular is regulated by vasopressin. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of various water balance disorders and their treatment strategies. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Dysfunctions of AQPs are involved in disorders...... associated with disturbed water homeostasis. Hyponatremia with increased AQP levels can be caused by diseases with low effective circulating blood volume, such as congestive heart failure, or osmoregulation disorders such as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Treatment consists...

  1. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  2. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention is...... given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention. This...... creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  3. Aquaporins with anion/monocarboxylate permeability: mechanisms, relevance for pathogen-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis eRambow

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Classically, aquaporins are divided based on pore selectivity into water specific, orthodox aquaporins and solute-facilitating aquaglyceroporins, which conduct e.g. glycerol and urea. However, more aquaporin-passing substrates have been identified over the years, such as the gases ammonia and carbon dioxide or the water-related hydrogen peroxide, and it became apparent that not all aquaporins clearly fit into one of only two subfamilies. Furthermore, certain aquaporins from both major subfamilies have been reported to conduct inorganic anions, such as chloride, or monoacids/monocarboxylates, such as lactic acid/lactate. Here, we summarize the findings on aquaporin anion transport, analyze the pore layout of such aquaporins in comparison to prototypical non-selective anion channels, monocarboxylate transporters, and formate-nitrite transporters, and discuss in which scenarios anion conducting aquaporins may be of physiological relevance.

  4. Reconsideration on the translation criteria from the angle of content loyalty, word meaning and culture%从忠信、词义与文化的角度重新思考翻译标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国卿

    2012-01-01

      The paper discusses the translation criteria from the angle of content loyalty, word meaning and culture and the author believes translation means translating language form and transferring cultural content simultaneously. Therefore, as the translation standards, faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance present two gradients of opposite directions in difficulty and assessment. The paper also probes into the gap among the content loyalty, faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance.%  本文从忠信、词义与文化的角来重新探讨翻译标准,认为“翻”的是语言形式,“译”的是文化内涵,因此作为翻译标准的“信、达、雅”在难度和可评价性上形成两个方向相反的梯度。文中还讨论了文本忠信和表现顺达雅致的距离。

  5. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  6. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2008-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  7. Translating Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...

  8. Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassés Daniel da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP, already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags were considered to be promising for future studies and especially for the development of molecular markers for plant breeding. From those 10 isoforms, four (SoPIP2-4, SoPIP2-6, OsPIP2-4, and SsPIP1-1 showed distinct responses towards drought, with divergent expressions between the bulks from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, when they were compared under normal and stress conditions. Two targets (SsPIP1-1 and SoPIP1-3/PIP1-4 were selected for validation via RT-qPCR and their expression patterns as detected by HT-SuperSAGE were confirmed. The employed validation strategy revealed that different genotypes share the same tolerant or sensitive phenotype, respectively, but may use different routes for stress acclimation, indicating the aquaporin transcription in sugarcane to be potentially genotype-specific.

  9. 水通道蛋白与高等植物的耐盐性%Aquaporins and Salt Tolerance of Higher Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师恭曜; 王玉美; 华金平

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporins ( AQPs) is one of the largest superfamily of channel proteins in plants,where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes or gases. A wide range of regulation properties,such as translational regulation,gating mechanism,heterotetramerization and sub-cellular localization,make aquaporins a large contribution to membrane hydraulic conductance,which plays an important role in controlling water absorbing and transporting in plants. Osmotic stress,ion toxicity,active oxygen and other stresses induced by salinity severely affect plant growth and development. Plant aquaporins are integrated throughout the adaptations to salinity. The functional characteristics of plant aquaporins,injury forms of salt stress on plants,and roles of aquaporins helping the plant in combating salt stress were reviewed. And the study in plant aquaporins and feasibility in improving plant salt tolerance by rational use of aquaporins were proposed.%水通道蛋白是一类特异的、高效转运水及其它小分子底物的整合膜蛋白,在植物中具有丰富的亚型.水通道蛋白通过转录调控、门控机制、聚合调控、重新定位等多种活性调控方式影响细胞膜系统的通透性,参与调节植物的水分吸收和运输.盐害引起渗透胁迫、离子毒害、活性氧胁迫,影响植物生长;水通道蛋白通过多种调控方式,全程参与植物的盐胁迫应答.结合水通道蛋白的功能特征及盐胁迫对高等植物的影响,综述了水通道蛋白在植物盐胁迫应答过程中的功能,并探讨了水通道蛋白研究的重点方向.

  10. Aquaporin-4 and traumatic brain edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; XU Qiu-ping

    2010-01-01

    Brain edema leading to an expansion of brain volume has a crucial impact on morbidity and mortal-ity following traumatic brain injury as it increases intracra-nial pressure, impairs cerebral perfusion and oxygenation,and contributes to additional ischemic injuries.Classically,two major types of traumatic brain edema exist: "vasogenic"and "cytotoxic/cellular".However, the cellular and molecu-lar mechanisms contributing to the development/resolution of traumatic brain edema are poorly understood and no ef-fective drugs can be used now.Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water-channel protein expressed strongly in the brain, pre-dominantly in astrocyte foot processes at the borders be-tween the brain parenchyma and major fluid compartments, including cerebrospinal fluid and blood.This distribution suggests that AQP4 controls water fluxes into and out of the brain parenchyma.In cytotoxic edema, AQP4 deletion slows the rate of water entry into brain, whereas in vasogenic edema, AQP4 deletion reduces the rate of water outflow from brain parenchyma.AQP4 has been proposed as a novel drug target in brain edema.These findings sug-gest that modulation of AQP4 expression or function may be beneficial in traumatic brain edema.

  11. Aquaporins: Their role in cholestatic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on currant knowledge on hepato-cyte aquaporins (AQPs) and their significance in bile formation and cholestasis. Canalicular bile secretion results from a combined interaction of several solute transporters and AQP water channels that facilitate wa-ter flow in response to the osmotic gradients created. During choleresis, hepatocytes rapidly increase their canalicular membrane water permeability by modulat-ing the abundance of AQP8. The question was raised as to whether the opposite process, i.e. a decreased canalicular AQP8 expression would contribute to the development of cholestasis. Studies in several experi-mental models of cholestasis, such as extrahepatic obstructive cholestasis, estrogen-induced cholestasis, and sepsis-induced cholestasis demonstrated that the protein expression of hepatocyte AQP8 was impaired. In addition, biophysical studies in canalicular plasma membranes revealed decreased water permeability as-sociated with AQP8 protein downregulation. The com-bined alteration in hepatocyte solute transporters and AQP8 would hamper the efficient coupling of osmotic gradients and canalicular water flow. Thus cholestasis may result from a mutual occurrence of impaired sol-ute transport and decreased water permeability.

  12. Thermodynamic insight into spontaneous hydration and rapid water permeation in aquaporins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati Farimani, A.; Aluru, N. R. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Tajkhorshid, Emad [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-08-25

    We report here a detailed thermodynamic description of water molecules inside a biological water channel. Taking advantage of high-resolution molecular dynamics trajectories calculated for an aquaporin (AQP) channel, we compute the spatial translational and rotational components of water diffusion and entropy in AQP. Our results reveal that the spontaneous filling and entry of water into the pore in AQPs are driven by an entropic gain. Specifically, water molecules exhibit an elevated degree of rotational motion inside the pore, while their translational motion is slow compared with bulk. The partial charges of the lining asparagine residues at the conserved signature Asn-Pro-Ala motifs play a key role in enhancing rotational diffusion and facilitating dipole flipping of water inside the pore. The frequencies of the translational and rotational motions in the power spectra overlap indicating a strong coupling of these motions in AQPs. A shooting mechanism with diffusive behavior is observed in the extracellular region which might be a key factor in the fast conduction of water in AQPs.

  13. Effects of different resuscitation fluids on pulmonary expression of aquaporin1 and aquaporin5 in a rat model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of fluids resuscitation on pulmonary expression of aquaporin1 and aquaporin5 in a rat model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and infection. METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups, sham operation group (Group C and four treated groups: no fluid resuscitation group (Group NF, groups resuscitated with Lactated Ringer's (LR,7.5% NaCl (HTS and Hydroxyl ethyl starch (HES respectively. Three-phased uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock and infection model was used. Phase I: Massive hemorrhage with a mean arterial pressure of 35-40 mmHg for 60 min, and followed by infection of lipopolysaccharide. Then some animals were resuscitated with solutions mentioned above, until 90 min. Phase II: At hemorrhagic shock 90 minutes, phase II of 60 minutes began with hemostasis and returning of all the initial shed blood. Phase III: Observation phase for 3.5 hours. After phase III, arterial blood gas analysis and the survival rates of the rats were recorded, Wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, BALF protein, pulmonary permeability index, and expressions of aquaporin1 and aquaporin5 were tested. RESULTS: The expressions of aquaporin1 and aquaporin5 were decreased in treatment groups comparing with sham operation group. Group HES and Group HTS decreased pulmonary vascular permeability and Wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, improved arterial blood gas analysis and survival rates, and attenuated the decreased pulmonary expression of aquaporin1 and aquaporin5 after the "two-hit", comparing with groups NF and LR,but these beneficial effects were blunted in group HTS. CONCLUSION: The expression of aquaporin1 and aquaporin5 may play important roles in formation of pulmonary edema. Resuscitation with HTS and HES, especially HES can reduce lung injury after hemorrhagic shock, partly by up-regulating the expressions of aquaporin1 and aquaporin5.

  14. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Li; Weiheng Su; Jie Wang; Francesco Pisani; Antonio Frigeri; Tonghui Ma

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  15. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-03-15

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  16. Aquaporin water channels: molecular mechanisms for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, Peter; Kozono, David

    2003-11-27

    Although water is the major component of all biological fluids, the molecular pathways for water transport across cell membranes eluded identification until the discovery of the aquaporin family of water channels. The atomic structure of mammalian AQP1 illustrates how this family of proteins is freely permeated by water but not protons (hydronium ions, H3O+). Definition of the subcellular sites of expression predicted their physiological functions and potential clinical disorders. Analysis of several human disease states has confirmed that aquaporins are involved in multiple different illnesses including abnormalities of kidney function, loss of vision, onset of brain edema, starvation, and arsenic toxicity.

  17. Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) Expression in the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Koike; Yasuko Tanaka; Toshiyuki Matsuzaki; Yoshiyuki Morishita; Kenichi Ishibashi

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is an intracellular aquaporin expressed in various tissues, including brain tissues in mammals. While AQP11-deficient mice have developed fatal polycystic kidneys at one month old, the role of AQP11 in the brain was not well appreciated. In this study, we examined the AQP11 expression in the mouse brain and the brain phenotype of AQP11-deficient mice. AQP11 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein were expressed in the brain, but much less than in the thymus and kidn...

  18. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-tian; MA Qing-jie; HE Cheng-yan; WANG Cai-xia; GAO Shi; HOU Xia; MA Tong-hui

    2007-01-01

    An overt phenotype of aquaporin-1 knockout(AQP1 ko) mice is growth retardation, suggesting possible defects in bone development and metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed the bone mineral density(BMD), bone calcium and phosphorus contents, and bone metabolism in an AQP1 ko mouse model. The BMD of femurs in AQP1 ko mice was significantly lower than that of litter-matched wildtype mice as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Consistently, the contents of bone total calcium and phosphorus were also significantly lower in AQP1 ko mice. The reduced BMD caused by AQP1 deficiency mainly affect male mice. Bone metabolic activity, as indicated by 99mTc-MDP absorption measurements, was remarkably reduced in AQP1 ko mice. These results provide the first evidence that AQP1 play an important role in bone structure and metabolism.

  19. Screening of aquaporin 7 and aquaporin 8 expression in 35 organs using semi-quantified RT-PCR methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM:Aquaporins (AQP) are very important for the water transport across cell membrane. There are at least 10 mammalian AQPs( aquaporins 0-9) distributed in various organs and different kinds of cells. Each AQP has a distinct organ distribution, and this distribution could be useful in presuming the biological function of the aquaporin. The aim of this study was to figure out the distribution of aquaporin 7 (AQP7) and aquaporin 8(AQP8).METHODS:Semi-quantified RT-PCR was employed in this research. The ratio of OD value of target gene products divided by which of control gene products was calculated. Among 35 organs, testis, epididymis, skin, muscle, rectum, lung, bronchus, lymph node, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, spleen, mammary gland, uterus, placenta, tonsil, urinary bladder, thyroid came from normal area of removed samples during operation. cDNA library of Prostate, thymus, salivary gland, penis, carotiol artery, adrenal gland, occipital lobe of brain, temporal lobe of brain, frontal lobe of brain, parietal lobe of brain, mid brain, choroid plexus are purchased from OriGene biotechnique company.RESULTS:①AQP 7 mRNA was found in testis, muscle, gall bladder, carotiol artery, lymph node and adrenal gland, and maximum expression of AQP 7 was in testis.②AQP 8 mRNA was found in pancreas, testis, skin and colon. and maximum expression of AQP 8 was in pancreas.CONCLUSION:Coexistence of AQP 7 and 8 in testis was confirmed, which suggested that both of these two aquaporins were involved in the regulation of testis function.

  20. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  1. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Zheng ZHENG; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated.This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice.Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests.Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controis, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group.Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome.

  2. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence.

  3. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Xiao-yan; Xiong, Zheng-fang; Liu, Hui-shu; Zheng, Zheng; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated. This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice. Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests. Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controls, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group. Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome. PMID:21602842

  4. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  5. Crystal Structure of an Ammonia-Permeable Aquaporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscht, Andreas; Kaptan, Shreyas S; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Chaumont, François; Nissen, Poul; de Groot, Bert L; Kjellbom, Per; Gourdon, Pontus; Johanson, Urban

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins of the TIP subfamily (Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins) have been suggested to facilitate permeation of water and ammonia across the vacuolar membrane of plants, allowing the vacuole to efficiently sequester ammonium ions and counteract cytosolic fluctuations of ammonia. Here, we report the structure determined at 1.18 Å resolution from twinned crystals of Arabidopsis thaliana aquaporin AtTIP2;1 and confirm water and ammonia permeability of the purified protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes as further substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of AtTIP2;1 reveals an extended selectivity filter with the conserved arginine of the filter adopting a unique unpredicted position. The relatively wide pore and the polar nature of the selectivity filter clarify the ammonia permeability. By mutational studies, we show that the identified determinants in the extended selectivity filter region are sufficient to convert a strictly water-specific human aquaporin into an AtTIP2;1-like ammonia channel. A flexible histidine and a novel water-filled side pore are speculated to deprotonate ammonium ions, thereby possibly increasing permeation of ammonia. The molecular understanding of how aquaporins facilitate ammonia flux across membranes could potentially be used to modulate ammonia losses over the plasma membrane to the atmosphere, e.g., during photorespiration, and thereby to modify the nitrogen use efficiency of plants.

  6. Crystal Structure of an Ammonia-Permeable Aquaporin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kirscht

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins of the TIP subfamily (Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins have been suggested to facilitate permeation of water and ammonia across the vacuolar membrane of plants, allowing the vacuole to efficiently sequester ammonium ions and counteract cytosolic fluctuations of ammonia. Here, we report the structure determined at 1.18 Å resolution from twinned crystals of Arabidopsis thaliana aquaporin AtTIP2;1 and confirm water and ammonia permeability of the purified protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes as further substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of AtTIP2;1 reveals an extended selectivity filter with the conserved arginine of the filter adopting a unique unpredicted position. The relatively wide pore and the polar nature of the selectivity filter clarify the ammonia permeability. By mutational studies, we show that the identified determinants in the extended selectivity filter region are sufficient to convert a strictly water-specific human aquaporin into an AtTIP2;1-like ammonia channel. A flexible histidine and a novel water-filled side pore are speculated to deprotonate ammonium ions, thereby possibly increasing permeation of ammonia. The molecular understanding of how aquaporins facilitate ammonia flux across membranes could potentially be used to modulate ammonia losses over the plasma membrane to the atmosphere, e.g., during photorespiration, and thereby to modify the nitrogen use efficiency of plants.

  7. Crystal Structure of an Ammonia-Permeable Aquaporin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirscht, Andreas; Kaptan, Shreyas S; Bienert, Gerd Patrick;

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins of the TIP subfamily (Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins) have been suggested to facilitate permeation of water and ammonia across the vacuolar membrane of plants, allowing the vacuole to efficiently sequester ammonium ions and counteract cytosolic fluctuations of ammonia. Here, we report th...

  8. MAL decreases the internalization of the aquaporin-2 water channel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamsteeg, E.J.; Duffield, A.S.; Konings, I.B.M.; Spencer, J.; Pagel, P.; Deen, P.M.T.; Caplan, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Body water homeostasis depends critically on the hormonally regulated trafficking of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in renal collecting duct epithelial cells. Several types of posttranslational modifications are clearly involved in controlling the distribution of AQP2 between intracellular vesicl

  9. Optimizing water permeability through the hourglass shape of aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Simon; Joly, Laurent; Detcheverry, François; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2013-10-01

    The ubiquitous aquaporin channels are able to conduct water across cell membranes, combining the seemingly antagonist functions of a very high selectivity with a remarkable permeability. Whereas molecular details are obvious keys to perform these tasks, the overall efficiency of transport in such nanopores is also strongly limited by viscous dissipation arising at the connection between the nanoconstriction and the nearby bulk reservoirs. In this contribution, we focus on these so-called entrance effects and specifically examine whether the characteristic hourglass shape of aquaporins may arise from a geometrical optimum for such hydrodynamic dissipation. Using a combination of finite-element calculations and analytical modeling, we show that conical entrances with suitable opening angle can indeed provide a large increase of the overall channel permeability. Moreover, the optimal opening angles that maximize the permeability are found to compare well with the angles measured in a large variety of aquaporins. This suggests that the hourglass shape of aquaporins could be the result of a natural selection process toward optimal hydrodynamic transport. Finally, in a biomimetic perspective, these results provide guidelines to design artificial nanopores with optimal performances. PMID:24067650

  10. Water transport between CNS compartments: contributions of aquaporins and cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, N; Zeuthen, T

    2010-01-01

    or hydrocephalus. The molecular pathways by which water molecules cross the cell membranes of the brain are not well-understood, although the discovery of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in the brain improved our understanding of some of these transport processes, particularly under pathological conditions. In the present...

  11. Crystal Structure of an Ammonia-Permeable Aquaporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscht, Andreas; Kaptan, Shreyas S; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Chaumont, François; Nissen, Poul; de Groot, Bert L; Kjellbom, Per; Gourdon, Pontus; Johanson, Urban

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins of the TIP subfamily (Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins) have been suggested to facilitate permeation of water and ammonia across the vacuolar membrane of plants, allowing the vacuole to efficiently sequester ammonium ions and counteract cytosolic fluctuations of ammonia. Here, we report the structure determined at 1.18 Å resolution from twinned crystals of Arabidopsis thaliana aquaporin AtTIP2;1 and confirm water and ammonia permeability of the purified protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes as further substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of AtTIP2;1 reveals an extended selectivity filter with the conserved arginine of the filter adopting a unique unpredicted position. The relatively wide pore and the polar nature of the selectivity filter clarify the ammonia permeability. By mutational studies, we show that the identified determinants in the extended selectivity filter region are sufficient to convert a strictly water-specific human aquaporin into an AtTIP2;1-like ammonia channel. A flexible histidine and a novel water-filled side pore are speculated to deprotonate ammonium ions, thereby possibly increasing permeation of ammonia. The molecular understanding of how aquaporins facilitate ammonia flux across membranes could potentially be used to modulate ammonia losses over the plasma membrane to the atmosphere, e.g., during photorespiration, and thereby to modify the nitrogen use efficiency of plants. PMID:27028365

  12. Aquaporin Inhibition by Gold(III) Compounds : New Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, Ana Paula; Ciancetta, Antonella; Batista de Almeida, Andreia; Marrone, Alessandro; Re, Nazzareno; Soveral, Graca; Casini, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water/glycerol channels with essential roles in biological systems, as well as being promising targets for therapy and imaging. Using a stopped-flow method, a series of gold(III), platinum(II) and copper(II) complexes bearing nitrogen donor ligands, such as 1,10-phenat

  13. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  14. Characterization of Leishmania donovani aquaporins shows presence of subcellular aquaporins similar to tonoplast intrinsic proteins of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Biyani

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, resides in the macrophages of the mammalian host. The aquaporin family of proteins form important components of the parasite-host interface. The parasite-host interface could be a potential target for chemotherapy. Analysis of L. major and L. infantum genomes showed the presence of five aquaporins (AQPs annotated as AQP9 (230aa, AQP putative (294aa, AQP-like protein (279aa, AQP1 (314aa and AQP-like protein (596aa. We report here the structural modeling, localization and functional characterization of the AQPs from L. donovani. LdAQP1, LdAQP9, LdAQP2860 and LdAQP2870 have the canonical NPA-NPA motifs, whereas LdAQP putative has a non-canonical NPM-NPA motif. In the carboxyl terminal to the second NPA box of all AQPs except AQP1, a valine/alanine residue was found instead of the arginine. In that respect these four AQPs are similar to tonoplast intrinsic proteins in plants, which are localized to intracellular organelles. Confocal microscopy of L. donovani expressing GFP-tagged AQPs showed an intracellular localization of LdAQP9 and LdAQP2870. Real-time PCR assays showed expression of all aquaporins except LdAQP2860, whose level was undetectable. Three-dimensional homology modeling of the AQPs showed that LdAQP1 structure bears greater topological similarity to the aquaglyceroporin than to aquaporin of E. coli. The pore of LdAQP1 was very different from the rest in shape and size. The cavity of LdAQP2860 was highly irregular and undefined in geometry. For functional characterization, four AQP proteins were heterologously expressed in yeast. In the fps1Δ yeast cells, which lacked the key aquaglyceroporin, LdAQP1 alone displayed an osmosensitive phenotype indicating glycerol transport activity. However, expression of LdAQP1 and LdAQP putative in a yeast gpd1Δ strain, deleted for glycerol production, conferred osmosensitive phenotype indicating water transport activity or aquaporin function. Our analysis

  15. Neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis and aquaporin 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Douglas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is a severe, debilitating human disease that predominantly features immunopathology in the optic nerves and the spinal cord. An IgG1 autoantibody (NMO-IgG that binds aquaporin 4 (AQP4 has been identified in the sera of a significant number of NMO patients, as well as in patients with two related neurologic conditions, bilateral optic neuritis (ON, and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM, that are generally considered to lie within the NMO spectrum of diseases. NMO-IgG is not the only autoantibody found in NMO patient sera, but the correlation of pathology in central nervous system (CNS with tissues that normally express high levels of AQP4 suggests NMO-IgG might be pathogenic. If this is the case, it is important to identify and understand the mechanism(s whereby an immune response is induced against AQP4. This review focuses on open questions about the "events" that need to be understood to determine if AQP4 and NMO-IgG are involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. These questions include: 1 How might AQP4-specific T and B cells be primed by either CNS AQP4 or peripheral pools of AQP4? 2 Do the different AQP4-expressing tissues and perhaps the membrane structural organization of AQP4 influence NMO-IgG binding efficacy and thus pathogenesis? 3 Does prior infection, genetic predisposition, or underlying immune dysregulation contribute to a confluence of events which lead to NMO in select individuals? A small animal model of NMO is essential to demonstrate whether AQP4 is indeed the incipient autoantigen capable of inducing NMO-IgG formation and NMO. If the NMO model is consistent with the human disease, it can be used to examine how changes in AQP4 expression and blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity, both of which can be regulated by CNS inflammation, contribute to inductive events for anti-AQP4-specific immune response. In this review, we identify reagents and experimental questions that need to be

  16. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  17. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of aquaporins in tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reuscher

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins, also called water channels or major intrinsic proteins, is characterized by six transmembrane domains that together facilitate the transport of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all domains of life, but show their highest diversity in plants. Numerous studies identified aquaporins as important targets for improving plant performance under drought stress. The phylogeny of aquaporins is well established based on model species like Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be used as a template to investigate aquaporins in other species. In this study we comprehensively identified aquaporin encoding genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, which is an important vegetable crop and also serves as a model for fleshy fruit development. We found 47 aquaporin genes in the tomato genome and analyzed their structural features. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences the aquaporin genes were assigned to five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs and their substrate specificity was assessed on the basis of key amino acid residues. As ESTs were available for 32 genes, expression of these genes was analyzed in 13 different tissues and developmental stages of tomato. We detected tissue-specific and development-specific expression of tomato aquaporin genes, which is a first step towards revealing the contribution of aquaporins to water and solute transport in leaves and during fruit development.

  18. Root aquaporins contribute to whole plant water fluxes under drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Alexandre; Mauleon, Ramil; Vadez, Vincent; Henry, Amelia

    2016-02-01

    Aquaporin activity and root anatomy may affect root hydraulic properties under drought stress. To better understand the function of aquaporins in rice root water fluxes under drought, we studied the root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and root sap exudation rate (Sr) in the presence or absence of an aquaporin inhibitor (azide) under well-watered conditions and following drought stress in six diverse rice varieties. Varieties varied in Lpr and Sr under both conditions. The contribution of aquaporins to Lpr was generally high (up to 79% under well-watered conditions and 85% under drought stress) and differentially regulated under drought. Aquaporin contribution to Sr increased in most varieties after drought, suggesting a crucial role for aquaporins in osmotic water fluxes during drought and recovery. Furthermore, root plasma membrane aquaporin (PIP) expression and root anatomical properties were correlated with hydraulic traits. Three chromosome regions highly correlated with hydraulic traits of the OryzaSNP panel were identified, but did not co-locate with known aquaporins. These results therefore highlight the importance of aquaporins in the rice root radial water pathway, but emphasize the complex range of additional mechanisms related to root water fluxes and drought response.

  19. Root aquaporins contribute to whole plant water fluxes under drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Alexandre; Mauleon, Ramil; Vadez, Vincent; Henry, Amelia

    2016-02-01

    Aquaporin activity and root anatomy may affect root hydraulic properties under drought stress. To better understand the function of aquaporins in rice root water fluxes under drought, we studied the root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and root sap exudation rate (Sr) in the presence or absence of an aquaporin inhibitor (azide) under well-watered conditions and following drought stress in six diverse rice varieties. Varieties varied in Lpr and Sr under both conditions. The contribution of aquaporins to Lpr was generally high (up to 79% under well-watered conditions and 85% under drought stress) and differentially regulated under drought. Aquaporin contribution to Sr increased in most varieties after drought, suggesting a crucial role for aquaporins in osmotic water fluxes during drought and recovery. Furthermore, root plasma membrane aquaporin (PIP) expression and root anatomical properties were correlated with hydraulic traits. Three chromosome regions highly correlated with hydraulic traits of the OryzaSNP panel were identified, but did not co-locate with known aquaporins. These results therefore highlight the importance of aquaporins in the rice root radial water pathway, but emphasize the complex range of additional mechanisms related to root water fluxes and drought response. PMID:26226878

  20. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show......This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  1. Aquaporins are critical for provision of water during lactation and intrauterine progeny hydration to maintain tsetse fly reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B Benoit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies undergo drastic fluctuations in their water content throughout their adult life history due to events such as blood feeding, dehydration and lactation, an essential feature of the viviparous reproductive biology of tsetse. Aquaporins (AQPs are transmembrane proteins that allow water and other solutes to permeate through cellular membranes. Here we identify tsetse aquaporin (AQP genes, examine their expression patterns under different physiological conditions (blood feeding, lactation and stress response and perform functional analysis of three specific genes utilizing RNA interference (RNAi gene silencing. Ten putative aquaporins were identified in the Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm genome, two more than has been previously documented in any other insect. All organs, tissues, and body parts examined had distinct AQP expression patterns. Two AQP genes, gmmdripa and gmmdripb ( = gmmaqp1a and gmmaqp1b are highly expressed in the milk gland/fat body tissues. The whole-body transcript levels of these two genes vary over the course of pregnancy. A set of three AQPs (gmmaqp5, gmmaqp2a, and gmmaqp4b are expressed highly in the Malpighian tubules. Knockdown of gmmdripa and gmmdripb reduced the efficiency of water loss following a blood meal, increased dehydration tolerance and reduced heat tolerance of adult females. Knockdown of gmmdripa extended pregnancy length, and gmmdripb knockdown resulted in extended pregnancy duration and reduced progeny production. We found that knockdown of AQPs increased tsetse milk osmolality and reduced the water content in developing larva. Combined knockdown of gmmdripa, gmmdripb and gmmaqp5 extended pregnancy by 4-6 d, reduced pupal production by nearly 50%, increased milk osmolality by 20-25% and led to dehydration of feeding larvae. Based on these results, we conclude that gmmDripA and gmmDripB are critical for diuresis, stress tolerance and intrauterine lactation through the regulation of water and

  2. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KyungHyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  3. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  4. Electrostatic tuning of permeation and selectivity in aquaporin water channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens O Stibius; Tajkhorshid, E.; Schulten, K.

    2003-01-01

    of the single file remains intact during the permeation, indicating that a disrupted water chain is unlikely to be the mechanism of proton exclusion in aquaporins. Specific hydrogen bonds between permeating water and protein at the channel center (at two conserved Asp-Pro-Ala "NPA'' motifs), together...... stronger than water-protein interactions, except near a conserved, positively charged Arg residue. We find that variations of the protein electrostatic field through the channel, owing to preserved structural features, completely explain the bipolar orientation of water. This orientation persists despite...... water translocation in single. le and blocks proton transport. Furthermore, we find that for permeation of a cation, ion-protein electrostatic interactions are more unfavorable at the conserved NPA motifs than at the conserved Arg, suggesting that the major barrier against proton transport in aquaporins...

  5. Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes: Approaches and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Habel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs: aquaporin proteins (AQPs, block copolymers for AQP reconstitution, and polymer-based supporting structures. First, we briefly cover challenges and review recent developments in understanding the interplay between AQP and block copolymers. Second, we review some experimental characterization methods for investigating AQP incorporation including freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stopped-flow light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Third, we focus on recent efforts in embedding reconstituted AQPs in membrane designs that are based on conventional thin film interfacial polymerization techniques. Finally, we describe some new developments in interfacial polymerization using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages for increasing the physical and chemical durability of thin film composite membranes.

