WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquaculture

  1. Aquaculture; Acquacoltura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-12-01

    This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

  2. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  3. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  4. Holographic Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.

  5. BIOFILTERS IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Šarić; Marina Barilo; Ana Gavrilović; Jurica Jug-Dujaković

    2010-01-01

    Recirculating aquaculture is one of the solutions to an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible aquaculture production, and can be established in either urban or rural communities. Controlled conditions enable optimal growth conditions suitable for the species in question during the whole growth process, as well as the shortening of the process itself, when compared to open uncontrolled systems. Recirculating systems are now one of the most researched fields of aquaculture, and ...

  6. Aquaculture in mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    A general account of aquaculture of India in mangrove environment has been discussed. In-spite of being a none-too-tidal aquaculture site, the estuaries and backwaters fringEd. by mangrove vegetation have long been used for rearing and fattening...

  7. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Diseases of cultured animal and environmental pollution are very important problems in aquaculture.The use of probiotics in aquaculture has more adva ntages than the use of antibiotics and chemicals in aquaculture. This review int roduces the use and mechanisms of the probiotics in aquaculture.

  8. Microalgae for aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Michels, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the project ‘Zeeuwse Tong’ (Zeeland Sole) was founded with support of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands. The aim of the Zeeuwse Tong project was to establish an innovative land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture sector, which is producing sole, ragworms, algae, shellfish and saline crops in close harmony with nature. The project was divided into two sub-projects: The integrated saline aquaculture farm and the integrated nursery. The research described in this thesis re...

  9. BIOFILTERS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šarić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating aquaculture is one of the solutions to an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible aquaculture production, and can be established in either urban or rural communities. Controlled conditions enable optimal growth conditions suitable for the species in question during the whole growth process, as well as the shortening of the process itself, when compared to open uncontrolled systems. Recirculating systems are now one of the most researched fields of aquaculture, and biofiltration as the reduction of the poisonous ammonia compounds generated by digestion of proteins, is one of its most important parts. The aim of this study was to stress the importance of biofiltration, and to describe different designs of biofilters. Many biofilters are being used in commercial and research aquaculture facilities with differences in choice of working organism, design, material, price and etc. For the proper choice of biofilter it is necessary to know characteristics of each recirculating aquaculture system, because there are still no strict criteria for categorizing and applying different biofilter designs.

  10. Aquaculture report 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-04-08

    Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

  11. Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben; Hall, Derek;

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild......) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called “blue revolution” requires addressing a range of environmental and social problems, including water pollution, degradation of ecosystems, and violation of labor standards....

  12. Microalgae for aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the project ‘Zeeuwse Tong’ (Zeeland Sole) was founded with support of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands. The aim of the Zeeuwse Tong project was to establish an innovative land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture sector, which is producing sole, ragworms, algae, shellfish and

  13. Safety in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  14. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance......Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous...... nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics....

  15. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

  16. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-10-17

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

  17. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  18. Rapeseed use in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Halime Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the aquaculture sector is the provision of suitable and sufficient fish feed, because the most important protein source in aquaculture, the fish meal, is a limited resource. Due to their high nutritional value the rapeseed proteins have great potential as an alternative protein source for the fish nutrition. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a manufacturing process of high quality rapeseed protein concentrates, which can replace the limited marine resource. For this purpose, small pilot scale processing procedures were performed to produce a rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC. The meal for protein extraction was prepared by gentle meal processing. Rapeseed protein fractions were prepared by an aqueous extraction procedure. The obtained protein solution is further purified and then dried. The investigated rapeseed protein extraction process provides RPC with high nutritional value and low levels of antinutritional factors. From the nutritional point of view the produced RPC can be compared with the fishmeal. Its amino acid profile reflects the amino acid demands of fish. The obtained RPC was utilized for experimental setups of fish meal replacement in diets for rainbow trout, turbot, common carp and wels catfish. Experimental results from the conducted feeding trials demonstrate an enormous potential of RPC as protein source in aquafeeds. The highest fishmeal replacement level (up to 100% was observed in the feeding trials with rainbow trout. Therefore, especially in the nutrition of rainbow trout, RPC was identified as an excellent fishmeal alternative.

  19. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  20. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto;

    80 million tonnes accounting for close to 50 % of all aquatic food destined for the global human consumption. The Swedish aquaculture production currently includes about 11,000 tonnes rainbow trout in FW and SW, 1,100 tonnes arctic char (FW), 90 tonnes eel (FW), 1,500 tonnes mussels (SW) and a few...... platform for cooperation on research and education, exchange and transfer of knowledge from research to aquaculture practice. Further, integration of biological and technological research combined with education and training of skilled professionals as well as authority staff dealing with aquaculture...... due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...

  1. Applications of probiotic in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Seval Bahadır Koca; Behire Işıl Didinen; Seçil Ekici; Arife Dulluç

    2011-01-01

    Ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance is caused in increase of productivity in aquaculture. This negatively effects are seen as a results of made applications in production cycles (such as randomly use kemoteropatik). Using probi¬otic in aquaculture is a new approach to reduce these negatively effects. In this study is submi¬ted, definition of the concept probiotic, effect mechanisms of probiotics, colonization to host, selection of pr...

  2. Nutrition of aquaculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R T

    1991-10-01

    Dietary requirements for amino acids and fatty acids have been reported for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapias (Oreochromis spp.), and eel (Anguilla japonicus). Most of the vitamin and mineral requirements are available for channel catfish and salmonids, and some are available for common carp, tilapia, eel, and other finfish and crustaceans. From this available information, cost-effective feeds can be formulated for the major commercial aquaculture species. Major differences in nutrient requirements between fish and mammals or birds are as follows: fish have a lower digestible energy:protein ratio (8 to 10 kcal of DE/g of CP for fish vs 15 to 20 kcal of DE/g of CP for livestock); fish require n-3 fatty acids and land animals require n-6; fish can absorb minerals from the water, which negates the need for some minerals in the diet; and fish have limited ability to synthesize vitamin C and must depend on a dietary source. Areas for further research include 1) refinement of nutrient requirements of the major culture species considering effects of fish size, temperature, and management; 2) nutrient requirements of crustaceans; 3) effects of nutrition on fish health and product quality; and 4) feeding technology. PMID:1778835

  3. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  4. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize th...

  5. Mediterranean Aquaculture: Marine Fish Farming Development

    OpenAIRE

    Basurco, B.

    2001-01-01

    in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean has been expanding rapidly over recent years. Total aquaculture production in the region reached 1,266,959 t in 1999, which represents approximately 6% of the world aquaculture production (3% in 1995). Although Mediterranean aquaculture still focuses more on mollusc production (53.9%), the share of fish production is progressing constantly (46% in 1999, and 35% in 1995), parallel to global trends of world a...

  6. Knowing Asian aquaculture and fisheries. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Surtida, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An outline is given of aquaculture and fisheries in Asia, providing information of use to students whose work can influence laws, rules, policy and regulations on aquaculture and fisheries, with the view in mind to sustainable aquaculture. In this issue, the following countries are examined: China, Indonesia, and Bangladesh.

  7. Increased competition for aquaculture from fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    ; and supplies from aquaculture have grown continuously. In this paper, the impact of improved fisheries management on aquaculture growth is studied assuming perfect substitution between farmed and wild fish. We find that improved fisheries management, ceteris paribus, reduces the growth potential of global...... aquaculture in markets where wild fisheries constitute a large share of total supply....

  8. Compartmentalisation in aquaculture production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, C; Jones, J B; Zagmutt, F J

    2008-04-01

    Compartmentalisation is a new tool for disease management within a country. In aquaculture, the successful application of compartmentalisation is largely dependent on the system of production and the epidemiology of the disease(s) for which the compartment is being defined. Therefore, compartmentalisation may not be universally applicable across all systems and diseases. The paper examines the implementation of the concept, providing examples of specific industries, and discusses the application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) to the biosecurity of the system. The role of compartmentalisation in the management of aquaculture disease emergencies is also discussed.

  9. Status of Irish Aquaculture 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine; Mhara, Bord Iascaigh; Teo, Taighde Mara

    2005-01-01

    This report is the second annual report on the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2004). It has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute and Taighde Mara. The aims of the report are to: (1) provide an objective and comprehensive source of information on the status of Irish aquaculture in 2004; (2) show the main trends i...

  10. Applications of probiotic in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Bahadır Koca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance is caused in increase of productivity in aquaculture. This negatively effects are seen as a results of made applications in production cycles (such as randomly use kemoteropatik. Using probi¬otic in aquaculture is a new approach to reduce these negatively effects. In this study is submi¬ted, definition of the concept probiotic, effect mechanisms of probiotics, colonization to host, selection of probiotics, use probiotic in fish, crustacean, the mollusk and the live feed.

  11. Aquaculture Engineering: Status and Roles in the Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Nene A. Jamabo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the role of aquaculture engineering in Nigeria’s aquaculture sub-sector. The focus was on solving site selection problems due to environmental, Climatic and hydrological factors, equipment selection and fabrication, and site specific engineering problems. The poor growth of the aquaculture industry in Nigeria in the past is attributed to the poor status of aquaculture engineering. Also emphasis was placed on the shortage of qualified manpower, aquaculture engineers, in Nigeria, and suggestions were made for the short, medium and long term solutions. It is hoped that this review article will elicit a positive shift in policy towards aquaculture engineering in Nigeria and beyond.

  12. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture... draft national aquaculture policy that supports sustainable aquaculture in the United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to provide a...

  13. Status of Irish Aquaculture 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine; Mhara, Bord Iascaigh; Teo, Taighde Mara

    2006-01-01

    This is the third annual report on the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2003, Parsons et al., 2004). As with the previous reports it has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute (MI) and Taighde Mara Teo (TMT). The objectives of this report are: (1) To provide a useful, objective and comprehensive source of informatio...

  14. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp an...

  15. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  16. Science, the Environment and Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the problems of natural resources, the environment and agriculture in China. Secondly, it discusses the challenge of sustaining a healthy aquaculture. Thirdly, the role of science and technology in environmental management is described in detail, explaining the interaction between research and implication for govemment policymaking and local authority implementation. Finally, the institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) concerned with studies of aquatic ecosystem management are introduced as examples.

  17. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  18. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture.

  19. Status of Irish Aquaculture 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine; Mhara, Bord Iascaigh; Teo, Taighde Mara

    2004-01-01

    This is the first joint report on the status of Irish aquaculture, which has been produced in collaboration by the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara, the Marine Institute and Taighde Mara. The value of industry output was over €1 billion in the period from 1990 to 2003 and this represents a significant socio economic impact in the coastal areas of the south and west coast. The aims of the repo...

  20. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, I Chiu; Chao, Nai-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.

  1. Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Eduardo N; Velez, Zélia

    2011-01-01

    The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

  2. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  4. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... National Aquaculture Policy and Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy; Notices #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA214 Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: National...: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA is seeking...

  5. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  6. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  7. Reproduction of European Eel in Aquaculture (REEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne;

    Project aim: Enhance methods and technology applied to produce and culture European eel larvae as basis for the development of a future self-sustained eel aquaculture. Background: The severe decline of the European eel stock calls for conservation measures including national eel management plans...... and establishment of a self-sustained eel aquaculture. In 2005, the National Institute of Aquatic Resources at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua), the Faculty of Life Sciences at Copenhagen University (KU-Life) and the eel aquaculture industry started to build up a research and technology platform...... for the development of methods to reproduce European eel in aquaculture. Two major projects: Artificial Reproduction of Eels II and III (ROE II and III) succeeded during 2005-2008 to produce viable eggs and larvae that lived up to 12 days. The larvae thereby accomplished the yolk-sac stage and became ready to start...

  8. Aquaculture in Coastal and Marine US Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. The presence and location of...

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANIC AQUACULTURE. CASE STUDY: ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture contribute ever more to the production of aquatic food worldwide, even if the sustainable limits for majority of wild fish stocks, are now almost reached or even exceeded. In the EU, aquaculture is an important economic activity in many coastal and continental regions. Aquaculture plays an important role in terms of access to food resources and it is necessary to use its potential to contribute to sustainable development, food security, economic growth and employment. In this regard, starting from EU aquaculture objectives, the paper intend to make an analysis of the national situation of aquaculture and its current potential. The paper presented the progress of Romanian investments in aquaculture, identifying needs and opportunities for the Romanian aquaculture development. Taking into consideration the natural resources available and the growth of global request of organic product, the development of ecologic aquaculture might represent o niche market for local producers.

  10. An Overview of Aquaculture in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Ariel, Ellen; Lyngstad, T. M.;

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems......, environmental concerns, organic aquaculture and outlook for the future. The information will be useful for risk assessments, design of risk-based surveillance programs and for construction of comparative risk profiles for endemic and exotic diseases affecting aquaculture in the Nordic countries. Aquaculture...... char and cod are most important in Iceland. Other important cultured species include eel and blue mussels. There is much diversity in Nordic aquaculture industries in terms of production, farmed species, and production systems. Although the vast majority of the Nordic aquaculture production...

  11. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwanaquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This studyis derived from a need to improve the distribution performance ofagricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demandsin Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived fromboth a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategiesare developed. This development is based on key success factors andstrategies for vertical integration interviewed and cited in the literatures.The findings are identified by applying the Gray Relational Analysis(GRA. For this study, the key success factors for aquaculture wholesalemarkets include the communication, integration and cohesion ofopinion within the wholesale market; government support; andmutualtrust between members of the vertical integration scheme. The suitablevertical integration strategies are an improved safety and hygiene inspectionof aquaculture products, accuracy of aquaculture product categorization,and precision in product weighing.

  12. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  13. Whither Aquaculture R&D? Results from a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Susanne; Guettler, Stefan; Mueller, Rolf A.E.; Schulz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of the year 2008 a worldwide online Delphi study on the future of R&D in aquaculture was conducted. The Delphi method is widely used to survey experts on the anticipated developments within a specific domain. We employ this method to ascertain the likely future directions of aquaculture research in developed, high-income countries. For the convenience of our respondents we conducted the survey on the web. Results of the survey show that aquaculture experts agree that aquaculture...

  14. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, E. S.; C.L. dos Santos; Jahncke, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglec...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  16. Assessing the Aquaculture Curricula in the Northeastern Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 70 secondary agriculture teachers who included aquaculture in the curriculum indicated they averaged 4.5 years experience teaching aquaculture. Limited facilities, equipment costs, and low teacher knowledge were barriers. Only eight had used all of the aquaculture curriculum materials from the National Council for…

  17. Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2011 totaled 60 million tons valued at $119 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  18. Genomic approaches in aquaculture and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancela, M. Leonor; Bargelloni, Luca; Boudry, Pierre;

    2010-01-01

    Despite the enormous input into the worldwide development of fish and shellfish farming in the recent decades, in part as an attempt to minimize the impact of fishing on already overexploited natural populations, the application of genomics to aquaculture and fisheries remains poorly developed....... Improving state-of-the-art genomics research in various aquaculture systems, as well as its industrial applications, remains one of the major challenges in this area and should be the focus of well developed strategies to be implemented in the next generation of projects. This chapter will first provide...

  19. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  20. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. PMID:26119489

  1. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed.

  2. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture: applications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M; Silva, Tomé S; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming

    2012-07-19

    Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5 million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...

  4. THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture provided 31.7% of the world needs for aquatic products. The total production and industrialization of aquaculture will continue. Planning of aquaculture development in Croatia and the preparations for joining the European Economic Community must take into account the status of aquaculture and trends in the world, the common fishery policy of EEC (green document, the production in EEC member states and EEC–candidate states and especially the production in neighboring countries. The number, the size and the strength of organizational structures helping the development of aquaculture in EEC are showing these factors to be of decisive importance for the future of sustainable aquaculture in Croatia, too. The very low fish consumption in the country is a negative health factor for the Croatian citizens and it emphasizes the importance of faster development of aquaculture. The paper is intended to stimulate improvements in the aquaculture development strategy, to promote more positive approach towards this food production sector and to speed up its successfulness in Croatia.

  5. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  6. Consumer behaviour and preferences for aquaculture products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim;

    During the last decades, the proportion of aquaculture products in the market place has increased dramatically and this trend seems to continue in the future as well. While both the producers of aquaculture products as well as the distribution channels are aware of this change in product...... about consumer preferences and choice in relation to fish in general as well as preferences for farmed and wild fish. Questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of consumers in 5 European countries: Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland and Spain, and a total of 4786 valid questionnaires were...... wild and farmed fish increases with age, since the reported consumption of wild fish decreases with increasing age, which is the opposite trend compared to reported overall fish consumption. The data shows that on average the consumption of fish increases with increasing age in all countries except...

  7. PCR AS DIAGNOSTIC METHOD IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović; Natalija Topić Popović

    1999-01-01

    PCR is an acronym for »polymerase chain reaction«, a technique based on detection and amplification of specific DNA and RNA sequences. It can be applied in diagnostics of hereditary diseases, forensics, population genetics, systematics, bioengineering, evolution biology, and also aquaculture. With this method it is possible to diagnose an array of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of fish, shellfish and crustaceans. The advantages of the technique are manifested in rapid obtaining of re...