  6. Aquaporin 1 – a novel player in spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nesic, O.; Lee, J.; Unabia, G. C.; Johnson, K.; Z. Ye; Vergara, L.; Hulsebosch, C. E.; Perez-Polo, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels ...

  7. Expression and function of aquaporins in peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tong-hui; Gao, Hong-Wen; Fang, Xue-Dong; Yang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The expression and role of the aquaporin (AQP) family water channels in the peripheral nervous system was less investigated. Since 2004, however, significant progress has been made in the immunolocalization, regulation and function of AQPs in the peripheral nervous system. These studies showed selective localization of three AQPs (AQP1, AQP2, and AQP4) in dorsal root ganglion neurons, enteric neurons and glial cells, periodontal Ruffini endings, trigeminal ganglion neurons and vomeronasal sen...

  8. Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes: Approaches and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Hansen, Michael; Kynde, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs) for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs...... thin film interfacial polymerization techniques. Finally, we describe some new developments in interfacial polymerization using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages for increasing the physical and chemical durability of thin film composite membranes....

  9. Trypanosomatid Aquaporins: Roles in Physiology and Drug Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Mandal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the class Kinetoplastida, we find an order of parasitic protozoans classified as Trypanosomatids. Three major pathogens form part of this order, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania, which are responsible for disease and fatalities in millions of humans worldwide, especially in non-industrialized countries in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In order to develop new drugs and treatments, the physiology of these pathogenic protozoans has been studied in detail, specifically the significance of membrane transporters in host parasites interactions. Aquaporins and Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs are a part of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs super-family. AQPs are characterized for their ability to facilitate the diffusion of water (aquaporin, glycerol (aquaglyceroporin, and other small-uncharged solutes. Furthermore, AQPs have been shown to allow the ubiquitous passage of some metalloids, such as trivalent arsenic and antimony. These trivalent metalloids are the active ingredient of a number of chemotherapeutic agents used against certain cancers and protozoan parasitic infections. Recently, the importance of the AQPs not only in osmotic adaptations but also as a factor in drug resistance of the trypanosomatid parasites has been reported. In this review, we will describe the physiological functions of aquaporins and their effect in drug response across the different trypanosomatids.

  10. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce;

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  11. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang-zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consider-ation of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of foren-sic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteris-tics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its char-acteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods in-clude literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  12. Sub-genomic level sequence analysis of the aquaporin multi-gene family in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaporins function mainly as water transport channel proteins that facilitate water movement across intracellular and intercellular membranes in most living organisms. Plant aquaporins belong to a multi-gene family and are commonly categorized into 5 subfamilies according to sequence similarity. Re...

  13. Aquaporin-2: COOH terminus is necessary but not sufficient for routing to the apical membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, P.M.T.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Savelkoul, P.J.M.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Raak, M.M.J.P. van; Jennings, M.L.; Muth, T.R.; Rajendran, V.; Caplan, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Renal regulation of mammalian water homeostasis is mediated by the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channel, which is expressed in the apical and basolateral membranes of proximal tubules and descending limbs of Henle, and aquaporin-2 (AQP2), which is redistributed from intracellular vesicles to the apical

  14. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  15. Regulation of Aquaporin Z osmotic permeability in ABA tri-block copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyuan Xie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are transmembrane water channel proteins present in biological plasma membranes that aid in biological water filtration processes by transporting water molecules through at high speeds, while selectively blocking out other kinds of solutes. Aquaporin Z incorporated biomimetic membranes are envisaged to overcome the problem of high pressure needed, and holds great potential for use in water purification processes, giving high flux while keeping energy consumption low. The functionality of aquaporin Z in terms of osmotic permeability might be regulated by factors such as pH, temperature, crosslinking and hydrophobic thickness of the reconstituted bilayers. Hence, we reconstituted aquaporin Z into vesicles that are made from a series of amphiphilic block copolymers PMOXA-PDMS-PMOXAs with various hydrophobic molecular weights. The osmotic permeability of aquaporin Z in these vesicles was determined through a stopped-flow spectroscopy. In addition, the temperature and pH value of the vesicle solutions were adjusted within wide ranges to investigate the regulation of osmotic permeability of aquaporin Z through external conditions. Our results show that aquaporin Z permeability was enhanced by hydrophobic mismatch. In addition, the water filtration mechanism of aquaporin Z is significantly affected by the concentration of H+ and OH- ions.

  16. Aquaporin-4 gene silencing protects injured neurons after early cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-ping He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporin-4 regulates water molecule channels and is important in tissue regulation and water transportation in the brain. Upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression is closely related to cellular edema after early cerebral infarction. Cellular edema and aquaporin-4 expression can be determined by measuring cerebral infarct area and apparent diffusion coefficient using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. We examined the effects of silencing aquaporin-4 on cerebral infarction. Rat models of cerebral infarction were established by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and siRNA-aquaporin-4 was immediately injected via the right basal ganglia. In control animals, the area of high signal intensity and relative apparent diffusion coefficient value on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI and DWI gradually increased within 0.5-6 hours after cerebral infarction. After aquaporin-4 gene silencing, the area of high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI reduced, relative apparent diffusion coefficient value was increased, and cellular edema was obviously alleviated. At 6 hours after cerebral infarction, the apparent diffusion coefficient value was similar between treatment and model groups, but angioedema was still obvious in the treatment group. These results indicate that aquaporin-4 gene silencing can effectively relieve cellular edema after early cerebral infarction; and when conducted accurately and on time, the diffusion coefficient value and the area of high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI can reflect therapeutic effects of aquaporin-4 gene silencing on cellular edema.

  17. Effects of Proteoliposome Composition and Draw Solution Types on Separation Performance of Aquaporin-Based Proteoliposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yang; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Li, Xuesong;

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are a large family of water transport proteins in cell membranes. Their high water permeability and solute rejection make them potential building blocks for high-performance biomimetic membranes for desalination. In the current study, proteoliposomes were prepared using AquaporinZ from...

  18. A Gold Coordination Compound as a Chemical Probe to Unravel Aquaporin-7 Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madeira, Ana; de Almeida, Andreia; de Graaf, Chris; Camps, Marta; Zorzano, Antonio; Moura, Teresa F; Casini, Angela; Soveral, Graça

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water/glycerol channels that are involved in many physiological functions. Aquaporin-based modulators are predicted to have potential utility in the treatment of several diseases, as well as chemical tools to assess AQPs function in biological systems. We recently repo

  19. Targeting Aquaporin Function : Potent Inhibition of Aquaglyceroporin-3 by a Gold-Based Compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, Ana Paula; Marrone, Alessandro; Ciancetta, Antonella; Galan Cobo, Ana; Echevarria, Miriam; Moura, Teresa F.; Re, Nazzareno; Casini, Angela; Soveral, Graca

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channels that conduct water and small solutes such as glycerol and are involved in many physiological functions. Aquaporin-based modulator drugs are predicted to be of broad potential utility in the treatment of several diseases. Until today few AQP inhibitors have bee

  20. Differences in distribution and regulation of astrocytic aquaporin-4 in human and rat hydrocephalic brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Anders Daehli; Holst, Anders Vedel; Broholm, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    findings to human pathophysiology. This study compares expression of aquaporin-4 in hydrocephalic human brain with human controls and hydrocephalic rat brain. Methods:  Cortical biopsies from patients with chronic hydrocephalus (n=29) were sampled secondary to planned surgical intervention. Aquaporin-4...

  1. Aquaporin-4 gene silencing protects injured neurons after early cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-ping He; Hong Lu

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 regulates water molecule channels and is important in tissue regulation and water transportation in the brain. Upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression is closely related to cel-lular edema after early cerebral infarction. Cellular edema and aquaporin-4 expression can be determined by measuring cerebral infarct area and apparent diffusion coefficient using diffu-sion-weighted imaging (DWI). We examined the effects of silencing aquaporin-4 on cerebral infarction. Rat models of cerebral infarction were established by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and siRNA-aquaporin-4 was immediately injectedvia the right basal ganglia. In control animals, the area of high signal intensity and relative apparent diffusion coefifcient value on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and DWI gradually increased within 0.5–6 hours after cerebral infarction. After aquaporin-4 gene silencing, the area of high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI reduced, relative apparent diffusion coefifcient value was increased, and cellular edema was ob-viously alleviated. At 6 hours after cerebral infarction, the apparent diffusion coefifcient value was similar between treatment and model groups, but angioedema was still obvious in the treat-ment group. These results indicate that aquaporin-4 gene silencing can effectively relieve cellular edema after early cerebral infarction; and when conducted accurately and on time, the diffusion coefifcient value and the area of high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI can relfect therapeutic effects of aquaporin-4 gene silencing on cellular edema.

  2. Involvement of aquaporin channels in water extrusion from biosilica during maturation of sponge siliceous spicules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins are a family of small, pore-forming, integral cell membrane proteins. This ancient protein family functions as water channels and is found in all kingdoms (including archaea, eubacteria, fungi, plants, and animals). We discovered that in sponges aquaporin plays a novel role during the maturation of spicules, their skeletal elements. Spicules are synthesized enzymatically via silicatein following a polycondensation reaction. During this process, a 1:1 stoichiometric release of water per one Si-O-Si bond formed is produced. The product of silicatein, biosilica, is a fluffy, soft material that must be hardened in order to function as a solid rod. Using the model of the demosponge species Suberites domuncula Olivi, 1792, which expresses aquaporin, cDNA was cloned and the protein was heterologously expressed. The sponge aquaporin is grouped with the type 8 aquaporins. The function of the sponge aquaporin can be blocked by Mn-sulfate (MnSO4) and mercury chloride (HgCl2). Microscopic and functional studies suggest that aquaporin is involved in removal of the reaction water at the site where siliceous spicules are formed. Another molecule that is likely to be involved in biosilica maturation is the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide. cDNA has also been cloned from S. domuncula. Experimental studies suggest that water extrusion/suctioning from biosilica after enzymatic synthesis during spicule formation involves both aquaporin-mediated water channeling and "polymerization-induced phase separation" facilitated by the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide.

  3. Effects of propofol on ammonium chloride-exposed astrocyte morphology and aquaporin-4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanjian Chen; Caifei Pan; Peng Guo; Yueying Zheng; Shengmei Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia induces astrocyte swelling, which is strongly associated with overexpression of aquaporin-4.However, the mechanisms by which ammonia induces astrocyte swelling, and subsequently upregulating aquaporin-4 expression, remain unknown.In the present study,astrocytes were cultured in vitro and exposed to ammonium chloride (NH4CI), followed by propofol,protein kinase C agonist, or antagonist, respectively.Astrocyte morphology was observed by light microscopy, and aquaporin-4 expression was detected by western blot analysis.Results showed that propofol or protein kinase C agonist significantly attenuated the degree of NH4CI-induced astrocyte swelling and inhibited increased aquaporin-4 expression.Propofol treatment inhibited aquaporin-4 overexpression in cultured astrocyte induced by NH4CI; protein kinase C pathway activation is potentially involved.

  4. Vanillin Inhibits Translation and Induces Messenger Ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) Granule Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Application and Validation of High-Content, Image-Based Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaki, Aya; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Suga, Yohei; Izawa, Shingo; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin, generated by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose, acts as a potent inhibitor of the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the cellular processes affected by vanillin using high-content, image-based profiling. Among 4,718 non-essential yeast deletion mutants, the morphology of those defective in the large ribosomal subunit showed significant similarity to that of vanillin-treated cells. The defects in these mutants were clustered in three domains of the ri...

  5. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  6. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  7. Water Channels Aquaporin 4 and -1 Expression in Subependymoma Depends on the Localization of the Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Noell

    Full Text Available We analyzed aquaporin 4 and -1 expression in subependymomas, benign and slow growing brain tumors WHO grade I. Ten subependymoma cases were investigated, five of the fossa inferior and five of the fossa superior.Using immunohistochemistry, we observed different aquaporin expression patterns depending on localization: aquaporin 4 and -1 were detected in infratentorial subependymomas in the entire tumor tissue. In contrast, supratentorial subependymomas revealed aquaporin 4 and -1 expression only in border areas of the tumor. PCR analyses however showed no difference in aquaporin 4 expression between all subependymomas independent of localization but at higher levels than in normal brain. In contrast, aquaporin 1 RNA levels were found to be higher only in infratentorial samples compared to supratentorial and normal brain samples. The reason for the different distribution pattern of aquaporin 4 in subependymomas still remains unclear. On the cellular level, aquaporin 4 was redistributed on the surface of the tumor cells, and in freeze fracture replicas no orthogonal arrays of particles were found. This was similar to our previous findings in malignant glioblastomas. From these studies, we know that extracellular matrix molecules within the tumor like agrin and its receptor alpha-dystroglycan are involved in forming orthogonal arrays of particles. In subependymomas neither agrin nor alpha-dystroglycan were detected around blood vessels.Taken together, we show in this study that in the benign subependymomas aquaporins 1 and 4 are dramatically redistributed and upregulated. We speculate that extracellular environments of infra- and supratentorial subependymomas are different and lead to different distribution patterns of aquaporin 4 and -1.

  8. Cloning, identification, and bioinformatics analysis of a putative aquaporin TsAQP from Trichinella spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J M; Zhang, N Z; Li, W H; Yan, H B; Fu, B Q

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination as a preventative strategy against Trichinella spiralis infection is an ongoing effort, although no ideal vaccine candidates have been identified until now. Identification of more effective antigens that have a role in essential life stages of the parasite and that may be effective vaccine candidates is therefore of importance. In the present study, we identified a novel aquaporin gene (TsAQP) from T. spiralis, and the potential antigenicity of TsAQP was evaluated by epitope prediction. A total of 11 post-translational modification sites were predicted in the protein and fell into 4 categories: N-glycosylation; casein kinase II phosphorylation; protein kinase C phosphorylation; and N-myristoylation sites. TsAQP is a membrane intrinsic protein with high hydrophobicity; the main hydrophobic domains comprised up to 38.5% of the protein and were distributed at amino acid positions 21-43, 54-71, 83-91, 107-121, 163-174, 187-200, and 242-261. The protein consisted mainly of helices (39.58%) and loops (50%). The advanced structure of TsAQP was predicted using homology modeling, which showed that the protein was formed from 6 membrane-spanning domains connected by 5 loops. Based on these analyses, 6 potential B-cell epitopes and 4 potential T-cell epitopes were further predicted. These results suggest that TsAQP could be a promising antigen candidate for vaccination against T. spiralis. PMID:26505421

  9. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  10. Free energy calculation of permeation through aquaporin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, David

    The work of this paper continues upon the large area of research being done on aquaporins (AQPs). AQPs are proteins that take on the role of facilitating the transfer of substances, mainly water, across cell membranes. There are many different types of AQPs, with each of these highly selective proteins conducting only certain solutes, along with unique permeability rates. The permeation characteristics of aquaporins rely mostly on the residue hydrophobicity and steric restraints of the aromatic arginine (ar/R) region of the protein channel. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structures of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) and aquaglycerolporin (Glpf), including a radius profile of the respective protein channels, and to compare them to permeation events using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) pulling simulations. Two in silico experiments are performed in order to achieve the free Energy landscape of a single water molecule permeating through the four channels of both Aqp5 and GlpF. The equilibrium free energy curves are calculated from the non-equilibrium, irreversible work measurements using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) of Brownian dynamicis (BD). The free energy profiles are then compared and related to the structural profiles of AQP5 and GlpF. The change in free energy across the ar/R region in AQP5 is found to be reasonably larger than that of GlpF. The free energy profiles of AQP5 and GlpF agree with the diameter profile of the channels respectively. Furthermore, free energy calculations are computed for the permeation of Na+ and Cl- ions through the central pore of Aqp5, which provide some insight into the structural mechanisms of AQP5. The free energy barrier for ion transport through the central pore is found to be very large, peaking at around 11 Kcal/mol for chloride and 20 Kcal/mol for sodium.

  11. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the Solanum tuberosum aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Jelli; Yu, Jae-Woong; Park, Se Won

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins belongs to the major intrinsic proteins involved in the transcellular membrane transport of water and other small solutes. A comprehensive genome-wide search for the homologues of Solanum tuberosum major intrinsic protein (MIP) revealed 41 full-length potato aquaporin genes. All potato aquaporins are grouped into five subfamilies; plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) and x-intrinsic proteins (XIPs). Functional predictions based on the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters and Froger's positions showed a remarkable difference in substrate transport specificity among subfamilies. The expression pattern of potato aquaporins, examined by qPCR analysis, showed distinct expression profiles in various organs and tuber developmental stages. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of potato plantlets, subjected to various abiotic stresses revealed the marked effect of stresses on expression levels of aquaporins. Taken together, the expression profiles of aquaporins imply that aquaporins play important roles in plant growth and development, in addition to maintaining water homeostasis in response to environmental stresses. PMID:24215931

  12. Comparative analysis of sequences, polymorphisms and topology of yeasts aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Farzana; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Prista, Catarina

    2016-05-01

    Efficient homeostasis of water and glycerol is a prerequisite for osmoregulation and other aspects of yeasts life. The cellular status of these molecules is often associated with functional presence of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. The present study provides a detailed updated analysis of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins in 47 yeast species. A comprehensive analysis of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins in 38 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different ecological niches is also presented. The functionality of specific aquaporins in yeasts has been associated with their adaptation requirements in different environmental conditions. In the present study, various inactivating mutations in aquaporin sequences were found in strains of S. cerevisiae Likewise, several new interesting polymorphisms in aquaglyceroporin sequences of some commercial wine and brewing strains, vineyard and bakery strains were also observed. Conceivably, both in the case of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins inactivating mutations resulted in competitive advantage in selected environments. Topology and conservation of important regulatory residues within all sequences are also analyzed. We expect that the present review may contribute to establish the functional relevance of aquaporins/aquaglyceroporins for various aspects of yeasts physiology. PMID:27001976

  13. Can Stabilization and Inhibition of Aquaporins Contribute to Future Development of Biomimetic Membranes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet To

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biomimetic membranes that incorporate membrane proteins, i.e., biomimetic-hybrid membranes, has increased almost exponentially. Key membrane proteins in these systems have been aquaporins, which selectively permeabilize cellular membranes to water. Aquaporins may be incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers or to more stable structures made of block copolymers or solid-state nanopores. However, translocation of aquaporins to these alien environments has adverse consequences in terms of performance and stability. Aquaporins incorporated in biomimetic membranes for use in water purification and desalination should also withstand the harsh environment that may prevail in these conditions, such as high pressure, and presence of salt or other chemicals. In this respect, modified aquaporins that can be adapted to these new environments should be developed. Another challenge is that biomimetic membranes that incorporate high densities of aquaporin should be defect-free, and this can only be efficiently ascertained with the availability of completely inactive mutants that behave otherwise like the wild type aquaporin, or with effective non-toxic water channel inhibitors that are so far inexistent. In this review, we describe approaches that can potentially be used to overcome these challenges.

  14. Can Stabilization and Inhibition of Aquaporins Contribute to Future Development of Biomimetic Membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Janet; Torres, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of biomimetic membranes that incorporate membrane proteins, i.e., biomimetic-hybrid membranes, has increased almost exponentially. Key membrane proteins in these systems have been aquaporins, which selectively permeabilize cellular membranes to water. Aquaporins may be incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers or to more stable structures made of block copolymers or solid-state nanopores. However, translocation of aquaporins to these alien environments has adverse consequences in terms of performance and stability. Aquaporins incorporated in biomimetic membranes for use in water purification and desalination should also withstand the harsh environment that may prevail in these conditions, such as high pressure, and presence of salt or other chemicals. In this respect, modified aquaporins that can be adapted to these new environments should be developed. Another challenge is that biomimetic membranes that incorporate high densities of aquaporin should be defect-free, and this can only be efficiently ascertained with the availability of completely inactive mutants that behave otherwise like the wild type aquaporin, or with effective non-toxic water channel inhibitors that are so far inexistent. In this review, we describe approaches that can potentially be used to overcome these challenges. PMID:26266425

  15. Preparative scale production of functional mouse aquaporin 4 using different cell-free expression modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Kai

    Full Text Available The continuous progress in the structural and functional characterization of aquaporins increasingly attracts attention to study their roles in certain mammalian diseases. Although several structures of aquaporins have already been solved by crystallization, the challenge of producing sufficient amounts of functional proteins still remains. CF (cell free expression has emerged in recent times as a promising alternative option in order to synthesize large quantities of membrane proteins, and the focus of this report was to evaluate the potential of this technique for the production of eukaryotic aquaporins. We have selected the mouse aquaporin 4 as a representative of mammalian aquaporins. The protein was synthesized in an E. coli extract based cell-free system with two different expression modes, and the efficiencies of two modes were compared. In both, the P-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression as precipitate mode generating initial aquaporin precipitates as well as in the D-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression in presence of detergent mode, generating directly detergent solubilized samples, we were able to obtain mg amounts of protein per ml of cell-free reaction. Purified aquaporin samples solubilized in different detergents were reconstituted into liposomes, and analyzed for the water channel activity. The calculated P(f value of proteoliposome samples isolated from the D-CF mode was 133 µm/s at 10°C, which was 5 times higher as that of the control. A reversible inhibitory effect of mercury chloride was observed, which is consistent with previous observations of in vitro reconstituted aquaporin 4. In this study, a fast and convenient protocol was established for functional expression of aquaporins, which could serve as basis for further applications such as water filtration.

  16. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES ON INDONESIAN SWORN TRANSLATOR’S LEGAL TEXTS TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wuryantoro, Aris; Subroto, H.D. Edi; Nababan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Legal translation is the transferring the meaning from source language text into target language which not only consists of language system but also legal system. This research aims to analyze the translation  techniques  used  by  the  Indonesian  sworn  translators  in  translating  legal  texts  from English into Indonesian. This research uses descriptive qualitative method. Data obtained through content analysis on translations of the Indonesian sworn translators containing Certificate of...

  17. Enlightenment of Cognitive Linguistics on Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics is a young subject in linguistics. This paper is to inspire translators by explaining and analyzing translation practice from the perspective of cognitive linguistics and on the basis of its theories. This paper first briefly introduces the content of cognitive linguistics studies and its features;then, important translation theories in the west and in China and the limitations of those traditional theories are discussed;in the end, several examples are provided to il ustrate the close relation between cognitive linguistics and translation practices from the prospective of embodied experience, multiple interaction, restrained creativity and harmonious discourse in translation.

  18. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... to the development ‘interface’. It argues that local development practitioners, as a result of unconscious dispositions linked to a growing ‘development legacy’, habitually employ a simultaneity of rationalities. Based on fieldwork in northern Ghana conducted in the context of changing development discourse, policy...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...

  19. Aquaporin 5 Interacts with Fluoride and Possibly Protects against Caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Anjomshoaa

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQP are water channel proteins and the genes coding for AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 are clustered in 12q13. Since AQP5 is expressed in serous acinar cells of salivary glands, we investigated its involvement in caries. DNA samples from 1,383 individuals from six groups were studied. Genotypes of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the aquaporin locus were tested for association with caries experience. Interaction with genes involved in enamel formation was tested. The association between enamel microhardness at baseline, after creation of artificial caries lesion, and after exposure to fluoride and the genetic markers in AQP5 was tested. Finally, AQP5 expression in human whole saliva, after exposure to fluoride in a mammary gland cell line, which is known to express AQP5, and in Wistar rats was also verified. Nominal associations were found between caries experience and markers in the AQP5 locus. Since these associations suggested that AQP5 may be inhibited by levels of fluoride in the drinking water that cause fluorosis, we showed that fluoride levels above optimal levels change AQP5 expression in humans, cell lines, and rats. We have shown that AQP5 is involved in the pathogenesis of caries and likely interacts with fluoride.

  20. The three-dimensional structure of human erythrocyte aquaporin CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, T; Smith, B L; Agre, P; Engel, A

    1994-07-01

    Water-permeable membranes of several plant and mammalian tissues contain specific water channel proteins, the 'aquaporins'. The best characterized aquaporin is CHIP, a 28 kDa red blood cell channel-forming integral protein. Isolated CHIP and Escherichia coli lipids may be assembled into 2-D crystals for structural analyses. Here we present (i) a structural characterization of the solubilized CHIP oligomers, (ii) projections of CHIP arrays after negative staining or metal-shadowing, and (iii) the 3-D structure at 1.6 nm resolution. Negatively stained CHIP oligomers exhibited a side length of 6.9 nm with four-fold symmetry, and a mass of 202 +/- 3 kDa determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Reconstituted into lipid bilayers, CHIP formed 2-D square lattices with unit cell dimensions a = b = 9.6 nm and a p422(1) symmetry. The 3-D map revealed that CHIP tetramers contain central stain-filled depressions about the fourfold axis. These cavities extend from both sides into the transbilayer domain of the molecule leaving only a thin barrier to be penetrated by the water pores. Although CHIP monomers behave as independent pores, we propose that their particular structure requires tetramerization for stable integration into the bilayer. PMID:7518771

  1. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  2. The effects of aquaporins in different animal models of acute lung injury%水通道蛋白在不同急性肺损伤模型中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘溪; 尚嘉伟; 王爱忠

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common syndrome with high mortality and disability rate.The imbalance of water in lung plays a significant role in the complicated pathological mechanisms of ALI.Dysfunction of lung vascular endothelial cells were thought to be accounted for the high permeability,however,the discovery of aquaporins (AQP),brings a novel perspective into this field.Objective Know about aquaporins' functions in different animal models of ALI.Content we will review aquaporins' general features,distribution in the lung,and functions in different animal models of acute lung injury.Trend Explore functions of aquaporins in the pathological mechanism of ALI,providing new thoughts for clinical treatments.%背景 急性肺损伤(acute lung injury,ALI)是临床上常见的急重病症,致残率和致死率均极高.肺损伤时肺水平衡失调是其病理过程中十分重要的一环,以往人们对其原因的认识仅仅停留于肺毛细血管内皮细胞损伤而引起的通透性增加,如今,水通道蛋白(aquaporin,AQP)的发现及其研究的深入为ALI肺水肿的机制带来了新的视角. 目的 了解AQP在不同诱因导致的ALI病理过程中的作用. 内容 AQP的一般特性、在肺组织中的分布及AQP在不同ALI模型中的作用. 趋势 探索AQP在ALI病理过程中的作用,为临床上治疗ALI提供新的思路.

  3. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  4. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lipid nature of cellular membranes preventing transport of most solutes between the cytosol and the extracellular environment as well as from the cytosol to the interior of organelles, cellular homeostasis relies on integral membrane proteins allowing selective trans membrane movement...... prevented Aquaporin1 mal-folding. Bioimaging of live yeast cells revealed that recombinant Aquaporin-1 accumulated in the yeast plasma membrane. A detergent screen for solubilization revealed that CYMAL-5 was superior in solubilizing recombinant Aquaporin-1 and generated a monodisperse protein preparation...... of solutes. Aquaporins constitute a family of physiologically very important integral membrane proteins that are found in all three kingdoms, eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. As protein channels, they facilitate passive transport of water across cell membranes. In the present study the yeast Saccharomyces...

  5. Frequency and prognostic impact of antibodies to aquaporin-4 in patients with optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarius, Sven; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Waters, Patrick;

    2010-01-01

    Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) are found in 60-80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severely disabling inflammatory CNS disorder of putative autoimmune aetiology, which predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord.......Antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) are found in 60-80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a severely disabling inflammatory CNS disorder of putative autoimmune aetiology, which predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord....

  6. Integrative sequence and tissue expression profiling of chicken and mammalian aquaporins

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael D. Isokpehi; Rajnarayanan, Rajendram V.; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Oyeleye, Tolulola O.; Cohly, Hari HP

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteins that selectively transport water across the membranes of cells are recognized as important in the normal functioning of the body systems of vertebrates. There are 13 known mammalian aquaporins (AQP0 to AQP12), some of which have been shown to have unexpected cellular roles beyond transmembrane water transport. The availability of non-mammalian vertebrate animal models has the potential to provide insight into the emergence of diverse function in the aquaporins. The domesti...

  7. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  8. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  9. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  10. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  11. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  12. The Standard Profile of the 21st Century Translator: Implications for Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the profile of the translator in Cameroon and posits that the translating activity is increasingly becoming part of the translation service, reflecting the market expectation to train translation service providers rather than translators. The paper demonstrates that the translation profession as it is performed in the field and portrayed in job adverts reveals that a wide range of employers are looking for translators and their services. A survey of the Cameroonian translation market was carried out to raise awareness of the language skills translators need in order to work successfully as language services providers. The data for this study was obtained from 36professionaltranslators drawn from the public service, the freelance and in-house corporate translation market in Cameroon. The study argues that today’s new translator’s profile and his activities are basically variants of interlingual communication in which the traditional concept of translation constitutes only one option and that these ‘add-ons,’which contribute to a better professionalization of the translator,pose new challenges to translation pedagogy in terms of both content and methodology.In this vein the study proposes a translational language teaching model aimed at making training more responsive to market exigencies in this era of modernization.

  13. Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Zhou

    Full Text Available Aquaporin (AQP proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from wheat. Expression of TaAQP7-GFP fusion protein revealed its localization in the plasma membrane. TaAQP7 exhibited high water channel activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and TaAQP7 transcript was induced by dehydration, and treatments with polyethylene glycol (PEG, abscisic acid (ABA and H(2O(2. Further, TaAQP7 was upregulated after PEG treatment and was blocked by inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis, implying that ABA signaling was involved in the upregulation of TaAQP7 after PEG treatment. Overexpression of TaAQP7 increased drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and H(2O(2, and less ion leakage (IL, but higher relative water content (RWC and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities when compared with the wild type (WT under drought stress. Taken together, our results show that TaAQP7 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by increasing the ability to retain water, reduce ROS accumulation and membrane damage, and enhance the activities of antioxidants.