  8. Probiotics as Control Agents in Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gómez R. Geovanny D; Balcázar José Luis; MA Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  9. THE BIOECONOMICS OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Richard F. KAZMIERCZAK, Jr.; Caffey, Rex H.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to produce a detailed aquaculture production model incorporating constraints unique to closed system culture and to conduct a formal economic analysis of closed system operation. Results generated by this model indicate that less than perfect management ability can eliminate the normal advantages associated with using high protein feed. While higher protein levels produce faster growth, and for this reason are often used in the industry, the increased direct feed co...

  10. New aquaculture drugs under FDA review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

  11. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  12. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  13. Ecosystem-based approach to aquaculture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick White

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits which, when exceeded, can affect major system restructuring. Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible. Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three main objectives: conservation, sustainable use, and a fair and equitable sharing of the benefits and use of the natural resources. Aquaculture development needs to be within the carrying capacity of the water resource so that it is sustainable and does not greatly impact the environment. The determination of the carrying capacity needs to be science-based. The planning of development in ecosystems has been done for freshwater ecosystems within the PAMB (Protected Area Management Board framework, but in many cases this does not give the correct significance to the impact of aquaculture on the water resources in the ecosystem. It also needs to be extended to river basins and estuaries, brackishwater areas, and inland bays, and seas. The planning and management of aquaculture needs to be undertaken at the local government unit (LGU level in a coordinated manner by all the LGUs that have a part of the water resource. The co-management of aquaculture, in terms of monitoring of the environment, monitoring of production, and monitoring of licenses, needs to be funded out of license fees and non-compliance fines collected by the LGUs. A number of these management activities need to be undertaken jointly (monitoring the environment and others separately but in a coordinated manner (e.g., checking licenses and checking compliance.

  14. Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  15. Making social sense of aquaculture transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience deals explicitly with change and provides a middle ground between the social and the environmental sciences. However, a growing critique by social scientists questions the ability of resilience thinking to adequately examine the social dimensions of change. The question that emerges is how social scientists should engage with resilience. We addressed this question by comparing resilience with agrarian change and transitions theory, through the backdrop of the fastest growing global food sector, aquaculture. Our analysis showed that each theoretical perspective provides fundamentally different insights into social and environmental transition inherent in the aquaculture sector. Although resilience thinking is best suited to assessing the ecological aspects of production, its systems ontology limits the inclusion of dynamic social relations or innovation. In contrast, agrarian transition enables a more meaningful understanding of how social relations are reconfigured as agrarian society shifts toward more capitalist modes of production, and transitions theory provides insights into social process of innovation. Given the epistemological differences between these theoretical approaches, we argue against attempts that reify systemic thinking by naturalizing social theories and concepts into resilience thinking. Instead, we argue that social theories such as agrarian change and transition theory should be seen as complimentary and that integration should focus on bridging results and insights. Doing so enables a more robust assessment of the social aspects of social-ecological transitions in the aquaculture sector and beyond.

  16. State of the art of Italian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

  17. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  18. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  19. Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, S.J.; Delaporte, A.; Phillips, M. J.; Beveridge, M.; O'Keefe, M

    2011-01-01

    The report begins with an overview of the current status of world aquaculture. It then goes on to describe an approach for estimating the current combined biophysical resource demands of aquaculture for producer countries and regions. Following a comparison of these results with those available for other animal food production sectors the report then examines the consequences of likely future trends in production on the environmental impacts of aquaculture. Finally, the policy implications of...

  20. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU; Kennedy F. Chah

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial resistance (AR) is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs) can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to othe...

  1. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Medrano, Juan F.; Feijoo, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequen...

  2. Freshwater aquaculture in the United States: Complying with environmental protection law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, M.

    1993-01-01

    The author deal with the relations between the freshwater fish culture and the many regulations of the environmental protection in USA. The author develops the federal and state administrative frameworks (federal government administration of aquaculture, the state government administration of aquaculture), the freshwater aquaculture and water rights, the freshwater aquaculture and wetlands regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and water quality regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and wild...

  3. Proteomics and its applications to aquaculture in China: infection, immunity, and interaction of aquaculture hosts with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals.

  4. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  5. PCR AS DIAGNOSTIC METHOD IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR is an acronym for »polymerase chain reaction«, a technique based on detection and amplification of specific DNA and RNA sequences. It can be applied in diagnostics of hereditary diseases, forensics, population genetics, systematics, bioengineering, evolution biology, and also aquaculture. With this method it is possible to diagnose an array of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of fish, shellfish and crustaceans. The advantages of the technique are manifested in rapid obtaining of results, high specificity and sensitivity.

  6. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  7. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand...... factor to future production growth in the salmon aquaculture industry....

  8. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Naylor, R.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Tyedmers, P.H.; Folke, C.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Crépin, A.S.; Ehrlich, P.; Gren, A.; Kautsky, N.; Levin, S.A.; Nyborg, K.; Osterblom, H.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.; Xepapadeas, A.; de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment t

  9. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The tr

  10. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    Aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) has been the fastest-growing animal food-producing sector in the world during the last three decades. At present, more than half of the world’s human fish consumption comes from aquaculture. Despite the positive trend, the aquaculture industry faces...... challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable....... To this end, key challenges should be thoroughly examined to identify sustainable and efficient solutions. Thus, the thesis focuses on two important bottlenecks in the growth of the aquaculture sector—namely, lack of nutritionally suitable live feed items for marine finfish production and negative...

  11. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D. Miranda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents.

  13. Genomic approaches in marine biodiversity and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Quezada, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  14. Criteria for candidate species for aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, H.H.; Riordan, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the animal taxa that are the most probable candidates for an intensive, commercial aquatic animal husbandry industry is considered. A characterization is presented of those biological criteria that lend the species the necessary physiological and genetic malleability to be adapted and molded into a domesticated race. The animal cultivated must be amenable to intensive management in high-density confinements such as those now being engineered for high-yield aquaculture. Attributes considered are discussed in the context of the various aquacultural ecosystems in which the specific biotype is expected to achieve satisfactory growth and survival. Correlative with bionomic criteria, economic requirements are posed and evaluated in an effort to define a socially and financially profitable agribusiness system. Investment requirements and operating costs are considered in terms of expected returns. However, since production alone is insufficient to sustain an enterprise - i.e., the product must be sold - production costs must be judged against market values. Therefore, ultimate use or consumer acceptance criteria are incorporated into the list of essential requirements for a candidate species for aquafarming.

  15. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  16. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.

  17. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  18. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  19. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  20. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.

  1. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  2. THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.

  3. Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Rosamond L.; Hardy, Ronald W.; Bureau, Dominique P.; Chiu, Alice; Elliott, Matthew; Farrell, Anthony P; Forster, Ian; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Goldburg, Rebecca J.; Hua, Katheline; Nichols, Peter D

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-bas...

  4. Management options to mitigate environmental impact of aquaculture in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Edpalina, Rizalita Rosalejos

    2009-01-01

    Asia-Pacific represents the most important region for fisheries and aquaculture production. It is world's largest contributor to the world's aquaculture, producing 46.9 million tons or 91% of the global aquaculture production (FAO, 2005). The growth of aquaculture production has been very strong for the last ten years due to the increased production from China. The aquaculture production in Southeast Asia is diversified comprising 41.6% freshwater fish, 23.5% of aquatic plants, 6.7% crustacea...

  5. Aquaculture Asia, vol. 12, no. 2, pp.1-50, April-June 2007

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Aquaculture Asia is a magazine for farmers and aquaculture-related service industries. Articles cover all aspects of aquaculture and the related processing, marketing, economic, environmental and social issues that surround the industry, with regular sections on sustainable aquaculture, marine finfish aquaculture, aquatic animal health, research and farming techniques and the NACA Newsletter. Emphasis is placed on the practical outcomes of research that are of direct benefit to the industry, ...

  6. DIAGNOSIS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALVARADO VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Rangel-López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register” (RFC; in the socio-economic aspects: 187 jobs are generated; on technical aspects: the average area for cultivation is 410.11 ha, 79% of production is Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.. The aquaculture activity on Alvarado, Veracruz, it is in a learning process, therefore strategies are needed in order to the development of the activity and increasing production; improving cultivation methodologies and training producers on managing their aquaculture units.

  7. Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801 aquaculture in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kružić Nikolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to present current status of meagre aquaculture in Croatia. Meagre Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801 is a fast growing migratory fish species which used to be widespread along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Today, it is very rare in fisheries catches and is considered highly endangered. Recently, meagre has become an increasingly important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture. In Croatia, meagre is a relatively new cultured species whose farming started after the year 2000. Since the European Commission identified species diversification as a top priority in the framework of the 2020 strategies for Aquaculture, and with recent studies revealing that meagre adapt easily to captivity and maintain a rapid growth rate, this species became an interesting candidate for Croatian as well as Mediterranean aquaculture.

  8. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

  9. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...... (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...

  10. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.;

    2009-01-01

    Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and transferable resistance genes in fish pathogens and other bacteria in the aquatic environment. From these reservoirs, resistance genes may disseminate by horizontal...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...

  11. Proximate analyses - Utilization of Marine Process Waste for Aquaculture Feeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...

  12. Use of chemicals in aquaculture - issues of concern

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    in use of chemicals that leads to their use or misuse. The chemicals used in intensive and sometimes in semi-intensive aquaculture typically include chemotherapeutants, feed additives, hormones, pesticides and parasiticides. Major environmental and human...

  13. Aquaculture as a part of a multi-use platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Svenstrup Petersen, Ole; Aarup Ahrensberg, Nick;

    2014-01-01

    aquaculture. These developments urgently require effective marine technology and governance solutions to facilitate installation, operation and maintenance of these novel offshore activities. Simultaneously, both economic costs and environmental impact have to remain within acceptable limits, in order...... to increase the feasibility of the use of ocean space. Aquaculture can play an important role in the multi-use of ocean space. This idea is tested on four different sites around Europe, where this paper focus on the one in the Baltic Sea....

  14. DIAGNOSIS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALVARADO VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Lenin Rangel-López; Fabiola Lango-Reynoso; Alberto Asian-Hoyos; María del Refugio Castañeda-Chávez

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA) and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register...

  15. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sumoharjo; Asfie Maidie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each) that assembled in series. ...

  16. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food processing sector in the world. Nevertheless, growth inside the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has been stagnating, with few exceptions. The main reason is strict environmental regulations. This study investigates if green...... growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  17. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  18. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verschuere, L.; Rombaut, G.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstraete, W.

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustace...

  19. Consumer attitudes toward aquaculture: spanish study correlates knowledge, opinions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Polanco, José Manuel; Luna Sotorrío, Ladislao; Llorente García, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Consumer beliefs about the safety and sustainability of aquaculture are statistically related concepts that allow their reduction into a single attitude index. As consumers further identify safety and sustainability in the aquaculture, their opinions about farmed seafood tend to become more favorable. The industry can benefit by assuring that both conditions are satisfied in their operations and communicating them in an understandable language for all segments.

  20. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  1. Interactions of Aquaculture and Waste Disposal in the Coastal Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xuemei; Hawkins S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper.Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture.Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  2. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gram, Lone

    2016-09-01

    Microorganisms are of great importance to aquaculture where they occur naturally, and can be added artificially, fulfilling different roles. They recycle nutrients, degrade organic matter and, occasionally, they infect and kill the fish, their larvae or the live feed. Also, some microorganisms may protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully manipulate and engineer these microbiomes. Similarly, we can reduce the need to apply antibiotics in aquaculture through manipulation of the microbiome, i.e. by the use of probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that fish pathogenic bacteria in live feed can be controlled by probiotics and that mortality of infected fish larvae can be reduced significantly by probiotic bacteria. However, the successful management of the aquaculture microbiota is currently hampered by our lack of knowledge of relevant microbial interactions and the overall ecology of these systems. PMID:27452663

  3. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  4. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  5. Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

  6. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  7. Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country

  8. Responsible aquaculture in 2050: Valuing local conditions and human innovations will be key to success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diana, J.S.; Egna, H.S.; Chopin, T.; Peterson, M.S.; Cao, L.; Pomeroy, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Slack, W.T.; Bondad-Reantaso, M.G.; Cabello, F.

    2013-01-01

    As aquaculture production expands, we must avoid mistakes made during increasing intensification of agriculture. Understanding environmental impacts and measures to mitigate them is important for designing responsible aquaculture production systems. There are four realistic goals that can make futur

  9. Low-head saltwater recirculating aquaculture systems utilized for juvenile red drum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems reuse water with mechanical and biological treatment between each use and thus require wastewater treatment techniques for continuous waste removal. However, the traditional techniques and equipment utilized in recirculating aquaculture systems are expensive. The d...

  10. In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

  11. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming).

  12. The Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Recirculating Aquaculture System Biofilms and their Response to Various Sanitizers

    OpenAIRE

    King, Robin K.

    2001-01-01

    THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN BIOFILMS OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SANITIZERS Robin K. King ABSTRACT Recirculating aquaculture offers a prospect for successful fish farming, but this form of aquaculture presents a great potential for pathogenic microorganisms to become established in the system through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms are capable of forming on all aquaculture system components, incorporating the various microflor...

  13. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J F; Esteves, V I; Santos, E B H

    2016-06-01

    Oxytracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic authorized for use in European aquaculture. Its photo-degradation has been widely studied in synthetic aqueous solutions, sometimes resorting to expensive methods and without proven effectiveness in natural waters. Thus, this work studied the possibility to apply the solar photo-degradation for removal of OTC from marine aquaculture's waters. For that, water samples were collected at different locals of the water treatment circuit, from two different aquaculture companies. Water samples were firstly characterized regarding to pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), organic carbon and UV-Vis spectroscopic characteristics. Then, the samples were spiked with OTC and irradiated using simulated sunlight in order to evaluate the matrix effects on OTC photo-degradation. From kinetic results, the apparent quantum yields and the outdoor half-life times, at 40°N for midsummer and midwinter days were estimated by the first time for these conditions. For a midsummer day, at sea level, the outdoor half-life time predicted for OTC in these aquaculture's waters ranged between 21 and 25 min. Additionally, the pH and salinity effects on the OTC photo-degradation were evaluated and it has been shown that high pH values and the presence of sea salt increase the OTC photo-degradation rate in aquaculture's waters, compared to results in deionised water. The results are very promising to apply this low-cost methodology using the natural sunlight in aquaculture's waters to remove OTC. PMID:27049790

  14. Assessment of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to address three objectives: 1) to determine the nitrogen cycling of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; 2) to determine the energy budget of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; and 3) to determine which low cost fish diets could be used as a replacement or supplement to commercial diets for Tilapia mossambica. A 6435 liter recirculating aquaculture system was enclosed in a 32.6 m/sup 2/ greenhouse. Water was recirculated through two 416 liter trickling filter towers and three 5.5 m long hydroponic troughs. The aquaculture tank was stocked with a polyculture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) and the hydroponic troughs were planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The fishes were fed a commercial fish diet and the tomatoes were irrigated with the aquaculture water using a modified Nutrient Film Technique. The fish yield was 42.2 kg and the average tomato yield from 24 plants was 4.1 kg/plant. The combined fish and tomato production accounted for 65% of the total nitrogen input. Leaf analyses and visual inspection showed that the tomato plants from the hydroponic troughs were deficient in potassium and magnesium. An energy analysis of the greenhouse and aquaculture-hydroponic system showed that when combining the energy outputs of heat, fish, and tomatoes the energy ratio (energy output/energy input) was similar to literature values for milkfish pond culture. When only the fish production was considered the energy ratio was similar to literature values reported for intensive water recirculating systems.

  15. 77 FR 50082 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Census of Aquaculture AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION... currently accepting stakeholder feedback in the form of content requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture..., (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The results of the 2005 Census of Aquaculture were...

  16. Research update for the Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2014 totaled 80 million tons valued at $140 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture h...

  17. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    , larvae of flatfishes undergo a particularly evident and dramatic metamorphosis, because flatfishes completely reprogram their body to move from the pelagic habitat, in the water column, to the benthic habitat, on the sea floor. Due to the complex morphological and physiological changes, in aquaculture...... capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...

  18. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang;

    Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms...

  19. Genetics in Aquaculture: Proceedings of the Sixteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture Charleston, South Carolina October 20 and 21, 1987

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun durin...

  20. Environmental quality and aquaculture systems: Proceedings of the Thirteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Mie, Japan, October 24-25, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun during t...

  1. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

      One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been recently dev

  2. Zebrafish as Animal Model for Aquaculture Nutrition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Elizabeth Ulloa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism’s response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed.