  14. Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyi; Hu, Wei; Deng, Xiaomin; Ma, Zhanbing; Chen, Lihong; Huang, Chao; Wang, Chen; Wang, Jie; He, Yanzhen; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from wheat. Expression of TaAQP7-GFP fusion protein revealed its localization in the plasma membrane. TaAQP7 exhibited high water channel activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and TaAQP7 transcript was induced by dehydration, and treatments with polyethylene glycol (PEG), abscisic acid (ABA) and H(2)O(2). Further, TaAQP7 was upregulated after PEG treatment and was blocked by inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis, implying that ABA signaling was involved in the upregulation of TaAQP7 after PEG treatment. Overexpression of TaAQP7 increased drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2), and less ion leakage (IL), but higher relative water content (RWC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities when compared with the wild type (WT) under drought stress. Taken together, our results show that TaAQP7 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by increasing the ability to retain water, reduce ROS accumulation and membrane damage, and enhance the activities of antioxidants. PMID:23285044

  15. Red blood cell aquaporin-1 expression is decreased in hereditary spherocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Renée L; Maltaneri, Romina E; Vittori, Daniela C; Solari, Liliana; Gammella, Daniel; Schvartzman, Gabriel; García, Eliana; Rapetti, María C; Donato, Hugo; Nesse, Alcira

    2016-10-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the membrane water channel responsible for changes in erythrocyte volume in response to the tonicity of the medium. As the aberrant distribution of proteins in hereditary spherocytosis (HS) generates deficiencies of proteins other than those codified by the mutated gene, we postulated that AQP1 expression might be impaired in spherocytes. AQP1 expression was evaluated through flow cytometry in 5 normal controls, 1 autoimmune hemolytic anemia, 10 HS (2 mild, 3 moderate, 2 severe, and 3 splenectomized), and 3 silent carriers. The effect of AQP1 inhibitors was evaluated through water flow-based tests: osmotic fragility and hypertonic cryohemolysis. Serum osmolality was measured in 20 normal controls and 13 HS. The effect of erythropoietin (Epo) on AQP1 expression was determined in cultures of erythroleukemia UT-7 cells, dependent on Epo to survive. Independent of erythrocyte size, HS patients showed a lower content of AQP1 in erythrocyte membranes which correlated with the severity of the disease. Accordingly, red blood cells from HS subjects were less sensitive to cryohemolysis than normal erythrocytes after inhibition of the AQP1 water channel. A lower serum osmolality in HS with respect to normal controls suggests alterations during reticulocyte remodeling. The decreased AQP1 expression could contribute to explain variable degrees of anemia in hereditary spherocytosis. The finding of AQP1 expression induced by Epo in a model of erythroid cells may be interpreted as a mechanism to restore the balance of red cell water fluxes. PMID:27465156

  16. Effects of dexamthasone with different doses on aquaporin-4 in brain of intracerebral hemorrhage rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship between the expression of aquaporin-4(AQP4) after intracerebral hemorrhage and dexamethasone treated. Methods:Collagenase Ⅶ was injected in caudate nucleus in a stereotaxis frame to establish the intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) animal models. The intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) rats were randomly divided into four groups: the sham group (group A), the ICH group(group B), low dosertreated group(group C), moderate dose group(group D) and high dose group(group E). The groups were respectively received an intraperitoneal dexamethasone injection with 1 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, twice a day for three days. The brain water content(BWC), the permeability of blood-brain barrier(BBB) and the expression of AQP4 were observed. Results:Both the BBB disruption and AQP4 expression decreased in treated groups, and the AQP4 expression had a dose-dependent manner in the dexamethasone treatment. And it seemed that low dose dexamethasone was in favor of brain swelling elimination, but the higher dosage had not similar effect. Conclusion:Dexamethesone may play a critical role on expression of AQP4 in the physiopathology of hemorrhagic edema.

  17. Comment on: Cloning and characterization of porcine aquaporin 1 water channel expressed extensively in the gastrointestinal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Mobasheri

    2006-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Sir, I read with great interest the recently published article in the World Journal of Gastroenterology by Jin and co-workers[1] on the cloning and characterization of porcine aquaporin 1 water channel from the pig liver and studies on its expression in the porcine gastrointestinal system. The authors should be congratulated for making this important and valuable contribution to the field of aquaporin biology and porcine gastrointestinal physiology.However, there are a number of unresolved issues and controversies concerning the expression of aquaporins (especially aquaporin 1) in the gastrointestinal system that are worthy of additional comment and discussion by Jin and co-workers.

  18. Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in Neuromyelitis Optica: AQP4 isoform-dependent sensitivity and specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pisani

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO is an autoimmune demyelinating disease, characterized by the presence of autoantibody (NMO-IgG to Aquaporin-4 (AQP4. NMO-IgG identification supports NMO diagnosis and several diagnostic tests have been developed, but their sensitivity is too variable, and some assay show low sensitivity. This impairs correct diagnosis of NMO. By cell based assay (CBA we here evaluate the efficacy of different strategies to express AQP4 in mammalian cells in terms of: a AQP4 translation initiation signals; b AQP4 isoforms (M1 and M23 and fluorescent tag position; c NMO serum concentration and AQP4 degradation. Our results demonstrate that when using AQP4-M1, the nucleotide in position -3 of the AUG greatly affects the AQP4-M1/M23 protein ratio, NMO-IgG binding, and consequently test sensitivity. Test sensitivity was highest with M23 expressing cells (97.5% and only 27.5% with AQP4-M1. The fluorescent tag added to the N-terminus of AQP4-M23 considerably affected the NMO-IgG binding, and test sensitivity, due to disruption of AQP4 suprastructures. Furthermore, sera used at high concentration resulted in AQP4 degradation which affected test sensitivity. To further evaluate the reliability of the M23 based CBA test, samples of one NMO patient collected during about 2 years clinical follow-up were tested. The results of serum titer correlated with disease activity and treatment response. In conclusion, we provide a molecular explanation for the contrasting CBA test data reported and suggest the use of M23 with a C-terminus fluorescent tag as the proper test for NMO diagnosis.

  19. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup;

    2014-01-01

    .05)]. Immunoelectron microscopy showed no obvious difference in AQP3-EGFP expression levels or localization in the plasma membrane upon forskolin stimulation. Thus AQP3-EGFP diffusion is altered upon increased cAMP, which may correspond to basolateral adaptations in response to the increased apical water readsorption......Regulated urine concentration takes place in the renal collecting duct upon arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulation, where subapical vesicles containing aquaporin-2 (AQP2) are inserted into the apical membrane instantly increasing water reabsorption and urine concentration. The reabsorped water...... be short-term regulated via changes in protein-protein interactions, incorporation into lipid rafts, and/or changes in steady-state turnover, which could result in changes in the diffusion behavior of AQP3. Thus we measured AQP3 diffusion coefficients upon stimulation with the AVP mimic forskolin to reveal...

  20. Differential water permeability and regulation of three aquaporin 4 isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenton, Robert A.; Moeller, Hanne B; Zelenina, Marina;

    2010-01-01

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is expressed in the perivascular glial endfeet and is an important pathway for water during formation and resolution of brain edema. In this study, we examined the functional properties and relative unit water permeability of three functional isoforms of AQP4 expressed...... in the brain (M1, M23, Mz). The M23 isoform gave rise to square arrays when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The relative unit water permeability differed significantly between the isoforms in the order of M1 > Mz > M23. None of the three isoforms were permeable to small osmolytes nor were they affected...... by changes in external K(+) concentration. Upon protein kinase C (PKC) activation, oocytes expressing the three isoforms demonstrated rapid reduction of water permeability, which correlated with AQP4 internalization. The M23 isoform was more sensitive to PKC regulation than the longer isoforms...

  1. Expression of Aquaporin-6 in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sun Young; Lee, Eung Suk; Ohn, Young-Hoon; Park, Tae Kwann

    2016-08-01

    Several aquaporins (AQPs) have been identified to be present in the eyes, and it has been suggested that they are involved in the movement of water and small solutes. AQP6, which has low water permeability and transports mainly anions, was recently discovered in the eyes. In the present study, we investigate the localization of AQP6 in the rat retina and show that AQP6 is selectively localized to the ganglion cell layer and the outer plexiform layer. Along with the gradual decrease in retinal ganglion cells after a crushing injury of optic nerve, immunofluorescence signals of AQP6 gradually decreased. Confocal microscope images confirmed AQP6 expression in retinal ganglion cells and Müller cells in vitro. Therefore, AQP6 might participate in water and anion transport in these cells. PMID:26526333

  2. Structural Determinants of Oligomerization of the Aquaporin-4 Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Philip; Conner, Matthew T; Bill, Roslyn M; Conner, Alex C

    2016-03-25

    The aquaporin (AQP) family of integral membrane protein channels mediate cellular water and solute flow. Although qualitative and quantitative differences in channel permeability, selectivity, subcellular localization, and trafficking responses have been observed for different members of the AQP family, the signature homotetrameric quaternary structure is conserved. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we show that mutations to an intracellular loop (loop D) of human AQP4 reduce oligomerization. Non-tetrameric AQP4 mutants are unable to relocalize to the plasma membrane in response to changes in extracellular tonicity, despite equivalent constitutive surface expression levels and water permeability to wild-type AQP4. A network of AQP4 loop D hydrogen bonding interactions, identified using molecular dynamics simulations and based on a comparative mutagenic analysis of AQPs 1, 3, and 4, suggest that loop D interactions may provide a general structural framework for tetrameric assembly within the AQP family. PMID:26786101

  3. Structural determinants of water permeation through aquaporin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuyoshi; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Hirai, Teruhisa; Walz, Thomas; Agre, Peter; Heymann, J. Bernard; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2000-10-01

    Human red cell AQP1 is the first functionally defined member of the aquaporin family of membrane water channels. Here we describe an atomic model of AQP1 at 3.8Å resolution from electron crystallographic data. Multiple highly conserved amino-acid residues stabilize the novel fold of AQP1. The aqueous pathway is lined with conserved hydrophobic residues that permit rapid water transport, whereas the water selectivity is due to a constriction of the pore diameter to about 3Å over a span of one residue. The atomic model provides a possible molecular explanation to a longstanding puzzle in physiology-how membranes can be freely permeable to water but impermeable to protons.

  4. Expression and function of aquaporins in peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-hui MA; Hong-wen GAO; Xue-dong FANG; Hong YANG

    2011-01-01

    The expression and role of the aquaporin (AQP) family water channels in the peripheral nervous system was less investigated. Since 2004, however, significant progress has been made in the immunolocalization, regulation and function of AQPs in the peripheral nervous system. These studies showed selective localization of three AQPs (AQP1, AQP2, and AQP4) in dorsal root ganglion neurons,enteric neurons and glial cells, periodontal Ruffini endings, trigeminal ganglion neurons and vomeronasal sensory neurons. Functional characterization in transgenic knockout mouse model revealed important role of AQP1 in pain perception. This review will summarize the progress in this field and discuss possible involvement of AQPs in peripheral neuropathies and their potential as novel drug targets.

  5. Aquaporin-1 is a Maxwell's Demon in the Body

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Liangsuo; Xiaokang,; Qian, Liu Xin; Huang, Suyi; Jin, Shiping; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a membrane protein which is selectively permeable to water. Due to its hourglass shape, AQP1 can sense the information of solute molecules in osmosis. At the cost of consuming this information, AQP1 can move water against its chemical potential gradient: it works as one kind of Maxwell's Demon. This effect was detected quantitatively by measuring the water osmosis of mice erythrocytes. This ability may protect the erythrocytes from the eryptosis elicited by osmotic shock when they move in the kidney, where a large gradient of urea is required for the urine concentrating mechanism. This finding anticipates a new beginning of inquiries into the complicated relationships among mass, energy and information in bio-systems.

  6. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  7. Preparation of supported lipid membranes for aquaporin Z incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuesong; Wang, Rong; Tang, Chuyang; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Zhao, Yang; Torres, Jaume; Fane, Tony

    2012-06-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest to mimic the performance of natural cellular membranes by incorporating water channel proteins-aquaporins (AQPs) into various ultrathin films for water filtration applications. To make biomimetic membranes one of the most crucial steps is preparing a defect-free platform for AQPs incorporation on a suitable substrate. In this study two methods were used to prepare supported lipid membranes on NF membrane surfaces under a benign pH condition of 7.8. One method was direct vesicle fusion on a hydrophilic membrane NF-270; the other was vesicle fusion facilitated by hydraulic pressure on a modified hydrophilic NF-270 membrane whose surface has been spin-coated with positively charged lipids. Experiments revealed that the supported lipid membrane without AQPs prepared by the spin coating plus vesicle fusion had a much lower defect density than that prepared by vesicle fusion alone. It appears that the surface roughness and charge are the main factors determining the quality of the supported lipid membrane. Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) proteins were successfully incorporated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes and its permeability was measured by the stopped-flow experimental procedure. However, after the proteoliposomes have been fused onto the modified substrate, the AqpZ function in the resultant membrane was not observed and AFM images showed distinct aggregations of unfused proteoliposomes or AqpZ proteins on the substrate surface. It is speculated that the inhibition of AqpZ function may be caused by the low lipid mobility on the NF membrane surface. Further investigations to evaluate and optimize the structure-performance relationship are required. PMID:22386862

  8. Effect of aquaporin-q deletion on pleural fluid transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGJin-Jun; HONGQun-Ying; 等

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of aquaporin-1(AQP1)and sodium channel on pleural fluid transport.METHODS:Wild-type and AQP1 null mice were used in this study.After the mice were briefly anesthetized,0.25mL of hyperosmolar or isosmolar solution(containing terbutaline,amiloride or saline only)was infused into the pleural space.Then mice were sacrificed at scheduled times for measurement of pleural fluid osmolality or volume,RESULTS:After instillation of hyperosmolar fluid into the pleural space,the osmolality of pleural fluid in wild-type mice was higher than that in AQP1 null mice killed at the same time(1,2,5min).There was no difference in the isosmolar clearance between the wild-type and AQP1 null mice after injection of 0.25mL isosmolar fluid into the pleural space.Terbutaline increased the osmotic and isosmolar fluid transport across pleura,but these effects were not influenced by AQP1 dfeletion.In contrast,amiloride reduced osmotic and isosmolar pleural fluid transport and these effects were not influenced by AQP1 deletion.CONCLUSION;AQP1 water channels facilitated osmotic fluid transport across the pleural surface,However,AQP1 did not play an important role in pleural isosmolar fluid clearance.Sodium channel may play a role in osmotic and isosmolar pleural fluid transport.The effects of sodium channel on fluid transport across pleural space were not influenced by aquaporin-1 deletion.

  9. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  10. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tag......In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C...... and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes....

  11. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  12. Multifaceted roles of aquaporins as molecular conduits in plant responses to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Penna, Suprasanna; Nguyen, Dong Van; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-06-01

    Abiotic stress has become a challenge to food security due to occurrences of climate change and environmental degradation. Plants initiate molecular, cellular and physiological changes to respond and adapt to various types of abiotic stress. Understanding of plant response mechanisms will aid in strategies aimed at improving stress tolerance in crop plants. One of the most common and early symptoms associated with these stresses is the disturbance in plant-water homeostasis, which is regulated by a group of proteins called "aquaporins". Aquaporins constitute a small family of proteins which are classified further on the basis of their localization, such as plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, tonoplast intrinsic proteins, nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins (initially identified in symbiosomes of legumes but also found in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum), small basic intrinsic proteins localized in ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and X intrinsic proteins present in plasma membrane. Apart from water, aquaporins are also known to transport CO2, H2O2, urea, ammonia, silicic acid, arsenite and wide range of small uncharged solutes. Besides, aquaporins also function to modulate abiotic stress-induced signaling. Such kind of versatile functions has made aquaporins a suitable candidate for development of transgenic plants with increased tolerance toward different abiotic stress. Toward this endeavor, the present review describes the versatile functions of aquaporins in water uptake, nutrient balancing, long-distance signal transfer, nutrient/heavy metal acquisition and seed development. Various functional genomic studies showing the potential of specific aquaporin isoforms for enhancing plant abiotic stress tolerance are summarized and future research directions are given to design stress-tolerant crops. PMID:25430890

  13. Computer assisted translation tool for Wikipedia articles

    OpenAIRE

    Laxström, Niklas; Giner, Pau; Thottingal, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia exists in over 280 languages. The quality and quantity of articles in each language varies greatly. Translating from another Wikipedia is a natural way to add more content, but the translation process is not properly supported in the software used by Wikipedia. Past computer assisted translation tools built for Wikipedia (e.g. WikiBasha) are not commonly used. We created a new tool that adapts to the specific needs of an open community and the specifics of the kind of content in Wik...

  14. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  15. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    , be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  16. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  17. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  18. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  19. Measuring translation competence acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2002-01-01

    The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...

  20. Translation Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Williams

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  1. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  2. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  3. Population Shift between the Open and Closed States Changes the Water Permeability of an Aquaporin Z Mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Lin; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Su, Haibin;

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporins are tetrameric transmembrane channels permeable to water and other small solutes. Wild-type (WT) and mutant Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) have been widely studied and multiple factors have been found to affect their water permeability. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been perfo...

  4. Interferon-γ suppresses intestinal epithelial aquaporin-1 expression via Janus kinase and STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Dicay

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with dysregulated electrolyte and water transport and resultant diarrhea. Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that function as water channels in intestinal epithelial cells. We investigated the effect of the inflammatory cytokine, interferon-γ, which is a major player in inflammatory bowel diseases, on aquaporin-1 expression in a mouse colonic epithelial cell line, CMT93. CMT93 monolayers were exposed to 10 ng/mL interferon-γ and aquaporin-1 mRNA and protein expressions were measured by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. In other experiments, CMT93 cells were pretreated with inhibitors or were transfected with siRNA to block the effects of Janus kinases, STATs 1 and 3, or interferon regulatory factor 2, prior to treatment with interferon-γ. Interferon-γ decreased aquaporin-1 expression in mouse intestinal epithelial cells in a manner that did not depend on the classical STAT1/JAK2/IRF-1 pathway, but rather, on an alternate Janus kinase (likely JAK1 as well as on STAT3. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-γ may contribute to diarrhea associated with intestinal inflammation in part through regulation of the epithelial aquaporin-1 water channel via a non-classical JAK/STAT receptor signalling pathway.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of aquaporins in the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Ibanez

    Full Text Available Aquaporin (AQPs proteins transport water and uncharged low molecular-weight solutes across biological membranes. Six to 8 AQP genes have been identified in many insect species, but presently only three aquaporins have been characterized in phloem feeding insects. The objective of this study was to identify candidate AQPs in the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli. Herein, we identified four candidate aquaporin cDNAs in B. cockerelli transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that candidate BcAQP2-like had high similarity to PRIP aquaporins; while candidates BcAQP4-like, BcAQP5-like and BcAQP9-like clustered within clade B. In particular, candidates BcAQP4-like and BcAQP5-like clustered with functionally validated insect aquaglyceroporin proteins. Expression analyses using RT-qPCR showed that all candidates were expressed in all life stages and tissues. Candidates BcAQP4-like and BcAQP5-like were highly expressed in bacteriocytes, while BcAQP9-like appeared to be expressed at high levels in whole body but not in the assayed tissues. This study is the first global attempt to identify putative aquaporins in a phloem feeding insect.

  6. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  7. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  8. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  9. Methodological considerations when translating "burnout"

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Squires; Catherine Finlayson; Lauren Gerchow; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Anne Matthews; Rene Schwendimann; Peter Griffiths; Reinhard Busse; Maude Heinen; Tomasz Brzostek; Maria Teresa Moreno-Casbas; Aiken, Linda H.; Walter Sermeus

    2014-01-01

    No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross...

  10. Aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 expressions in the temporomandibular joint condylar cartilage after an experimentally induced osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Juan-hong; MA Xu-chen; LI Zhi-min; WU Deng-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Background Over 70% of the total tissue weight in the cartilage matrix consists of water,and the early-stage osteoarthritic cartilage is characterized by swelling.Water transport in the cartilage matrix and across the membranes of chondrocytes may be important in normal and pathological conditions of cartilage.The purpose of this study was to identify aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expressions in the mandibular condylar cartilage after experimentally induced osteoarthritis(OA)in rats.Methods An experimental temporomandibular joint OA was induced by partial discectomy in rats.The pathological characteristics of the normal,early-stage,and late-stage osteoarthritic TMJ cartilages were verified by histological techniques.The AQP1 and AQP3 gene expressions in the normal and osteoarthritic cartilages were measured using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis.The cartilage sections were incubated in primary polyclonal antibodies to AQP3;immunofluorescent microscopy was used to examine the AQP3 expression shown by its protein level.Results The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP3,analyzed using quantitative PCR,revealed that AQP3 mRNA was highly up-regulated in the OA cartilage,which was considered significant.There was no notable difference in the expression of AQP1 mRNA between OA and normal controls.With the progressing of the OA,the localization of the AQP3 protein was quite different from that of the normal cartilage.Cormpared to the normal cartilage,the expressions of AQP3 protein were observed mainly in the proliferative zone and the upper mid-zone chondrocytes at the early-stage of OA,and were observed to appear frequently throughout the mid-and deep zone during the late-stage of OA.Conclusions The high expression of AQP3 mRNA in the OA cartilage and the different localization of the AQP3 protein suggest that it may play a particular role in OA pathogenesis.Further study of AQP3 function may provide new insight into the

  11. Diabetes Insipidus in Mice with a Mutation in Aquaporin-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI is a disease characterized by failure of the kidney to concentrate urine in response to vasopressin. Human kindreds with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus have been found to harbor mutations in the vasopressin receptor 2 (Avpr2 gene or the vasopressin-sensitive water channel aquaporin-2 (Aqp2 gene. Development of a treatment is rendered difficult due to the lack of a viable animal model. Through forward genetic screening of ethylnitrosourea-mutagenized mice, we report the identification and characterization of a mouse model of NDI, with an F204V mutation in the Aqp2 gene. Unlike previously attempted murine models of NDI, our mice survive to adulthood and more exactly recapitulate the human disorder. Previous in vitro experiments using renal cell lines suggest recessive Aqp2 mutations result in improper trafficking of the mutant water pore. Using these animals, we have directly proven this hypothesis of improper AQP2 translocation as the molecular defect in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in the intact organism. Additionally, using a renal cell line we show that the mutated protein, AQP2-F204V, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and that this abnormal localization can be rescued by wild-type protein. This novel mouse model allows for further mechanistic studies as well as testing of pharmacological and gene therapies for NDI.

  12. Whole gene family expression and drought stress regulation of aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersson, Erik; Fraysse, Laure; Sjövall-Larsen, Sara; Gustavsson, Sofia; Fellert, Maria; Karlsson, Maria; Johanson, Urban; Kjellbom, Per

    2005-10-01

    Since many aquaporins (AQPs) act as water channels, they are thought to play an important role in plant water relations. It is therefore of interest to study the expression patterns of AQP isoforms in order to further elucidate their involvement in plant water transport. We have monitored the expression patterns of all 35 Arabidopsis AQPs in leaves, roots and flowers by cDNA microarrays, specially designed for AQPs, and by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (Q-RT-PCR). This showed that many AQPs are pre-dominantly expressed in either root or flower organs, whereas no AQP isoform seem to be leaf specific. Looking at the AQP subfamilies, most plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and some tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) have a high level of expression, while NOD26-like proteins (NIPs) are present at a much lower level. In addition, we show that PIP transcripts are generally down-regulated upon gradual drought stress in leaves, with the exception of AtPIP1;4 and AtPIP2;5, which are up-regulated. AtPIP2;6 and AtSIP1;1 are constitutively expressed and not significantly affected by the drought stress. The transcriptional down-regulation of PIP genes upon drought stress could also be observed on the protein level. PMID:16235111

  13. Aquaporins 6-12 in the human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; Holm, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    from two human eyes divided into the cornea, corneal limbus, ciliary body and iris, lens, choroid, optic nerve, retina and sclera. Each structure was examined to detect the mRNA of AQPs 6-12. Twenty-one human eyes were examined using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques to determine......Purpose: Aquaporins (AQPs) are widely expressed and have diverse distribution patterns in the eye. AQPs 0-5 have been localized at the cellular level in human eyes. We investigated the presence of the more recently discovered AQPs 6-12 in the human eye. Methods: RT-PCR was performed on fresh tissue...... the topographical localization of AQPs 6-12. Results: mRNA transcripts of AQP7, AQP9 and AQP11 were found in the ciliary body, corneo-limbal tissue, optic nerve, retina and sclera. AQP9 and AQP11 mRNA was also detected in the choroid. No mRNA of AQP6, AQP8, AQP10 or AQP12 was detected. Anti-AQP7 immunolabelling...

  14. Metal ion toxins and brain aquaporin-4 expression: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eXimenes-Da-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions such as iron, zinc, and manganese are essential to metabolic functions, protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and antioxidant neuroprotective mechanisms. Conversely, non-essential metals such as mercury and lead are sources of human intoxication due to occupational activities or environmental contamination. Essential or non-essential metal accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS results in changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability, as well as triggering microglia activation and astrocyte reactivity and changing water transport through the cells, which could result in brain swelling. Aquaporin-4 is the main water channel in the CNS, is expressed in astrocyte foot processes in brain capillaries and along the circumventricular epithelium in the ventricles, and has important physiological functions in maintaining brain osmotic homeostasis and supporting brain excitability through regulation of the extracellular space. Some evidence has pointed to a role of AQP4 during metal intoxication in the brain, where it may act in a dual form as a neuroprotector or a mediator of the development of oxidative stress in neurons and astrocytes, resulting in brain swelling and neuronal damage. This mini-review presents the way some metal ions affect changes in AQP4 expression in the CNS and discuss the ways in which water transport in brain cells can be involved in brain damage.

  15. Nuclear Receptor Regulation of Aquaporin-2 in the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Bing; Guan, You-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel responsible for regulating water reabsorption through the apical plasma membrane of the principal cells of renal collecting ducts. It has been found that dysregulation and dysfunction of AQP2 cause many disorders related to water balance in people and animals, including polyuria and dilutional hyponatremia. Classically, AQP2 mRNA and protein expression and its membrane translocation are regulated by systemic vasopressin involving short-term regulation of AQP2 trafficking to and from the apical plasma membrane and long-term regulation of the total amount of the AQP2 protein in the cell. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that collecting duct AQP2 expression and membrane translocation are also under the control of many other local factors, especially nuclear receptors. Here, we briefly review the progress of studies in this area and discuss the role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of water reabsorption via affecting AQP2 expression and function. PMID:27409611

  16. The three-dimensional structure of aquaporin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Thomas; Hirai, Teruhisa; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Heymann, J. Bernard; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Smith, Barbara L.; Agre, Peter; Engel, Andreas

    1997-06-01

    The entry and exit of water from cells is a fundamental process of life. Recognition of the high water permeability of red blood cells led to the proposal that specialized water pores exist in the plasma membrane. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and functional studies of an erythrocyte integral membrane protein of relative molecular mass 28,000, identified it as the mercury-sensitive water channel, aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Many related proteins, all belonging to the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, are found throughout nature. AQP1 is a homotetramer containing four independent aqueous channels. When reconstituted into lipid bilayers, the protein forms two-dimensional lattices with a unit cell containing two tetramers in opposite orientation. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of AQP1 determined at 6Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. Each AQP1 monomer has six tilted, bilayer-spanning α-helices which form a right-handed bundle surrounding a central density. These results, together with functional studies, provide a model that identifies the aqueous pore in the AQP1 molecule and indicates the organization of the tetrameric complex in the membrane.

  17. Challenges and achievements in the therapeutic modulation of aquaporin functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Eric; Golldack, André; Rothert, Monja; von Bülow, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water and solute channels have basic physiological functions throughout the human body. AQP-facilitated water permeability across cell membranes is required for rapid reabsorption of water from pre-urine in the kidneys and for sustained near isosmolar water fluxes e.g. in the brain, eyes, inner ear, and lungs. Cellular water permeability is further connected to cell motility. AQPs of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are necessary for lipid degradation in adipocytes and glycerol uptake into the liver, as well as for skin moistening. Modulation of AQP function is desirable in several pathophysiological situations, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Sjögren's syndrome, Menière's disease, heart failure, or tumors to name a few. Attempts to design or to find effective small molecule AQP inhibitors have yielded only a few hits. Challenges reside in the high copy number of AQP proteins in the cell membranes, and spatial restrictions in the protein structure. This review gives an overview on selected physiological and pathophysiological conditions in which modulation of AQP functions appears beneficial and discusses first achievements in the search of drug-like AQP inhibitors. PMID:26277280

  18. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel L. Bernardino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs. Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field.

  19. Aquaporin-1 Expression in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy and in Epiretinal Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Motulsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1 is involved in cell migration and proliferation; therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate its expression in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR and epiretinal membranes (ERM. Methods. 19 membranes from PVR and ERM were collected following eye surgery. AQP1 mRNA and protein expressions were determined by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence in the membranes from PVR and ERM. Results. AQP1 mRNA and protein were expressed in both PVR and ERM as shown by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. AQP1 protein expression was heterogeneous among and between PVR and ERM and colocalized with alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA and with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. There were a higher percentage of cells coexpressing AQP1 and αSMA than AQP1 and GFAP. GFAP and αSMA did not colocalize. Conclusion. Our data show for the first time AQP1 expression in both PVR and ERM. AQP1 is expressed mostly by the αSMA-positive cells, presumably myofibroblasts, but also by GFAP-positive cells, assumed to be glial cells. These original findings warrant further functional investigations aiming at studying the potential role of AQP1 in cell migration and proliferation occurring during the development of PVR and ERM.

  20. Aquaporin-1: new developments and perspectives for peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devuyst, Olivier; Yool, Andrea J

    2010-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis involves diffusive and convective transport and osmosis through the highly vascularized peritoneal membrane. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) corresponds to the ultrasmall pore predicted by the model of peritoneal transport. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that upregulation of the expression of AQP1 in peritoneal capillaries results in increased water permeability and ultrafiltration, without affecting the osmotic gradient or small solute permeability. Conversely, studies in Aqp1 mice have shown that haplo-insufficiency for AQP1 results in significant attenuation of water transport. Recent studies have demonstrated that AQP1 is involved in the migration of different cell types, including endothelial cells. In parallel, chemical screening has identified lead compounds that could act as antagonists or agonists of AQPs, with description of putative binding sites and potential mechanisms of gating the water channel. By modulating water transport, these pharmacological agents could have clinically relevant effects in targeting specific tissues or disease states.