  3. Beyond net deficits: new priorities for an aquacultural geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belton, B.; Bush, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Geographers first identified aquaculture as an important field of study during the 1990s, pointing to a ‘net deficit’ in geographical knowledge about the activity. This paper examines how far geographers have come in bridging this knowledge deficit in the last 20 years. While increasing attention ha

  4. Microorganisms in recirculating aquaculture systems and their management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) are increasingly considered as production systems of the future with a minimum ecological impact for the production of aquatic food. To maintain a good water quality and to produce quality and healthy fishery products, the systems depend on a diverse microbia

  5. An Inexpensive Recirculating Aquaculture System with Multiple Use Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Gerald Don, Jr.; Cook, S. Bradford; Scurlock, Carrie Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive recirculating aquaculture system that can hold up to 46 pounds of fish, invertebrates, and mussels for classroom use. The system is versatile, requires little maintenance, and can be used for both teaching and research purposes. (WRM)

  6. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  7. Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept...

  8. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  9. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Millot, Sandie;

    2015-01-01

    on coping styles may contribute to improved sustainability of the aquaculture industry, including welfare and performance of farmed fish. Moreover, we will suggest areas for future research, where genetic basis (heritability/epigenetic) of coping styles, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind consistent...

  10. Identification of specific demands on Feed in Dutch Organic Aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of specific demands for organic feed focussed on feed demands for four fish species which can be cultured in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS), tilapia, African Catfish, shrimp and turbot. The evaluation of the various feed formulations indicates that there are several ingredien

  11. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dabrowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. A shellfish model that includes growth and physiological interactions of mussels with the ecosystem and is fully embedded in the 3-D numerical modelling framework has been developed at the Marine Institute. This shellfish model has a microbial module designed to predict levels of coliform contamination in mussels. This model can also be used to estimate the carrying capacity of embayments, assess impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds and help to classify shellfish waters. The physical coastal model of southwest Ireland provides a three day forecast of shelf water movement in the region. This is assimilated into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end-users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish killing species. Further services include the use of models to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the marine fisheries resources. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  12. Fish to 2030 : Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes global prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. The World Bank Group (WBG) Agriculture Action Plan 2013-15 summarizes critical challenges facing the global food and agriculture sector. An ever-increasing global population necessitates adequate food and nutrition for the growing population through increased production and reduced waste. Production increase must occur in...

  13. Charting the Research Course for Sustainable Aquaculture in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vun L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to arising needs and demands, aquaculture is currently the fastest growing food production sector. In order to increase yield and yet to remain sustainable, the challenges would be to minimise impact on the environment and ecosystem services. Aquaculture activity contributes significantly to Malaysia and also the state of Sabah’s economy and food security. Hence, the future changes in the environment as a result of rapid population growth and development would pose as threats to this industry in terms of quality, quantity and sustainability. Unforeseen environmental changes such as environmental pollution from other sources, climate change and the changes in policies would jeopardize the sustainability of this industry. In order to anticipate such impacts to the aquaculture activities, this paper set to chart a sustainable course for its development. Four important research courses were proposed: establishment of a sustainable framework, assessment of impacts of climate change, viability and vulnerability assessment due to future environmental changes and food security. Such findings would eventually allow the stakeholders to plan and manage the resources and aquaculture activities in such a way that foster sustainable food security and resilient aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Fishery and Aquaculture Relationship in the Mediterranean: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RELINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mediterranean represents only 0.8% of the world seas, it is the site of a very long-established fishing activity, characterized mainly by multispecific catch and by artisanal or coastal activity, resulting from a mosaic of very diversified structures and gears, along more than 45,000 km of coastline. Two main biological features of this sea are the occurrence of a large richness of species (it represents 5.5% - 7% of world marine fauna and 16.6% of macrophyta, which stands in contrast with its ‘trophic poverty’ and the absence of large monospecific fishery, except for some small and large pelagic fish. Another biological characteristic of Mare Nostrumis the high invasion of exotic species, some exploited by fishery and aquaculture, some others quite dangerous. For the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea, the production (catch + aquaculture had been steadily increasing over the period 1972-1988 from 1,140,000 t to 2,080,000 t . The period 1988-1991 has shown a drastic drop in catches (in 1991: 1,400,000 t. From 1990 to 1995 the total catch increased to 1,701,379 t then decreased and in 2000 reached 1,485,046 t . In 2000 Turkey had the first place with 496,174 t, 26.9% of the total value (1,846,026 t, including fishing and aquaculture, followed by Italy with 25%, Greece 9%, Spain 7.6% and Algeria 5.4%. As in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean is rapidly expanding. In 1970 the total aquaculture production was about 18,297 t of which 74.3% produced in Italy. In 2000 a value of 358,614 t was reached, about 1/4 of the total fishery catch, while the world aquaculture production corresponds to half of the world total catch. Italy is still the main producer with 46.7% , followed by Greece with 21.5%, Turkey 9.9% and France 6.7%. A sharp drop in the production of the European eel ( Anguilla anguilla and of the European flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis is recorded. Positive and negative interactions between

  15. Effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development in aquaculture tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietz, Matthias; Hall, Michael R; Høj, Lone

    2009-07-01

    Microbial biofilms developing in aquaculture tanks represent a reservoir for opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and procedures to control formation and bacterial composition of biofilms are important for the development of commercially viable aquaculture industries. This study investigated the effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development on microscope glass slides placed in small-scale aquaculture tanks containing the live feed organism Artemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that ozonation accelerated the biofilm formation cycle, while it delayed the establishment of filamentous bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups in the biofilm for both water types, but ozonation influenced their dynamics. With ozonation, the bacterial community structure was relatively stable and dominated by Gammaproteobacteria throughout the experiment (21-66% of total bacteria). Without ozonation, the community showed larger fluctuations, and Alphaproteobacteria emerged as dominant after 18 days (up to 54% of total bacteria). Ozonation of seawater also affected the dynamics of less abundant populations in the biofilm such as Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetales and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium branch of phylum Bacteroidetes. The abundance of Thiothrix, a bacterial genus capable of filamentous growth and fouling of larvae, increased with time for both water types, while no temporal trend could be detected for the genus Vibrio. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated temporal changes in the dominant bacterial populations for both water types. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed the FISH data, and sequences were related to bacterial groups commonly found in biofilms of aquaculture systems. Several populations were closely related to organisms involved in sulfur cycling. Improved Artemia survival rates in tanks receiving ozonated water suggested a positive effect of ozonation on animal

  16. The Application of Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA Using Stratified Double Net Rounded Cage (SDFNC for Aquaculture Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto P. Putro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of fishery production nationally and internationally may impact on the potential emergence of a variety of environmental problems. The application of sustainable aquaculture is urgently needed by breeding fish for commercial purposes in a manner such that it has a minimum impact on the environment, contributing to the development of local communities and generating economic benefits. The design of the cage and farming practice in aquaculture activities are the important steps to ensure that farming activity is still observed in order to anticipate the risk of organic enrichment caused by the activities. The application of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  (IMTA on the Stratified Double Floating Net Cage  (SDFNC integrated with biomonitoring are an appropriate solution to the ongoing productive farming practices. IMTA is an aquaculture practice using more than one species of biotas which have ecologically mutual relationship as a part of the food chain in the area at the same time. The application of IMTA allows farmers to get several aquaculture products in the same area without increasing the horizontal area of the farms. At first, the SDFNC has been applied for farming Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia niloticus as polyculture system in freshwater ecosystem of Rawapening Lake, Central Java. Its operation has been able to increase the production capacity of at least 75% of conventional cages. The application of SDFNC-IMTA using milkfish (Chanos Chanos, seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii, and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been able to minimize the impact and maintain the water ecosystem in the Gulf Awerange, South Sulawesi.

  17. Overview of the application of nucleotide in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Do Huu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although long history application in infant formula, dietary nucleotide supplementation has been used only recently in the evaluation of growth performance, stress and pathogen resistance in aquaculture species. This paper addresses the present knowledge of the use of nucleotide supplemented in the diet for culture species. Research reveals that dietary nucleotide may have significant impact and is recommended to add to the feed of aquatic species to get better performance. However, more studies should also be conducted to have better understandings on dose requirement, duration of application, impact on different life stage and under different environmental stress and pathogens. Further study should also examine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation of intestinal microbiota and gut morphology, and immune response of aquaculture species.

  18. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  19. Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Teodor BURUIANĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of a large amount of certain types of beneficial bacteria can reduce the multiplication and development of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. A “probiotic” is a product that contains live microorganisms which positively influence the host intestinal microbiota by preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth and development of beneficial bacteria. Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria with beneficial effects in aquaculture industry. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. in fish culture improved especially growth performance, immune response and the disease resistance of fish against pathogenic bacterial infections. The objective of the current paper is to review the recent published investigations reported in the scientific literature on the use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in aquaculture, focusing on their beneficial effects on the host. This review includes the main effects of Bacillus spp. administration in shrimp culture, carp culture, tilapia culture, and other fish culture.

  20. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed.

  1. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  2. Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

    2001-09-01

    In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock.

  3. The need for effective disease control in international aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B J

    2005-01-01

    Globally, aquaculture is steadily expanding both in terms of total production and the range of species farmed. At an overall annual growth rate of about 10%, it is by far the fastest growing sector of food animal production in the world and is providing an increasing proportion of the total production of fish and shellfish for human consumption. However, diseases continue to cause significant economic losses in international aquaculture production and to have a detrimental effect on valuable export trade for some countries. Financial losses have been drastic in some cases and the national economies of some developing countries have been adversely affected. Even just at the local level, disease can have a serious impact on the livelihoods and food security of many individual small farmers and their families, particularly in poorer countries. Despite all the problems caused, diseases continue to be spread internationally even where import health safeguards are in place. Recent examples of such spread are presented and some reasons for the appearance of a disease in a country for the first time are given. It is an unfortunate fact that despite many years of damaging economic and social impact of disease in different sectors of aquaculture, and large sums being spent on research around the world, there are relatively few effective and officially approved products available to control or prevent them. Despite the potential market, there are as yet no commercial vaccines available to prevent the damaging effects of many of the most serious diseases. Without such vaccines, it is likely that the serious impact of diseases in international aquaculture will continue for many years to come. PMID:15962465

  4. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez; Gerardo Rodríguez-Quiroz; Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal; Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1) and 20% (APL2) worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six we...

  5. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Merica Slišković; Gorana Jelić

    2002-01-01

    Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems nece...

  6. Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa M. Farghally; Doaa M. Atia; Hanaa T. El-madany; Faten H. Fahmy

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and brazed heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchang...

  7. Aquaculture in tropical Mexican lakes and dams: achievements and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza, Jorge; Lopez, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Mexico, with highly diverse physiography, geology, soils and climate, is a country with a broad mosaic of aquatic ecosystems within 320 watersheds. This paper presents a brief picture of Mexican fresh waters, the distribution of rainfall and the potential for aquaculture. The main fish species and water bodies, dams and lakes, are highlighted. The country faces problems of surface water shortage which requires better management.

  8. Dietary carbohydrates and denitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meriac, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to overfishing of global fish stocks and increasing fish meal prices, plant ingredients are being increasingly used as an alternative source of protein in fish feeds. However, the inclusion of unpurified plant ingredients will also increase the content of fibers in feeds. Fibers are nearly indigestible and will therefore increase solid waste production in aquaculture. This solid waste can be used to as a carbon source for denitrification to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquacult...

  9. Economic analysis of rural and artisanal aquaculture in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Recalde Ruiz, Jose Renato

    2009-01-01

    Three different types of culture and conditions were tested to determine the profitability of Rural and Artisanal Aquaculture Project in Ecuador: monoculture of the freshwater fish named locally cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), monoculture of red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and polyculture tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) – cachama (Piaractus brachypomus). The economic models used for this particular analysis were Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Using these meth...

  10. Threats to Aquatic Environments: Is Aquaculture a Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Rosamond L.

    2004-01-01

    Marine ecosystems and fisheries face serious threats from over-fishing, run-off of land-based pollutants, introductions and invasions of exotic species, coastal development and habitat alteration, unintended by-catch, and climate change. Annual global fish catches fluctuate between 80 and 90 million metric tonnes (MMT) and appear to be declining. As a result of limitations on wild capture, aquaculture has emerged as a major player in seafood production and marketing worldwide. During the past...

  11. Probiotic, a tool in livestock and aquaculture production

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Alberto López-Acevedo; Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán; María de la Luz Vázquez-Sauceda

    2013-01-01

    The probiotics are products based on different microorganism strains, those products have evolved from a just simple mixture of active bacteria to products with specific properties of adherence, colonization, synergies, antibacterial activity, etc. Probiotic products for livestock and aquaculture production are designed with strains developed to operate under specific conditions and which need to be understood and taken into account by the producers because different results can be observed d...

  12. Identification of specific demands on Feed in Dutch Organic Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Poelman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of specific demands for organic feed focussed on feed demands for four fish species which can be cultured in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS), tilapia, African Catfish, shrimp and turbot. The evaluation of the various feed formulations indicates that there are several ingredients, which are common for the four species, and will therefore be used for further elaboration on the organic availability. These feed ingredients, are: fishmeal and oil, corn meal, wheat meal, bloo...

  13. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment.

  14. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lem...

  15. Assessing the Competitiveness of EU Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Polymeros, Konstantinos; Tsakiridou, Efthimia; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to evaluate the competitiveness of the fisheries and aquaculture industries of some Mediterranean countries. Revealed Comparative Advantage indices of Italian, French, Greek, Portuguese and Spanish fish products are estimated, in order to gain new insights regarding the position of these products in the market of the European Union, in terms of competitiveness. In addition, this study sheds light on the evolution of competitiveness over the last decade. The estimated Compar...

  16. Application of Constructed Wetlands on Wastewater Treatment for Aquaculture Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gu; WU Zhenbin; CHENG Shuiping; LIANG Wei; HE Feng; FU Guiping; ZHONG Fei

    2007-01-01

    A group of constructed wetlands (CWs) were applied to the recirculating aquaculture system. This study assessed the performance of CWs in treating the aquaculture wastewater, examined the water quality condition of aquaculture ponds and the growth and the survival rate of "target" species(Ictalurus punctatus and Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that CWs were effective on reducing the concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, at 70.5%), total suspended solids (TSS, at 81.9%),chlorophyll a (Chl-a, at 91.9%), ammonium (NH4+, at 61.5%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N, at 68.0%). Effect of CWs on phosphate (PO43- -P) removal was relatively lower (at 20.0%). The concentrations of BOD5, TSS, Chl-a, NH4+ and TN, TP in the recirculating culture pond were significantly lower than that in the control pond( p < 0.05 ). CWs could help to increase total yield, survival rate of the "target" species and significantly decrease feed conversion ratio ( p < 0.05 ).

  17. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production. PMID:23392894

  18. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  19. Research on China's Aquaculture Efficiency Evaluation and Influencing Factors with Undesirable Outputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jianyue; WANG Pingping

    2015-01-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology ex-tension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that tech-nology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  20. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  1. Solid waste reduction of closed recirculated aquaculture systems by secondary culture of detritivorous organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Adrian A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional production systems used in aquaculture such as ponds, raceways, net cages or recirculating systems have in common that they release large amounts of feed nutrients either in dissolved or particulate form. The efficient removal of suspended solids is a key factor for the successful operation of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The here presented thesis utilised the solid wastes from modern aquaculture recirculating system for carnivorous fish for the secondary production o...

  2. Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Li; Shi-yang Zhang; Ling Tao; Xiao-li Li; Jing-hua Song; Chun-xue Zhang; Jian-qiang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture effic...

  3. Performance and Loading of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants Receiving Aquaculture Processing Effluent.

    OpenAIRE

    GOVERE; SIMBARASHE; MAHLATINI PRECIOUS; NDABANINGI ANGELINE

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with the loading and performance of a domestic wastewater treatment plant when receiving combined influent from an aquaculture processing factory and an urban settlement in Kariba town, Zimbabwe. The methodological framework was a case study approach involving a local aquaculture factory and two treatment plants. In the study effluent from Nyamhunga treatment plant, which receives both domestic and aquaculture effluent, acted as the treatment. Effluent from a similarsized pla...

  4. The potential for eEngineering enhanced functional-feed soybeans for sustainable aquaculture feed

    OpenAIRE

    Eliot eHerman; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvestedallocated fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange...

  5. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide.

  6. Aquaponics and its potential aquaculture wastewater treatment and human urine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Henrique Junior Aiveca

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to study the developing fields of aquaponics and its potential for aquaculture wastewater treatment and human urine treatment. Aquaponics is a food production system which combines fish farming (aquaculture) with soilless crop farming (hydroponics). In this thesis the concept of aquaponics and the underlying processes are explained. Research on aquaculture wastewater and human urine wastewater is reviewed and its potential application with aquaponic sys...

  7. Proceedings of the Ninth and Tenth U.S.-Japan Meetings on Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was started by ...