  1. A molecular understanding of the dynamic mechanism of aquaporin osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shua, Liangsuo; Qian, Xin; Wanga, Xiyun; Lin, Yixin; Tan, Kai; Shu, Chaohui; Jin, Shiping

    2014-01-01

    AQPs (aquaporins), the rapid water channels of cells, play a key role in maintaining osmotic equilibrium of cells. In this paper, we reported the dynamic mechanism of AQP osmosis at the molecular level. A theoretical model based on molecular dynamics was carried out and verified by the published experimental data. The reflection coefficients ({\\sigma}) of neutral molecules are mainly decided by their relative size with AQPs, and increase with a third power up to a constant value 1. This model also indicated that the reflection coefficient of a complete impermeable solute can be smaller than 1. The H+ concentration of solution can influence the driving force of the AQPs by changing the equivalent diameters of vestibules surrounded by loops with abundant polar amino acids. In this way, pH of solution can regulate water permeability of AQPs. Therefore, an AQP may not only work as a switch to open or close, but as a rapid response molecular valve to control its water flow. The vestibules can prevent the channel b...

  2. Polyphenols as Modulators of Aquaporin Family in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fiorentini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are bioactive molecules widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Polyphenols in food sources are extensively studied for their role in the maintenance of human health and in the protection against development of chronic/degenerative diseases. Polyphenols act mainly as antioxidant molecules, protecting cell constituents against oxidative damage. The enormous number of polyphenolic compounds leads to huge different mechanisms of action not fully understood. Recently, some evidence is emerging about the role of polyphenols, such as curcumin, pinocembrin, resveratrol, and quercetin, in modulating the activity of some aquaporin (AQP isoforms. AQPs are integral, small hydrophobic water channel proteins, extensively expressed in many organs and tissues, whose major function is to facilitate the transport of water or glycerol over cell plasma membranes. Here we summarize AQP physiological functions and report emerging evidence on the implication of these proteins in a number of pathophysiological processes. In particular, this review offers an overview about the role of AQPs in brain, eye, skin diseases, and metabolic syndrome, focusing on the ability of polyphenols to modulate AQP expression. This original analysis can contribute to elucidating some peculiar effects exerted by polyphenols and can lead to the development of an innovative potential preventive/therapeutic strategy.

  3. Metal Ion Toxins and Brain Aquaporin-4 Expression: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes-da-Silva, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions such as iron, zinc, and manganese are essential to metabolic functions, protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and antioxidant neuroprotective mechanisms. Conversely, non-essential metals such as mercury and lead are sources of human intoxication due to occupational activities or environmental contamination. Essential or non-essential metal accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS) results in changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, as well as triggering microglia activation and astrocyte reactivity and changing water transport through the cells, which could result in brain swelling. Aquaporin-4 is the main water channel in the CNS, is expressed in astrocyte foot processes in brain capillaries and along the circumventricular epithelium in the ventricles, and has important physiological functions in maintaining brain osmotic homeostasis and supporting brain excitability through regulation of the extracellular space. Some evidence has pointed to a role of AQP4 during metal intoxication in the brain, where it may act in a dual form as a neuroprotector or a mediator of the development of oxidative stress in neurons and astrocytes, resulting in brain swelling and neuronal damage. This mini-review presents the way some metal ions affect changes in AQP4 expression in the CNS and discuss the ways in which water transport in brain cells can be involved in brain damage. PMID:27313504

  4. Differential expression of aquaporin 3 in Triturus italicus from larval to adult epidermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Brunelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available By using immunohistochemical techniques applied to confocal microscopy, the presence of aquaporin 3 water channel in the epidermis of Triturus italicus (Amphibia, Urodela has been shown. We analysed the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3 during the larval, pre-metamorphic and adult phases; we also showed the localization of the water-channel protein AQP3 in free-swimming conditions and during aestivation in parallel with histological analysis of the skin, focusing on the possible relationship between protein expression and terrestrial habitats. Our results indicate that aquaporin is produced as the epidermis modifies during the functional maturation phase starting at the climax. Moreover, our data suggest an increase in enzyme expression in aestivating newts emphasizing the putative functional importance of differential expression related to a distinct phase of the biological cycle.

  5. Crystal structure of a yeast aquaporin at 1.15 angstrom reveals a novel gating mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Fischer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that facilitate the flow of water through cellular membranes. An unusual characteristic of yeast aquaporins is that they frequently contain an extended N terminus of unknown function. Here we present the X-ray structure of the yeast aquaporin Aqy1 from Pichia pastoris at 1.15 A resolution. Our crystal structure reveals that the water channel is closed by the N terminus, which arranges as a tightly wound helical bundle, with Tyr31 forming H-bond interactions to a water molecule within the pore and thereby occluding the channel entrance. Nevertheless, functional assays show that Aqy1 has appreciable water transport activity that aids survival during rapid freezing of P. pastoris. These findings establish that Aqy1 is a gated water channel. Mutational studies in combination with molecular dynamics simulations imply that gating may be regulated by a combination of phosphorylation and mechanosensitivity.

  6. Tubular localization and expressional dynamics of aquaporins in the kidney of seawater-challenged Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Morten Buch; Madsen, Steffen S

    2015-01-01

    in renal function from filtration towards secretion. We localized aquaporins (Aqp) in Atlantic salmon renal tubular segments by immunohistochemistry and monitored their expressional dynamics using RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Three aquaporins: Aqpa1aa, Aqp1ab and Aqp8b and two aquaglyceroporins Aqp3a and Aqp....... Aqp10b was expressed apically and along the lateral membrane. Aqp8b was mainly basolateral and Aqp1ab was located in sub-apical intracellular compartments. mRNAs of aqp8b and aqp10b were higher in FW smolts compared to FW parr, whereas the opposite was true for aqp1aa. Aqp mRNA levels changed...... in response to both SW and sham transfer. Protein levels, however, were stable for most paralogs. In conclusion, aquaporins are abundant in salmon proximal renal tubules and may participate in water secretion and thus urine modification as suggested for other vertebrates. Further studies should seek to couple...

  7. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry; Taylor ,Brandon W.

    2012-01-01

    Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System. With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water "super-Q" - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  8. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  9. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  10. Uighur Local Food in China and Its English Translation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Rongrong Liao

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to study Uighur diet culture and Chinese-English translation of its local food names. After deeply analyzing Uighur diet structure, content, pattern and nutrient functions of Uighur local foods, this study concludes several practical strategies based on Chinese-English translation of local food names, including functional equivalence and formal equivalence, domestication and foreignization, borrowing translation, transliteration, free translation and combination of tran...

  11. Incipient balancing selection through adaptive loss of aquaporins in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Will

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how adaptive evolution has influenced natural variation, but identifying loci subject to positive selection has been a challenge. Here we present the adaptive loss of a pair of paralogous genes in specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae subpopulations. We mapped natural variation in freeze-thaw tolerance to two water transporters, AQY1 and AQY2, previously implicated in freeze-thaw survival. However, whereas freeze-thaw-tolerant strains harbor functional aquaporin genes, the set of sensitive strains lost aquaporin function at least 6 independent times. Several genomic signatures at AQY1 and/or AQY2 reveal low variation surrounding these loci within strains of the same haplotype, but high variation between strain groups. This is consistent with recent adaptive loss of aquaporins in subgroups of strains, leading to incipient balancing selection. We show that, although aquaporins are critical for surviving freeze-thaw stress, loss of both genes provides a major fitness advantage on high-sugar substrates common to many strains' natural niche. Strikingly, strains with non-functional alleles have also lost the ancestral requirement for aquaporins during spore formation. Thus, the antagonistic effect of aquaporin function-providing an advantage in freeze-thaw tolerance but a fitness defect for growth in high-sugar environments-contributes to the maintenance of both functional and nonfunctional alleles in S. cerevisiae. This work also shows that gene loss through multiple missense and nonsense mutations, hallmarks of pseudogenization presumed to emerge after loss of constraint, can arise through positive selection.

  12. Aquaporin-mediated improvement of freeze tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is restricted to rapid freezing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Colavizza, Didier; Thevelein, Johan M

    2004-06-01

    Previous observations that aquaporin overexpression increases the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without negatively affecting the growth or fermentation characteristics held promise for the development of commercial baker's yeast strains used in frozen dough applications. In this study we found that overexpression of the aquaporin-encoding genes AQY1-1 and AQY2-1 improves the freeze tolerance of industrial strain AT25, but only in small doughs under laboratory conditions and not in large doughs under industrial conditions. We found that the difference in the freezing rate is apparently responsible for the difference in the results. We tested six different cooling rates and found that at high cooling rates aquaporin overexpression significantly improved the survival of yeast cells, while at low cooling rates there was no significant effect. Differences in the cultivation conditions and in the thawing rate did not influence the freeze tolerance under the conditions tested. Survival after freezing is determined mainly by two factors, cellular dehydration and intracellular ice crystal formation, which depend in an inverse manner on the cooling velocity. In accordance with this so-called two-factor hypothesis of freezing injury, we suggest that water permeability is limiting, and therefore that aquaporin function is advantageous, only under rapid freezing conditions. If this hypothesis is correct, then aquaporin overexpression is not expected to affect the leavening capacity of yeast cells in large, industrial frozen doughs, which do not freeze rapidly. Our results imply that aquaporin-overexpressing strains have less potential for use in frozen doughs than originally thought. PMID:15184134

  13. The central role of aquaporins in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine eVella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a complex and devastating neurological condition with limited treatment options. Brain edema is a serious complication of ischemic stroke and early edema formation can significantly contribute to infarct formation and thus represents a promising target. Aquaporin (AQP water channels are contributors to water homeostasis by facilitating or impeding water transport and are consequently implicated in several disease pathways. At least 7 subtypes have been identified in the rodent brain and the use of transgenic mice has greatly aided our current understanding of the roles of these channels. AQP4, the most abundant channel in the brain is upregulated around the peri-infarct border in transient cerebral ischemia and AQP4 knockout mice demonstrate significantly reduced cerebral edema and improved neurological outcome. In models of vasogenic edema, brain swelling is more pronounced in AQP4 null mice than wildtype, providing strong evidence of the dual role of AQP4 in the formation and resolution of both vasogenic and cytotoxic edema. AQP4 is co-localized with inwardly rectifying K+ channels (Kir4.1 and glial K+ uptake is attenuated in AQP4 knockout mice compared to wildtype, indicating some form of functional interaction. AQP4-null mice also exhibit reduction in calcium signaling, suggesting that this channel may also be involved in triggering pathological downstream signaling events. Associations with gap junction protein Cx43 possibly reiterate its role in edema dissipation within the astroglial syncytium. Other roles ascribed to AQP4 include facilitation of astrocytic migration, glial scar formation, modulation of inflammation and signaling functions. Treatment of ischemic cerebral edema is based on the various mechanisms in which fluid content in different brain compartments can be modified. The identification of modulators and inhibitors of AQP4 offer new therapeutic avenues in the hope of reducing the extent of morbidity and mortality

  14. Relaxin regulates hyaluronan synthesis and aquaporins in the cervix of late pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Yu May; Tiwari, Anjana; Mahendroo, Mala; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2012-12-01

    Cervical ripening is associated with loss of structural integrity and tensile strength, thus enabling the cervix to dilate at term. It is characterized by changes in glycosaminoglycan composition, increased water content, and a progressive reorganization of the collagen network. The peptide hormone relaxin via interaction with its receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), promotes tissue hydration and increases cervical hyaluronan (HA) concentrations, but the mechanisms that regulate these effects are not known. This study in relaxin mutant (Rln(-/-)) mice tested the hypothesis that relaxin regulates HA synthase and aquaporin (AQP) expression in the cervix. We also assessed expression of the RXFP1 protein by immunohistochemistry. Pregnant Rln(-/-) mice had lower Has2 and Aqp3 expression on d 18.5 of pregnancy and decreased cervical HA compared with wild-type Rln(+/+) mice. Chronic infusion of relaxin for 4 or 6 d in pregnant Rln(-/-) mice reversed these phenotypes and increased Has2 and Aqp3 compared with placebo controls. Relaxin-treated mice also had lower Has1 and Aqp5. Changes in gene expression were paralleled by increases in cervical HA and variations in AQP3 and AQP5 protein localization in epithelial cells of Rln(-/-) cervices. Our findings demonstrate that relaxin alters AQP expression in the cervix and initiates changes in glycosaminoglycan composition through increased HA synthesis. These effects are likely mediated through RXFP1 localized to subepithelial stromal cells and epithelial cells. We suggest these actions of relaxin collectively promote water recruitment into the extracellular matrix to loosen the dense collagen fiber network. PMID:23087172

  15. Bidirectional water fluxes and specificity for small hydrophilic molecules in aquaporins 0-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A K; Klærke, Dan Arne; Zeuthen, T

    1998-01-01

    for the osmotic water permeability (L p) were obtained in swelling as in shrinkage experiments demonstrating, for the first time, that aquaporins are bidirectional. The reflection coefficients (¿) of urea, glycerol, acetamide, and formamide at 23¿°C were: AQP0: 1, 1, 0.8, 0.6; AQP1: 1, 0.8, 1, 1; AQP2: 1, 0.8, 1...... and increased ¿glyc to 1 and ¿form to 0.6. We conclude that the pore of the various aquaporins are structurally different and that a simple steric model is insufficient to explain solute-pore interactions....

  16. Two-dimensional crystal structure of aquaporin-4 bound to the inhibitor acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamegawa, Akiko; Hiroaki, Yoko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2016-04-01

    Acetazolamide (AZA) reduces the water permeability of aquaporin-4, the predominant water channel in the brain. We determined the structure of aquaporin-4 in the presence of AZA using electron crystallography. Most of the features of the 5-Å density map were consistent with those of the previously determined atomic model. The map showed a protruding density from near the extracellular pore entrance, which most likely represents the bound AZA. Molecular docking simulations supported the location of the protrusion as the likely AZA-binding site. These findings suggest that AZA reduces water conduction by obstructing the pathway at the extracellular entrance without inducing a large conformational change in the protein. PMID:26908838

  17. Expression and Function of the Nicotiana tabacum Aquaporin NtAQP1

    OpenAIRE

    Siefritz, Franka

    2002-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit zeigt die Korrelation zwischen räumlichem und zeitlichem Expressionsmuster von dem Aquaporin NtAQP1 und seiner Funktion im Wasserhaushalt in planta. Immunologische in situ-Studien deuteten auf eine NtAQP1-Protein-Akkumulation in der Wurzelexodermis und -endodermis, im Cortex, in der Nähe der Leitbündel, im Xylemparenchym und in Zellen der Atemhöhle hin. Das Aquaporin wurde auch in longitudinalen Zellreihen der Petiolen in erhöhten Mengen gefunden. Expressionsstudien mit...

  18. Pyrabactin regulates root hydraulic properties in maize seedlings by affecting PIP aquaporins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenqiang; Li, Jia; Jia, Jia; Wang, Fei; Cao, Cuiling; Hu, Jingjiang; Mu, Zixin

    2015-09-01

    Pyrabactin, an agonist of abscisic acid (ABA), has led to the isolation and characterization of pyrabactin resistance 1/pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYR1/PYLs) ABA receptors in Arabidopsis, which has well explained ABA-mediated stomatal movement and stress-related gene expression. In addition to inducing stomatal closure and inhibiting transpiration, ABA can also enhance root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr), thus maintaining water balance under water deficiency-related stress, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the root hydraulic properties of maize seedlings in response to pyrabactin were compared to those caused by ABA. Similar to ABA, lower concentration of pyrabactin induced a remarkable increase in Lpr as well as in the gene expression of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (ZmPIP) aquaporin and in the ZmPIP2; 1/2; 2 protein abundance. The pyrabactin-induced enhancement of Lpr was abolished by H2O2 application, indicating that pyrabactin regulates Lpr by modulating ZmPIP at transcriptional, translational and post-translational (activity) level. Pyrabactin-mediated water transport and ZmPIP gene expression were phosphorylation-dependent, suggesting that ABA-PYR1-(PP2C)-protein kinase-AQP signaling pathway may be involved in this process. As we know this is the first established ABA signaling transduction pathway that mediated water transport in roots. This observation further addressed the importance of PYR1/PYLs ABA receptor in regulating plant water use efficiency from the under ground level. Except inhibiting transpiration in leaves, our result introduces the exciting possibility of application ABA agonists for regulating roots water uptake in field, with a species- and dose dependent manner. PMID:26000467

  19. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  20. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  1. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  2. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  3. The Equivalence of Translated Songs Lyrics and their Effects - The Case of Translated Ecclesial Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing the equivalence of eclessial song lyrics, which belong to the content word, the meaning of the sentences and their effect on church songs. The method used in this study is descriptive and qualitative by using music, language, and interdiciline approach. The data collection method used questionnaires technique, interview, documents and content analysis. The data used are 5 documents of songs chosen purposively as the primary data. Based on the data being analyzed, the results of this study were: 1 The translated content word located in the same bars and equivalent was around 27.07%, the translated content word located in the same bars, but not equivalent was 18.34%, the translated content word located in the different bars, but equivalent was 11.79%, the translated content word located in the different bars and not equivalent was 2.62%, and the untranslated words were 4.17%. 2 The translation of equivalence beautiful lyrics showed the beauty of the song was equivalent at 17.02%, the beauty of the song was less equivalent at 29.78%, the beauty of the song was not equivalent of 61.70%. 3. The differences of structure caused the incorrect dictions or choice of words and missing words in the translated lyrics.

  4. Heterologous expression of the wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 compromises the abiotic stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Xu

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins which transport water across cell membranes. We show that the bread wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 maps to the long arm of chromosome 7b and that its product localizes to the endomembrane system. The gene is expressed constitutively in both the root and the leaf, and is down-regulated by salinity and drought stress. Salinity stress induced an increased level of C-methylation within the CNG trinucleotides in the TaTIP2;2 promoter region. The heterologous expression of TaTIP2;2 in Arabidopsis thaliana compromised its drought and salinity tolerance, suggesting that TaTIP2;2 may be a negative regulator of abiotic stress. The proline content of transgenic A. thaliana plants fell, consistent with the down-regulation of P5CS1, while the expression of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, CBF3 and DREB2A, which are all stress tolerance-related genes acting in an ABA-independent fashion, was also down-regulated. The supply of exogenous ABA had little effect either on TaTIP2;2 expression in wheat or on the phenotype of transgenic A. thaliana. The expression level of the ABA signalling genes ABI1, ABI2 and ABF3 remained unaltered in the transgenic A. thaliana plants. Thus TaTIP2;2 probably regulates the response to stress via an ABA-independent pathway(s.

  5. The effects of the combination of salinity and excess boron on the water relations of tolerant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Poncho Negro, in relation to aquaporin functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, C.; Montoya, A.; Pacheco, P.; Martinez-Ballesta, M. C.; Carvajal, M.; Bastias, E.

    2011-07-01

    As elevated levels of boron (B) are accompanied by conditions of excessive salinity with drastic consequences for crops, it is crucial to find a crop that is tolerant to these conditions. In this work, the interaction between salinity and excess B with respect to aquaporin-mediated changes by blockade of mercury and water relations were studied as well as the osmotic adjustment of the plants. The treatments, for tomato Poncho Negro cultivated hydroponically in a controlled environment chamber, were control (75 and 150 mM) NaCl and/or 5 mg L{sup -}1 or 20 mg L{sup -}1 B. Hydraulic conductance (L0) of detached exuding root systems exhibits large variations in response to abiotic stimuli. No additive (synergic) effects of B and salinity were observed. Under salinity, the plants increased their turgor, compensating for the decrease in the leaf water potential through the reduction in the leaf osmotic potential by the accumulation of soluble sugars and proline. The involvement of Hg{sup 2}+-insensitive aquaporins or the osmotic gradient as the main force for water flow through the apoplastic pathway must be contemplated. Finally, all the data reveal the tomato cv. Poncho Negro to be a germplasm of agronomic interest and a good alternative for cultivation areas with high content of salts and the excess B of the soil and irrigation water. (Author) 67 refs.

  6. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... IMPLICATIONS: Our findings are of relevance to other BMQ translations in non-English countries, as direct comparisons between different translations might not be reliable or valid....

  7. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  8. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  9. For "Translation and Theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  10. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  11. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence. PMID:26802038

  12. Aquaporin 1 - a novel player in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, O; Lee, J; Unabia, G C; Johnson, K; Ye, Z; Vergara, L; Hulsebosch, C E; Perez-Polo, J R

    2008-05-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels at the site of injury (T10) persisting up to 11 months post-contusion, a novel finding. Delayed AQP-1 increases were also found in cervical and lumbar segments, suggesting the spreading of AQP-1 changes over time after SCI. Given that the antioxidant melatonin significantly decreased SCI-induced AQP-1 increases and that hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha was increased in acutely and chronically injured spinal cords, we propose that chronic hypoxia contributes to persistent AQP-1 increases after SCI. Interestingly; AQP-1 levels were not affected by long-lasting hypertonicity that significantly increased astrocytic AQP-4, suggesting that the primary role of AQP-1 is not regulating isotonicity in spinal cords. Based on our results we propose possible novel roles for AQP-1 in the injured spinal cords: (i) in neuronal and astrocytic swelling, as AQP-1 was increased in all surviving neurons and reactive astrocytes after SCI and (ii) in the development of the neuropathic pain after SCI. We have shown that decreased AQP-1 in melatonin-treated SCI rats correlated with decreased AQP-1 immunolabeling in the dorsal horns sensory afferents, and with significantly decreased mechanical allodynia, suggesting a possible link between AQP-1 and chronic neuropathic pain after SCI. PMID:18248364

  13. Expression of aquaporins in intestine after heat stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Hung; Liu, Tsung-Ta; Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Chun-Chi; Wen, Ya-Ting; Lin, I-Chan; Huang, Chi-Chang; Wei, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) has been shown to induce intestinal barrier dysfunction during whole body hyperthermia. HS-induced intestinal permeability change may result from modulation of aquaporin (AQP) expression, which subsequently regulates water homeostasis. This study aimed to evaluate AQP expression in the intestine of rats with HS at different recovery time points. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 40 ± 0.5°C until a maximum core temperature of 40.5°C was attained. The small intestine was surgically removed and histologically examined, and AQP expression was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. H&E staining revealed those intestinal villi were destroyed from HS0 to HS1 and rebuilt from HS3 to HS12. We further stain with activated caspase 3 found expressed at HS0 and back to normal at HS3. Investigation of AQP mRNA expression identified 10 genes. PCR results of AQP1, 3, 7, 8, and 11 transcripts were significantly higher in the HS group than in the sham group. Immunohistochemical staining showed a more than 11-fold increase in AQP3 and 11 expressions at HS0. AQP1 and 8 increased at HS1 and AQP7 increased at HS3 compared with those in the sham group. In this study, we found HS induced jejunum damage and cell apoptosis. AQPs were upregulation/downregulation after HS in different time point suggested that water/glycerol transport was important when hyperthermia occurred. Furthermore, the biological function of the AQP needs more exploration in response to HS. PMID:26464618

  14. Pores in the epidermis: aquaporins and tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, J M

    2007-12-01

    Water homeostasis of the epidermis is important for the appearance and physical properties of the skin, as well as for water balance in the body. It depends on several factors, e.g. barrier quality, uptake of water into the epidermis, concentration of water-retaining humectants, and external humidity. Aquaporins (AQPs) are pores in the plasmamembranes of cells. Monomeric AQPs form barrel-like structures that are primarily water selective, some AQPs also transport glycerol and possibly other small solutes. In the epidermis, AQP3 is the predominant AQP. It is localized mainly in basal but also in suprabasal layers of the epidermis and is permeable for water as well as for glycerol, a humectant. Mice deficient in AQP3 exhibit reduced stratum corneum (SC) hydration and impaired SC barrier recovery after SC removal. In skin diseases associated with elevated transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and reduced SC hydration, altered expression of AQP3 was shown. Tight junctions (TJ) are cell-cell junctions, which play a central role in sealing the intercellular space of cell sheets and thereby establishing a paracellular barrier. Within the TJ, pores are postulated to exist, which allow the controlled diffusion of water and solutes via the paracellular pathway. In the epidermis, TJ structures were demonstrated in the stratum granulosum whereas TJ proteins were found in all viable layers. Mice which overexpress or are deficient of key-proteins of TJ die soon after birth because of a tremendous TEWL. In various skin diseases that are accompanied by elevated TEWL and reduced skin hydration, staining patterns of TJ proteins are altered. This review will summarize our current knowledge of the involvement of AQPs and TJ in the water homeostasis of the epidermis. PMID:18489380

  15. Aquaporin-2 water channels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Nostro, Lorena; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Sturiale, Alessio; Floccari, Fulvio; Aloisi, Carmela; Ruello, Antonella; Calapai, Gioacchino; Corica, Francesco; Frisina, Nicola

    2004-12-01

    Vasopressin (AVP), an antidiuretic hormone, is known to induce hypervolemia and to regulate the renal expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, but it is not yet known whether the latter are involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was therefore to make a comparative study of blood pressure (BP), urinary volume (UV), urinary osmolarity (uOsm), urinary AQP2 (uAQP2), and plasma AVP levels (PAVP) in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 30) at 3, 7, and 12 weeks of age and in male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 30), also after the subcutaneous administration of OPC-31260 (OPC), a human AVP V(2) receptor antagonist. At 3 weeks, SHR had markedly higher uOsm and lower UV levels than WKY. At 7 weeks, SHR were hypertensive, showing increased uAQP2, PAVP, and uOsm levels and a decreased UV. At 12 weeks, no significant changes were observed in this condition. At 7 and 12 weeks of age, OPC-treated WKY rats showed significant reduction in BP and uOsm and increase in UV with respect to untreated animals. From 3 weeks of age, OPC-treated SHR presented significantly lower BP levels, higher UV levels, and lower uOsm than untreated animals. In treated WKY and SHR, uAQP2 levels were lower than in untreated animals. The PAVP appeared to be higher in OPC-treated rats from both strains. These findings suggest that AVP and the AQP2 are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in SHR.

  16. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior to the...... baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  17. Effects of proteoliposome composition and draw solution types on separation performance of aquaporin-based proteoliposomes: implications for seawater desalination using aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Li, Xuesong; Hélixnielsen, Claus; Vissing, Thomas; Torres, Jaume; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2013-02-01

    Aquaporins are a large family of water transport proteins in cell membranes. Their high water permeability and solute rejection make them potential building blocks for high-performance biomimetic membranes for desalination. In the current study, proteoliposomes were prepared using AquaporinZ from Escherichia coli cells, and their separation properties were characterized by stopped-flow measurements. The current study systematically investigated the effect of proteoliposome composition (lipid type, protein-to-lipid ratio (PLR), and the addition of cholesterol) on water permeability and NaCl retention. Among the various lipids investigated, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)-based proteoliposomes were found to have excellent osmotic water permeability and NaCl reflection coefficient values. Increasing the PLR of DOPC proteoliposomes up to 1:200 increased their osmotic water permeability. However, further increase in the PLR reduced the osmotic water permeability probably due to the occurrence of defects in the proteoliposomes, whereas the addition of cholesterol improved their osmotic water permeation likely due to defects sealing. The current study also investigated the effect of major dissolved ions in seawater (e.g., Mg(2+) and SO(4)(2-)) on the stability of proteoliposomes, and design criteria for aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes are proposed in the context of desalination. PMID:23311686

  18. SPEECH ACT OF ILTIFAT AND ITS INDONESIAN TRANSLATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaka Al Farisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Iltifat (shifting speech act is distinctive and considered unique style of Arabic. It has potential errors when it is translated into Indonesian. Therefore, translation of iltifat speech act into another language can be an important issue. The objective of the study is to know translation procedures/techniques and ideology required in dealing with iltifat speech act. This research is directed at translation as a cognitive product of a translator. The data used in the present study were the corpus of Koranic verses that contain iltifat speech act along with their translation. Data analysis typically used descriptive-evaluative method with content analysis model. The data source of this research consisted of the Koran and its translation. The purposive sampling technique was employed, with the sample of the iltifat speech act contained in the Koran. The results showed that more than 60% of iltifat speech act were translated by using literal procedure. The significant number of literal translation of the verses asserts that the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to use literal method of translation. In other words, the Koran translation made by the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to be oriented to the source language in dealing with iltifat speech act. The number of the literal procedure used shows a tendency of foreignization ideology. Transitional pronouns contained in the iltifat speech act can be clearly translated when thick translations were used in the form of description in parentheses. In this case, explanation can be a choice in translating iltifat speech act.

  19. LIP5 interacts with aquaporin 2 and facilitates its lysosomal degradation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkom, B.W.M. van; Boone, M.; Hendriks, G.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Robben, J.H.; Stronks, H.C.; Voorde, A. van der; Herp, F. van; Sluijs, P. van der; Deen, P.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Vasopressin binding to the V2 receptor in renal principal cells leads to activation of protein kinase A, phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) at Ser256, and the translocation of AQP2 to the apical membrane, resulting in concentration of the urine. In contrast, phorbol ester-induced activation of pr

  20. Role of cytoplasmic termini in sorting and shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkom, B.W.M. van; Graat, M.P.J.; Raak, M.M.J.P. van; Hofman, E.; Sluijs, P. van der; Deen, P.M.T.

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, the regulation of water homeostasis is mediated by the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channel, which localizes to the basolateral and apical membranes of the early nephron segment, and AQP2, which is translocated from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane of collecting duct cells after

  1. Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Sinke, Anne P.; Hadrup, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the plasma membrane and water reabsorption from the pro-urine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients...

  2. High-resolution x-ray structure of human aquaporin 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsefield, Rob; Nordén, Kristina; Fellert, Maria; Backmark, Anna; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Kvassman, Jan; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban; Neutze, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Human aquaporin 5 (HsAQP5) facilitates the transport of water across plasma membranes and has been identified within cells of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, airways, lungs, salivary glands, sweat glands, eyes, lacrimal glands, and the inner ear. AQP5, like AQP2, is subject to posttranslational reg

  3. Aquaporin-4 IgG autoimmune syndrome and immunoreactivity associated with thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Mørch, Marlene;

    2016-01-01

    pathogenicity of autoantibodies vary between neurologic diseases. By contrast, anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) IgG from patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a specific biomarker for NMOSD. AQP4 is the most abundant water channel in the CNS, particularly abundant on astrocytes, forming...

  4. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium.

  5. Characterization and differential expression analysis of Toxocara canis aquaporin-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong-Fang; Hu, Ling; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Li; Yin, Sha-Sha; Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode of canids with a worldwide distribution, causing an important but neglected parasitic zoonosis in humans. Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of water channel proteins, which function as membrane channels to regulate water homeostasis. In this study, the coding sequence of aquaporin-1 gene of T. canis (Tc-aqp-1) was cloned and characterized. The obtained Tc-aqp-1 coding sequence was 933 bp in length, which predicted to encode 311 amino acids. Two conserved asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs were identified in the multiple sequence alignments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the closest relationship between T. canis and Opisthorchis viverrini based on aquaporin-1 amino acid sequence. A structure was predicted with ligand binding sites predicted at H93, N95, N226, L94, I79, and I210 and with active sites predicted at I256 and G207. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations predicted its cellular component term of integral component of plasma membrane (GO: 0005887), molecular function term of channel activity (GO: 0015250), and biological process term of water transport (GO: 0006833). Tissue expression analysis revealed that the Tc-aqp-1 was highly expressed in the intestine of adult male. The findings of the present study provide the basis for further functional studies of T. canis aquaporin-1. PMID:27215210

  6. Water transport and functional dynamics of aquaporins in osmoregulatory organs of fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Engelund, Morten B; Cutler, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    salty desert lakes, the challenge to obtain consensus as well as specific knowledge about aquaporin physiology in these vertebrate clades is overwhelming. Because the integumental surfaces of these animals are in intimate contact with the surrounding milieu, passive water loss and uptake represent two...

  7. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  8. Gene interference regulates aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with cerebral ischemic edema Correlation with variation in apparent diffusion coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Hu; Hong Lu; Zhanping He; Xiangjun Han; Jing Chen; Rong Tu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of mRNA interference on aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral edema, and diagnose the significance of diffusion-weighted MRI, we injected 5 μL shRNA- aquaporin-4 (control group) or siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution (1:800) (RNA interference group) into the rat right basal ganglia immediately before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 0.25 hours after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, diffusion-weighted MRI displayed a high signal; within 2 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient decreased markedly, aquaporin-4 expression increased rapidly, and intracellular edema was obviously aggravated; at 4 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slowly returned to control levels, aquaporin-4 expression slightly increased, and angioedema was observed. In the RNA interference group, during 0.25- 6 hours after injection of siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slightly fluctuated and aquaporin-4 expression was upregulated; during 0.5-4 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly higher, while aquaporin-4 expression was significantly lower when compared with the control group, and intracellular edema was markedly reduced; at 0.25 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient and aquaporin-4 expression were similar when compared with the control group; obvious angioedema remained at 6 hours. Pearson's correlation test results showed that aquaporin-4 expression was negatively correlated with the apparent diffusion coefficient (r = -0.806, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that upregulated aquaporin-4 expression is likely to be the main molecular mechanism of intracellular edema and may be the molecular basis for decreased relative apparent diffusion coefficient. Aquaporin-4 gene interference can effectively inhibit the upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression during the stage of intracellular edema with time

  9. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  10. The role of translation in undergraduate medical English instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Micic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For most of its history of undergraduate medical English instruction at Belgrade University, translation was a major part of teaching and assessment. Educational reforms in the early 21st century resulted in a shift towards content-based instruction with the focus on reading comprehension and less translation. The paper analyses the new role of translation in the reformed Serbian curriculum. A brief history of Medical English instruction is outlined. The role of lexicon and the level of discourse within the teaching of English translation in the Serbian curriculum are explored. Some suggestions for the improvement of medical English translation in the Serbian curriculum are offered. It has been shown that translation is a valuable skill to be mastered. Translation exercises allow instructors to recognize language-related comprehension problems. Furthermore, teaching translation is important in that future medical professionals are able to recognize different medical genres and structural differences between English and Serbian.

  11. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannetti Marco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis.

  12. The lineage-specific evolution of aquaporin gene clusters facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Nigel Finn

    Full Text Available A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16. The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.

  13. Uighur Local Food in China and Its English Translation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Liao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to study Uighur diet culture and Chinese-English translation of its local food names. After deeply analyzing Uighur diet structure, content, pattern and nutrient functions of Uighur local foods, this study concludes several practical strategies based on Chinese-English translation of local food names, including functional equivalence and formal equivalence, domestication and foreignization, borrowing translation, transliteration, free translation and combination of transliteration and free translation. All strategies mentioned above are according to cultural comprehension, which maintains the originality of Sinkiang foods to widely spread Chinese food culture.

  14. Current Trends in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maylath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the growth of a global economy and developments in high technology, the process of creating and translating technical documentation has been evolving rapidly. In particular, machine translation (MT has shown increasing capabilities of efficaciously accomplishing the early stages of the eight stages of translation identified years ago by Robert Bly. As a consequence, translators have learned to use MT as a tool to accelerate their work, but they have also grown wary of MT’s potential for replacing them. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun cross-training as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun cross-training as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Academic programs are urged to respond to the evolving trends.

  15. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  16. Translating the Untranslatable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Ping

    2015-01-01

    Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.

  17. Translation and Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánhegyi Mátyás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.

  18. Translation, capitalism, psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Goran Skare

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article defends that the discourse of the translator is the inverse of the discourse of the capitalist. We present the theory of discourses of the psychoanalist Jacques Lacan: the discourse of the master, of the university, of the hysteric and of the analyst, as well as the capitalist. We develop the characteristics of the translator and his ethics of the Real, and we formally present his discourse. We oppose the discourses of the translator and of the capitalist. We conclude that the translator can question the hegemonic discourse

  19. Translation and corpus design

    OpenAIRE

    Zanettin, Federico

    2011-01-01

    In this article I discuss the role of translated texts in different types of corpora. I first consider the role of translations in corpus-based monolingual linguistics, arguing that while translated texts are often excluded from corpora on the basis of a more or less implicit assumption that they “corrupt” the reference norm for a language, this assumption does not seem to be justified on theoretical grounds. For the same reason, translated texts should also be included in bi- and multi-lingu...

  20. Cultural bridge: translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.

  1. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  2. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  3. Rhubarb Tannins Extract Inhibits the Expression of Aquaporins 2 and 3 in Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfang Liu; Yanfang Zheng; Wen Xu; Hui Wang; Na Lin

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly ...

  4. The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour across Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play?

    OpenAIRE

    GAMBETTA, G. A.; Manuck, C. M.; Drucker, S. T.; Shaghasi, T.; Fort, K.; Matthews, M A; Walker, M. A.; McElrone, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera scions are commonly grafted onto rootstocks of other grape species to influence scion vigour and provide resistance to soil-borne pests and abiotic stress; however, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion physiology remain unknown. This study characterized the hydraulic physiology of Vitis rootstocks that vary in vigour classification by investigating aquaporin (VvPIP) gene expression, fine-root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), % aquaporin contribution to Lp r , scion tr...

  5. Adaptação transcultural: tradução e validação de conteúdo para o idioma português do modelo da Tripartite Influence Scale de insatisfação corporal Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Conti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi traduzir e adaptar o instrumento Tripartite Influence Scale para o idioma português e avaliar sua validade de conteúdo e consistência interna. Envolveu seis etapas: (1 tradução; (2 re-tradução; (3 revisão técnica e avaliação semântica; (4 validação de conteúdo por profissionais da área - juízes; (5 avaliação do instrumento por uma amostra da população alvo, por meio da avaliação do grau de compreensão e (6 análise da consistência interna pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. As 43 questões foram traduzidas e adaptadas para o idioma português. A versão final constou de 39 itens apresentando validação de conteúdo para os três construtos (mídia, família e amigos, clareza e fácil compreensão e boa concordância - valores do coeficiente de Cronbach superiores 0,80. O instrumento encontra-se traduzido e adaptado para o idioma português demonstrando bons resultados no processo de validação de conteúdo, compreensão verbal e consistência interna. São necessárias análises de validade externa, equivalência de mensuração e reprodutibilidade.The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1 translation; (2 back-translation; (3 technique revision and semantic evaluation; (4 conduct validation by professional experts (judges; (5 assessment of comprehensibility by the target population, using a verbal rating scale; and (6 evaluation of the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 43 questions were translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. The final version consisted of 39 items, with content validity for three constructs (media, family, and friends, clarity and easy understanding, and good internal agreement (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.80. The instrument was successfully translated and adapted to Portuguese and showed

  6. Serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibody in neuromyelitis patients is not correlated with the length of injured spinal cord segments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirong Li; Lan Chu; Shuai Dong; Hui Yu; Zhu Xu; Hao Wang

    2011-01-01

    Clinical information and serum samples of 20 neuromyelitis patients and 30 patients with multiple sclerosis were collected in this study. The expression of anti-aquaporin 4 antibody in the serum of all patients was detected with an indirect immunofluorescence assay, using human embryonic kidney 293 cell line that stably express human-derived aquaporin 4 as a substrate. The characteristics of head and spinal magnetic resonance imaging were also observed in patients who had neuromyelitis and were positive for anti-aquaporin 4 antibody. Results showed that the expression of anti-aquaporin 4 antibody was significantly different between multiple sclerosis patients and neuromyelitis patients. There were 13 out of 20 neuromyelitis patients (including high-risk syndrome) that were positive for anti-aquaporin 4 antibody. The magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the head and spinal cord found that among the 13 positive patients, nine cases showed normal cerebral hemisphere and optic nerve, two cases had optic nerve changes, and one case had an atypical lesion in the brain. All 30 multiple sclerosis patients were negative for this antibody. The experimental findings indicate that patients with neuromyelitis optica had more than three lesioned segments in the spinal cord by magnetic resonance imaging, and the segment length of the injured spinal cord was not associated with the titer of aquaporin 4 antibody in neuromyelitis patients.

  7. Aquaporin expression correlates with freeze tolerance in baker's yeast, and overexpression improves freeze tolerance in industrial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dumortier, Françoise; Teunissen, Aloys; Hohmann, Stefan; Thevelein, Johan M

    2002-12-01

    Little information is available about the precise mechanisms and determinants of freeze resistance in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomewide gene expression analysis and Northern analysis of different freeze-resistant and freeze-sensitive strains have now revealed a correlation between freeze resistance and the aquaporin genes AQY1 and AQY2. Deletion of these genes in a laboratory strain rendered yeast cells more sensitive to freezing, while overexpression of the respective genes, as well as heterologous expression of the human aquaporin gene hAQP1, improved freeze tolerance. These findings support a role for plasma membrane water transport activity in determination of freeze tolerance in yeast. This appears to be the first clear physiological function identified for microbial aquaporins. We suggest that a rapid, osmotically driven efflux of water during the freezing process reduces intracellular ice crystal formation and resulting cell damage. Aquaporin overexpression also improved maintenance of the viability of industrial yeast strains, both in cell suspensions and in small doughs stored frozen or submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, an aquaporin overexpression transformant could be selected based on its improved freeze-thaw resistance without the need for a selectable marker gene. Since aquaporin overexpression does not seem to affect the growth and fermentation characteristics of yeast, these results open new perspectives for the successful development of freeze-resistant baker's yeast strains for use in frozen dough applications. PMID:12450819

  8. Aquaporin 3 and skin%水通道蛋白-3与皮肤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱定仙; 方红

    2010-01-01

    水通道蛋白是细胞膜上参与跨膜水转运的一组通道蛋白.水通道蛋白3是人类皮肤中表达量最丰富的水通道蛋白亚型,除对水分子通透外还对甘油等溶质具有通透性.动物研究显示,水通道蛋白3基因敲除后皮肤保湿功能和弹性降低,创伤愈合延缓;水通道蛋白3还与细胞增殖及迁移有关,可能参与皮肤肿瘤的发生、发展和转移.水通道蛋白3与炎症性皮肤病如新生儿中毒性红斑、特应性皮炎等的病理机制相关.维A酸、肿瘤坏死因子-α等多种物质可调节水通道蛋白3的表达,对其表达进行调控将为治疗相关皮肤病带来新的手段.%Aquaporins (AQPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins involved in the transport ofwater across cell membranes. AQP3, the most abundant aquaporin subset in human skin, is permeable notonly to water but also to small solutes such as glycerol. It has been reported that AQP3-knockout mice havereduced stratum corneum water content, elasticity and impaired wound healing. AQP3 has been revealed to berelated to cell proliferation and migration, and involved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of tumors.In addition, AQP3 expression is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory cutaneous diseases such asatopic dermatitis and erythema toxicum neonatorum. AQP3 expression can be modulated by multiple factorssuch as retinoic acid and tumor necrosis factor α, and this modulation may provide a new clue for the therapyof related skin diseases.

  9. Effect of Dexamethasone and Aquaporin-1 Antisense Oligonucleotides on the Aquaporin-1 Expression in Cultured Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The changes in the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) mRNA and protein in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells treated with dexamethasone and transfected with antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODN) were studied, and the implication of AQP1 regulation in corticosteroid-glaucoma and the possibility of AS-ODN inhibiting the AQP1 expression were evaluated.The cultured HTM cells in vitro were treated with different concentrations of dexamethasone and transfected with oligonucleotides for 5 days respectively. Then, total RNA and protein of HTM cells were extracted. The changes of AQP1 mRNA and protein were demonstrated qualitatively and quantitatively by RT-PCR and Western blot. Band intensities were detected by imaging analysis.There was a parallel relationship between the results of RT-PCR and those of Western blot. The expression levels of AQP1 mRNA and protein in dexamethasone-treated groups were increased initially and decreased later as dexamethasone concentration was stepped up. In the 0.04 μg/mL and 0.4 μg/mL groups, the levels of AQP1 were higher than in control group (0μg/mL). In the 4μg/mL and 40μg/mL groups, the AQP1 expression levels were lower than in control group. AS-ODN could down-regulate the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. At 5 μg/mL, down-regulation efficiency reached the maximum. There was no statistically significant difference in the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein between all sense oligonucleotides groups and control group. It was suggested that dexamethasone may induce the changes of the AQP1 expression in HTM cells to be involved in the occurrence of corticosteroid-glaucoma. AS-ODN can down-regulate the AQP1 expression in HTM cells to some extent.

  10. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  11. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  12. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  13. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  14. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...

  15. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...

  16. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  17. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  18. Translational control of cyclins

    OpenAIRE

    Lai Ming-Chih; Tarn Woan-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  19. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  20. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  1. The role of aquaporin and tight junction proteins in the regulation of water movement in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W M Kwong

    Full Text Available Teleost fish living in freshwater are challenged by passive water influx; however the molecular mechanisms regulating water influx in fish are not well understood. The potential involvement of aquaporins (AQP and epithelial tight junction proteins in the regulation of transcellular and paracellular water movement was investigated in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio. We observed that the half-time for saturation of water influx (K(u was 4.3±0.9 min, and reached equilibrium at approximately 30 min. These findings suggest a high turnover rate of water between the fish and the environment. Water influx was reduced by the putative AQP inhibitor phloretin (100 or 500 μM. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that AQP1a1 protein was expressed in cells on the yolk sac epithelium. A substantial number of these AQP1a1-positive cells were identified as ionocytes, either H⁺-ATPase-rich cells or Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich cells. AQP1a1 appeared to be expressed predominantly on the basolateral membranes of ionocytes, suggesting its potential involvement in regulating ionocyte volume and/or water flux into the circulation. Additionally, translational gene knockdown of AQP1a1 protein reduced water influx by approximately 30%, further indicating a role for AQP1a1 in facilitating transcellular water uptake. On the other hand, incubation with the Ca²⁺-chelator EDTA or knockdown of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-b significantly increased water influx. These findings indicate that the epithelial tight junctions normally act to restrict paracellular water influx. Together, the results of the present study provide direct in vivo evidence that water movement can occur through transcellular routes (via AQP; the paracellular routes may become significant when the paracellular permeability is increased.

  2. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  3. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  4. The Water Permeability and Pore Entrance Structure of Aquaporin-4 Depend on Lipid Bilayer Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jihong; Wu, Zhe; Briggs, Margaret M; Schulten, Klaus; McIntosh, Thomas J

    2016-07-12

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the primary water channel in glial cells of the mammalian brain, plays a critical role in water transport in the central nervous system. Previous experiments have shown that the water permeability of AQP4 depends on the cholesterol content in the lipid bilayer, but it was not clear whether changes in permeability were due to direct cholesterol-AQP4 interactions or to indirect effects caused by cholesterol-induced changes in bilayer elasticity or bilayer thickness. To determine the effects resulting only from bilayer thickness, here we use a combination of experiments and simulations to analyze AQP4 in cholesterol-free phospholipid bilayers with similar elastic properties but different hydrocarbon core thicknesses previously determined by x-ray diffraction. The channel (unit) water permeabilities of AQP4 measured by osmotic-gradient experiments were 3.5 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s (mean ± SE), 3.0 ± 0.3 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, 2.5 ± 0.2 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s, and 0.9 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in bilayers containing (C22:1)(C22:1)PC, (C20:1)(C20:1)PC, (C16:0)(C18:1)PC, and (C13:0)(C13:0)PC, respectively. Channel permeabilities obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were 3.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s and 2.5 ± 0.1 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s in (C22:1)(C22:1)PC and (C14:0)(C14:0)PC bilayers, respectively. Both the osmotic-gradient and MD-simulation results indicated that AQP4 channel permeability decreased with decreasing bilayer hydrocarbon thickness. The MD simulations also suggested structural modifications in AQP4 in response to changes in bilayer thickness. Although the simulations showed no appreciable changes to the radius of the pore located in the hydrocarbon region of the bilayers, the simulations indicated that there were changes in both pore length and α-helix organization near the cytoplasmic vestibule of the channel. These structural changes, caused by mismatch between the hydrophobic length of AQP4 and the bilayer hydrocarbon

  5. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....

  6. The role of translation in undergraduate medical English instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Sofija Micic

    2008-01-01

    For most of its history of undergraduate medical English instruction at Belgrade University, translation was a major part of teaching and assessment. Educational reforms in the early 21st century resulted in a shift towards content-based instruction with the focus on reading comprehension and less translation. The paper analyses the new role of translation in the reformed Serbian curriculum. A brief history of Medical English instruction is outlined. The role of lexicon and the level of disco...

  7. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  8. Translation in Global News Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Othman, Zeineb

    2012-01-01

    The work is divided into two parts. The 1st part is the translation of Chapter One "Power language and translation" and the Chapter Four "Translation in Global News Agencies". The 2nd part is about the characteristics and theories of translation particularly in News Agencies and Institutions as well as the difficulties I found in the translation of a specialized book.

  9. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  10. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  11. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  12. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  13. Phosphorylation of rat aquaporin-4 at Ser(111) is not required for channel gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assentoft, Mette; Kaptan, Shreyas; Fenton, Robert A;

    2013-01-01

    is therefore of therapeutic interest. Phosphorylation of some aquaporins has been proposed to regulate their water permeability via gating of the channel itself. Protein kinase (PK)-dependent phosphorylation of Ser(111) has been reported to increase the water permeability of AQP4 expressed in an astrocytic......Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain and is mainly expressed in the perivascular glial endfeet at the brain-blood interface. AQP4 has been described as an important entry and exit site for water during formation of brain edema and regulation of AQP4...... cell line. This possibility was, however, questioned based on the crystal structure of the human AQP4. Our study aimed to resolve if Ser(111) was indeed a site involved in phosphorylation-mediated gating of AQP4. The water permeability of AQP4-expressing Xenopus oocytes was not altered by a range...

  14. H95 Is a pH-Dependent Gate in Aquaporin 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptan, Shreyas; Assentoft, Mette; Schneider, Hans Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a transmembrane protein from the aquaporin family and is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain. The regulation of permeability of this protein could be of potential therapeutic use to treat various forms of damage to the nervous tissue. In this work, based...... on data obtained from in silico and in vitro studies, a pH sensitivity that regulates the osmotic water permeability of AQP4 is demonstrated. The results indicate that AQP4 has increased water permeability at conditions of low pH in atomistic computer simulations and experiments carried out on Xenopus...... oocytes expressing AQP4. With molecular dynamics simulations, this effect was traced to a histidine residue (H95) located in the cytoplasmic lumen of AQP4. A mutant form of AQP4, in which H95 was replaced with an alanine (H95A), loses sensitivity to cytoplasmic pH changes in in vitro osmotic water...

  15. One-step extraction of functional recombinant aquaporin Z from inclusion bodies with optimal detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Hu; Li, Zhengjun; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Xin Shan; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are integral membrane channel proteins found in all kingdoms of life. The Escherichia coli aquaporin Z (AqpZ) has been shown to solely conduct water at high permeability. Functional AqpZ is generally purified from the membrane fraction. However, the quantity of the purified protein is limited. In this study, a new method is developed to achieve high yield of bioactive AqpZ protein. A mild detergent n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM) was used to solubilize the over-expressed insoluble AqpZ from inclusion bodies without a refolding process. The recovered AqpZ protein showed high water permeability comparable with AqpZ obtained from the membrane fraction. In this way, the total yield of bioactive AqpZ has been increased greatly, which will facilitate the structural and functional characterization and future applications of AqpZ. PMID:26278820

  16. A Minireview on Vasopressin-regulated Aquaporin-2 in Kidney Collecting Duct Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui-Jung; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    The kidney collecting duct is an important renal tubular segment for the regulation of body water and salt homeostasis. Water reabsorption in the collecting duct cells is regulated by arginine vasopressin (AVP) via the vasopressin V2-receptor (V2R). AVP increases the osmotic water permeability of the collecting duct cells through aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). AVP induces the apical targeting of AQP2 and transcription of AQP2 gene in the kidney collecting duct principal cells. The signaling transduction pathways resulting in the AQP2 trafficking to the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, include AQP2 phosphorylation, RhoA phosphorylation, actin depolymerization and calcium mobilization, and the changes of AQP2 protein abundance in water balance disorders have been extensively studied. These studies elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of body water homeostasis and provide the basis for the treatment of body water balance disorders. PMID:26240594

  17. Expression of aquaporin-1 in SMMC-7221 liver carcinoma cells promotes cell migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongming; FENG Xuechao; YANG Hong; MA Tonghui

    2006-01-01

    Migration of tumor cells is a crucial step in tumor invasion and metastasis. Here we provide evidence that aquaporin expression is involved in tumor cell migration. RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis demonstrated the AQP1 protein expression on the plasma membrane of SMMC-7221 human hepatoma cells. SMMC-7221 cell clones with high (SMMC-7221hPf) and low (SMMC-7221/Pf) water permeability were identified by functional assays with corresponding high and low AQP1 expression. Cell migration rate was remarkably higher in SMMC-7221hPf cells than SMMC-7221/Pf cells, assessed by Boyden chamber and wound healing assays, whereas cell growth and adhesion were not different. Adenovirus-mediated AQP1 expression in SMMC-7221/Pf cells increased their water permeability and migration rate. These results provide the first evidence that aquaporin-mediated membrane water permeability enhances tumor cell migration and may be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis.

  18. One-step extraction of functional recombinant aquaporin Z from inclusion bodies with optimal detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Hu; Li, Zhengjun; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Xin Shan; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are integral membrane channel proteins found in all kingdoms of life. The Escherichia coli aquaporin Z (AqpZ) has been shown to solely conduct water at high permeability. Functional AqpZ is generally purified from the membrane fraction. However, the quantity of the purified protein is limited. In this study, a new method is developed to achieve high yield of bioactive AqpZ protein. A mild detergent n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM) was used to solubilize the over-expressed insoluble AqpZ from inclusion bodies without a refolding process. The recovered AqpZ protein showed high water permeability comparable with AqpZ obtained from the membrane fraction. In this way, the total yield of bioactive AqpZ has been increased greatly, which will facilitate the structural and functional characterization and future applications of AqpZ.

  19. Isolation and expression of an aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianghuan; HAO Fushun; CHEN Hui; CAI Jinghui; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    To explore the effects of aquaporins on stomatal movement, we isolated a full length cDNA of aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 ( Vicia faba plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene, GenBank accession number: AY667436), which encodes for a 290-amino-acid polypeptide, from Vicia faba leaf epidermis by 5′/3′ RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The analyses of VfPIP1 transmembrane regions and amino acid sequence show that VfPIP1 owns six membrane-spanning domains and the special plasma membrane signature sequences GGGANXXXXGY and TGI/TNPARSL/FGAAI/VI/VF/YN, and it should be a member of PIP1 subfamily. The results of in situ hybridization and Northern blot indicate that VfPIP1 is strongly expressed in guard cells and induced by ABA. Hereby, VfPIP1 may be involved in the water-transmembrane movement of guard cells.

  20. REFLECTION AND TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolkova Svetlana Azadovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the correlation between reflection and translation and proves the possibility to extrapolate the notion of "hermeneutic circle" into translation. Translation, which is understood as a specific speech activity, has a hermeneutic character as in its basis there is a "reflexive delay", a specific state of intelligence which occurs as a result of a language, ethnic or cultural barrier and demands a reflective action. At that, the circle is transformed into a spiral, which lets conceive the essence of every text fragment through its integration into the former comprehended layer. Interpretation, a reflexive action, which has a three-level structure, creates a unified image of a foreign text in the translator's consciousness and provides the integration of the text concept into the translator's pragmatic net, the representative of a foreign language community, and promotes the target text creation which conforms to the recipient's expectations. At that, the interpreter's personality, their ability to interpret, total existential competence and active position are of precedence for sense comprehension. Reflexive abilities refer to the category of the over-subjective; however, they provide adequate interpretation of the source text and creation of the so-called natural target text. The so-called des-objective reading, predicted synthesis and retrospective analysis are the key notions for the translator. Such abilities are the basis of the professional competence of the translator, who becomes not only a professional but also an intelligent personality that has existential and academic background.

  1. Combining statistical machine translation and translation memories with domain adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Volk, Martin; Weibel, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of translation memory software, translation companies and freelance translators have been accumulating translated text for various languages and domains. This data has the potential of being used for training domain-specific machine translation systems for corporate or even personal use. But while the resulting systems usually perform well in translating domain-specific language, their out-of-domain vocabulary coverage is often insufficient due to the limited size of the t...

  2. Upregulation of aquaporin expression in the salivary glands of heat-acclimated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Naotoshi Sugimoto; Kentaro Matsuzaki; Hiroaki Ishibashi; Masao Tanaka; Toshioki Sawaki; Yoshimasa Fujita; Takafumi Kawanami; Yasufumi Masaki; Toshiro Okazaki; Joji Sekine; Shoichi Koizumi; Akihiro Yachie; Hisanori Umehara; Osamu Shido

    2013-01-01

    It is known that aquaporin (AQP) 5 expression in the apical membrane of acinar cells in salivary glands is important for the secretion of saliva in rodents and humans. Although heat acclimation enhances saliva secretion in rodents, the molecular mechanism of how heat induces saliva secretion has not been determined. Here, we found that heat acclimation enhanced the expression of AQP5 and AQP1 in rat submandibular glands concomitant with the promotion of the HIF-1α pathway, leading to VEGF ind...

  3. Maternal-fetal fluid balance and aquaporins: from molecule to physiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Xiao-dan DI; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Maternal-fetal fluid balance is critical during pregnancy, and amniotic fluid is essential for fetal growth and development. The placenta plays a key role in a successful pregnancy as the interface between the mother and her fetus. Aquaporins (AQPs) form specific water channels that allow the rapid transcellular movement of water in response to osmotic/hydrostatic pressure gradients. AQPs expression in the placenta and fetal membranes may play important roles in the maternal-fetal fluid balance.

  4. Identification and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins isolated from fiber cells of Calotropis procera

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Usman; Khatoon, Asia; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Bashir, Aftab

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera, commonly known as “milkweed”, possesses long seed trichomes for seed dispersal and has the ability to survive under harsh conditions such as drought and salinity. Aquaporins are water channel proteins expressed in all land plants, divided into five subfamilies plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and the unfamiliar X intrinsic proteins (XIPs). PIPs constitute the l...

  5. Decreased Aquaporin Expression Leads to Increased Resistance to Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonski, Elizabeth M.; Mattocks, M. Adrian; Sokolov, Eugene; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Hughes, Francis M; Fausto, Nelson; Pierce, Robert H.; Mckillop, Iain H.

    2006-01-01

    Cells undergoing apoptosis are characterized by decreased cell size due to changes in intracellular ion concentration and rapid, aquaporin (AQP)-dependent water movement out of the cell, events required for the activation of pro-apoptotic enzymes. The current study demonstrates AQP 8 and 9 expression is significantly decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) versus normal liver. Isolation of hepatic tumor cells (H4IIE) and hepatocytes confirmed a lack of water movement across the H4IIE cell...

  6. Cellular Localization of Aquaporin-1 in the Human and Mouse Trigeminal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Junying; Tan, Meiyun; Gu, Minxia; Marshall, Charles; Ding, Jiong; Hu, Gang; Xiao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies reported that a subpopulation of mouse and rat trigeminal neurons express water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). In this study we make a comparative investigation of AQP1 localization in the human and mouse trigeminal systems. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results showed that AQP1 was localized to the cytoplasm and cell membrane of some medium and small-sized trigeminal neurons. Additionally, AQP1 was found in numerous peripheral trigeminal axons of humans and mice. ...

  7. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Moshelion, Menachem; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Skory, Christopher D; Lichter, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2016-01-01

    Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His) residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection. PMID:26959825

  8. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidhar Turgeman

    Full Text Available Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection.