  8. A Comparative Economic Evaluation of Farming of three Important Aquaculture Species in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbugua, Henry Mwangi

    2007-01-01

    Information on the economic viability of aquaculture is crucial for investors when assessing the feasibility of an aquaculture investment. Unfortunately, such information has been scarce in Kenya. This paper evaluates the viability of commercial culture of three aquaculture species in Kenya under four culture practices. These are: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), mainly produced using mono- or polyculture under semi intensive systems; and rainbow ...

  9. Economic valuation of Mangroves for comparison with commercial aquaculture in south Sulawesi, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Fensholt, Rasmus; Mertz, Ole

    2015-01-01

    and decreased mainly due to conversion to aquaculture. Currently, little is known about the economic benefits of commercialization of aquaculture as compared to those derived from mangroves in the form of products and services. Here, we estimate the Total Economic Value (TEV) of mangrove benefits in order...... Present Value (NPV) between the benefit value of mangroves and that of commercial aquaculture revealed that conversion of mangroves into commercial aquaculture was not economically beneficial when the analysis was expanded to cover the costs of environmental and forest rehabilitation....

  10. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  11. Aquaculture Industry Potential and Issues: A Case from Cage Culture System Entrepreneurs: Suggestions for Intensification of Aquaculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N.A. Faiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cage culture has become a popular aquaculture system nowadays. In the recent statistics provided by DOF, the cage culture system has generated almost USD 400 m (RM 1.39 b of income per year. In order to further intensify this economic activity the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA through the DOF has zoned the aquaculture industry via Aquaculture Industry Zone (ZIA Programs throughout Malaysia. Cage culture system seems to have the ability to be a catalyst in enhancing the economy level of local people but it is well known that certain problems must be overcome first before the potential can be clearly seen. Thus the main focus of this study is to clarify all the potentials and problems faced by the cage culture system entrepreneurs in running their aquaculture activity. Approach: The research approach for this study was a qualitative case study that provided an in-depth description of potentials and issues in aquaculture industry in the district of Kuala Pahang, Malaysia. Data was gained using a Focus Group Discussion (FGD among the cage culture system entrepreneurs guided by an interview guide. A total of 10 cage culture entrepreneurs were selected as the FGD members. The questions served as a guide, but allowed respondents freedom and flexibility in their answers. The findings were in descriptive analysis. Results: The cage culture system was found to provide better income that lead to a higher quality of life for the entrepreneurs, positive intangible values existed among the entrepreneurs; experiences have taught them to become self independent. There were problems identified such as no independence in selecting the fingerlings, environmental problems seem to burden them, unstable pellet price, no official agreement between them and the government emphasizing the portion of the river is given to them for running their business and lot of bureaucracies that the entrepreneurs need to face. Conclusion

  12. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  13. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-15

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have not yet been properly evaluated. In this study we performed a probabilistic risk assessment for eight different aquaculture production scenarios in Asia by combining up-to-date information on the use of veterinary medicines and aquaculture production characteristics. The ERA-AQUA model was used to perform mass balances of veterinary medicinal treatments applied to aquaculture ponds and to characterize risks for primary producers, invertebrates, and fish potentially exposed to chemical residues through aquaculture effluents. The mass balance calculations showed that, on average, about 25% of the applied drug mass to aquaculture ponds is released into the environment, although this percentage varies with the chemical's properties, the mode of application, the cultured species density, and the water exchange rates in the aquaculture pond scenario. In general, the highest potential environmental risks were calculated for parasitic treatments, followed by disinfection and antibiotic treatments. Pangasius catfish production in Vietnam, followed by shrimp production in China, constitute possible hot-spots for environmental pollution due to the intensity of the aquaculture production and considerable discharge of toxic chemical residues into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. A risk-based ranking of compounds is provided for each of the evaluated scenarios, which offers crucial information for conducting further chemical and biological field and laboratory monitoring research. In addition, we discuss general knowledge gaps and research priorities for performing refined risk assessments of aquaculture medicines in the near future.

  15. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumoharjo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

  16. Using Metadata Description for Agriculture and Aquaculture Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Šimek, J. Vaněk, V. Očenášek, M. Stočes, T. Vogeltanzova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most used metadata formats and thesauri suitable for describing scientific and research papers in the domains agriculture, food industry, aquaculture, environment and rural areas. These include the Dublin Core (DC, Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS, Virtual Open Access Agriculture and Aquaculture Repository Metadata Application Profile (VOA3R AP and the AGROVOC thesaurus. Having analyzed the metadata formats and research paper lifecycle, the authors would recommend that each paper should entail metadata description as soon as it is published. The metadata are to describe the content and properties of the paper. One of the most suitable metadata formats is the VOA3R AP that is partially patterned on the DC and combined with the AGROVOC thesaurus. As a result, an effective description, availability and automatic data exchange between and among local and central repositories should be attained.The knowledge and data presented in the present paper were obtained as a result of the following research programs and grant schemes: the Grant No. 20121044 of the Internal Grant Agency titled „Using Automatic Metadata Generation for Research Papers“, the Grant agreement No. 250525 funded by the European Commission corresponding to the VOA3R Project (Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository: Sharing Scientific and Scholarly Research related to Agriculture, Food, and Environment, http://voa3r.eu and the Research Program titled „Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agrifood Systems“ of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport number VZ MSM 6046070906.

  17. Nitrite removal from marine aquaculture wastewater using electrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazardous and toxic nature of some of the constituent such as nitrite in the aquaculture wastewater is of major concern. Present study focuses the removal of nitrite from the aquaculture wastewater prior to disposal. Effect of certain operational parameters such as electrode material, current density, initial pH, and electrode spacing on nitrite removal from aquaculture wastewater was elucidated. Better nitrite removal efficiency achieved when nickel used as compared to stainless steel, graphite and aluminum electrodes. Nitrite removal is positively related to the current density however, increase is up to 31.4% when current density increased from 2.5 to 9.3 mA/cm/sup 2/. Further increase in current density does not improve the process efficiency. Removal efficiency of electrochemical process decreased with the increase in initial pH of test solution. However, with the passage of time this difference is diminishing. This may be attributed to the presence of higher amount of hypochloric acid which does not dissociate at lower pH values. Subsequently faster oxidation of nitrite achieved during first few minutes of test runs. Amount of available hypochloric acid reduced at high pH values and oxidation of nitrite reduced subsequently. Rate of nitrite removal found to be increased as the inter-electrode spacing decreased up to an optimal spacing of 3 cm which showed highest nitrite removal. Further reduction in spacing does not augment the removal efficiency probably due to the formation of scale on cathode surface and passivation of electrode which suppressed further oxidation process. (author)

  18. Predicting salt advection in groundwater from saline aquaculture ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.

  19. Aquaculture, husbandry, and shipping at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Z M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) aquaculture systems, husbandry, and live fish shipping methods. The ZIRC has a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration in its main fish facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, feeding and shipping of fish. Whereas the procedures presented here are merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, they offer starting points to set up, develop, refine, or troubleshoot methods in other fish facilities. PMID:27443942

  20. Aquaculture and husbandry at the zebrafish international resource center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zoltán M

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the aquaculture system and the husbandry methods used at the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC). ZIRC employs a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration for its main facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, and feeding and the extensive in-house health surveillance for the biosafety of the fish population. Whereas the description of these procedures is merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, it offers several starting points to set up, refine, or troubleshoot other fish facilities. PMID:21924177

  1. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  2. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Ma, Caihua; Gao, Huiwang; Li, Fengqi; Zhang, Meizhao; Qiu, Yantao; Wang, Bo

    2008-08-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  3. [Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas and their role in aquaculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, E V; Isaeva, N M; Balakhnin, I A

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria of genus Aeromonas are constant components of microbiota of fresh reservoirs where they, together with other microorganisms, play the part of natural biofilter and promote water self-purification. They are necessarily present in normal microflora of hydrobionts inhabiting fresh reservoirs. The greatest attention is paid by the researchers to Aeromonas and biotrophs in connection with epizootics in aquaculture which have become more frequent, in particular, under fish breeding. That is why the review is, to more extent, concerned in the works of this trend made by the foreign and home researchers for the last decade. PMID:1406386

  4. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography

  5. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Joesting; R. Blaylock; P. Biber; A. Ray

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics), but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was t...

  6. ‘Halophyte filters’: the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already overexploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through f

  7. PRO-EEL Brochure: towards reproduction and a self-sustained aquaculture of european eel

    OpenAIRE

    Jonna Tomkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the PRO-EEL project is to breed the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in captivity. Eel reproduction has become a crucial area of research due to a severe decline in the natural stock, resulting in an urgent need to shift from capture-based aquaculture to the breeding of eels for a self-sustainable aquaculture.

  8. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlow, M.; Oel, van P.R.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive a

  9. Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

  10. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  11. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  12. 50 CFR 21.47 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants at aquaculture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shot as listed in 50 CFR 20.21(j). (3) Persons operating under this depredation order may use decoys... cormorants at aquaculture facilities. 21.47 Section 21.47 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... aquaculture facilities. (a) What is the purpose of this depredation order? The purpose of this...

  13. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture.

  14. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The profitabi

  15. Life cycle assessment of food production in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems of the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phong, L.T.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of integrated agriculture–aquaculture (IAA) farming systems in the Mekong Delta that differ in types of aquaculture intensification. Daily inputs and outputs for rice, fruits, vegetables, pigs, poultry, and fish were collected on 11 farms over a period o

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  17. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian;

    2015-01-01

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...

  18. Aquaculture, Fresh Water, DATCP licensed aquaculture producers, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aquaculture, Fresh Water dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  19. Effect of Wind-solar Complementary Increasing Oxygen System in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong You

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore a sustainable aquaculture methodology, water was increased oxygen by a wind-solar power which was tested in a production period of the Penaeus vannamei in paper. The result shows that, compareing with the conventional aerating comparison, the system could improve water environment in ponds and dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH value and the content of nitrite stably and uniformly change; make full use of wind energy and solar energy clean energy, save 100% on power consumption, 15.9% on bait, 46.0% on drug; save aquaculture costs, increase income 282%. Using "Wind-solar" complementary increasing oxygen can improve water environment, save power, reduce aquaculture costs, increase aquaculture production and income, provide a new thought and method for green and ecological aquaculture, so it has high value of practical application.

  20. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products. PMID:26471677

  1. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products.

  2. Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Johann D.; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Gehrke, Peter C.; Griffiths, Shane P.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Johnson, Johanna E.; Le Borgne, Robert; Lehodey, Patrick; Lough, Janice M.; Matear, Richard J.; Pickering, Timothy D.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Gupta, Alex Sen; Senina, Inna; Waycott, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    Pacific Island countries have an extraordinary dependence on fisheries and aquaculture. Maintaining the benefits from the sector is a difficult task, now made more complex by climate change. Here we report how changes to the atmosphere-ocean are likely to affect the food webs, habitats and stocks underpinning fisheries and aquaculture across the region. We found winners and losers--tuna are expected to be more abundant in the east and freshwater aquaculture and fisheries are likely to be more productive. Conversely, coral reef fisheries could decrease by 20% by 2050 and coastal aquaculture may be less efficient. We demonstrate how the economic and social implications can be addressed within the sector--tuna and freshwater aquaculture can help support growing populations as coral reefs, coastal fisheries and mariculture decline.

  3. Solar energy system design for a lobster aquaculture facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    In aquaculture, as in most manufacturing processes, the operating cost is greatly dependent upon the cost of energy. The objectives were to: (a) analyze the power requirements for a lobster aquaculture plant, and (b) to evaluate the use of solar energy as a cost reduction measure in plant operation. A flat plate collector system capable of supplying heat alone was compared with a total energy system in which both electrical power and heat were supplied. The flat plate collector was not cost effective because when heat was needed in December, the least amount of heat was available from solar radiation. Therefore, the collector area and cost were prohibitive. However, the total energy system was cost effective when the capital investment was amortized over ten or more years. The optimum solar power plant was designed to provide 100% of the average yearly power demands, or 60% of the December power requirement. This plant would consist of 60,000 square feet of mirror surface (3.5 acres of land for 40% packing density) which would concentrate 1500 to 2000 suns on a receiver mounted on an 85 foot tower. In the tower would be the three storage stoves which would contain the heat required to operate a 343 KWe Brayton gas turbine engine and alternator for 27 hours. Equipment to generate 3 million kw-hr annually will cost an estimated $1.3 million.

  4. Detecting and monitoring aquacultural patterns through multitemporal SAR imagery analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeti, Giuliana; Travaglia, Carlo; Carla, Roberto

    2003-03-01

    The inventory and monitoring of aquaculture areas are essential tools for decision-making at a governmental level in developing countries. With the use of satellite imagery, these tasks can be performed in an accurate, rapid and objective way. This approach is also economically viable, as the worth of aquaculture far outweighs its cost. This paper describes a methodology for identifying and monitoring shrimp farms by means of multi-temporal satellite SAR data. SAR offer all-weather capabilities, an important characteristic since shrimp farms exist in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Moreover, the backscatter effect created by the dykes surrounding the ponds produces a typical pattern which allows the interpreter to distinguish them from other types of water-covered surfaces. However, the presence of speckle noise limits the interpretability of SAR imagery. To increase it, a multi-temporal set of four scenes covering the study area was processed by using a method that enhances time-invariant spatial features and reduces speckle without compromising the geometrical resolution of the images. The enhanced SAR imagery has proved to be valuable in identifying shrimp farm patterns with a field-tested accuracy of more than 90 percent. The methodology reported in this study has been tested with the ground truth obtained under operative conditions in Sri Lanka, thanks to the support of the FAO TCP/SRL/6712 project.

  5. NALYSIS OF ROMANIAN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE IN REGIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela\tNECULITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration in European Union assumes obtaining certain benefits. Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Employment in the sector has grown faster than the world’s population, providing jobs and supports the livelihoods of hundreds of millions. Fish continues to be one of the most- traded food commodities worldwide being very important for developing countries. However, productivity gains in fisheries do not always imply long-term increases in supply. Developing countries are continuing their efforts to clarify the linkage between development activities and sustainable resource use. Both population and economic growth are putting enormous additional pressures on inland and marine fisheries resources as contributors to food security and providers of a social safety net. At the same time, the use of domestic fisheries to generate foreign exchange is exacerbating allocation issues between artisan and industrial fleets. The actual fisheries legislation was influence by social, economic and environmental considerations. The paper proposes an integrated analysis of Romanian situation by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions. Fisheries in general and aquaculture sector in particular could be regarded as an advantage for Romania in the European competition. The main problem of the Romanian fisheries is its unsatisfactory competitiveness both regarding the domestic and European market.

  6. Genomics in eels--towards aquaculture and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Yuki; Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2012-10-01

    Freshwater eels (genus Anguilla), especially the species inhabiting the temperate areas such as the European, American and Japanese eels, are important aquaculture species. Although artificial reproduction has been attempted since the 1930s and large numbers of studies have been conducted, it has not yet fully succeeded. Problems in eel artificial breeding are highly diverse, for instance, lack of basic information about reproduction in nature, no appropriate food for larvae, high mortality, and high individual variation in adults in response to maturation induction. Over the last decade, genomic data have been obtained for a variety of aquatic organisms. Recent technological advances in sequencing and computation now enable the accumulation of genomic information even for non-model species. The draft genome of the European eel Anguilla anguilla has been recently determined using Illumina technology and transcriptomic data based on next generation sequencing have been emerging. Extensive genomic information will facilitate many aspects of the artificial reproduction of eels. Here, we review the progress in genome-wide studies of eels, including additional analysis of the European eel genome data, and discuss future directions and implications of genomic data for aquaculture. PMID:22527267

  7. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  8. Application of Aquaculture Monitoring System Based on CC2530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Liu, X. Q.

    In order to improve the intelligent level of aquaculture technology, this paper puts forward a remote wireless monitoring system based on ZigBee technology, GPRS technology and Android mobile phone platform. The system is composed of wireless sensor network (WSN), GPRS module, PC server, and Android client. The WSN was set up by CC2530 chips based on ZigBee protocol, to realize the collection of water quality parameters such as the water level, temperature, PH and dissolved oxygen. The GPRS module realizes remote communication between WSN and PC server. Android client communicates with server to monitor the level of water quality. The PID (proportion, integration, differentiation) control is adopted in the control part, the control commands from the android mobile phone is sent to the server, the server again send it to the lower machine to control the water level regulating valve and increasing oxygen pump. After practical testing to the system in Liyang, Jiangsu province, China, temperature measurement accuracy reaches 0.5°C, PH measurement accuracy reaches 0.3, water level control precision can be controlled within ± 3cm, dissolved oxygen control precision can be controlled within ±0.3 mg/L, all the indexes can meet the requirements, this system is very suitable for aquaculture.

  9. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merica Slišković

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

  10. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693

  11. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle F.;

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr......One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades......, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using...... the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971-2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population...

  12. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle Frank;

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr......One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades......, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using...... the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971–2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population...