  9. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of Bemisia tabaci aquaporins reveals the water channel diversity of hemipteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Chauvigné, François; Finn, Roderick Nigel; Mathew, Lolita G; Hull, J Joe; Cerdà, Joan; Fabrick, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    The Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an economically important pest of food, fiber, and ornamental crops. This pest has evolved a number of adaptations to overcome physiological challenges, including 1) the ability to regulate osmotic stress between gut lumen and hemolymph after imbibing large quantities of a low nitrogen, sugar-rich liquid diet; 2) the ability to avoid or prevent dehydration and desiccation, particularly during egg hatching and molting; and 3) to be adapted for survival at elevated temperatures. One superfamily of proteins involved in the maintenance of fluid homeostasis in many organisms includes the aquaporins, which are integral membrane channel proteins that aid in the rapid flux of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Here, we show that B. tabaci has eight aquaporins (BtAqps), of which seven belong to the classical aquaporin 4-related grade of channels, including Bib, Drip, Prip, and Eglps and one that belongs to the unorthodox grade of aquaporin 12-like channels. B. tabaci has further expanded its repertoire of water channels through the expression of three BtDrip2 amino-terminal splice variants, while other hemipteran species express amino- or carboxyl-terminal isoforms of Drip, Prip, and Eglps. Each BtAqp has unique transcript expression profiles, cellular localization, and/or substrate preference. Our phylogenetic and functional data reveal that hemipteran insects lost the classical glp genes, but have compensated for this by duplicating the eglp genes early in their evolution to comprise at least three separate clades of glycerol transporters. PMID:27491441

  11. Water fluxes through aquaporin-9 prime epithelial cells for rapid wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, T.; Lagerholm, B. C.; Vikstrom, E.;

    2013-01-01

    Cells move along surfaces both as single cells and multi-cellular units. Recent research points toward pivotal roles for water flux through aquaporins (AQPs) in single cell migration. Their expression is known to facilitate this process by promoting rapid shape changes. However, little is known...... wound healing based on AQP-induced swelling and expansion of the monolayer. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  12. An upscaling model describing root radial hydraulic conductivity from cross section anatomy and aquaporin expression patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Couvreur, Valentin; Faget, Marc; Javaux, Mathieu; Chaumont, Francois; Draye, Xavier; 2016 Kirkham Conference

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To improve our understanding of aquaporin (AQP) expression patterns and root anatomy effects on radial hydraulic conductivity by combining quantitative in vivo and in silico experiments from the cell to the root cross-section scales in various hydric environments. Methods: A program generates explicit 2D root cross-section hydraulic networks from cross-section anatomy images. The hydraulic network includes "cell wall" and "intra cell" nodes constituting connected pathways allowing...

  13. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  14. Aquaporin-2: new mutations responsible for autosomal-recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus—update and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bichet, Daniel G.; El Tarazi, Abdulah; Matar, Jessica; Lussier, Yoann; Arthus, Marie-Françoise; Lonergan, Michèle; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Bissonnette, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    It is clinically useful to distinguish between two types of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): a ‘pure’ type characterized by loss of water only and a complex type characterized by loss of water and ions. Patients with congenital NDI bearing mutations in the vasopressin 2 receptor gene, AVPR2, or in the aquaporin-2 gene, AQP2, have a pure NDI phenotype with loss of water but normal conservation of sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium. Patients with hereditary hypokalemic salt...

  15. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  16. Translation as a discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Walkiewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every translation is a second-order discourse, based on a first-order discourse, whose form is the result of negotiation between the discursive polysystems of the source and target cultures. Its dual role, representing the source-language discourse in the target culture as well as meeting the intended expectations of the target text receiver, inevitably entails the intervention of the translator as a second-order communicating subject, as will be illustrated using a French translation of a building design.

  17. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  18. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  19. A Tentative Analysis of Domestication and Foreignization in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈高娃

    2015-01-01

    In field of translation,there has long been a hot debate over the proper translation strategy chosen for the transmission of cultural contents.The two major approaches are domestication and Foreignization,which have been the focus of debate since their appearance.This thesis aims to analyze the choice of domestication and Foreignization from a new approach,namely,Skopostheorie.

  20. A Book Report on Method in Translation History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丹

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a book report of Method in Translation History, a book on the field of translation history written by Anthony Pym, a professor of University of Barcelona. The author tries to give a general summary of the book content.

  1. NH3 and NH4+ permeability in aquaporin-expressing Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars M.; Jahn, Thomas Paul; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom;

    2005-01-01

    We have shown recently, in a yeast expression system, that some aquaporins are permeable to ammonia. In the present study, we expressed the mammalian aquaporins AQP8, AQQP9, AQP3, AQP1 and a plant aquaporin TIP2;1 in Xenopus oocytes to study the transport of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+) under...... opencircuit and voltage-clamped conditions. TIP2;1 was tested as the wild-type and in a mutated version (tip2;1) in which the water permeability is intact. When AQP8-, AQP9-, AQP3- and TIP2;1-expressing oocytes were placed in a well-stirred bathing medium of low buffer capacity, NH3 permeability was evident...... from the acidification of the bathing medium; the effects observed with AQP1 and tip2;1 did not exceed that of native oocytes. AQP8, AQP9, AQP3, and TIP2;1 were permeable to larger amides, while AQP1 was not. Under voltage-clamp conditions, given sufficient NH3, AQP8, AQP9, AQP3, and TIP2;1 supported...

  2. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  3. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  4. KVSA VERTAALPRYS / CASA TRANSLATION PRIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A translation competition was initiated and sponsored by theClassical Association of South Africa in 2011. This translation wasjudged to be the best student translation submitted to CASA duringthis past year.

  5. False Psychology Treaty for Translators

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Frosin

    2015-01-01

    The publication of a book containing translations of our great writers should not leave anyone indifferent, even less the experienced translators. By using objective criticism and based on examples from translations, we have chosen in this study to examine the feat, as we say, the feat of Annie Bentoiu, for the translation of Eminescu, for the reason that his translation of the LAC is resumed in 4 covers. This poem is viewed under the microscope by the translator's experience of m...

  6. Statistical computer-assisted translation

    OpenAIRE

    Khadivi, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved in statistical machine translation (MT), but still even the best machine translation technology is far from replacing or even competing with human translators. However, an MT system helps to increase the productivity of human translators. Usually, human translators edit the MT system output to correct the errors, or they may edit the source text to limit vocabulary. A way of increasing the productivity of the whole translation proce...

  7. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...

  8. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  9. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  10. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  11. Stochastic noise in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefaniuk, Adam; Racle, Julien; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-01-01

    Translation lies at the heart of every living organism, it is the process synthesizing the proteins, a main component in the cells. Earlier studies have considered protein synthesis as mainly initiation limited, modeling it as a first-order reaction with respect to free ribosomes and mRNA. In such studies, the noise is therefore coming from initiation phase only. We have previously studied a continuous deterministic model for translation, taking into account the ribosome elongation and a poss...

  12. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  13. Juliane House, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Many young doctors in linguistics or literature are filling positions in departments of translation studies but might not necessarily have a clear idea of the kind of research carried out by their new-found colleagues. For them, Juliane House's brief introduction to the field of translation theory provides a welcome survey of the main concepts and issues in this area, even though the book is actually intended for readers with little or no background in language study at all.

  14. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  15. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English).......The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  16. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  17. Translational control of cyclins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-Chih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  18. Translation Studies: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García de Toro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.

  19. Translation readthrough mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-06-30

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202

  20. Synthesis of robust and high-performance aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes by interfacial polymerization-membrane preparation and RO performance characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yang; Qiu, Changquan; Li, Xuesong;

    2012-01-01

    -free ABMs that can be easily scaled up. In the current study, a thin film composite (TFC) ABM was prepared by the interfacial polymerization method, where AquaporinZ-containing proteoliposomes were added to the m-phenylene-diamine aqueous solution. Control membranes, either without aquaporins...

  1. Advances of the lung injury mediated by aquaporin 1, 5%水通道蛋白-1、5介导的肺损伤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟薇薇; 李元海

    2012-01-01

    背景 水通道蛋白(aquaporin,AQP)是一类高效率跨膜转运水分子的蛋白通道家族,参与诸多组织器官中的水转运及细胞内外的水平衡.现已证实有6种AQP(AQP1、3、4、5、8、9)分布于肺组织,有大量研究证明AQP1、5在肺水转运中的作用尤为重要.目的 通过对AQP1、5在急性肺损伤(acute lung injury,ALI)中的作用的研究来指导临床实践.内容 探讨AQP1、5在ALI中的作用及调控机制.趋势 随着对AQP1、5作用机制研究的不断深入,给相关疾病的防治带来了希望.%Background Aquaporins(AQP),a kind of high efficiency family of transmembrane water channels,participate in the water transport of kinds of tissues and organs,and they also maintain intracellular & extracellular water balance.Nowadays,it is showed that there are six aquaporins in the lung tissue,and that AQP1 and AQP5 might play an important role in the water transport of the lung tissue.Objective It is of great clinical significance to clarify the mechanisms of AQP1,5 mediated acute lung injury (ALI).Content This review mainly discusses the lung injury mediated by AQP1,5.Trend With the progresses of the research,it will develop some new clinical prevention and treatment strategys of lung diseases.

  2. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  3. Analysis of translation initiation using a translation control reporter system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesenthal, Volker; Leutz, Achim; Calkhoven, Cornelis F

    2006-01-01

    The study of translational control has become increasingly important, as aberrant translation has been linked to the etiology of human diseases. Nevertheless, a convenient research tool to measure and quantify cellular translational activity has not been developed to date. Here we present a translat

  4. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  5. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  6. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  7. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns.Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  8. 水孔蛋白在细胞延长、盐胁迫和光合作用中的作用%The action of aquaporins in cell elongation, salt stress and photosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑慎; 崔丽荣

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporin belongs to a highly conserved group of membrane proteins called major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that facilitate water transport across biological membranes. Aquaporins are membrane water channels that play critical roles in controlling the water content of cells and tissues. We focused on GhPIP1;2 which belongs to the PIP subfamily and GhγTIP1 which belongs to the γTIP group of the TIP subfamily. Northern blot analysis with gene-specific probes and real-time PCR demonstrated that GhPlPl;2 and GhγTIP1 are predominantly expressed during cotton fiber elongation, with the highest expression levels at 5 days post anthesis. The high and preferential expression of GhPIPI;2 and GhγTIP1 suggests that they may play important roles in supporting the rapid influx of water into vacuoles during cotton fiber cell expansion. Also, the effects of Ca2+ on aquaporins in salinity-stressed plants were studied. Researchers treated the protoplasts and plasma membrane with NaCl or CaCl2, alone or in combination. Under saline conditions, osmotic water permeability (Pf) values decreased in protoplasts and plasma membrane vesicles, and the same reduction was observed in the PIPI aquaporin abundance, indicating inhibitory effects of NaCI on aquaporin functionality and protein abundance. Two different actions of Ca2+ were observed. Increase in free cytosolic calcium concentrations associated with stress perception may lead to aquaporin closure, however, the extra-calcium would lead to an upregulation of aquaporins. Meanwhile, experiments have demonstrated HvPIP2;1, one of barley aquaporins, has a higher water and CO2 transport activity. The goal of our plant aquaporin research is to determine the key aquaporin species responsible for water and CO2 transport, and to improve plant water relations, stress tolerance, CO2 uptake or assimilation, and plant productivity.%水孔蛋白属于一个高度保守的、能够进行跨生物膜水分运输的通道蛋白MIP家族.水孔蛋白

  9. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  10. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  11. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  12. Enhanced functional expression of aquaporin Z via fusion of in situ cleavable leader peptides in Escherichia coli cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Lian, Jiazhang; Kai, Lei; Huang, Lei; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2014-02-01

    Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) is a water channel protein from Escherichia coli and has attracted many attentions to develop the biomimetic water filtration technology. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) system, one of the most complex multi-enzymatic systems, has the ability of producing the integral membrane protein in vitro. To enhance the synthesis of AqpZ in E. coli cell-free system, several natural leader peptides were respectively fused at the N-terminus and were verified to enhance the expression level significantly. Moreover, the supplementation of detergents or liposome could activate leader peptidase from the cell-free extract and provide hydrophobic environment for proper folding of AqpZ. Thus, the release of mature AqpZ via the in situ removal of leader peptide was achieved, with a specific water transport activity of (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10⁻¹⁴ cm³ s⁻¹ monomer⁻¹. Using this in situ removable leader peptide strategy, the transcription-translation, leader sequence cleavage and membrane protein folding were integrated into a simple process in the cell-free system, providing a convenient approach to enhance the expression of target proteins, especially those membrane proteins difficult to achieve.

  13. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  14. The Unification of Content and Form: Classical Chinese Poetry (CCP) Translation from the Perspective of Transitivity Analysis%内容和形式的统一—及物性分析视角下的古诗英译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程福干

    2011-01-01

    Functional Grammar holds that semantic system is realized through lexico - grammatical system, so the choices of words and structures in CCP translated versions will definitely affect the transference of semantic and stylistic features. As one of the most popular means to analyze discourses, transitivity analysis can effectively fa- cilitate the unification of CCP translation' s content and form. Its applicability is demonstrated in two aspects: on the one hand, the trichotomy of process type, participant roles and circumstantial elements in a transitivity struc- ture provides the translator with an objective reference ; on the other hand, the irregular distribution of transitivity components reflects the stylistic features of "deflection" and "incongruity", providing a visible yardstick for CCP translators to transfer the invisible stylistic features.%功能语法认为语义系统通过词汇语法系统来实现,因此古诗译本在措辞和结构方面的选择必然影响语义和文体特征的传达。及物性分析作为最为流行的语篇分析手段之一,能有效促进古诗译本内容和形式的统一,具有可操作性,表现在:及物性系统关于过程类型、参与者和环境成分的划分为译者提供了客观参照;及物性成分的不规则分布体现"失衡"或"失协"的文体特征,为译者传达无形的文体特征提供了有形尺度。

  15. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  16. Eyes on Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulaeva, Marina; Landthaler, Markus

    2016-09-15

    Translation is a fundamental biological process by which ribosomes decode genetic information into proteins. The regulation of this process plays a key role in tuning protein levels, allowing cells to respond rapidly to changes in the environment and to synthesize proteins with precise timing and at specific subcellular locations. Despite detailed biochemical and structural insight into the mechanism of protein synthesis, translational dynamics and localization in a cellular context are less well understood. Here, we summarize recent efforts to quantify and visualize translation, focusing on four publications (Morisaki et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016; Yan et al., 2016) describing novel approaches to imaging in real time the synthesis of nascent peptides from individual mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27635758

  17. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross......-linguistic priming: items which have a similar word order in source and target texts are likely to have similar syntactic structures. These items are therefore more likely to prime structurally. Source items which have few translation alternatives are more likely to share a semantic representation and are hence more...

  18. ASL Fingerspelling Translator Glove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Haydar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an automatic sign language to text translation system. This system consists of a glove that can be worn by a deaf to facilitate its conversation in real-time with hearing persons. The system translates the signs to the corresponding letters, using Bluetooth communication, to a PC that displays the result letters. The recognition of the sign is accomplished using five flex sensors and a 3-axis accelerometer; the signals are converted to digital data, which is compared with a lookup table to get the resulted letter. This system is suspected to help deaf people to communicate with other persons without the need of a human translator.

  19. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  20. Asymmetries of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gorčeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism. Together with a probable inability to (reintegrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may offer a way out: Gorčeva recommends abundant analytical and not self-exoticising self-representation. She also stresses that not only interliterary ‘export’ but also ‘import’ forges a literature’s status, and suggests that “small” literatures can take part in interliterary communication as equals in so far as they have the opportunity to keep on translating not in an assimilative but in a foreignising manner.

  1. Development of supported biomimetic membranes for insertion of aquaporin protein water channels for novel water filtration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard

    in a horizontal chamber design. Chapter 4 characterizes reconstitution and folding of E. coli Aquaporin–Z (AqpZ) and the spinach plasma integral protein 2;1 (SoPIP2;1) aquaporins into model membranes. A central part of this chapter is the development of a method for formation of giant protein vesicles (≥10 μm......Aquaporins represent a class of membrane protein channels found in all living organisms that selectively transport water molecules across biological membranes. The work presented in this thesis was motivated by the conceptual idea of incorporating aquaporin water channels into biomimetic membranes...... to develop novel water separation technologies. To accomplish this, it is necessary to construct an efficient platform to handle biomimetic membranes. Moreover, general methods are required to reliable and controllable reconstitute membrane proteins into artificially made model membranes...

  2. Relationship and action mechanism between oxygen free radicals and aquaporin 4 in brain edema%氧自由基与水通道蛋白4在脑水肿中作用机制及联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊; 徐国海

    2011-01-01

    Background Aquaporin-4(AQP4) may be one of the candidates for inducing brain edema,however,it has not been reported whether AQP4 and oxidative free radical is involved in the formation of brain edema.Objective To study the effect as well as the mechanism of oxidative free radical and AQP4 on cerebral edema.Content Aquaporin (AQP) is a membrane water channel protein family.And AQP4 is abundant within the nervous system and is closely related to the physiological and pathological process particularly in the metabolism of water.Perihematoma antioxidant imbalance and oxidative free radical reactions further increase the cerebral edema in acute cerebral hemorrhage.Trend It will provide basis for further exploring of the pathogenesis of cerebral edema by studying the relationship between oxidative free radical and AQP.%背景 水通道蛋白4(aquaporin-4,AQP4)可能是导致脑水肿形成的调节因素之一,但AQP4与氧自由基作用与脑水肿形成尚未见报道.目的 将AQP4与氧自由基在脑水肿的作用及其机制作简要的概述.内容 水通道蛋白(aquaporin,AQP)是膜水通道蛋白家族,其中AQP4在神经系统内含量最丰富,与神经系统生理和病理过程尤其水的代谢密切相关,同时急性脑出血时血肿周围脑组织氧化抗氧化平衡紊乱及自由基反应病理性加剧进一步加重脑水肿.趋向 通过研究氧自由基与APQ关系,进一步为脑水肿的发病机制奠定基础.

  3. SENSEVAL-2 Japanese Translation Task

    OpenAIRE

    Kurohashi, Sadao; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Senseval-2 Japanese translation task. In this task, word senses are defined according to distinct translations in a given target language. A translation memory (TM) was constructed which contains, for each Japanese head word, a list of typical Japanese expressions and their English translations. For each test word instance, participants were required to submit the TM record best approximating that usage, or alternatively, actual target word translations. There were 9 ...

  4. Translation in Lydia Davis's work

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the position of translations in the work of the American writer and translator Lydia Davis. Davis has been publishing stories and translations since the early 1970s, and has translated works by Maurice Blanchot, Michel Leiris, and Marcel Proust among others. This thesis argues that her translations form a graft onto the body of her own fiction; they are both part of her work and retain their identity as being written by someone else. The first chapter builds on theory...

  5. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  6. On Sources of the First Russian Old Testament Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Yuryevna Anders

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at description of a hand written manuscript that has not been studied though it is known as the earliest Russian Old Testament translation from Hebrew (1806 made by a preach Mikhail Fotinskij. The author presents some references on possible text sources which were used by the translator and analyzes their contents. Among these texts there are Old-Church Slavonic text from Elisabeth Bible, Hebrew Bible, commentaries of Hebrew scholars and some others. It is stated that the text sources mentioned above had had different degrees of influence on translation process of Mikhail Fotinskij. Despite the translation purpose that was Hebrew translation and even correction of Old-Church Slavonic translation, the Old-Church Slavonic text was still important and authoritative for the translator, who was an Orthodox preach. Having compared interpretations of Old Testament by famous middle century Hebrew scholars (Rashi and Ibn Ezra the author came to the conclusion that probably Mikhail Fotinskij used commentaries of Hebrew scholar Rashi though they served as an instrument for constructing translator's own opinion about Judaic exegesis. The intention of Mikhail Fotinskij "to improve" the Old-Church Slavonic text of the Bible, to call the Hebrew text original, and to use freely Hebrew Bible and the Judaic commentaries can explain why the manuscript of the Fotinskij's translation was not excepted by his contemporaries because of the translator's intention to correct the Old-Church Slavonic text and his usage of Judaic commentary.

  7. Analysis on Chi-Chen Wang's Adaptation of Chapters in the English Translation of Hongloumeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖珠

    2015-01-01

    Chi-Chen Wang tries hard to translate out the contents that are of interest to the western common readers. This paper is a study of Chi-chen Wang's adaptation of chapters in his two English abridged translations of Hongloumeng, hoping to be of practical use on the study of translation practice.

  8. Role of Aquaporin-4 in Cerebral Edema and Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Zador, Zsolt; Stiver, Shirley; Wang, Vincent; Manley, Geoffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral edema plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) including ischemia, trauma, tumors, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances. The formation of cerebral edema results in an increase in tissue water content and brain swelling which, if unchecked, can lead to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), reduced cerebral blood flow, and ultimately cerebral herniation and death. Despite the clinical significance of cerebral edema, the mechan...

  9. Translating Terms and Concepts in the Texts of Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Birkan Baydan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore challenges in translating terms and concepts of the social sciences within the frame of scholarly texts of translation studies translated into Turkish. Conceptual problems in the translation of scholarly texts in translation studies arise both from the “interdisciplinary” and “independent” nature of the field. Given the interdisciplinary nature of translation studies, key concepts of the influential movements of thought from adjacent fields pose challenges for the translator. Furthermore, terms which specifically belong to the field of translation studies require the translator to be familiar with the literature of the field in both source and target languages. Immanuel Wallerstein’s suggestions for translating concepts of the social sciences are evaluated within this context with certain reservations. The translator of the scholarly texts of translation studies encounters challenges both with regard to “commonly shared” and “specific” concepts. Already existent Turkish translations of “common” concepts shared with the other disciplines are often diverse and varied, while some of the “specific” concepts of the field have not yet been translated. Both instances bring to the fore the translator’s agency as the decision-maker who makes informed decisions among various alternatives. Examples[i] of two Derridean concepts and two terms specific to the field of translation studies are provided to illustrate the problem-solving and decision-making process of the translator.Keywords: Concept translation, Derridaen concepts, common concepts, specific concepts, translator’s agency[i] Examples are selected from my unpublished translations (completed for MA and PhD projects of Arrojo (1995, Arrojo (1998 and Hermans (2007.

  10. Detection of aquaporin-4 antibody using aquaporin-4 extracellular loop-based carbon nanotube biosensor for the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Manki; Kim, Daesan; Park, Kyung Seok; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-04-15

    Here we propose a carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET) functionalized with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) extracellular loop peptides for the rapid detection of AQP4 antibody without pretreatment. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disease of the central nerve system that affects the optic nerves and the spinal cord. NMO-IgG, a serum antibody in patients, is highly specific for NMO and targets AQP4. We synthesized AQP4 extracellular loop peptides, known as primary autoimmune target in NMO, and immobilized them onto CNT-FET. The sensor showed p-type FET characteristics after the functionalization of peptides. The sensor was able to detect antibody with a detection limit of 1 ng l(-1). Moreover, AQP4 antibody in human serum was detected without any pretreatment. These results indicate that the biosensor can be used for rapid and simple detection of NMO antibody. PMID:26594890

  11. Detection of aquaporin-4 antibody using aquaporin-4 extracellular loop-based carbon nanotube biosensor for the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Manki; Kim, Daesan; Park, Kyung Seok; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-04-15

    Here we propose a carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET) functionalized with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) extracellular loop peptides for the rapid detection of AQP4 antibody without pretreatment. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disease of the central nerve system that affects the optic nerves and the spinal cord. NMO-IgG, a serum antibody in patients, is highly specific for NMO and targets AQP4. We synthesized AQP4 extracellular loop peptides, known as primary autoimmune target in NMO, and immobilized them onto CNT-FET. The sensor showed p-type FET characteristics after the functionalization of peptides. The sensor was able to detect antibody with a detection limit of 1 ng l(-1). Moreover, AQP4 antibody in human serum was detected without any pretreatment. These results indicate that the biosensor can be used for rapid and simple detection of NMO antibody.

  12. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  13. Thinking translation a course in translation method French to English

    CERN Document Server

    Hervey, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    Thinking Translation is a comprehensive and revolutionary 20-week course in translation method. It has been fully and successfully piloted at the University of St. Andrews. The course offers a challenging and entertaining approach to the acquisition of translation skills.Translation is presented as a problem-solving discipline. Discussion, examples and a full range of exercise work allows students to acquire the skills necessary for a broad range of translation problems.Thinking Translation draws on a wide range of material from technical texts to poetry and song.

  14. Translational research in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  15. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs as info...

  16. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  17. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  18. Ethylene prunes translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Mohammad; Estelle, Mark

    2015-10-22

    Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. In the presence of ethylene, the C terminus of EIN2 (EIN2C) translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription. Li et al. and Merchante et al. show that EIN2C also regulates translation through an interaction with the 3' UTRs of transcripts. PMID:26496600

  19. Loop A is critical for the functional interaction of two Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Rosi, Pablo; Sigaut, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; Alleva, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Research done in the last years strongly support the hypothesis that PIP aquaporin can form heterooligomeric assemblies, specially combining PIP2 monomers with PIP1 monomers. Nevertheless, the structural elements involved in the ruling of homo versus heterooligomeric organization are not completely elucidated. In this work we unveil some features of monomer-monomer interaction in Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins. Our results show that while BvPIP2;2 is able to interact with BvPIP1;1, BvPIP2;1 shows no functional interaction. The lack of functional interaction between BvPIP2;1 and BvPIP1;1 was further corroborated by dose-response curves of water permeability due to aquaporin activity exposed to different acidic conditions. We also found that BvPIP2;1 is unable to translocate BvPIP1;1-ECFP from an intracellular position to the plasma membrane when co-expressed, as BvPIP2;2 does. Moreover we postulate that the first extracellular loop (loop A) of BvPIP2;1, could be relevant for the functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. Thus, we investigate BvPIP2;1 loop A at an atomic level by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) and by direct mutagenesis. We found that, within the tetramer, each loop A presents a dissimilar behavior. Besides, BvPIP2;1 loop A mutants restore functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. This work is a contribution to unravel how PIP2 and PIP1 interact to form functional heterooligomeric assemblies. We postulate that BvPIP2;1 loop A is relevant for the lack of functional interaction with BvPIP1;1 and that the monomer composition of PIP assemblies determines their functional properties. PMID:23483963

  20. Loop A is critical for the functional interaction of two Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Jozefkowicz

    Full Text Available Research done in the last years strongly support the hypothesis that PIP aquaporin can form heterooligomeric assemblies, specially combining PIP2 monomers with PIP1 monomers. Nevertheless, the structural elements involved in the ruling of homo versus heterooligomeric organization are not completely elucidated. In this work we unveil some features of monomer-monomer interaction in Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins. Our results show that while BvPIP2;2 is able to interact with BvPIP1;1, BvPIP2;1 shows no functional interaction. The lack of functional interaction between BvPIP2;1 and BvPIP1;1 was further corroborated by dose-response curves of water permeability due to aquaporin activity exposed to different acidic conditions. We also found that BvPIP2;1 is unable to translocate BvPIP1;1-ECFP from an intracellular position to the plasma membrane when co-expressed, as BvPIP2;2 does. Moreover we postulate that the first extracellular loop (loop A of BvPIP2;1, could be relevant for the functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. Thus, we investigate BvPIP2;1 loop A at an atomic level by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS and by direct mutagenesis. We found that, within the tetramer, each loop A presents a dissimilar behavior. Besides, BvPIP2;1 loop A mutants restore functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. This work is a contribution to unravel how PIP2 and PIP1 interact to form functional heterooligomeric assemblies. We postulate that BvPIP2;1 loop A is relevant for the lack of functional interaction with BvPIP1;1 and that the monomer composition of PIP assemblies determines their functional properties.

  1. Aquaporins in Coffea arabica L.: Identification, expression, and impacts on plant water relations and hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniussi, Matilda; Del Terra, Lorenzo; Savi, Tadeja; Pallavicini, Alberto; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in the transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes, and thus play major roles in the regulation of plant water balance, as well as in growth regulation and response to abiotic stress factors. Limited information is currently available about the presence and role of AQPs in Coffea arabica L., despite the economic importance of the species and its vulnerability to drought stress. We identified candidate AQP genes by screening a proprietary C. arabica transcriptome database, resulting in the identification of nine putative aquaporins. A phylogenetic analysis based on previously characterized AQPs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum tuberosum allowed to assign the putative coffee AQP sequences to the Tonoplast (TIP) and Plasma membrane (PIP) subfamilies. The possible functional role of coffee AQPs was explored by measuring hydraulic conductance and aquaporin gene expression on leaf and root tissues of two-year-old plants (C. arabica cv. Pacamara) subjected to different experimental conditions. In a first experiment, we tested plants for root and leaf hydraulic conductance both before dawn and at mid-day, to check the eventual impact of light on AQP activity and plant hydraulics. In a second experiment, we measured plant hydraulic responses to different water stress levels as eventually affected by changes in AQPs expression levels. Our results shed light on the possible roles of AQPs in the regulation of C. arabica hydraulics and water balance, opening promising research lines to improve the sustainability of coffee cultivation under global climate change scenarios.

  2. Aquaporin JcPIP2 is Involved in Drought Responses in Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHANG; Yunxiao WANG; Luding JIANG; Ying XU; Yingchun WANG; Daihua LU; Fang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Water channel proteins, aquaporins, play fundamental roles in transmembrane water movements in plants. A new full-length cDNA encoding aquaporin was isolated from the seedlings of Jatropha curcas.The gene of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) from J. curcas (JcPIP2) contained an 843 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 280 amino acids. The amino acid sequence showed 94% identity with Ricinus communis PIP. Injection of JcPIP2 complementary RNA into Xenopus oocytes increased 10-fold the osmotic water permeability of the oocytes. Immunodetection of JcPIP2 with anti-JcPIP2 antibody indicated that this protein is ubiquitously located in all tested tissues of the plant. To investigate the relationship between aquaporins and drought resistance in J. curcas, the abundance of JcPIP2 was examined in seedlings of two J. curcas populations, Gao You CSC63 and YanBian S1, under water deficit with PEG6000. Under field conditions, those two populations, Gao You CSC63 was resistant to water deficit, but YanBian S1 was sensitive to water deprivation. With the increasing degree of drought stress, JcPIP2 level increased in seedlings of Gao You CSC63, whereas there was no significant change in seedlings of YanBian S1. Compared with YanBian S1, GaoYou CSC63 also showed higher root hydraulic conductivity and lower decreasing trend in the seedlings under water deficit. These results indicated that JcPIP2 probably played a role in drought resistance in J. curcas.