  13. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-12-21

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  14. Control methodologies based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in RAS (recirculation aquaculture systems) where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and plate type heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. A well at Umm Huweitat on the Red Sea is used as a source of geothermal energy. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchanger is designed using the epsilon–NTU (number of transfer units) analysis method. For optimal growth and abundance of production, a different techniques of control system are applied to control the water temperature. The total system is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to study the overall performance of control unit. Finally, a comparison between PI, Fuzzy-PID, and Fuzzy Logic Control has been done. - Highlights: • Design recirculating aquaculture system using geothermal energy. • Design a PI controller for water temperature control. • Design a Fuzzy logic controller for water temperature control. • Design a Fuzzy-PID controller for water temperature control. • Comparison between different control systems

  15. Epigenetics—Potential for Programming Fish for Aquaculture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Moghadam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks affecting the expression of genes are triggered by environmental stimuli, can persist throughout life or across multiple generations and can affect an individuals phenotype. In recent years there has been a revival of interest about the possible role of epigenetics in affecting complex or quantitative traits. This growing interest is partly driven by the increasing affordability of ultra-high throughput sequencing methods for studying the epigenome. In this review we focus on some of the possible applications of epigenetic knowledge to the improvement of aquaculture. DNA methylation, in which a methyl group is added to the C5 carbon residue of a cytosine by DNA methyltransferase, has been the most widely studied epigenetic mechanism to date, and methods used to obtain and analyse genome-wide DNA methylation data are outlined. The influence of epigenetic processes on the estimation of breeding values and accuracy of genomic selection for genetic improvement of aquatic species is explored. The possibility of tightly controlling nutritional stimuli found to affect epigenetic processes in order to tailor the development of fish for aquaculture is also discussed. Complex experiments will be required in order to gain a better understanding of the role of epigenetics in affecting quantitative traits in fish.

  16. Monitoring bacterial diversity of the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina upon transfer into aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Naglaa M; Rao, Venkateswara; Hamann, Mark T; Kelly, Michelle; Hill, Russell T

    2008-07-01

    Marine sponges in the genus Ircinia are known to be good sources of secondary metabolites with biological activities. A major obstacle in the development of sponge-derived metabolites is the difficulty in ensuring an economic, sustainable supply of the metabolites. A promising strategy is the ex situ culture of sponges in closed or semiclosed aquaculture systems. In this study, the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina (order Dictyoceratida: family Irciniidae) was collected from the wild and maintained for a year in a recirculating aquaculture system. Microbiological and molecular community analyses were performed on freshly collected sponges and sponges maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 9 months. Chemical analyses were performed on wild collected sponges and individuals maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 1 year. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to assess the complexity of and to monitor changes in the microbial communities associated with I. strobilina. Culture-based and molecular techniques showed an increase in the Bacteroidetes and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria components of the bacterial community in aquaculture. Populations affiliated with Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and Planctomycetes emerged in sponges maintained in aquaculture. The diversity of bacterial communities increased upon transfer into aquaculture. PMID:18469126

  17. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  18. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  19. Use of planted biofilters in integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, N.T.D.; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using planted biofilters for purification of recirculated aquaculture water in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam was assessed. The plant trenches were able to clean tilapia aquaculture water and to maintain good water quality in the fish tanks without renewal of the water. NH4-N was ...... rates of 725 kg N and 234 kg P ha-1 year-1. This research demonstrates that integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics (aquaponics) systems provide significant water savings and nutrient recycling as compared with traditional fish ponds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  20. Long term/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Nielsen, Jeppe L.;

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive long term formalin application at low dose was investigated to determine the effect on formaldehyde removal rate, biofilter nitrification and the microbial composition in small-scale recirculation aquaculture biofilters. Six pilot-scale recirculation aquaculture systems holding rainbow...... Nitrobacter sp. was not detected. The relative abundances of AOB and NOB in the untreated system were generally higher compared to the system exposed to formalin. Low dose formalin in recirculated aquaculture systems proved to be a possible treatment strategy, as the effect on nitrification was minimal. Since...

  1. African Aquaculture: A Regional Summary with Emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Moehl, J.; Machena, C.

    2000-01-01

    The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations, most of which are practising some form of aquaculture, often at a very low level. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale, with fish ponds integrated into the m...

  2. Heterotrophic Bacterial Flora in Aquaculture Area around Xuejiadao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zongjun; LI Yun; YU Dehua; WANG Xianghong; CHEN Jixiang; Robertson P.A.W.; Austin B.; XU Huaishu

    2002-01-01

    From Oct., 1999 to Oct., 2000, the heterotrophic bacterial flora in the aquaculture area around Xuejiadao wasinvestigated. The result shows that the populations of the heterotrophic bacteria are heavier in summer and autumn thanthose in winter and spring. The average populations in seawater, sediment, the surface of seaweed and the surface of fish are1.4 × 104cfu mL -1, 5.4 × 106cfu g 1, 1.5 × 106cfu g-1 and 1.8 × 103cfu cm 2, respectively. A total of 30l strains were isolated,among them 259 were Gram-negative. All the Gram-negative bacteria belong to 13 genera and some genera of Enterobacteri-aceae. The communities of bacteria are slightly different among the samples. In the body surface of fish, Genus vibrio isdominant. In the remaining samples, dominant genus is Aeromonas.

  3. Microbial diversity of biological filters in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Harold J; Mirzoyan, Natella; Saito, Keiko

    2010-06-01

    Development of environmentally sustainable farming of marine and freshwater species using recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) requires a complete understanding of the biological component involved in wastewater treatment. This component integrates biofilters composed of microbial communities whose structure, dynamics, and activities are responsible for system success. Engineering highly efficient, environmentally sound, disease-free, and economically viable systems necessitates a thorough knowledge of microbial processes involved in all facets of RAS biofilters and has only recently been the focus of comprehensive studies. These studies have included the application of molecular tools to characterize community diversity and have identified key processes useful for improving system performance. In this paper we summarize the current understanding of the microbial diversity and physiology of RAS biofilters and discuss directions for future studies. PMID:20371171

  4. Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Farghally

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and brazed heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchanger is designed using the epsilon – NTU analysis method. For optimal growth and abundance of production, a Fuzzy Logic control (FLC system is applied to control the water temperature (29 °C. A FLC system has several advantages over conventional techniques; relatively simple, fast, adaptive, and its response is better and faster at all atmospheric conditions. Finally, the total system is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to study the overall performance of control unit.

  5. Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, Haydar [Mechanical Engineering Department, Guemueshane University, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Midilli, Adnan [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department. Nigde University, 51000 Nigde (Turkey); Oezdemir, Atilla; Cakmak, Eyuep [Central Fisheries Research Institute, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period. (author)

  6. The Use of Vision in a Sustainable Aquaculture Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-Vui Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy feeding causes significant water pollution. By controlling the proper amount of feed, reducing the waste to minimum will effectively reduce the problem of water contamination. In this project, a Sustainable Aquaculture Feed System (SAFS has been designed and developed. It can automatically feed the fishes by estimating fishes’ appetite through machine vision. The discussion includes design and optimization of the vision system using Labview as well as the integration of various components in the SAFS. With the developed algorithm, the system is able to detect the presence of fishes and count the number of fishes. The outcome is able to estimate and infer the fish appetite. Therefore, the feeding time can be planned ahead. In addition, the system includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI for monitoring, display the feeding status and sensors reading such as pH, turbidity and temperature.

  7. EST projects in aquaculture: sea bass, red tuna and perch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernardini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern technologies used in aquaculture may improve fish production and quality and, at the same time, reduce environmental impact with benefits on the public perception of the industry. To be economically profitable, these modern technologies request an increase of rearing density that, however, could affect fish welfare (Vazzana et al., 2002. Therefore, beside the traditional markers, it may be important to look for alternative parameters such as molecular biomarkers (Gornati et al., 2004; Ryan and Hightower, 1996. In this view, genomic strategies are revolutionizing scientific research also in the understanding of fish physiology and gene evolution; this is also due to the relatively easiness to isolate novel and homologous genes using public databases (Parrington and Covard, 2002.

  8. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  9. Monitoring Antibiotic Use and Residue in Freshwater Aquaculture for Domestic Use in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dang Kim; Chu, Jacqueline; Do, Nga Thuy; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Delahaut, Philippe; De Pauw, Edwin; Douny, Caroline; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Vu, Ton Dinh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2015-09-01

    Vietnam is an important producer of aquaculture products, and aquatic products are essential to the Vietnamese diet. However, Vietnam also has very little enforced regulation pertaining to antibiotic usage in domestic aquaculture, which raises concerns for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, analysis was conducted on the presence of antibiotic residues in domestically sold fish and shrimp raised in freshwater farms in Vietnam, and an assessment of farmers' knowledge of proper antibiotics usage was performed. The results indicated that a quarter of tested aquaculture products were antibiotic screening test positive, and there is a general lack of knowledge about the purpose and proper usage of antibiotics by aquaculture producers. Farmers' decision-making processes about antimicrobial use are influenced by biased sources of information, such as drug manufacturers and sellers, and by financial incentives. PMID:25561382

  10. Use of ozone for sustainable brackishwater industrial aquaculture and management of environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, S.N.

    The use of ozones for sustainable brakish water industrial aquaculture and the management of the environment is discussed. In sample survey conducted in the farms, it was seen that oxygen level was not adequate for high production. Replacement...

  11. The evaluation of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer associated with airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide aeration, degasification, and water circulation. They allow the simplification of systems, and if designed properly, can reduce the capital costs and minimize operation and maintenance associated with alternative pumping systems. In order t...

  12. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  13. Directly measured denitrification reveals oyster aquaculture and restored oyster reefs remove nitrogen at comparable high rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster restoration and aquaculture are both hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification (DNF). However, this has...

  14. The role of oyster restoration and aquaculture in nutrient cycling within a Rhode Island estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal ecosystems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for other organisms. Oyster aquaculture and restoration are hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification. However, this has not been exam...

  15. The role of oyster restoration and aquaculture in nitrogen removal within a Rhode Island estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster aquaculture and restoration are hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via assimilation, burial, or benthic denitrification. Stu...

  16. Shellfish Culture at the Milford Laboratory: hatchery production, stock enhancement and aquaculture research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide shellfish in support of Milford Lab efforts, external research projects and regional shellfish restoration. Conduct aquaculture experiments aimed at...

  17. Misuse of multiple comparison tests and underuse of contrast procedures in aquaculture publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yossa, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In aquaculture research, independent variables are qualitative (with or without a structure), quantitative, or factorial combinations. A qualitative independent variable is a variable that has unquantifiable, nominal variants (levels), which represent different categories such as the fish gender. Th

  18. Fisheries and wildlife sciences doctoral student wins best poster award at World Aquaculture Society meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Guillame Salze, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences in the College of Natural Resources at Virginia Tech, received the best poster award at the recent World Aquaculture Society meeting in San Antonio, Texas.

  19. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  20. Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    Recent discharge restrictions on antibiotics and chemotherapeutant residuals used in aquaculture have several implications to the aquaculture industry. Better management practices have to be adopted, and documentation and further knowledge of the chemical fate is required for proper administration...... and to support the ongoing development of a sustainable aquaculture industry. A focal point of this thesis concerns formaldehyde (FA), a commonly used chemical additive with versatile aquaculture applications. FA is safe for use with fish and has a high treatment efficiency against fungal and parasite...... ≥2 mg/L. PAA and HP decay patterns were significantly affected by water quality parameters, i.e. at low organic matter content HP degradation was impeded due to microbial inhibition. FISH analysis on biofilm samples from two different types of RAS showed that Nitrosomonas oligotropha was the dominant...

  1. Public attitudes towards marine aquaculture: A comparative analysis of Germany and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution

  2. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Bolman, Bas; Bricker, Suzanne; Burnell, Gavin; Caetano, Miguel; van Duijn, Arie; Fabi, Gianna; Ferreira, João G.; Gault, Jeremy; Grati, Fabio; Grönroos, Juha; Guayder, Olivier; Jak, Robbert

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include activities such as recreation, tourism, facilities for renewable energy production, all of which are expected to increase in importance. There is also increasing focus on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)...

  3. Analysis of sedimentation and resuspension processes of aquaculture biosolids using an oscillating grid

    OpenAIRE

    Masaló Llorà, Ingrid; Guadayol, Oscar; Peters, Francesc; Oca Baradad, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Menció d'Honor 2010 que atorga l'Aquacultural Engineering Society Sedimentation and resuspension processes of aquaculture biosolids (non-ingested feed and faeces) are analysed using vertically oscillating grids as a source of turbulence in fluid tanks. An oscillating grid system consists of a container in which a grid is stirred vertically generating a well-known turbulent field that is function of amplitude and frequency of oscillation, distance between grid and measurement point, and mes...

  4. Markets, marketing and production issues for aquaculture in East Africa: the case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jagger, P.; Pender, J

    2001-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently responsible for an insignificant proportion of total fish production in Uganda. However, given the increasing demand for fresh fish in urban and peri-urban araes, and threats to the supply of fish from natural catch fisheries, the potential exists for a strong market in aquaculture. Small-scale fish farmers located relatively close to markets or all-season roads, and who can supply consistent and high quality produce, will have the widest range of marketing opportunit...

  5. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    OpenAIRE

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified an...

  6. In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera) in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia De Caralt; Javier Sánchez-Fontenla; María J. Uriz; Wijffels, Rene H.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of the most reliable methods to supply pharmaceutical companies with sufficient quantities of the target compound. In this study, we focus on the aquaculture of the sponge Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862),...

  7. Integrated aquaculture-agriculture in Egypt : towards more efficient use of water resources : workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent studies, research and practical experiences from Egypt and abroad with forms of aquaculture that use water en nutrients more efficiently than common pond culture were discussed at a workshop held in Cairo (April 21, 2011). The presentations include the results of a study undertaken on four Egyptian integrated aquaculture – agriculture farms where water use, effluent water quality, fish harvest and revenue from crop and fish sales in 2010 were monitored.

  8. Recycling Aquacultural Waste through Horticultural Greenhouse Production as a Resource Recovery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Divya Sreelatha

    2006-01-01

    For intensive production systems like the Blue Ridge Aquaculture (BRA), based in Martinsville, VA, there are significant economic incentives to reuse the waste by diverting it into a cropping system that would increase the total productivity and total resource-reuse efficiency, and decrease the environmental, ecological, and financial costs of aquacultural waste disposal. In order to facilitate the reuse of effluent from the tilapia production at the BRA, a green house was developed. On this ...

  9. The economic sustainability of land-based aquaculture systems: An integrated analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennich, Therese

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fish is rising, caused by population growth and an increasing per capita consumption of fish. At the same time, production from capture fisheries has stagnated and there are growing concerns about the environmental impact of sea-based aquaculture. Future developments in the fishing industry must meet demand, without compromising the environment. Technological advancements have introduced land-based fish farming and Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) technology as a ...

  10. Risk Analysis of Tilapia Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: A Monte Carlo Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kodra, Bledar

    2007-01-01

    Risk Analysis of Tilapia Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: A Monte Carlo Simulation Approach Bledar Kodra (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this study is to modify an existing static analytical model developed for a Re-circulating Aquaculture Systems through incorporation of risk considerations to evaluate the economic viability of the system. In addition the objective of this analysis is to provide a well documented risk based analytical system so that individuals (investors/lenders) c...

  11. Management of environmental issues for sustainable fisheries production from aquaculture in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayao, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaculture depends largely upon a good aquatic environment. The quality of the aquatic medium determines success to a large extent in aquaculture. The medium is particularly vulnerable to excessive abstraction (i.e surface or groundwater) and contamination from a range of sources (industrial, agricultural or domestic) as well as risks of self-pollution. Environmental management options proffered so far include: improvements in farming performance (especially related to feed and feeding strat...

  12. THE EFFECT OF LITOPENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS AQUACULTURE ON MACROALGAE GROWTH IN OPUNOHU BAY, MOOREA, FRENCH POLYNESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has many effects on the surrounding landscape. In Mo’orea, the only aquaculture operation is a shrimp farm in Opunohu Bay. To test the effect of shrimp farm runoff into the bay, a macroalgae field survey was conducted at different distances from the Opunohu River, where the effluent outlets. Algae cover was used to indicate nutrient concentration. I found that there is no significant relationship between distance from the shrimp farm outlet and algae cover. The red algae Acanthoph...

  13. Feasibility of adopting aquaculture without detriment to existing farming practices: a case of Bangladesh farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.; Rab, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Integrating agriculture aquaculture that would draw inputs from on farm sources is viewed as a viable option to improve the productivity, income and resource use efficiency of existing farms in Bangladesh. To assess the existing resource availability, use pattern and efficiency before introducing new aquaculture technology within the existing farm systems, a survey of 330 pond operating farm households was conducted in six selected unions from two thanas (subdistricts) of Bangladesh.