  3. Role of renal aquaporins in escape from vasopressin-induced antidiuresis in rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Ecelbarger, C A; S. Nielsen; Olson, B R; Murase, T; Baker, E A; Knepper, M A; Verbalis, J G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether escape from vasopressin-induced antidiuresis is associated with altered regulation of any of the known aquaporin water channels. After 4-d pretreatment with 1-deamino-[8-D-arginine]-vasopressin (dDAVP) by osmotic mini-pump, rats were divided into two groups: control (continued dDAVP) and water-loaded (continued dDAVP plus a daily oral water load). A significant increase in urine volume in the water-loaded rats was observed by the second day...

  4. Requirement for asparagine in the aquaporin NPA sequence signature motifs for cation exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wree, Dorothea; Wu, Binghua; Zeuthen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Two highly conserved NPA motifs are a hallmark of the aquaporin (AQP) family. The NPA triplets form N-terminal helix capping structures with the Asn side chains located in the centre of the water or solute-conducting channel, and are considered to play an important role in AQP selectivity. Although...... electrophysiology, we found that an analogous mammalian AQP1 N76S mutant excluded protons and potassium ions, but leaked sodium ions, providing an argument for the overwhelming prevalence of Asn over other amino acids. We conclude that, at the first position in the NPA motifs, only Asn provides efficient helix cap...

  5. Functional challenge affects aquaporin mRNA abundance in mouse blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hanne Kjær; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2005-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of channel proteins that facilitate diffusion of water across cell membranes. Three members of the AQP family have been detected in the mouse blastocyst: AQP 3 and 8 are located in the basolateral domain and AQP 9 predominantly in the apical domain of the tropho...... in vivo developed blastocysts. We found that in vitro culture resulted in lower levels of AQP 8, 9, and 11 compared to in vivo development. These experiments show that mouse embryos are capable of regulating AQP mRNA abundances in response to environmental alterations....

  6. Aquaporin-4-Immunoglobulin G-autoimmune syndrome in a Paraneoplastic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Grauslund, Jakob; Lillevang, Søren Thue;

    Background: Serum autoantibody against the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4-IgG) is a biomarker for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). In some patients the presence of AQP4-IgG reflects a tumor-driven immune response. Methods: AQP4-IgG was measured with a recombinant......4 autoimmunity may in some cases have a paraneoplastic basis. 1. Asgari N, Nielsen C, Stenager E, Kyvik KO, Lillevang ST. HLA, PTPN22 and PD-1 associations as markers of autoimmunity in neuromyelitis optica. Multiple Sclerosis. 2012;18(1):23-30....

  7. Overexpression of the Wheat Aquaporin Gene, TaAQP7, Enhances Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyi Zhou; Wei Hu; Xiaomin Deng; Zhanbing Ma; Lihong Chen; Chao Huang; Chen Wang,; Jie Wang; Yanzhen He; Guangxiao Yang; Guangyuan He

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from wheat. Expression of TaAQP7-GFP fusion protein revealed its localization in the plasma membrane. TaAQP7 exhibited high ...

  8. Concerted action of two cation filters in the aquaporin water channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Binghua; Steinbronn, Christina; Alsterfjord, Magnus;

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) facilitated water transport is common to virtually all cell membranes and is marked by almost perfect specificity and high flux rates. Simultaneously, protons and cations are strictly excluded to maintain ionic transmembrane gradients. Yet, the AQP cation filters have not been...... identified experimentally. We report that three point mutations turned the water-specific AQP1 into a proton/alkali cation channel with reduced water permeability and the permeability sequence: H(+) >>K(+) >Rb(+) >Na(+) >Cs(+) >Li(+). Contrary to theoretical models, we found that electrostatic repulsion...

  9. Downregulation of aquaporin-1 in alveolar microvessels in lungs adapted to chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllertz, Katrine M; Strøm, Claes; Trautner, Simon;

    2011-01-01

    The threshold pressure for lung edema formation is increased in severe chronic heart failure (CHF) due to reduced microvascular permeability. The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is present in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and a number of studies suggest the importance of AQP1...... as a molecular determinant of pulmonary microvascular water transport. The present study examined the abundance and localization of AQP1 in lungs from rats with CHF. We used two different models of CHF: ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation) and aorta-banding (AB). Sham...

  10. Chronic noradrenaline increases renal expression of NHE-3, NBC-1, BSC-1 and aquaporin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonalker, Prajakta A; Tofovic, Stevan P; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Jackson, Edwin K

    2008-05-01

    1. Because chronic activation of the renal sympathetic nervous system promotes sodium and water retention, it is conceivable that long-term exposure of the kidney to the sympathetic neurotransmitter noradrenaline upregulates the expression of key renal epithelial transport systems. 2. To test this hypothesis, we used immunoblotting of renal cortical and medullary tissue to investigate the abundance of major transport systems expressed along the renal tubule in response to long-term (15 days) infusions of noradrenaline (600 ng/min) in rats. 3. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were significantly elevated in rats receiving chronic infusions of noradrenaline (128 +/- 10 mmHg and 492 +/- 16 b.p.m., respectively) compared with animals treated with saline only (89 +/- 3 mmHg and 376 +/- 14 b.p.m., respectively). 4. Chronic infusions of noradrenaline also increased the protein abundance of the cortical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE-3; 2.5-fold; P = 0.0142), the cortical sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBC-1 (2.5-fold; P = 0.0067), the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter BSC-1/NKCC2 in the inner stripe of outer medulla (threefold; P = 0.0020) and aquaporin-2 in the inner medulla (twofold; P = 0.0039). 5. In contrast, noradrenaline did not significantly affect expression of the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter in the cortex, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-alpha(1) in the cortex and inner stripe of the outer or inner medulla, the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (ROMK-1) in the inner stripe of the outer medulla or aquaporin-1 in the cortex or inner medulla. Noradrenaline did significantly, but modestly (less than twofold), increase aquaporin-1 in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. 6. We conclude that noradrenaline-induced increases in the expression of NHE-3, NBC-1, BSC-1 and aquaporin-2 are likely to play an important role in the regulation of salt and water transport by noradrenaline in the kidney and may explain, at least in

  11. On the English Translation of Chinese Neologisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Menglin

    2014-01-01

    <正>1 Introduction A Chinese neologism refers to a word or expression that is widely understood and used nowadays,both new in content and form,just entering into the Chinese vocabulary or old word with new senses.(Zhang Jian,2001,p.10)The newness of Chinese neologism brings great difficulties to its translation.According to the Adaptation Theory,proposed by

  12. New insights into the regulation of aquaporins by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in maize plants under drought stress and possible implications for plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Chaumont, François; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between modulation by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) of aquaporin expression in the host plant and changes in root hydraulic conductance, plant water status, and performance under stressful conditions is not well known. This investigation aimed to elucidate how the AM symbiosis modulates the expression of the whole set of aquaporin genes in maize plants under different growing and drought stress conditions, as well as to characterize some of these aquaporins in order to shed further light on the molecules that may be involved in the mycorrhizal responses to drought. The AM symbiosis regulated a wide number of aquaporins in the host plant, comprising members of the different aquaporin subfamilies. The regulation of these genes depends on the watering conditions and the severity of the drought stress imposed. Some of these aquaporins can transport water and also other molecules which are of physiological importance for plant performance. AM plants grew and developed better than non-AM plants under the different conditions assayed. Thus, for the first time, this study relates the well-known better performance of AM plants under drought stress to not only the water movement in their tissues but also the mobilization of N compounds, glycerol, signaling molecules, or metalloids with a role in abiotic stress tolerance. Future studies should elucidate the specific function of each aquaporin isoform regulated by the AM symbiosis in order to shed further light on how the symbiosis alters the plant fitness under stressful conditions.

  13. Aquaporin 0 plays a pivotal role in refractive index gradient development in mammalian eye lens to prevent spherical aberration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, S. Sindhu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Intact AQP0 functions as fiber cell-to-fiber cell adhesion protein. • AQP0 facilitates reduction in extracellular space and lens water content. • AQP0 adhesion function aids in lens refractive index gradient (RING) formation. • AQP0 prevents lens spherical aberration by establishing RING. • AQP0 is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis. - Abstract: Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) is a transmembrane channel that constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane protein of the fiber cells in mammalian lens. It is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis as mutations and knockout cause autosomal dominant lens cataract. AQP0 functions as a water channel and as a cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) molecule in the lens. Our recent in vitro studies showed that the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial to establish lens refractive index gradient (RING). However, there is a lack of in vivo data to corroborate the role of AQP0 as a fiber CTCA molecule which is critical for creating lens RING. The present investigation is undertaken to gather in vivo evidence for the involvement of AQP0 in developing lens RING. Lenses of wild type (WT) mouse, AQP0 knockout (heterozygous, AQP0{sup +/−}) and AQP0 knockout lens transgenically expressing AQP1 (heterozygous AQP0{sup +/−}/AQP1{sup +/−}) mouse models were used for the study. Data on AQP0 protein profile of intact and N- and/or C-terminal cleaved AQP0 in the lens by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and SDS–PAGE revealed that outer cortex fiber cells have only intact AQP0 of ∼28 kDa, inner cortical and outer nuclear fiber cells have both intact and cleaved forms, and inner nuclear fiber cells have only cleaved forms (∼26–24 kDa). Knocking out of 50% of AQP0 protein caused light scattering, spherical aberration (SA) and cataract. Restoring the lost fiber cell membrane water permeability (P{sub f}) by transgene AQP1 did not reinstate complete lens transparency and the mouse lenses showed light scattering and SA

  14. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  15. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  16. Shuttle-Data-Tape XML Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    JSDTImport is a computer program for translating native Shuttle Data Tape (SDT) files from American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format into databases in other formats. JSDTImport solves the problem of organizing the SDT content, affording flexibility to enable users to choose how to store the information in a database to better support client and server applications. JSDTImport can be dynamically configured by use of a simple Extensible Markup Language (XML) file. JSDTImport uses this XML file to define how each record and field will be parsed, its layout and definition, and how the resulting database will be structured. JSDTImport also includes a client application programming interface (API) layer that provides abstraction for the data-querying process. The API enables a user to specify the search criteria to apply in gathering all the data relevant to a query. The API can be used to organize the SDT content and translate into a native XML database. The XML format is structured into efficient sections, enabling excellent query performance by use of the XPath query language. Optionally, the content can be translated into a Structured Query Language (SQL) database for fast, reliable SQL queries on standard database server computers.

  17. Application of Creative Translation Thought on Exhibition English-A Case of China-ASEAN EXPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-di

    2015-01-01

    Exhibition English as a commonly used language has a very significant position. However, the translation methods are yet to be improved. The author states the present translation situation of exhibition English and exited problems;then introduces the content of“creative translation thought”and analyzes the methods by means of examples from China-ASEAN EXPO. Final⁃ly, it illustrates the advantage of using it to promote the development of exhibition English translation from English to Chinese.

  18. The relevance of translation studies The relevance of translation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Malmkjaer

    2008-01-01

    Most translation theorists today would like to see translation studies firmly established as an independent discipline which, although it draws on insights from other disciplines, should be subsumed under none, (Hatim and Mason, 1990; Snell-Hornby, 1988; Bassnett-McGuire, 1980). The discipline which the majority translation theorists draw on most heavily is linguistics — indeed many books on translation theory and/or practice take the form of expositions of their authors' favourite linguistic...

  19. On Translatability of Metaphors and Relevant Translating Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱采真; 张文普

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.

  20. Translation Methodology in the Spoken Language Translator An Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, D; Rayner, M; Eklund, R; MacDermid, C; Wiren, M; Kirchmeier-Andersen, S; Philp, C; Carter, David; Becket, Ralph; Rayner, Manny; Dermid, Catriona Mac; Wiren, Mats; Philp, Christina

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted for the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present the results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.

  1. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  2. «Translation Journal & Translation Journal Blog»: an on-line publication for translators, by translators, about translators and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe Bokor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Translation Journal» is the oldest continuously published translation-oriented on-line journal in the U.S. Appearing on a quarterly basis, each issue contains 10 - 15 feature articles on different aspects of translation. The TJ is fully searchable by author or keyword. Its companion publication, the «Translation Journal Blog», launched in 2004, deals with topical issues of the translation industry. ------------------------------------------- «Translation Journal» y «Translation Journal Blog»: una publicación en línea para traductores, hecha por traductores y sobre traductores y traducción. «Translation Journal» es la más antigue de las revistas electrónicas sobre traducción publicadas ininterrumpidamente en los Estados Unidos. Cada número, de periodicidad trimestral, contiene entre diez y quince artículos sobre diversos aspectos de la traducción. La revista permite las búsquedas por autores o palabras clave. Su publicación hermana, la bitácora «Translation Journal Blog», nacida en 2004, aborda temas relacionados con el sector de la traducción.

  3. Cross-Cultural Instrument Translation: Assessment, Translation, and Statistical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Teresa Crowe

    2005-01-01

    This article has four major sections: (a) general issues of assessment; (b) assessment of ethnic-group members, including those who are deaf; (c) translation of assessment tools, emphasizing translation into American Sign Language (ASL); and (d) statistical applications for translated instruments. The purpose of the article is to provide insight…

  4. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  5. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  6. Functional characterization of FaNIP1;1 gene, a ripening-related and receptacle-specific aquaporin in strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco J; Medina-Puche, Laura; Gelis, Samuel; Ramos, José; Sabir, Farzana; Soveral, Graça; Prista, Catarina; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    Strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa) is a soft fruit with high water content at ripe stage (more than 90% of its fresh weight). Aquaporins play an important role in plant water homeostasis, through the facilitation of water transport and solutes. We report the role played by FaNIP1;1 in the receptacle ripening process. The analysis by qRT-PCR of FaNIP1;1 showed that this gene is mainly expressed in fruit receptacle and has a ripening-related expression pattern that was accompanied by an increase in both the abscisic acid and water content of the receptacle throughout fruit ripening. Moreover, FaNIP1;1 was induced in situations of water deficit. Additionally, we show that FaNIP1;1 expression was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. The water transport capacity of FaNIP1;1 was determined by a stopped-flow spectroscopy in yeast over-expressing FaNIP1;1. Glycerol, H2O2 and boron transport were also demonstrated in yeast. On the other hand, GFP-FaNIP1;1 fusion protein was located in plasma membrane. In conclusion, FaNIP1;1 seems to play an important role increasing the plasma membrane permeability, that allows the water accumulation in the strawberry fruit receptacle throughout the ripening process. PMID:26259188

  7. A Dialectical Way between Literal and Free Translation:Taking the Translation of English Similes as an Exemplar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晓英

    2013-01-01

    Simile, as an important figure of speech, is widely used in various texts. And it has its own feature and different sub⁃types, which require that the translation methods—literal translation and free translation should be adopted dialectically in accor⁃dance with the content or form of the similes. Actually, free translation based on literal translation is much better even though adding some extensions or footnotes is employed, too.

  8. A novel mutation affecting the arginine-137 residue of AVPR2 in dizygous twins leads to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and attenuated urine exosome aquaporin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichs, Gitte R; Hansen, Louise H; Nielsen, Maria R;

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor gene AVPR2 may cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by defective apical insertion of aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct principal cell. Substitution mutations with exchange of arginine at codon 137 can cause nephrogenic syndrome of inappropr...... administration. While a similar urine exosome release rate was shown between probands and controls by western blotting for the marker ALIX, there was a selective decrease in exosome aquaporin-2 versus aquaporin-1 protein in probands compared to controls....

  9. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  10. An on-line, cloud-based Spanish-Spanish Sign Language translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Tejedor Noguerales, Javier; López-Colino, Fernando; Porta, Jordi; Colás, José

    2012-01-01

    An on-line Spanish-Spanish Sign Language (LSE) translation system is presented in which Spanish speech content is translated into LSE to provide Spanish deaf people access to speech information. It is cloud-based, built over a speech recognition module, a transfer-based machine translation module and a Sign Language synthesis module that employs an avatar to present the signed content.

  11. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

      It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  12. Translation, Sprache und Wahrnehmung

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional issues of hermeneutics on language, comprehension and interpretation are retaken here in their relation to translation studies, under the less common philosophical perspective of the late Wittgenstein, taking into account also some aspects of linguistic pragmatics. Main target is a prophylaxis of the dogmatism that emerges when properties of the theoretical model are projected into the object under examination. Two kinds of necessity are to be distinguished: on one hand, a necessi...

  13. CADAT network translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  14. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The results yielded are contained in my monograph Translation Performance, Translation Process, and Translation Strategies. A sycholinguistic Investigation. Tübingen 1991. The second stage of the project, in which professional translators’ and, later on, bilingual children’s translation processes are analyzed, is in progress (Lörscher in preparation. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The

  15. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  16. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  17. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  18. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  19. Toward understanding the selective anticancer capacity of cold atmospheric plasma--a model based on aquaporins (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dayun; Talbot, Annie; Nourmohammadi, Niki; Sherman, Jonathan H; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Keidar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Selectively treating tumor cells is the ongoing challenge of modern cancer therapy. Recently, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), a near room-temperature ionized gas, has been demonstrated to exhibit selective anticancer behavior. However, the mechanism governing such selectivity is still largely unknown. In this review, the authors first summarize the progress that has been made applying CAP as a selective tool for cancer treatment. Then, the key role of aquaporins in the H2O2 transmembrane diffusion is discussed. Finally, a novel model, based on the expression of aquaporins, is proposed to explain why cancer cells respond to CAP treatment with a greater rise in reactive oxygen species than homologous normal cells. Cancer cells tend to express more aquaporins on their cytoplasmic membranes, which may cause the H2O2 uptake speed in cancer cells to be faster than in normal cells. As a result, CAP treatment kills cancer cells more easily than normal cells. Our preliminary observations indicated that glioblastoma cells consumed H2O2 much faster than did astrocytes in either the CAP-treated or H2O2-rich media, which supported the selective model based on aquaporins.

  20. 肺水通道蛋白的研究进展%Research Progress of Aquaporin in Lung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅(综述); 史振伟(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Adjusting the water permeability of the cell membrane is the basic requirements for life main-tain. Aquaporin is a group of transporters which related to water permeability. Studies show that,aquaporin expression or function changes can rate-limiting the water transport speed. Aquaporin abnormity expressing may be related to variety of clinical forms of edema altering the water balance could treatment the diseases. Aquaporin plays an important role in maintains the balance of lung fluid in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary pulmonary edema.%调节细胞膜的水渗透性是维持生命的基本要求,水通道蛋白是细胞膜上一组与水通透性有关的转运蛋白。目前研究表明,水通道蛋白表达或功能的改变,可以改变细胞膜转运水的速度。水通道蛋白的异常表达可能与临床上各种形式的水肿形成相关,通过改变体内水的平衡可达到治疗疾病的目的。水通道蛋白在维持肺脏的液体平衡中同样起重要的作用。

  1. Does the hourglass shape of aquaporins optimize water permeability This research was supported by the ERC program, project Micromegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Simon; Joly, Laurent; Detcheverry, François; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cecile; Bocquet, Lyderic; Liquide et interfaces Team

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquitous aquaporin channels are able to conduct water across cell membranes, combining the seemingly antagonist functions of a very high selectivity with a remarkable permeability. While molecular details are obvious keys to perform these tasks, the overall efficiency of transport in such nanopores is also strongly limited by viscous dissipation arising at the connection between the nanoconstriction and the nearby bulk reservoirs. In this contribution, we focus on these so-called entrance effects and specifically examine whether the characteristic hourglass shape of aquaporins may arise from a geometrical optimum for such hydrodynamic dissipation. Using a combination of finite element calculations and analytical modeling, we show that conical entrances with suitable opening angle can indeed provide a large increase of the overall channel permeability. Moreover, the optimal opening angles that maximize the permeability are found to compare well with the angles measured in a large variety of aquaporins. This suggests that the hourglass shape of aquaporins could be the result of a natural selection process toward optimal hydrodynamic transport. Finally, in a biomimetic perspective, these results provide guidelines to design artificial nanopores with optimal performances.

  2. Population shift between the open and closed states changes the water permeability of an Aquaporin Z mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lin; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Su, Haibin; Torres, Jaume; Tang, Chuyang; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony Gordon; Mu, Yuguang

    2012-07-18

    Aquaporins are tetrameric transmembrane channels permeable to water and other small solutes. Wild-type (WT) and mutant Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) have been widely studied and multiple factors have been found to affect their water permeability. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for the tetrameric AqpZ F43W/H174G/T183F mutant. It displayed ∼10% average water permeability compared to WT AqpZ, which had been attributed to the increased channel lumen hydrophobicity. Our simulations, however, show a ring stacking between W43 and F183 acting as a secondary steric gate in the triple mutant with R189 as the primary steric gate in both mutant and WT AqpZ. The double gates (R189 and W43-F183) result in a high population of the closed conformation in the mutant. Occasionally an open state, with diffusive water permeability very close to that of WT AqpZ, was observed. Taken together, our results show that the double-gate mechanism is sufficient to explain the reduced water permeability in the mutant without invoking effects arising from increased hydrophobicity of the channel lumen. Our findings provide insights into how aquaporin-mediated water transport can be modulated and may further point to how aquaporin function can be optimized for biomimetic membrane applications. PMID:22853898

  3. Overexpression of Laccaria bicolor aquaporin JQ585595 alters root water transport properties in ectomycorrhizal white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Kemppainen, Minna; El Kayal, Walid; Lee, Seong Hee; Pardo, Alejandro G; Cooke, Janice E K; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of hyphae to water transport in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings was examined by altering expression of a major water-transporting aquaporin in Laccaria bicolor. Picea glauca was inoculated with wild-type (WT), mock transgenic or L. bicolor aquaporin JQ585595-overexpressing (OE) strains and exposed to root temperatures ranging from 5 to 20°C to examine the root water transport properties, physiological responses and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) expression in colonized plants. Mycorrhization increased shoot water potential, transpiration, net photosynthetic rates, root hydraulic conductivity and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivity in seedlings. At 20°C, OE plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity compared with WT plants and the increases were accompanied by higher expression of P. glauca PIP GQ03401_M18.1 in roots. In contrast to WT L. bicolor, the effects of OE fungi on root and root cortical cell hydraulic conductivities were abolished at 10 and 5°C in the absence of major changes in the examined transcript levels of P. glauca root PIPs. The results provide evidence for the importance of fungal aquaporins in root water transport of mycorrhizal plants. They also demonstrate links between hyphal water transport, root aquaporin expression and root water transport in ECM plants. PMID:25323307

  4. X-ray structure of human aquaporin 2 and its implications for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frick, A.; Eriksson, U.K.; Mattia, F.P. de; Oberg, F.; Hedfalk, K.; Neutze, R.; Grip, W.J. de; Deen, P.M.T.; Tornroth-Horsefield, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a water channel found in the kidney collecting duct, where it plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This process is tightly controlled by the pituitary h

  5. Influence of low air humidity and low root temperature on water uptake, growth and aquaporin expression in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Ishikawa-Sakurai, Junko; Hayashi, Hidehiro; Nagasuga, Kiyoshi; Fukushi, Keiko; Ahamed, Arifa; Takasugi, Katsuko; Katsuhara, Maki; Murai-Hatano, Mari

    2012-08-01

    The effects of low air humidity and low root temperature (LRT) on water uptake, growth and aquaporin gene expression were investigated in rice plants. The daily transpiration of the plants grown at low humidity was 1.5- to 2-fold higher than that at high humidity. LRT at 13°C reduced transpiration, and the extent was larger at lower humidity. LRT also reduced total dry matter production and leaf area expansion, and the extent was again larger at lower humidity. These observations suggest that the suppression of plant growth by LRT is associated with water stress due to decreased water uptake ability of the root. On the other hand, the net assimilation rate was not affected by low humidity and LRT, and water use efficiency was larger for LRT. We found that low humidity induced coordinated up-regulation of many PIP and TIP aquaporin genes in both the leaves and the roots. Expression levels of two root-specific aquaporin genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;5, were increased significantly after 6 and 13 d of LRT exposure. Taken together, we discuss the possibility that aquaporins are part of an integrated response of this crop to low air humidity and LRT.

  6. Importance of NPA motifs in the expression and function of water channel aquaporin-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yong; MA TongHui

    2007-01-01

    The asparagine-proline-alanine sequences (NPA motifs) are highly conserved in aquaporin water channel family. Crystallographic studies of AQP1 structure demonstrated that the two NPA motifs are in the narrow central constriction of the channel, serving to bind water molecules for selective and efficient water passage. To investigate the importance of the two NPA motifs in the structure, function and biogenesis of aquaporin water channels, we generated AQP1 mutations with NPA1 deletion, NPA2 deletion and NPA1,2 double deletion. The coding sequences of the three mutated cDNAs were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1 to form expression plasmids. We established stably transfected CHO cell lines expressing these AQP1 mutants. Immunofluorescence indicated that all the three mutated AQP1 proteins are expressed normally on the plasma membrane of stably transfected CHO cells, suggesting that deletion of NPA motifs does not influence the expression and intracellular processing of AQP1. Functional analysis demonstrated that NPA1 or NPA2 deletion reduced AQP1 water permeability by 49.6% and 46.7%, respectively, while NPA1,2 double deletion had little effect on AQP1 water permeability. These results provide evidence that NPA motifs are important for water per-meation but not essential for the expression, intracellular processing and the basic structure of AQP1 water channel.

  7. Expression of aquaporin8 in human astrocytomas: Correlation with pathologic grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shu-juan; Wang, Ke-jian; Gan, Sheng-wei; Xu, Jin; Xu, Shi-ye; Sun, Shan-quan, E-mail: sunsq2151@cqmu.edu.cn

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •AQP8 is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of human astrocytoma cells. •AQP8 over-expressed in human astrocytomas, especially glioblastoma. •The up-regulation of AQP8 is related to the pathological grade of human astrocytomas. •AQP8 may contribute to the growth and proliferation of astrocytomas. -- Abstract: Aquaporin8 (AQP8), a member of the aquaporin (AQP) protein family, is weakly distributed in mammalian brains. Previous studies on AQP8 have focused mainly on the digestive and the reproductive systems. AQP8 has a pivotal role in keeping the fluid and electrolyte balance. In this study, we investigated the expression changes of AQP8 in 75 cases of human brain astrocytic tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that AQP8 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of astrocytoma cells. The expression levels and immunoreactive score of AQP8 protein and mRNA increased in low-grade astrocytomas, and further increased in high-grade astrocytomas, especially in glioblastoma. Therefore, AQP8 may contribute to the proliferation of astrocytomas, and may be a biomarker and candidate therapy target for patients with astrocytomas.

  8. H95 Is a pH-Dependent Gate in Aquaporin 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Shreyas; Assentoft, Mette; Schneider, Hans Peter; Fenton, Robert A; Deitmer, Joachim W; MacAulay, Nanna; de Groot, Bert L

    2015-12-01

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a transmembrane protein from the aquaporin family and is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain. The regulation of permeability of this protein could be of potential therapeutic use to treat various forms of damage to the nervous tissue. In this work, based on data obtained from in silico and in vitro studies, a pH sensitivity that regulates the osmotic water permeability of AQP4 is demonstrated. The results indicate that AQP4 has increased water permeability at conditions of low pH in atomistic computer simulations and experiments carried out on Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP4. With molecular dynamics simulations, this effect was traced to a histidine residue (H95) located in the cytoplasmic lumen of AQP4. A mutant form of AQP4, in which H95 was replaced with an alanine (H95A), loses sensitivity to cytoplasmic pH changes in in vitro osmotic water permeability, thereby substantiating the in silico work. PMID:26585511

  9. Aquaporin 1 Facilitated Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7221 Cell Migration Associated with Water Permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ai-li; LI Jiang; WANG Yan-qing; ZAKNROU Zohra; MA Tong-hui; LI Xiao-meng

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the regulation of human aquaporin l(hAQPl) and the involvement of aquaporin l(AQPl) in the migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7221 cells using RNA intereference technology.Firstly, two short hairpin RNA(shRNA) constructs in PBSU6 vector were reconstructed and their knockdown effects were identified in SMMC-7221 cells. Next, the involvement of endogenous hAQPl in regulating the migration of SMMC-7221 cells was investigated via siRNA technology. HAQPl-shRNA can specifically inhibit AQPl dependent osmotic water permeability. Meanwhile the migration of SMMC-7221 cells was inhibited remarkably after silencing AQPl by performing transwell cell migration assay and in vitro wound healing assay. Furthermore, in the presence of an inhibitor HgCl2, the water permeability of the cell membrane was remarkably decreased, the expression of AQPl was upregulated after HgCl2 treatment and the cell movement was decreased at the moment. Increased AQPl cannot attenuate cell migration ability when cell membrane loses its water permeability function. This demonstrates that the cell migration was remarkably related to the transporting water function of cell membrane.

  10. Noncanonical binding of calmodulin to aquaporin-0: implications for channel regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Steve L; Gonen, Tamir

    2008-09-10

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of ubiquitous membrane channels that conduct water across cell membranes. AQPs form homotetramers containing four functional and independent water pores. Aquaporin-0 (AQP0) is expressed in the eye lens, where its water permeability is regulated by calmodulin (CaM). Here we use a combination of biochemical methods and NMR spectroscopy to probe the interaction between AQP0 and CaM. We show that CaM binds the AQP0 C-terminal domain in a calcium-dependent manner. We demonstrate that only two CaM molecules bind a single AQP0 tetramer in a noncanonical fashion, suggesting a form of cooperativity between AQP0 monomers. Based on these results, we derive a structural model of the AQP0/CaM complex, which suggests CaM may be inhibitory to channel permeability by capping the vestibules of two monomers within the AQP0 tetramer. Finally, phosphorylation within AQP0's CaM binding domain inhibits the AQP0/CaM interaction, suggesting a temporal regulatory mechanism for complex formation. PMID:18786401

  11. Aquaporin 5 Expression in Mouse Mammary Gland Cells Is Not Driven by Promoter Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Arbeithuber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have revealed that aquaporins play a role in tumor progression and invasion. In breast carcinomas, high levels of aquaporin 5 (AQP5, a membrane protein involved in water transport, have been linked to increased cell proliferation and migration, thus facilitating tumor progression. Despite the potential role of AQP5 in mammary oncogenesis, the mechanisms controlling mammary AQP5 expression are poorly understood. In other tissues, AQP5 expression has been correlated with its promoter methylation, yet, very little is known about AQP5 promoter methylation in the mammary gland. In this work, we used the mouse mammary gland cell line EpH4, in which we controlled AQP5 expression via the steroid hormone dexamethasone (Dex to further investigate mechanisms regulating AQP5 expression. In this system, we observed a rapid drop of AQP5 mRNA levels with a delay of several hours in AQP5 protein, suggesting transcriptional control of AQP5 levels. Yet, AQP5 expression was independent of its promoter methylation, or to the presence of negative glucocorticoid receptor elements (nGREs in its imminent promoter region, but was rather influenced by the cell proliferative state or cell density. We conclude that AQP5 promoter methylation is not a universal mechanism for AQP5 regulation and varies on cell and tissue type.

  12. Ovarian cancer: Ion channel and aquaporin expression as novel targets of clinical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Julia; Fraser, Scott P; Oskay-Özcelik, Gülten; Hong, Yeosun; Ioana Braicu, E; Sehouli, Jalid; Gabra, Hani; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is associated with limited overall survival, due to problems in early detection and therapy. Membrane ion channels have been proposed to play a significant, concerted role in the cancer process, from initial proliferation to metastasis, and promise to be early, functional biomarkers. We review the evidence for ion channel and aquaporin expression and functioning in human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. In vitro, K(+) channels, mainly voltage-gated, including Ca(2+)-activated channels, have been found to control the cell cycle, as in other cancers. Voltage-gated, volume-regulated and intracellular Cl(-) channels have been detected in vitro and in vivo and shown to be involved in proliferation, adhesion and invasion. Evidence for 'transient receptor potential', voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels, which have been shown to contribute to pathogenesis of other carcinomas, is also emerging in ovarian cancer. Aquaporins may be involved in cell growth, migration and formation of ascites via increased water permeability of micro-vessels. It is concluded that functional expression of ion channels and their regulation by steroid hormones and growth factors are an integral part of ovarian cancer development and progression. Furthermore, ion channels may be involved in multidrug resistance, commonly associated with treatment of ovarian cancer. We propose that ion channel studies can facilitate our understanding of the pathobiology of ovarian cancer and, ultimately, can serve as viable novel targets for its clinical management. PMID:23683551

  13. Human Aquaporin-4 and Molecular Modeling: Historical Perspective and View to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Felice Mangiatordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the different aquaporins (AQPs, human aquaporin-4 (hAQP4 has attracted the greatest interest in recent years as a new promising therapeutic target. Such a membrane protein is, in fact, involved in a multiple sclerosis-like immunopathology called Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO and in several disorders resulting from imbalanced water homeostasis such as deafness and cerebral edema. The gap of knowledge in its functioning and dynamics at the atomistic level of detail has hindered the development of rational strategies for designing hAQP4 modulators. The application, lately, of molecular modeling has proved able to fill this gap providing a breeding ground to rationally address compounds targeting hAQP4. In this review, we give an overview of the important advances obtained in this field through the application of Molecular Dynamics (MD and other complementary modeling techniques. The case studies presented herein are discussed with the aim of providing important clues for computational chemists and biophysicists interested in this field and looking for new challenges.

  14. Human Aquaporin-4 and Molecular Modeling: Historical Perspective and View to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Alberga, Domenico; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Nicolotti, Orazio

    2016-01-01

    Among the different aquaporins (AQPs), human aquaporin-4 (hAQP4) has attracted the greatest interest in recent years as a new promising therapeutic target. Such a membrane protein is, in fact, involved in a multiple sclerosis-like immunopathology called Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) and in several disorders resulting from imbalanced water homeostasis such as deafness and cerebral edema. The gap of knowledge in its functioning and dynamics at the atomistic level of detail has hindered the development of rational strategies for designing hAQP4 modulators. The application, lately, of molecular modeling has proved able to fill this gap providing a breeding ground to rationally address compounds targeting hAQP4. In this review, we give an overview of the important advances obtained in this field through the application of Molecular Dynamics (MD) and other complementary modeling techniques. The case studies presented herein are discussed with the aim of providing important clues for computational chemists and biophysicists interested in this field and looking for new challenges. PMID:27420052

  15. Downregulation of aquaporin-1 in alveolar microvessels in lungs adapted to chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllertz, Katrine M; Strøm, Claes; Trautner, Simon;

    2011-01-01

    The threshold pressure for lung edema formation is increased in severe chronic heart failure (CHF) due to reduced microvascular permeability. The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is present in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and a number of studies suggest the importance of AQP1 as a mol......The threshold pressure for lung edema formation is increased in severe chronic heart failure (CHF) due to reduced microvascular permeability. The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is present in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and a number of studies suggest the importance of AQP1...... as a molecular determinant of pulmonary microvascular water transport. The present study examined the abundance and localization of AQP1 in lungs from rats with CHF. We used two different models of CHF: ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation) and aorta-banding (AB). Sham......-operated rats served as controls. Echocardiographic verification of left ventricular dysfunction, enhanced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy confirmed the presence of CHF. Western blotting of whole-lung homogenates revealed significant downregulation of AQP1 in LAD...

  16. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi; Elaheh Gharesoufloo

    2014-01-01

    Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  17. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  18. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader......In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...

  19. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  20. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic v

  1. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  2. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 李莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  3. On the Essence of Translating Activities-from the Perspective of Marx-ism’s Practice Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菲菲

    2014-01-01

    What is the essence of translating activities? Up to now, many scholars or translators have conducted this study. This thesis aims to study the essence of translating activities from a new perspective-Marxism’s Practice Viewpoint. Translating is a kind of language activity of reproduction, using another language to retell the content of the original accurately and completely. The author also makes his comments on the debate as to whether translating is a science or an art. The conclusion is that translat-ing is neither an art nor a science. It is an activity marked by artistic creativity and scientific creativity, a scientific and artistic unity.

  4. Grapevine aquaporins: gating of a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2;1 by cytosolic pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Leitão

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is one of the oldest and most important perennial crops being considered as a fruit ligneous tree model system in which the water status appears crucial for high fruit and wine quality, controlling productivity and alcohol level. V. vinifera genome contains 28 genes coding for aquaporins, which acting in a concerted and regulated manner appear relevant for plant withstanding extremely unfavorable drought conditions essential for the quality of berries and wine. Several Vv aquaporins have been reported to be expressed in roots, shoots, berries and leaves with clear cultivar differences in their expression level, making their in vivo biochemical characterization a difficult task. In this work V. vinifera cv. Touriga nacional VvTnPIP1;1, VvTnPIP2;2 and VvTnTIP2;1 were expressed in yeast and water transport activity was characterized in intact cells of the transformants. The three aquaporins were localized in the yeast plasma membrane but only VvTnTIP2;1 expression enhanced the water permeability with a concomitant decrease of the activation energy of water transport. Acidification of yeast cytosol resulted in loss of VvTnTIP2;1 activity. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a His(131 residue, unusual in TIPs. By site directed mutagenesis, replacement of this residue by aspartic acid or alanine resulted in loss of pH(in dependence while replacement by lysine resulted in total loss of activity. In addition to characterization of VvTn aquaporins, these results shed light on the gating of a specific tonoplast aquaporin by cytosolic pH.

  5. ParaMT: a Paraphraser for Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro, Anabela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present ParaMT, a bilingual/multilingual paraphraser to be applied in machine translation. We select paraphrases of support verb constructions and use the NooJ linguistic environment to formalize and generate translation equivalences through the use of dictionary and local grammars with syntactic and semantic content. Our research shows that linguistic paraphrasal knowledge constitutes a key element in conversion of source language into controlled language text that presents ...

  6. Equivalent Effect in the Translation of Culture-Bound Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the book Toward a Science of Translation,Eugene Nida brings out two important concepts:formal-equivalence(to reveal as much as possible of the form and content of the original message) and dynamic-equivalence(the closest natural equivalent to the source-language message).(Nida,1964) When we translate from poetry to poetry,prose to prose,novel to novel,we try to achieve F-E as much as possible

  7. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...

  8. English-Chinese Syntax Comparison and Sentence Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆银

    2016-01-01

    Translation is to maintain the content and transform the state or form of one language into another. Basically speaking, translation is the transition of language’s form. In order to keep the translation and the original text be consistent, we must compare the original language with the target language, from which we can also conclude some principles and laws. Syntax is a very important pattern of language and it studies every part of sentences and their orders. The thesis analyses the differences between English and Chinese from the perspective of syntax, discussing the principles of transition between English and Chinese.

  9. Translating Shakespeare for the theatre Translating Shakespeare for the theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Déprats

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy, but to stray from the original is a crime. So what can we do? (131 This dilemma, so accurately put into words by Vilar, brings us to the question: when translating a Shakespeare play for performance, must we incorporate into our work aims which curtail the usual demands of translation? What is specific about translating for the theatre? Or rather, what demands must a French translation of a dramatic text meet if it is to make performance possible? Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy

  10. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  11. Applicability and Challenges of Using Machine Translation in Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Koletnik Korošec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, translation as well as translator training have experienced a significant change. This change has been significantly influenced by the development of the Internet and the successive availability of web-based translation resources, such as Google Translate. Their introduction into the translation didactic process and training is no longer a matter of a teacher’s personal preference and IT skills, but a necessity imposed by the ever-swifter advancement of technology. This article presents the experimental results of an ongoing broader research study focusing on the modes and frequency of use of the Internet, Google Translate and Google Translator Toolkit among translation students at the undergraduate level. The preliminary results, presented in this article, are based on a questionnaire which was prepared in relation to the use of Google Translate while considering the latest professional findings. The article concludes with the author’s observations as to the applicability of these resources in translator training and the challenges thereof.

  12. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  13. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  14. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  15. Preventive administration of cromakalim reduces aquaporin-4 expression and blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shilei Wang; Yanting Wang; Yan Jiang; Qingxian Chang; Peng Wang; Shiduan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Cromakalim, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, exhibits protective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, there is controversy as to whether this effect is associated with aquaporin-4 and blood-brain barrier permeability. Immunohistochemistry results show that preventive administration of cromakalim decreased aquaporin-4 and IgG protein expression in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury; it also reduced blood-brain barrier permeability, and alleviated brain edema, ultimately providing neuroprotection.

  16. The translating techniques analyzation of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ran

    2014-01-01

    In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.

  17. Identification and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins isolated from fiber cells of Calotropis procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Usman; Khatoon, Asia; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Bashir, Aftab

    2013-07-01

    Calotropis procera, commonly known as "milkweed", possesses long seed trichomes for seed dispersal and has the ability to survive under harsh conditions such as drought and salinity. Aquaporins are water channel proteins expressed in all land plants, divided into five subfamilies plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and the unfamiliar X intrinsic proteins (XIPs). PIPs constitute the largest group of water channel proteins that are involved in different developmental and regulatory mechanisms including water permeability, cell elongation, and stomata opening. Aquaporins are also involved in abiotic stress tolerance and cell expansion mechanisms, but their role in seed trichomes (fiber cells) has never been investigated. A large number of clones isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library showed sequence homology to PIPs. Both expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies revealed that the transcript abundance of this gene family in fiber cells of C. procera is greater than that of cotton. Full-length cDNAs of CpPIP1 and CpPIP2 were isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library and used for constructing plant expression vectors under constitutive (2×35S) and trichome-specific (GhLTP3) promoters. Transgenic tobacco plants were developed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The phenotypic characteristics of the plants were observed after confirming the integration of transgene in plants. It was observed that CpPIP2 expression cassette under 2×35S and GhLTP3 promoter enhanced the numbers of stem and leave trichomes. However, 2×35S::CpPIP2 has a more amplified effect on trichome density and length than GhLTP3::CpPIP2 and other PIP constructs. These findings imply the role of C. procera PIP aquaporins in fiber cell elongation. The PIPs-derived cell expansion mechanism may be exploited through transgenic approaches for

  18. Aquaporin 4 antibody [NMO Ab] status in patients with severe optic neuritis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambika, Selvakumar; Balasubramanian, Mahalakshmi; Theresa, Lily; Veeraputhiran, Akila; Arjundas, Deepak

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that causes attacks of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. The discovery of a specific serum marker for NMO-IgG antibody [aquaporin 4 antibody/AQP4 Ab] has revolutionised the treatment of demyelinating diseases. Severe vision loss can be seen in optic neuritis (ON) associated with both multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO. Identifying this antibody in optic neuritis patients can help us to establish the likelihood of these patients developing NMO (Jarius et al. Neurol Sci 298:158-162, 2010). It is important to differentiate these two entities as the treatment strategies of MS and NMO are different. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published literature regarding the importance of identifying this antibody in severe optic neuritis in Indian patients. Hence we decided to screen our severe optic neuritis patients for this AQP4 Ab. To investigate the presence of aquaporin 4 antibody and determine its prognostic value for visual and neurological outcome, in patients with bilateral and recurrent [severe] ON without any previous neurological manifestations presenting to a neuro-ophthalmology clinic in India. Single centre, prospective study. 40 patients (27 female patients and 13 male) with severe optic neuritis [patients with no visual improvement by 4 weeks from onset of vision loss] who presented either as recurrent attacks or as bilateral and severe optic neuritis between January 2010 and June 2011 were enrolled. Clinical features, visual outcome and sequential neurological events were compared between the seropositive and the seronegative groups. Aquaporin 4 antibodies were detected from serum using ELISA technique and IIF technique. Presence of this antibody in the serum was considered to be seropositive status and patients who did not have this antibody were considered seronegatives. AQP4 antibodies were detected in 8 of the 40 patients with severe ON (20 %).The

  19. Cloning and characterization of porcine aquaporin 1 water channel expressed extensively in gastrointestinal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Ying Jin; Yan-Li Liu; Li-Na Xu; Yong Jiang; Ying Wang; Bao-Xue Yang; Hong Yang; Tong-Hui Ma

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clone and characterize the porcine aquaporins (AQPs) in the gastrointestinal system.METHODS: A PCR-based cloning strategy and RACE were used to clone full-length AQP coding sequence from reversely transcribed pig liver cDNA. Stopped-flow light scattering and a YFP-based fluorescence method were used to measure the osmotic water permeability of erythrocytes and the stably transfected CHO cells.RT-PCR, Northern blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the gastrointestinal expression and localization of cloned AQPs. Protein expression in transfected cells and red blood cells was analyzed by Western blot.RESULTS: An 813 bp cDNA encoding a 271 amino acid porcine aquaporin (designated pAQP1) was cloned from liver mRNA (pAQP1 has a 93% identity with human AQP1 and contains two NPA motifs conserved in AQP family, one consensus sequence for N-linked glycosylation, and one mercury-sensitive site at cysteine 191). RT-PCR analysis revealed extensive expression of pAQP1 mRNA in porcine digestive glands and gut.Northern blot showed a single 3.0 kb transcript in selected digestive organs, pAQP1 protein was localized at central lacteals of the small intestine, microvessles of salivary glands, as well as epithelium of intrahepatic bile ducts by immunoperoxydase. High osmotic water permeability that is inhibitable by HgCl2 was detected in porcine erythrocytes and CHO cells stably transfected with pAQP1 cDNA. Tmmunoblot analysis of porcine erythrocytes and pAQP-transfected CHO cells revealed an unglycosylated 28 ku band and larger glycosylated proteins.CONCLUSION: pAQP1 is the first porcine aquaporin that can be molecularly identified so far. The broad distribution of pAQP1 in epithelium and endothelium of porcine digestive organs may suggest an important role of channel-mediated water transport in fluid secretion/absorption as well as in digestive function and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal system.

  20. Identification and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins isolated from fiber cells of Calotropis procera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Usman ASLAM; Asia KHATOON; Hafiza Masooma Naseer CHEEMA; Aftab BASHIR

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera,commonly known as "milkweed",possesses long seed trichomes for seed dispersal and has the ability to survive under harsh conditions such as drought and salinity.Aquaporins are water channel proteins expressed in all land plants,divided into five subfamilies plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs),tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs),NOD26-1ike proteins (NIPs),small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs),and the unfamiliar X intrinsic proteins (XlPs).PIPs constitute the largest group of water channel proteins that are involved in different developmental and regulatory mechanisms including water permeability,cell elongation,and stomata opening.Aquaporins are also involved in abiotic stress tolerance and cell expansion mechanisms,but their role in seed trichomes (fiber cells) has never been investigated.A large number of clones isolated from C.procera fiber cDNA library showed sequence homology to PIPs.Both expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies revealed that the transcript abundance of this gene family in fiber cells of C.procera is greater than that of cotton.Full-length cDNAs of CpPIP1 and CpPIP2 were isolated from C.procera fiber cDNA library and used for constructing plant expression vectors under constitutive (2x35S) and trichome-specific (GhLTP3) promoters.Transgenic tobacco plants were developed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.The phenotypic characteristics of the plants were observed after confirming the integration of transgene in plants.It was observed that CpPIP2 expression cassette under 2x35S and GhLTP3 promoter enhanced the numbers of stem and leave trichomes.However,2x35S::CpPIP2 has a more amplified effect on trichome density and length than GhLTP3::CpPIP2 and other PIP constructs.These findings imply the role of C.procera PIP aquaporins in fiber cell elongation.The PIPs-derived cell expansion mechanism may be exploited through transgenic approaches for improvement of fiber staple

  1. BRIDGING THE REAL WORLD ENGLISHES IN THE RURAL ESL CLASSROOM THROUGH TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Zaitun Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation can play a role in the development of communicative abilities since speakers are often engaged in the work of sharing and negotiating meaning. It fosters speculation and discussion, apart from developing abilities considered fundamental for communication, such as interpretation, negotiation, and expression of meaning. However, there are views against translation in the ESL classrooms even though the method has been applied in the pedagogical process. As a result, ESL students who are weak in English are not given the opportunity to excel in the second language from their own bilingual strength. This paper attempts to study and disclose in what ways pedagogogical translation in rural ESL classrooms in Sabah is reflected into practice, thereby assessing whether the gap between pedagogical translation and translation pedagogy has beeen been bridged. In this case study, five primary teachers were selected and their knowledge and practice of translation were assessed through qualitative content analysis in pre- teaching, while teaching and post-teaching activities. A translation framework has been designed and used in assessing the teachers’ performances in using translation. This pilot study reveals that teachers have translated from the first language (L1 into the second language (L2 as a means to help students to understand the content of the English lesson. They did not have adequate knowedge on translation strategies. Thus, the designed translation framework may be used by teachers as a guide in using translation in the ESL context.

  2. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  3. Application of translation strategies in the translation of trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽晔

    2014-01-01

    The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.

  4. A Review of Translation and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.

  5. Teaching machine translation and translation technology: a contrastive study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Dorothy; Way, Andy

    2001-01-01

    The Machine Translation course at Dublin City University is taught to undergraduate students in Applied Computational Linguistics, while Computer-Assisted Translation is taught on two translator-training programmes, one undergraduate and one postgraduate. Given the differing backgrounds of these sets of students, the course material, methods of teaching and assessment all differ. We report here on our experiences of teaching these courses over a number of years, which we hope will be of...

  6. On Translation Thoughts of American Translator Howard Goldblatt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚丽; 王亚荣; 李静莹

    2015-01-01

    In 2012,Moyan won the Nobel Prize for literature to which the media and the scholars paid great attention.The transla-tions of his works by Howard Goldblatt were also caught great attention.Howard Goldblatt was believed to help Moyan win the No-bel Prize.Based on this,it is necessary to study translation thoughts of Howard Goldblatt,which will provide some references for Chinese literature translations.

  7. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  8. Herbivory of maize by southern corn rootworm induces expression of the major intrinsic protein ZmNIP1;1 and leads to the discovery of a novel aquaporin ZmPIP2;8

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Susan D.; Novak, Nicole G.; Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins channel water and other neutral molecules through cell membranes. Aquaporin gene expression is subject to transcriptional control and can be modulated by factors affecting water balance such as salt, abscisic acid and drought. During infestation of maize by southern corn rootworm (SCR), an insect that chews into and significantly damages maize roots, three maize aquaporins were differentially expressed upon prolonged infestation. Using a brief infestation of maize roots ZmNIP1;1 tr...

  9. On E-C Caption Translation From Nida's Function Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丹

    2015-01-01

    As a special kind of text, the importance of translating subtitles is becoming more and more prominent. The subtitle trans-lation is widely favored by the audience as one of the main form of film translation. Translated film text is not under the constraints by the time of the movie screen's switching. Unlike the translation of literary works, it can make some explanation in some obscure place. Therefore, the translation of the film dialogue must let the audience clear about the content upon taking a look. Translators should be based on the national audience ,and from the artistic point of view of the audience's appreciation of art, choose the na-tive language that is most similar to domestic audiences, close to the original film art, and easy to accept . Therefore, research on the subject will have a significant effect on subtitles translation strategies.

  10. Tradução para o português e validação de conteúdo da Social Rhythm Metric-17 (SRM-17 Translation into Portuguese and content validation of the Social Rhythm Metric-17 (SRM-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lopes Schimitt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Traduzir para o português a Social Rhythm Metric-17 (SRM-17, escala que afere ritmo social, e realizar validação de conteúdo da versão produzida. MÉTODO: Foi utilizada uma adaptação do método para validação de instrumentos que compreendeu as seguintes etapas: preparação, tradução, conciliação, retrotradução, revisão da retrotradução, avaliação de clareza, revisão de resultados da avaliação de clareza e finalização, prova de leitura e relatório final. RESULTADOS: A versão final brasileira manteve uma equivalência de itens com relação à primeira versão em inglês do instrumento original, incorporando melhorias. A transposição do instrumento alternativo criado pelo grupo de Cronobiologia Humana do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, Porto Alegre (RS, para a SRM-17 não mostrou discrepâncias significativas e revelou que, embora essa escala seja um instrumento genérico, é sensível às diferenças individuais quanto à aferição de ritmo social. A versão avaliada demonstrou um grau satisfatório de clareza e equivalência semântica. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho apresenta uma versão adaptada à realidade brasileira de um instrumento específico para aferir ritmo social. O processo de adaptação transcultural deve efetivar-se com estudos de validação do instrumento final em uma amostra maior da população, nos quais também poderão ser avaliadas as equivalências operacional, de medida e funcional.OBJECTIVES: To translate the Social Rhythm Metric-17 (SRM-17, a scale that assesses social rhythm, into Portuguese and to validate the content of the Portuguese version. METHODS: An adaptation of the method for validation of instruments was used and it included the following stages: preparation, translation, reconciliation, back translation, revision of back translation, comprehension assessment, review of the results of comprehension assessment and completion, proofreading, and final report

  11. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  12. Orientational and translational dynamics of polyether/water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturlaugson, Adam L; Fruchey, Kendall S; Lynch, Stephen R; Aragón, Sergio R; Fayer, Michael D

    2010-04-29

    Optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments and pulsed field-gradient spin-echo NMR (PFGSE-NMR) experiments were performed to measure the rotational and translational diffusion constants of a polyether, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDE), in binary mixtures with water over concentrations ranging from pure TEGDE to approaching infinite dilution. In addition, hydrodynamic calculations of the rotational and translational diffusion constants for several rigid TEGDE conformations in the neat liquid and in the infinitely dilute solution were performed to supplement the experimental data. The rotational relaxation data follow the Debye-Stokes-Einstein (DSE) equation within experimental error over the entire water concentration range. The agreement with the DSE equation indicates that there is no significant structural change of the polyether as the water content is changed. In contrast to the rotational dynamics, the translational diffusion data show a distinct deviation from Stokes-Einstein (SE) behavior. As the water content of the mixture is reduced, the translational diffusion rate decreases less rapidly than the increase in viscosity alone predicts until the water/TEGDE mole ratio of 7:1 is reached. Upon further reduction of water content, the translational diffusion tracks the viscosity. Comparison of the translational data with the rotational data and the hydrodynamic computations shows that the translational dynamics cannot be explained by a molecular shape change and that the low water fraction solutions are the ones that deviate from hydrodynamic behavior. A conjecture is presented as a possible explanation for the different behaviors of the rotational and translational dynamics. PMID:20373773

  13. How to Deal with Sino-western Cultural Differences in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕莉

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-western cuhural differences in translation are very important. Paying no regard to culture background in translating, we'llnot realize the real communication between to languages.In a word, cultural difference has abundant and complicated content. If translators want to translate excellently, they must have adept basic skillsof the two cultures, and understand differences between two kinds of culture deeply, as well as understand thoroughly the spoken and writtenlanguages of two countries.Based on this consideration, this paper is intended to analyze Sino-western ctdtural differences in four aspects: history, region, custom, religionand thus put forth several translation techniques and methods.

  14. Aquaporins in the Colon as a New Therapeutic Target in Diarrhea and Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Kon, Risako; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) play important roles in the water transport system in the human body. There are currently 13 types of AQP, AQP0 through AQP12, which are expressed in various organs. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the intestinal tract. AQP3 is predominantly expressed in the colon, ultimately controlling the water transport. Recently, it was clarified that several laxatives exhibit a laxative effect by changing the AQP3 expression level in the colon. In addition, it was revealed that morphine causes severe constipation by increasing the AQP3 expression level in the colon. These findings have shown that AQP3 is one of the most important functional molecules in water transport in the colon. This review will focus on the physiological and pathological roles of AQP3 in the colon, and discuss clinical applications of colon AQP3. PMID:27447626

  15. Comparative Molecular Docking Studies with ABCC1 and Aquaporin 9 in the Arsenite Complex Efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojan, Shiv; Dhasmana, Anupam; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Haneef, Mohd; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most toxic metalloid present in the natural environment in both organic and inorganic arsenic forms. Inorganic arsenic is often more hazardous than the organic form. Arsenite and arsenate compounds are the major inorganic forms which are toxic causing severe human health dysfunction including cancer. Excretion of arsenic from the system is found elusive. Therefore, it is of interest to screen channel proteins with the arsenic complex in the different combination of arsenic, GSH (glutathione) and arsenic, selenium using docking methods. The mode of arsenic removal. The complex structure revealed the mode of arsenic binding efficiency with the receptor aquaporine 9 and ABCC1 channel protein. This provides insights to understand the mechanism of arsenic efflux. These inferences find application in the design, identification and development of novel nutracetucal or any other formulation useful in the balance of arsenic efflux. PMID:25258480

  16. Role of aquaporin 9 in cellular accumulation of arsenic and its cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Sumi, Daigo; Toyama, Takashi; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2009-06-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) 9 is a member of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily of AQPs in the transfer of water and small solutes such as glycerol and arsenite. It is well recognized that arsenic toxicity is associated with intracellular accumulation of this metalloid. In the present study, we examined the contribution of AQP9 to the uptake of inorganic arsenite, thereby increasing arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes. Pretreatment with sorbitol as a competitive inhibitor of AQP9 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of AQP9 resulted in a significant decrease of arsenite uptake in the cell and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of AQP9 in HEK293 cells led to the enhancement of intracellular arsenic concentration, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity after arsenite exposure. These results suggest that AQP9 is a channel to define arsenite sensitivity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

  17. Comparative Molecular Docking Studies with ABCC1 and Aquaporin 9 in the Arsenite Complex Efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojan, Shiv; Dhasmana, Anupam; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Haneef, Mohd; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most toxic metalloid present in the natural environment in both organic and inorganic arsenic forms. Inorganic arsenic is often more hazardous than the organic form. Arsenite and arsenate compounds are the major inorganic forms which are toxic causing severe human health dysfunction including cancer. Excretion of arsenic from the system is found elusive. Therefore, it is of interest to screen channel proteins with the arsenic complex in the different combination of arsenic, GSH (glutathione) and arsenic, selenium using docking methods. The mode of arsenic removal. The complex structure revealed the mode of arsenic binding efficiency with the receptor aquaporine 9 and ABCC1 channel protein. This provides insights to understand the mechanism of arsenic efflux. These inferences find application in the design, identification and development of novel nutracetucal or any other formulation useful in the balance of arsenic efflux.

  18. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in brain tissue of amygdala-kindled rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Chen; Yongbo Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent epileptic seizures can lead to brain edema, indicating that water regulation may be perturbed by seizures.We hypothesized that the expression of the brain water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) may be upregulated in the epileptic brain.In the present study, we established the amygdala kindling model of epilepsy, and quantified AQP-4 protein and mRNA levels, using reverse transcription-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting, in epileptic and control rats.We found that AQP-4 was overexpressed in the cerebral cortex of rats with epilepsy compared with controls.These findings show that AQP-4 is highly expressed in the brain of amygdala-kindled rats, suggesting that repeated seizures affect water homeostasis in the brain.

  19. Normal Immunostaining Pattern for Aquaporin-5 in the Lesions of Palmoplantar Hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Nakahigashi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporin-5 (AQP-5 is a water-transporting protein expressed in mammal sweat glands. It has been reported that the expression of AQP-5 is involved in sweating of mice, rats, and horses. However, the physiological function of human AQP-5 is still uncertain. In this report, we examined the expression pattern of AQP-5 in the skin lesions of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis in patients with Nagashima-type palmoplantar hyperkeratosis (PPK. We found that there was no significant difference in AQP-5 expression in the palmoplantar skin of healthy subjects and patients with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis. Our findings suggest that a mechanism other than AQP-5 may be involved in the pathogenesis of hyperhidrosis in PPK.

  20. Immunohistochemical Study of Aquaporins in an African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) With Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Ester; Martorell, Jaime; De la Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí

    2014-12-01

    A 5-month-old African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) was examined after 3 weeks of weakness, ataxia, mental depression, and seizures. Results of a complete blood cell count and plasma biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a severe bilateral hydrocephalus. The bird failed to improve with supportive care, and the owner requested euthanasia. Necropsy findings were severe bilateral hydrocephalus with no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. Histologic examination of the brain revealed microspongiosis, edema, gliosis, and neuronal chromatolysis of surrounding periventricular tissue. Aquaporins (AQP) and astrocytes were examined to elucidate the participation of these water channel proteins and glial cells in the pathophysiology and resolution of hydrocephalus. Results showed AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were overexpressed, especially near the ventricles, but expression of AQP1 was decreased. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of AQP immunolabeling in hydrocephalus in avain species.