  14. Aquaculture Asia, Vol 9, No. 3, pp.1-52, July-September 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    CONTENTS: Genetic considerations in fisheries & aquaculture with regard to impacts upon biodiversity, by Thuy T. T. Nguyen. Rice-fish culture for food and environmental security, by by M.C. Nandeesha. [Farmers as Scientists series] Research and development on land-based aquaculture of spotted Babylon, Babylonia areolata in Thailand: Pilot hatcher-based seedling operation, by Nilnaj Chaitanawisuti Sirusa Kritsanapuntu, and Yutaka Natsukari. Native catfish culture - a boon to In...

  15. Enhancing Profitability of Pond Aquaculture in Ghana through Resource Management and Environmental Best Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah

    2014-01-01

    The accelerating pace of growth of aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa has received much positive appraisal because of the potential of the industry to contribute to economic development and food security by providing jobs and animal protein. Adoption of best management practices (BMPs) holds the potential to ameliorate the related environmental impacts of aquaculture, such as in the amounts of nutrients and sediment that will enter natural water bodies from earthen pond effluents. The goals of...

  16. Aquaculture Asia, Vol.14, No.4, pp.1-52, October - December 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture Edwards, P. Mussel farming initiatives in North Kerala, India: A case of successful adoption of technology leading to rural livelihood transformation Laxmilatha, P., Thomas, S., Asokan, P.K., Surendranathan, V.G., Sivadasan, M.P., and Ramachandran, N.P. Selective study on the availability in indigenous fish species having ornamental value in some districts of West Bengal Panigrahi, A.K., Dutta, S. and Ghosh...

  17. DIFFERENT PLANT DERIVED BY-PRODUCTS USE IN FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    KAUSIK MONDAL

    2013-01-01

    As aquacultural practices increase in magnitude and hasten the flow ofmaterials and energy through the systems, compared to natural conditions, it stands toreason that many organic wastes can, save both monetary and caloric inputs into themodern aquaculture if these wastes are processed suitably and used as manure inincreasing productivity of the pond or as feed stuff to replace high cost ingredients in theformulation of diet for fish.

  18. A Comparison between America and Other Countries in Offshore Aquaculture Management:a Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>In America offshore aquaculture is gaining momentum in recent years,and expects to grow faster in the near future.The White House has clearly expressed its support;statistics show that the aquaculture has huge potential and can contribute a lot to employment and help reducing the trade deficit;the offshore aquaculture act which is designed to promote American offshore aquaculture industry has been proposed to the Congress for action.However,there are still some long standing obstacles hindering its development such as competing uses, wasted pollutants,lacking of fishing food,escapees,GMOs,lengthy permission procedures etc.Ironically,to some of these issues,debates have been there for decades without consensus.While the proposed National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005 may provide major principles for the solution to these problems,it is also useful to draw experiences from some other countries that have longer history and more advanced skills in the industry.Their technology and institutional design are prone to the development of their aquaculture industries.Mainly this paper,as a literature review,examines the practices of Norway,Canada and Australia, and compares their actions with the real problems in U.S.,and what has been proposed by National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005.This paper aims to check what other nations have done with these problems,draw useful experiences from them,analyze what the Offshore Aquaculture Act has achieved,and recommend what the related federal agencies should do in the next step.

  19. Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Turcios

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future.

  20. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system.

  1. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system. PMID:24140689

  2. Benefits, environmental risks, social concerns, and policy implications of biotechnology in aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.

  3. Implications of Extracellular Polymeric Substance Matrices of Microbial Habitats Associated with Coastal Aquaculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Camacho-Chab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones support fisheries that provide food for humans and feed for animals. The decline of fisheries worldwide has fostered the development of aquaculture. Recent research has shown that extracellular polymeric substances (EPS synthesized by microorganisms contribute to sustainable aquaculture production, providing feed to the cultured species, removing waste and contributing to the hygiene of closed systems. As ubiquitous components of coastal microbial habitats at the air–seawater and seawater–sediment interfaces as well as of biofilms and microbial aggregates, EPS mediate deleterious processes that affect the performance and productivity of aquaculture facilities, including biofouling of marine cages, bioaccumulation and transport of pollutants. These biomolecules may also contribute to the persistence of harmful algal blooms (HABs and their impact on cultured species. EPS may also exert a positive influence on aquaculture activity by enhancing the settling of aquaculturally valuable larvae and treating wastes in bioflocculation processes. EPS display properties that may have biotechnological applications in the aquaculture industry as antiviral agents and immunostimulants and as a novel source of antifouling bioproducts.

  4. New and innovative advances in biology/engineering with potential for use in aquaculture: Proceedings of the Fourteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, October 16-17, 1985

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun during t...

  5. Control of Disease in Aquaculture: Proceedings of the Nineteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Ise, Mie Prefecture, Japan, 29-30 October 1990, Satellite Symposium: 2 November

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun du...

  6. Genomic characterization of the aquaculture resource Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Murgarella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autonomous community of Galicia (NW Spain, M. galloprovincialis is a natural resource of high economic importance to the economy of this region. More than 250,000 MTs of mussels are produced per year, representing 40% of the European production of this bivalve and 80% of the marine aquacultural production of the country. Besides its aquaculture interest, study of the biology M. galloprovincialis may also help to understand better fundamental aspects of molluscan biology. On the other hand, some fascinating features of mediterranean mussels are unique to this species such as its extraordinary resistance to diseases. In fact, in comparison with other bivalves, no records of massive mortality of this organism caused by pathogens has been reported so far. Although some of the molecular components of the innate immune system, responsible of this resistance, have been previously identified and characterized, the genetic mechanisms underlying their diversity are poorly understood. In order to understand better this organism at genome level and search for the genetic basis of its disease resistance, we sequenced its genome at high depth using Illumina technology. After assembling the resulting reads and assisted with transcriptomic data, we annotated its genome sequence. First, we analysed the content of repetitive elements, finding those that are common among molluscs as well as identifying new repeat families unique to M. galloprovincialis. Second, we predicted and annotated its gene repertoire, defining the total number of genes and their density in its genome. Finally, the resulting in silico predicted genes were functionally annotated. Altogether, this information will allow the identification of genes of interest, such as those participating in the innate immunity and will allow us to delve into the possibility of whether their variability has a genetic basis or relies on post-transcriptional events. In addition to this annotation, some

  7. Use of Aquaculture Ponds and Other Habitats by Autumn Migrating Shorebirds Along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E.; Krementz, David G.

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper ( Calidris minutilla), Killdeer ( Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper ( Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper ( C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt ( Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs ( Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  8. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  9. Capture-based mud crab (Scylla serrata) aquaculture and artisanal fishery in East Africa: practical and ecological perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirera, David Oersted

    2013-01-01

    Mud crab Scylla serrata is a crustacean that spends most of its life cycle in the mangrove environment throughout its range. Fishery and aquaculture of this crab are significant economic activities in coastal areas in the tropics and sub-tropics because of the meat quality and nutritional value. However there is a significant shortage of information on the ecology, fishery and aquaculture of these crabs in sub-Saharan Africa. This impacts the development of a sustainable aquaculture and fishe...

  10. Proceedings of the Eleventh U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Salmon Enhancement, Tokyo, Japan, October 19-20, 1982

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was started by ...

  11. A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenan C.

    1981-01-01

    The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

  12. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  13. Geothermal aquaculture project: Real Property Systems Inc. , Harney Basin, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-14

    Real Property Systems Inc., (RPS) owns two parcels in the vicinity of Harney Lake, Oregon. One parcel is 120 acres in size, the other is 200 acres. A study concludes that the 200 acre parcel has the greater potential for geothermal development. RPS is interested in an aquaculture operation that produces fresh water prawns, (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) for the market. To supply the heat necessary to maintain the ideal temperature of 82/sup 0/F desired for these prawns, a geothermal resource having a 150/sup 0/F temperature or higher, is needed. The best estimate is that 150/sup 0/F water can be found from a minimum 1090 feet depth to 2625 feet, with no absolute assurances that sufficient quantities of geothermal waters exist without drilling for the same. This study undertakes the preliminary determination of project economics so that a decision can be made whether or not to proceed with exploratory drilling. The study is based on 10 acres of ponds, with a peak requirement of 2500 gpm of 150/sup 0/F geothermal water.

  14. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  15. Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, James

    2005-01-29

    Aquaculture has been one of the most rapid and technically innovative of food production sectors globally, with significant investment, scientific and technical development and production growth in many parts of the world over the past two decades. While this has had a significant effect on the global supply of aquatic food products and had an important impact in rural and urban food supply and employment in many developing economies, growth and increasing internationalization has not been without concern for natural resource use, environmental impact and social disruption. The expectations for production and diversification are now significant and while the scientific and technical means are already available to meet much of the intended targets, practical constraints of investment, profitability, resource access and system efficiency are likely to become far more important constraints for the future. This review offers a contemporary perspective on the ways in which the sector might develop, its interactions with constraints and the strategies that may be required to ensure that future development is both positive and sustainable.

  16. Ecotoxicological sediment evaluations in marine aquaculture areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anny; Medina, Paulina; Urrutia, Carolina; Ahumada, Ramón

    2009-08-01

    Given its geographic characteristics, the southern Chilean fjord area is subjected to growing environmental pressure from the development of diverse forms of aquaculture (i.e., fish, algae, shellfish). The sediments accumulate substances as a natural sink, and ecotoxicology assays offer a reliable and robust proxy for sediment quality analyses. This study's objective was to establish a mid-range toxicity base line for the sediments in the region by applying a battery of non-specific ecotoxicological assays. Sediment samples (28) were collected in the channels and fjords studied during the CIMAR-Fiordos 11 cruise (July 2005). The sediments were evaluated using different species endemic to the eastern Pacific as targets: Ampelisca araucana, Tisbe longicornis, Arbacia spatuligera, and Dunaliella tertiolecta. The conditions for each assay were reported previously. Of the four species used as ecotoxicological tools, only D. tertiolecta differed significantly from the control group (negative) in terms of its growth. This difference could be attributed to nutrient enrichment. In general, we concluded that, although local changes occurred in the sediments, the mesoscale magnitude of the ecotoxicological alterations was small. Nonetheless, a surveillance program should be implemented that would allow us to follow-up and analyze the changes that are taking place in the systems on broader scales of time and space. PMID:18633720

  17. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  18. Peracetic acid is a suitable disinfectant for recirculating fish-microalgae integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Behrens, Sascha; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    tIntegrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is a promising direction for the sustainable developmentof aquaculture. Microalgae have good potential to be integrated with recirculating aquaculture sys-tems because they can use the nitrogen excreted from fish and share the same optimal pH value asin...... aquaculture. As a byproduct, the microalgae biomass can be used for fish feed or biofuel. How-ever, the recirculating fish-microalgae IMTA system is under constant threat from fish pathogens andphytoplankton-lytic bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to apply proper disinfectants as prophylaxis ortreatment...

  19. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  20. Applicability of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as an alternative to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojado, Cátia; Pereira, Carla; Tomé, João P C; Faustino, Maria A F; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-10-01

    Aquaculture activities are increasing worldwide, stimulated by the progressive reduction of natural fish stocks in the oceans. However, these activities also suffer heavy production and financial losses resulting from fish infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed, in order to make aquaculture industry more sustainable. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged as an alternative to treat diseases and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of aPDT to inactivate pathogenic fish bacteria. To reach this objective a cationic porphyrin Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF was tested against nine pathogenic bacteria isolated from a semi-intensive aquaculture system and against the cultivable bacteria of the aquaculture system. The ecological impact of aPDT in the aquatic environment was also tested on the natural bacterial community, using the overall bacterial community structure and the cultivable bacteria as indicators. Photodynamic inactivation of bacterial isolates and of cultivable bacteria was assessed counting the number of colonies. The impact of aPDT in the overall bacterial community structure of the aquaculture water was evaluated by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that, in the presence of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF, the growth of bacterial isolates was inhibited, resulting in a decrease of ≈7-8 log after 60-270 min of irradiation. Cultivable bacteria were also considerably affected, showing decreases up to the detection limit (≈2 log decrease on cell survival), but the inactivation rate varied significantly with the sampling period. The DGGE fingerprint analyses revealed changes in the bacterial community structure caused by the combination of aPDT and light. The results indicate that aPDT can be regarded as a new approach to control fish

  1. A Study on Community Based Aquaculture Promoted by KVK-Khordha, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ananth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960s Community aquaculture gained its importance in India through the attempts of Research and Development agencies. Demonstration of fish culture practices in community ponds are challenged by its nature as water bodies are common property resources which requires substantial support from communities, local bodies and other agencies. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK - Khordha, the Farm Science Centre under Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR works on Front Line Demonstration of community aquaculture in Khordha district. Promotion of community aquaculture by KVK is through the identified ponds and also requests from interested communities. Technical inputs and one time provision of fingerlings of Indian Major Carps viz., Catla, Rohu and Mrigal are supplied for the farmers to adopt the practice. A participatory approach is envisaged for mobilizing communities, stocking ponds and adopting all Scientific Management Practices. During 2011-13, KVK demonstrated fish culture in five community ponds covering an area of 6 ha. An average production was 22.41 q /ha realized against the farmers practice of 15.46 q/ha. High production costs, risks of poaching and other constraints were also elicited by members who adopted the practice. This paper presents the works done by KVK in promoting community aquaculture and its impact in fish production.

  2. The impact and control of biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Guenther, Jana; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling in marine aquaculture is a specific problem where both the target culture species and/or infrastructure are exposed to a diverse array of fouling organisms, with significant production impacts. In shellfish aquaculture the key impact is the direct fouling of stock causing physical damage, mechanical interference, biological competition and environmental modification, while infrastructure is also impacted. In contrast, the key impact in finfish aquaculture is the fouling of infrastructure which restricts water exchange, increases disease risk and causes deformation of cages and structures. Consequently, the economic costs associated with biofouling control are substantial. Conservative estimates are consistently between 5-10% of production costs (equivalent to US$ 1.5 to 3 billion yr(-1)), illustrating the need for effective mitigation methods and technologies. The control of biofouling in aquaculture is achieved through the avoidance of natural recruitment, physical removal and the use of antifoulants. However, the continued rise and expansion of the aquaculture industry and the increasingly stringent legislation for biocides in food production necessitates the development of innovative antifouling strategies. These must meet environmental, societal, and economic benchmarks while effectively preventing the settlement and growth of resilient multi-species consortia of biofouling organisms.

  3. Nitrogen transformations in intensive aquaculture system and its implication to climate change through nitrous oxide emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Brotto, Ariane Coelho; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The rapid development of aquaculture could result in significant environmental concerns such as eutrophication and climate change. However, to date, very few studies have been conducted to investigate nitrogen transformations in aquaculture systems; and specifically the emission of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), which is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance. In this study, nitrogen transformations in intensive laboratory-scale Chinese catfish (Clarias fuscus) aquaculture systems were investigated by identifying and quantifying N(2)O emissions. Results indicated that about 1.3% of the nitrogen input was emitted as N(2)O gas. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and feeding rates had significant effects on N(2)O emissions. Higher N(2)O emissions were obtained in aquaculture systems with lower DO concentrations and higher feeding rates. Both nitrification and denitrification appeared to be responsible for the emissions of N(2)O. Key factors which correlated with the N(2)O emission rate in aquaculture systems were NO(2)(-), DO and total ammonia nitrogen concentrations.

  4. 'Halophyte filters': the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Paulissen, M P C P; Slim, P A

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already over-exploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands.

  5. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  6. Development of Antimicrobial Peptide Prediction Tool for Aquaculture Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Aditi; Sharma, Asuda; Jaiswal, Sarika; Fatma, Samar; Arora, Vasu; Iquebal, M A; Nandi, S; Sundaray, J K; Jayasankar, P; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diseases in fish, plant, animal and human are rising constantly; thus, discovery of their antidote is imperative. The use of antibiotic in aquaculture further compounds the problem by development of resistance and consequent consumer health risk by bio-magnification. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been highly promising as natural alternative to chemical antibiotics. Though AMPs are molecules of innate immune defense of all advance eukaryotic organisms, fish being heavily dependent on their innate immune defense has been a good source of AMPs with much wider applicability. Machine learning-based prediction method using wet laboratory-validated fish AMP can accelerate the AMP discovery using available fish genomic and proteomic data. Earlier AMP prediction servers are based on multi-phyla/species data, and we report here the world's first AMP prediction server in fishes. It is freely accessible at http://webapp.cabgrid.res.in/fishamp/ . A total of 151 AMPs related to fish collected from various databases and published literature were taken for this study. For model development and prediction, N-terminus residues, C-terminus residues and full sequences were considered. Best models were with kernels polynomial-2, linear and radial basis function with accuracy of 97, 99 and 97 %, respectively. We found that performance of support vector machine-based models is superior to artificial neural network. This in silico approach can drastically reduce the time and cost of AMP discovery. This accelerated discovery of lead AMP molecules having potential wider applications in diverse area like fish and human health as substitute of antibiotics, immunomodulator, antitumor, vaccine adjuvant and inactivator, and also for packaged food can be of much importance for industries. PMID:27141850

  7. LCA and emergy accounting of aquaculture systems: towards ecological intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfart, Aurélie; Prudhomme, Jehane; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Aubin, Joël

    2013-05-30

    An integrated approach is required to optimise fish farming systems by maximising output while minimising their negative environmental impacts. We developed a holistic approach to assess the environmental performances by combining two methods based on energetic and physical flow analysis. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a normalised method that estimates resource use and potential impacts throughout a product's life cycle. Emergy Accounting (EA) refers the amount of energy directly or indirectly required by a product or a service. The combination of these two methods was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting fish-farming systems: a farm producing salmon in a recirculating system (RSF), a semi-extensive polyculture pond (PF1) and an extensive polyculture pond (PF2). The RSF system, with a low feed-conversion ratio (FCR = 0.95), had lower environmental impacts per tonne of live fish produced than did the two pond farms, when the effects on climate change, acidification, total cumulative energy demand, land competition and water dependence were considered. However, RSF was clearly disconnected from the surrounding environment and depended highly on external resources (e.g. nutrients, energy). Ponds adequately incorporated renewable natural resources but had higher environmental impacts due to incomplete use of external inputs. This study highlighted key factors necessary for the successful ecological intensification of fish farming, i.e., minimise external inputs, lower the FCR, and increase the use of renewable resources from the surrounding environment. The combination of LCA and EA seems to be a practical approach to address the complexity of optimising biophysical efficiency in aquaculture systems.

  8. The use of immunostimulants in fish larval aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Ian; Dalmo, Roy A

    2005-11-01

    The production of fish larvae is often hampered by high mortality rates, and it is believed that most of this economic loss due to infectious diseases is ca. 10% in Western European aquaculture sector. The development of strategies to control the pathogen load and immuno-prophylactic measures must be addressed further to realise the economic "potential" production of marine fish larvae and thus improve the overall production of adult fish. The innate defence includes both humoral and cellular defence mechanisms such as the complement system and the processes played by granulocytes and macrophages. A set of different substances such as beta-glucans, bacterial products, and plant constituents may directly initiate activation of the innate defence mechanisms acting on receptors and triggering intracellular gene activation that may result in production of anti-microbial molecules. These immunostimulants are often obtained from bacterial sources, brown or red algae and terrestrial fungi are also exploited as source of novel potentiating substances. The use of immunostimulants, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defence of animals providing resistance to pathogens during periods of high stress, such as grading, reproduction, sea transfer and vaccination. The immunomodulation of larval fish has been proposed as a potential method for improving larval survival by increasing the innate responses of the developing animals until its adaptive immune response is sufficiently developed to mount an effective response to the pathogen. To this end it has been proposed that the delivery of immunostimulants as a dietary supplement to larval fish could be of considerable benefit in boosting the animals innate defences with little detriment to the developing animal. Conversely, there is a school of thought that raises the concern of immunomodulating a neotanous animal before its immune system is fully formed as this may adversely affect the development of a normal immune

  9. Impact of aquaculture on eutrophication in Changshou Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As a result of intensifying human activities around the Changshou Reservoir, water environ mental quality has declined over the years. Water quality had been monitored from 1999 to 2002. The re sult indicated that the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) are high. The con centrations of phosphorus range from 0.037 mg/L to 0. 444 mg/L, exceeding the critical value (0.02 mg/ L) for eutrophication. The concentrations of total nitrogen and chlorophyll a range from 0.70 mg/L to 4.18 mg/L and from 1.10 mg/m3 to 61.2 mg/m3 , respectively. The eutrophication status of the water body was assessed using the method of integrated nutrition state index, which revealed that all sampling sites were eutrophicated from the year of 2001. About 69.6% of the annual total nitrogen input and 26% of the annual total phosphorus input originated from the upstreams. The contributions of nitrogen and phos phorus from precipitation to the water body are very small (0.9% and 0.3%, respectively) owing to their low contents (1.21 mg/L and 0.029 mg/L, respectively). Runoff is the secondarily important input source, which accounts for 19.0% of the total N input and 47.0% of the total P input, respectively. At tention should be paid to the aquaculture inputs, whose contributions account for 10.5% of the total N and 26.6% of the total phosphorus to the water body, respectively. Nutrient loads are estimated to be 118 gNm-2 · a-1 and 8 gPm -2 · a-1 About 69.4% of nitrogen and 79.7% of phosphorus input into the res ervoir were retained in 2002.

  10. LCA and emergy accounting of aquaculture systems: towards ecological intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfart, Aurélie; Prudhomme, Jehane; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Aubin, Joël

    2013-05-30

    An integrated approach is required to optimise fish farming systems by maximising output while minimising their negative environmental impacts. We developed a holistic approach to assess the environmental performances by combining two methods based on energetic and physical flow analysis. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a normalised method that estimates resource use and potential impacts throughout a product's life cycle. Emergy Accounting (EA) refers the amount of energy directly or indirectly required by a product or a service. The combination of these two methods was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting fish-farming systems: a farm producing salmon in a recirculating system (RSF), a semi-extensive polyculture pond (PF1) and an extensive polyculture pond (PF2). The RSF system, with a low feed-conversion ratio (FCR = 0.95), had lower environmental impacts per tonne of live fish produced than did the two pond farms, when the effects on climate change, acidification, total cumulative energy demand, land competition and water dependence were considered. However, RSF was clearly disconnected from the surrounding environment and depended highly on external resources (e.g. nutrients, energy). Ponds adequately incorporated renewable natural resources but had higher environmental impacts due to incomplete use of external inputs. This study highlighted key factors necessary for the successful ecological intensification of fish farming, i.e., minimise external inputs, lower the FCR, and increase the use of renewable resources from the surrounding environment. The combination of LCA and EA seems to be a practical approach to address the complexity of optimising biophysical efficiency in aquaculture systems. PMID:23531606

  11. Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dontje, J.H.; Clanton, C.J.

    1999-08-01

    Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste was added to the fish tanks every other day at average rates of 50, 72, 95, and 118 kg-COD/ha/day of fish tank surface (three replications of each loading rate). Water from the fish tanks was filtered through the sand beds three times per day with 20% of the tank volume passing through the sand each day. The systems were operated in a greenhouse for eight months (21 July to 8 March). Aboveground plant matter was harvested at eight-week intervals. The fish were removed after four months and the tanks were restocked with fingerlings. Initial and final nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the system components, as well as that of the harvested plants and fish, were determined. Nutrient balance calculations revealed that 30 to 68% of added N was lost from the systems, probably via denitrification. Nutrient removal by plants was 6 to 18% for N, 8 to 21% for P, and 25 to 71% for K, with tomatoes (foliage and fruit) accounting for the majority of the removal. Plant growth was limited by growing conditions (particularly day length), not be nutrient availability. Fish growth was limited by temperature; thus nutrient extraction by the fish was minimal. Under the conditions of this experiment, the system required supplemental aeration.

  12. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie S.; Skall, Helle F.; Baud, Marine; Diserens, Nicolas; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Haenen, Olga L. M.; Mousakhani, Shirin; Panzarin, Valentina; Wahli, Thomas; Olesen, Niels J.; Schütze, Heike

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971–2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population and the strong mixing of Ia isolates, assumed to be the result of the Europe-wide trout trade. For example, the Ia lineage underwent a radiation into nine Ia clades, most of which are difficult to allocate to a specific geographic distribution. Furthermore, we found indications for two rapid, large-scale population growth events, and identified three polytomies among the Ia clades, both of which possibly indicate a rapid radiation. However, only about 4% of Ia haplotypes (out of 398) occur in more than one European country. This apparently conflicting finding regarding the Europe-wide spread and mixing of Ia isolates can be explained by the high mutation rate of VHSV. Accordingly, the mean period of occurrence of a single Ia haplotype was less than a full year, and we found a substitution rate of up to 7.813 × 10−4 nucleotides per site per year. Finally, we documented significant differences between Germany and Denmark regarding their VHS epidemiology, apparently due to those countries’ individual handling of VHS. PMID:27760205

  13. Nanotechnology: A Novel Tool for Aquaculture and Fisheries Development. A Prospective Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Rather

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential to revolutionize agriculture and allied fields including aquaculture and fisheries. It can provide new tools for aquaculture, fish biotechnology, fish genetics, fish reproduction and aquatic health etc. Nanotechnology tools like nanomaterials, nanosensors, DNA nanovaccines, Gene delivery and smart drug delivery etc. have the potential to solve many puzzles related to animal health, production, reproduction, prevention and treatment of diseases. It is sensible to presume that in the upcoming years, nanotechnology research will reform the science and technology and will help boost livestock production. Nanotechnology applications in the fish processingindustry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, produce stronger flavors, colour quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. This paper presents the review of nanotechnology and its applications in aquaculture and fisheries.

  14. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve;

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include...... activities such as recreation, tourism, facilities for renewable energy production, all of which are expected to increase in importance. There is also increasing focus on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Thus, competition for available sites will probably increase, emphasizing the need for Marine Spatial...... ecosystem‐based management as demanded by the Marine Strategy Directive. The biological interconnectedness of fisheries and aquaculture is strong, with factors such as competition for space, disease transmission, genetic impact from escapees, availability of food for cultured finfish, and organic...

  15. Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    experience is limited. The two main objectives of this Ph.D. project were to 1) investigate the fate of FA in nitrifying aquaculture biofilters, focusing on factors influencing degradation rates, and 2) investigate the fate of HP and PAA in nitrifying aquaculture biofilters and evaluate the effects...... of these agents on biofilter nitrification performance. All experiments were conducted through addition of chemical additives to closed pilot scale recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with fixed media submerged biofilters under controlled operating conditions with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss......) in a factorial design with true replicates. Biofilter nitrification performances were evaluated by changes in chemical processes, and nitrifying populations were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis. FA was degraded at a constant rate immediately after addition, and found...

  16. Microbial communities of recirculating aquaculture facilities: interaction between heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria and the system itself

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Les systèmes d'aquaculture en circuit recirculé (Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, RAS) peuvent être considérés comme une alternative à la technologie de l'aquaculture en milieu ouvert et en bassins (en consommant moins d'eau pour un même rendement de production) ou peuvent être intégrés dans une chaîne de production avec des systèmes d'enclos en filet. L'intérêt des RAS est dû à leurs avantages intrinsèques comme la réduction des besoins en surface et en eau, le haut niveau de contrôle e...

  17. Impact of pond aquaculture effluents on seagrass performance in NE Hainan, tropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S; Sollich, Miriam; Unger, Daniela; Holmer, Marianne; Jennerjahn, Tim C

    2014-08-15

    The impact of pond aquaculture effluents on the distribution and performance of seagrasses was examined in NE Hainan, tropical China. Samples were taken along transects in three back-reef areas with different extent of aquaculture production in their hinterland. High δ(15)N in seagrass leaves and epiphytes (6-9‰) similar to values in pond effluents documented aquaculture as dominant nitrogen source in the back-reefs with decreasing impact with distance from shore. Seagrass species abundance, shoot density and biomass were lower and concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll and suspended matter were higher at nearshore sites with high and moderate pond abundance than at the control site. High epiphyte loads and low δ(34)S in seagrass leaves suggest temporal shading and sulphide poisoning of the nearshore seagrasses. Observed gradients in environmental parameters and seagrass performance indicate that the distance from the pond outlets and size of the adjacent pond agglomeration are major determinants of seagrass degradation.

  18. AQUA-USERS: AQUAculture USEr Driven Operational Remote Sensing Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, Marnix; Poser, Kathrin; Peters, Steef; de Reus, Nils; Ghebrehiwot, Semhar; Eleveld, Marieke; Miller, Peter; Groom, Steve; Clements, Oliver; Kurekin, Andrey; Martinez Vicente, Victor; Brotas, Vanda; Sa, Carolina; Couto, Andre; Brito, Ana; Amorim, Ana; Dale, Trine; Sorensen, Kai; Boye Hansen, Lars; Huber, Silvia; Kaas, Hanne; Andersson, Henrik; Icely, John; Fragoso, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The FP7 project AQUA-USERS provides the aquaculture industry with user-relevant and timely information based on the most up-to-date satellite data and innovative optical in-situ measurements. Its key purpose is to develop an application that brings together satellite information on water quality and temperature with in-situ observations as well as relevant weather prediction and met-ocean data. The application and its underlying database are linked to a decision support system that includes a set of (user-determined) management options. Specific focus is on the development of indicators for aquaculture management including indicators for harmful algae bloom (HAB) events. The methods and services developed within AQUA-USERS are tested by the members of the user board, who represent different geographic areas and aquaculture production systems.

  19. An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranford, Peter J.; Kamermans, Pauline; Krause, Gesche;

    2012-01-01

    to assess DPSIR framework components, are reviewed with a focus on the key environmental issues associated with bivalve farming. Indicator selection criteria are provided to facilitate constraining the number of indicators within the management framework. It is recommended that an ecosystem-based approach...... for bivalve aquaculture be based on a tiered indicator monitoring system that is structured on the principle that increased environmental risk requires increased monitoring effort. More than 1 threshold for each indicator would permit implementation of predetermined impact prevention and mitigation measures......An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social...

  20. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: A spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; John Lovette

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calcu...

  1. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  2. Mass transfer coefficients for carbon dioxide and oxygen for a polygeyser biofilter using airlift in an aquaculture reuse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture is a rapidly growing industry, accounting for over one-third of all direct fisheries consumption. In recirculating aquaculture systems the primary technology being used is energy intensive because water must be moved continuously through the culture and treatment units to remove wastes ...

  3. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of CWA, and in accordance with 40 CFR part 125, subpart B. (b) Definitions. (1) Aquaculture project... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquaculture projects (applicable to... DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.25...

  4. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Pristin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high

  5. Use of veterinary medicijnes, feed additives and probiotics in four major internationally traded aquaculture species farmed in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Tran, M.; Satopornvanit, K.; Jiang, M.; Shahabiddin, A.M.; Henriksson, P.J.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobials, parasiticides, feed additives and probiotics are used in Asian aquaculture to improve the health status of the cultured organisms and to prevent or treat disease outbreaks. Detailed information on the use of such chemicals in Asian aquaculture is limited, but of crucial importance fo

  6. Strategies to enhance the competitiveness of semi-intensive aquaculture systems in costal earth ponds: the organic aquaculture approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sardinha

    2014-06-01

    on the performance of seabream. Lower culture density (0.5 kg/m3 resulted in higher overall growth performance. The impact, in terms of nitrogenous (N and phosphorus (P loads, among the various scenarios were calculated and clearly reinforce the environmental sustainability of these semi-intensive production systems. The use of organic feeds does not lead to a significant enhancement of the growth performance. Therefore, the additional costs associated to feeding under organic standards, need to be incorporated in the sale price, thus requiring a targeted and differentiated marketing and distribution approach. Sociedade Piscicultura Farense Lda, as other traditional aquacultures depends on the enhancement of the natural environment, combined with production fine-tuning and product positioning, rewarding the quality of the final product. The positive effects of extensive and semi-intensive aquaculture in coastal areas, including environmental protection and restoration in areas of particular ecological interest, employment opportunity and development in rural and coastal areas are highly appealing concepts for the general community, particularly to conscious consumers.

  7. Aquaculture effects on environmental and public welfare - the case of Mediterranean mariculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorakis, K; Rigos, G

    2011-10-01

    Aquatic farming has been considered, during the last decades, as the fastest growing food production industry powered by governmental and technological impulsion. Compensation for fisheries decline, creation of new jobs and source of financial windfall are the most important benefits. However, similar to most of the human food-production activities, aquaculture raised several issues related to the environmental welfare and consumer safety. An effort to record the aquaculture-environment and -human safety interactions with regard to the Mediterranean mariculture, is attempted herein. We focused on this geographical area due to its individualities in both the hydrological and physicochemical characteristics and the forms of aquaculture activities. The cage farming of euryhaline marine fish species and more recently of bluefin tuna and mollusk farming are the dominating aquaculture activities. The impacts of these activities to the environment, through wastes offloads, introduction of alien species, genetic interactions, disease transfer, release of chemicals, use of wild recourses, alterations of coastal habitats and disturbance of wildlife, are analytically considered. Also the consumer safety issues related to the farming are assessed, including generation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, contaminants transferred to humans though food chain and other hazards from consumption of aquacultured items. Within these, the major literature findings are critically examined and suggestions for scientific areas that need further development are made. The major tasks for future aquaculture development in this region are: (i) to ensure sustainability and (ii) to balance the risks to public or environmental health with the substantial economical benefits. In regard with monitoring, tools must be created or adapted to predict the environmental costs and estimate consumer impact. At a canonistic and legal basis, the establishment of appropriate legal guidelines and common

  8. Aquaculture effects on environmental and public welfare - the case of Mediterranean mariculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorakis, K; Rigos, G

    2011-10-01

    Aquatic farming has been considered, during the last decades, as the fastest growing food production industry powered by governmental and technological impulsion. Compensation for fisheries decline, creation of new jobs and source of financial windfall are the most important benefits. However, similar to most of the human food-production activities, aquaculture raised several issues related to the environmental welfare and consumer safety. An effort to record the aquaculture-environment and -human safety interactions with regard to the Mediterranean mariculture, is attempted herein. We focused on this geographical area due to its individualities in both the hydrological and physicochemical characteristics and the forms of aquaculture activities. The cage farming of euryhaline marine fish species and more recently of bluefin tuna and mollusk farming are the dominating aquaculture activities. The impacts of these activities to the environment, through wastes offloads, introduction of alien species, genetic interactions, disease transfer, release of chemicals, use of wild recourses, alterations of coastal habitats and disturbance of wildlife, are analytically considered. Also the consumer safety issues related to the farming are assessed, including generation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, contaminants transferred to humans though food chain and other hazards from consumption of aquacultured items. Within these, the major literature findings are critically examined and suggestions for scientific areas that need further development are made. The major tasks for future aquaculture development in this region are: (i) to ensure sustainability and (ii) to balance the risks to public or environmental health with the substantial economical benefits. In regard with monitoring, tools must be created or adapted to predict the environmental costs and estimate consumer impact. At a canonistic and legal basis, the establishment of appropriate legal guidelines and common

  9. Assessing the Prospects for Employment in an Expansion of US Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N.

    2006-12-01

    The United States imports 60 percent of its seafood, leading to a 7 billion seafood trade deficit. To mitigate this deficit, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a branch of the U.S. Department of Commerce, has promoted the expansion of U.S. production of seafood by aquaculture. NOAA projects that the future expansion of a U.S. aquaculture industry could produce as much as 5 billion in annual sales. NOAA claims that one of the benefits of this expansion would be an increase in employment from 180,000 to 600,000 persons (100,000 indirect jobs and 500,000 direct jobs). Sources of these estimates and the assumptions upon which they are based are unclear, however. The Marine Aquaculture Task Force (MATF), an independent scientific panel, has been skeptical of NOAA's employment estimates, claiming that its sources of information are weak and based upon dubious assumptions. If NOAA has exaggerated its employment projections, then the benefits from an expansion of U.S. aquaculture production would not be as large as projected. y study examined published estimates of labor productivity from the domestic and foreign aquaculture of a variety of species, and I projected the potential increase in employment associated with a 5 billion aquaculture industry, as proposed by NOAA. Results showed that employment estimates will range from only 40,000 to 128,000 direct jobs by 2025 as a consequence of the proposed expansion. Consequently, NOAA may have overestimated its employment projections-?possibly by as much as 170 percent, implying that NOAA's employment estimate requires further research or adjustment.

  10. Investigation and Study on the Alien Species in Aquaculture in the Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-zhang; SHEN Gong-ming; MENG Shun-long; QU Jian-hong

    2011-01-01

    The lower reaches of the Yangze River is one of the central areas of freshwater shallow lakes in China and has the diverse climates with both warm temperate zone and sub-tropical zone,which makes it become one of the best areas for aquaculture,so nearly all of the aquaculture species from the world can live in the area.It is important for perfecting alien aquaculture species information data-base and environmental risk assessment system to investigate and study the aquaculture alien species in the lower reaches of the Yangze River.The results showed that the number of aquaculture alien species in the lower reaches of the Yangze River is 45 species,including 33 species of fishes,4 species of shellfish,7 species of crustaceans and 1 species of amphibian.Most of alien species are from America and the main transmitting way is intentional introducing.

  11. Efficiency and Farm Size in Philippine Aquaculture. Analysis in a Ray Production Frontier Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Irz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of an inverse relationship (IR between farm size and technical efficiency in Philippine brackishwater pond aquaculture. The study is motivated by the exemption of fish ponds from the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Laws and suggestions in the literature of inefficient management of fish farms. The analysis of technical efficiency is based on the estimation of a multi-product ray production function estimated in a stochastic frontier framework. There is some evidence of an IR but of only limited strength. Hence, it is unlikely that agrarian reform is the key to unlocking the productive potential of brackishwater aquaculture in the Philippines.

  12. Errors in experimental design and statistical analysis of aquaculture diet evaluation studies induced by filtration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Tlusty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available While single factor diet studies appear to be of simple design, the space constraints in aquaculture caused by the need to filter the aqueous media often c reate constraints on the implementation of the experimental design. A number of papers have been published in which the experimental design and subsequent analysis is incorrect. This paper reviews the principles of experimental design as it related to single factor diet evaluation studies in aquaculture. By adhering tosimple design principles to ensure that experimental units are independent, the data generated by future experiments will be of high quality and results more robust.

  13. New approaches to improve the removal of dissolved organic matter and nitrogen in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis

    rates, for removing DOM and degrading ammonia, nitrite and urea, increased with increasing long-term waste loading. The findings sustained/suggested? that DOM to (some extend)? can be removed by biofiltration, and that biofilters therefore may be applied for removing DOM from aquaculture effluents....... The studies furthermore showed that degradation of urea contributes to the ongoing nitrification activity in aquaculture biofilters, and that the transition zone from first order (substrate dependent) to zero order (substrate independent) degradation of ammonia and nitrite was elevated with increasing long...

  14. Low-dose hydrogen peroxide application in closed recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Good, C.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to simulate water treatment practices with hydrogen peroxide (HP) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Six identical 1,700-L pilot-scale RAS were divided into two experimental groups based on daily feed allocation and operated under constant conditions...... and contradict prevailing notions that HP cannot be used safely in RAS that employ biofiltration. The development of effective new HP treatment protocols for recirculating aquaculture could reduce the current dependence on formalin to improve water quality and control parasitic loads...

  15. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hambly, Adam; Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs...... there was considerable variation between the five fluorescence components with respect to the degree of accumulation with feed loading. The five components were found to originate from three sources: the feed; the influent tap water (groundwater); and processes related to the fish and the water treatment system...

  16. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  17. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Reduced Following Conversion of Rice Paddies to Inland Crab-Fish Aquaculture in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shuang; Li, Shuqing; Li, Zhaofu; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-01-19

    Aquaculture is an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), while few direct flux measurements are available for their regional and global source strength estimates. A parallel field experiment was performed to measure annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from rice paddies and rice paddy-converted inland crab-fish aquaculture wetlands in southeast China. Besides N2O fluxes dependent on water/sediment mineral N and CH4 fluxes related to water chemical oxygen demand, both CH4 and N2O fluxes from aquaculture were related to water/sediment temperature, sediment dissolved organic carbon, and water dissolved oxygen concentration. Annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from inland aquaculture averaged 0.37 mg m(-2) h(-1) and 48.1 μg m(-2) h(-1), yielding 32.57 kg ha(-1) and 2.69 kg N2O-N ha(-1), respectively. The conversion of rice paddies to aquaculture significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 48% and 56%, respectively. The emission factor for N2O was estimated to be 0.66% of total N input in the feed or 1.64 g N2O-N kg(-1) aquaculture production in aquaculture. The conversion of rice paddies to inland aquaculture would benefit for reconciling greenhouse gas mitigation and agricultural income increase as far as global warming potentials and net ecosystem economic profits are of concomitant concern. Some agricultural practices such as better aeration and feeding, and fallow season dredging would help to lower CH4 and N2O emissions from inland aquaculture. More field measurements from inland aquaculture are highly needed to gain an insight into national and global accounting of CH4 and N2O emissions. PMID:26669815

  18. Ornithinimicrobium tianjinense sp. nov., isolated from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Zi; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic and heterotrophic, non-spore-forming actinobacterium (strain B2(T)) isolated from a recirculating aquaculture system was studied for its taxonomic position. Strain B2(T) formed a rudimentary substrate-mycelium that fragmented into short rod-shaped to coccoid cells (0.5 µm×0.5-2.2 µm or 0.5-1.0 µm in diameter). Colonies were yellow, smooth, circular and 1.5-2.0 mm in diameter after incubation on TSA for 3 days at 30 °C. Strain B2(T) grew at 20-40 °C (optimal, 30 °C) and pH 5.5-9.5 (optimal, 6.5-7.0) and in the presence of 0-9% (w/v) NaCl (optimal, 1%). The predominant menaquinone of strain B2(T) was MK-8(H4). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain B2(T) contained the amino acids ornithine, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and aspartic acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 9. Its DNA G+C content was 68.3 mol% (Tm). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain B2(T) was related phylogenetically to members of the genus Ornithinimicrobium with highest similarity (96.6 %) to Ornithinimicrobium kibberense DSM 17687(T), followed by Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum DSM 12362(T) (96.3 %), Ornithinimicrobium pekingense LW6(T) (96.2%) and Ornithinimicrobium murale 01-Gi-040(T) (94.8%). On basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strain B2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which the name Ornithinimicrobium tianjinense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12160(T) =JCM 18464(T)). PMID:23907216

  19. Treatment of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in penaeid shrimp aquaculture using plant extract

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Desai, U.M.

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is causing a serious concern and threat to the shrimp aquaculture production in India since 1994. In this paper, the result of a successful attempt made in formulating a plant extract for treating the WSSV...

  20. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges. PMID:27321139

  1. Exotic species and genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and enhanced fisheries: ICLARM's position

    OpenAIRE

    Pullin, R.S.V.

    1994-01-01

    This article contains a discussion paper on the use of exotic species and genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and enhanced fisheries, together with a summary of ICLARM's (International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Philippines) current position on this important topic.

  2. Fingerponds: seasonal integrated aquaculture in East African freshwater wetlands : exploring their potential for wise use strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipkemboi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was stimulated by the need for an integrated approach in wetland wise use. Sustainable management is critical for long-term ecosystem health and people's livelihoods. The potential for smallholder integrated agriculture-aquaculture as one of the possible wetland wise use strategies was ex

  3. A multi-disciplinary framework for bio-economic modeling in aquaculture: a welfare case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, C.; Berrill, I.K.; Waller, B.; Schneider, O.; Kole, A.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the framework that translated data from multiple disciplines into a bio-economic decision tool for modeling the costs and benefits of improving fish welfare in commercial aquaculture. This decision tool formed the basis of a recent EU research project, BENEFISH which was fund

  4. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, M.; Fraser, D.; Nieuwenhove, van K.; Kamermans, P.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries human populations have moved live shellfish around the world for consumption or aquaculture purposes; being relayed from their area of origin for growout or sale. This is in contrast to the inadvertent anthropogenic spreading of species via e.g. ballast waters. There are inherent risks

  5. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  6. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part A: Transfer activities and legal framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muehlbauer, F.; Fraser, D.; Brenner, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Intentional transfers of numerous bivalve species have had a long tradition and are commonly conducted along the European Atlantic coast. However numerous studies have concluded that intentional transfer of species for aquaculture purposes is one of the most principal vectors for the introduction...

  7. ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) and Risk Assessment Application in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    ATAYETER, Servet

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that there is a strong pressure tion. In today's world, companies have to on aquaculture farms for their environmental decrease their negative impacts and show their impact on aquatic environments. Consumers commitment to the environment. An effective are also becoming more and more conscious environmental management system can help a about environmental issues and clean produccompany as an administrative tool.

  8. A Sustainability Index of potential co-location of offshore wind farms and open water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennassai, G.; Mariani, Patrizio; Stenberg, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of a Sustainability Index for the co-location in marine areas of offshore wind farms and aquaculture plans. The development of the index is focused on the application of MCE technique based on physical constraints and biological parameters that are directly linked...

  9. Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming (i.e. controlled, forward swimming, but with misaligned orientation suc...

  10. Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, P.J.G.; Rico Artero, A.; Zhang, W.; Nahid, S.S.A.; Newton, R.; Phan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different aq

  11. Nutrient Discharge from aquaculture operations in function of system design and production enviorment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    In aquaculture, nutrient loading is defined as the difference between nutrients supplied with fertilizers and feed and nutrients harvested in the form of finfish, crustaceans, molluscs and seaweeds. On average, the production of finfish and crustaceans results in a net nutrient loading, while for th

  12. High Concentration of Red Clay as an Alternative for Antibiotics in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Jee, Seung Cheol; Sung, Jung-Suk; Park, Woojun

    2016-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in aquaculture raises environmental and food safety concerns because chronic exposure of an aquatic ecosystem to antibiotics can result in the spread of antibiotic resistance, bioaccumulation of antibiotics in the organisms, and transfer of antibiotics to humans. In an attempt to overcome these problems, high-concentration red clay was applied as an alternative antibiotic against the following common fish pathogens: Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Streptococcus equinus. The growth of A. salmonicida and V. alginolyticus was retarded by red clay, whereas that of S. equinus was promoted. Phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the attachment of red clay on cell surfaces, resulting in rapid gravitational removal and cell surface damage in both A. salmonicida and V. alginolyticus, but not in S. equinus. Different cell wall properties of grampositive species may explain the unharmed cell surface of S. equinus. Significant levels of oxidative stress were generated in only the former two species, whereas significant changes in membrane permeability were found only in S. equinus, probably because of its physiological adaptation. The bacterial communities in water samples from Oncorhynchus mykiss aquacultures supplemented with red clay showed similar structure and diversity as those from oxytetracycline-treated water. Taken together, the antibiotic effects of high concentrations of red clay in aquaculture can be attributed to gravitational removal, cell surface damage, and oxidative stress production, and suggest that red clay may be used as an alternative for antibiotics in aquaculture.

  13. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H., II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers

    1996-04-01

    A demonstration high rate aquaculture production system utilizing a cascaded geothermal resource was designed, constructed and operated to fulfill the objectives of this project. Analysis of the energy and water balances for the system indicated that the addition of an Aquaculture Facility expanded the use of the existing resource. This expanded use in no way affected the up- stream processes. Analysis of the system`s energy and water requirements indicated that the present resource was under-utilized and could be expanded. Energy requirements appeared more limiting than water use, but the existing system could be expanded to a culture volume of 72,000 gal. This system would have a potential production capacity of 93,600 lb/yr with a potential market value of $280,00/yr. Based on the results of this study, the heat remaining in the geothermal fluid from one square foot of operating greenhouse is sufficient to support six gallons of culture water for a high density aquaculture facility. Thus, the over 1.5M ft{sup 2} of existing greenhouse space in New Mexico, has the potential to create an aquaculture industry of nearly 9M gal. This translates to an annual production potential of 11.7M lb with a market value of $35.lM.

  14. Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic phototrophic Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine aquaculture biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foesel, Bärbel U.; Gößner, Anita S.; Drake, Harold L.;

    2007-01-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, diplococcoid bacterium (strain D2-3T) was isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture system. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3T indicated that the new organism occupied a novel lineage within the α-1 subclass...

  15. Overview of sustainable marine aquaculture systems engineering projects with emphasis on biofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of ammonia removal for moving bed and static bed biofilters with plastic media was determined for various feed loading rates, flow rates, and salinity. Ammonia removal rates in the eight propeller-wash floating plastic bead filters (0.71 m3) utilized in the 45 m3 recirculating aquaculture ...

  16. Effect of nitrate on sulfur transformations in sulfidogenic sludge of a marine aquaculture biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten Ulrich; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Stief, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of NO3- addition on dissimilatory SO42- reduction and sulfide conversion in organic-rich sludge from the digestion basin of a recirculating marine aquaculture system was studied. SO42- reduction could only explain a minor fraction (up to 4–9%) of the observed total sulfide production (...

  17. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

  18. Disinfection of water in recirculating aquaculture systems with peracetic acid (PAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfection behaviour of peracetic acid (PAA) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was investigated. Peracetic acid is a strong oxidizing agent found in various concentrations in different products. Three Wofasteril PAA products (E400 (c), Lspecical; AC 150) were tested in vitro for the...

  19. Removal of nitrogen by Algal Turf Scrubber Technology in recirculating aquaculture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeta, J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research in recirculation aquaculture focuses on evaluating and improving the purification potential of different types of filters. Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) are special as they combine sedimentation and biofiltration. An ATS was subjected to high nutrient loads of catfish effluent to examin

  20. Flow, aeration, and carbon dioxide transfer rates for airlifts used in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airlift pumping systems reduce the electrical costs of moving water in a recirculating aquaculture system and can be concurrently designed to aerate water and remove carbon dioxide. This study determined the water flow, oxygen transfer, and CO2 removal rates for water using airlift technology in a 1...

  1. The Potential Use of Electricity to Control Burrowing Shrimp in Oyster Aquaculture Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...

  2. Constructed Wetlands for freshwater and saline aquaculture wastewater treatment: a microcosm experience

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, J. M.; Borges, M. T.; Calheiros, Cristina S. C.; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Poster presentation published at page 185 The aquaculture industry discharges large volumes of nutrient rich wastewater, contributing to eutrophication events. Recent culture intensification methodologies such as recirculation (RAS) and shallow raceway (SRS) systems discharge wastewater with even higher nutrient concentrations, though at lower volumes (Rana et al., 2005). Hence, efluent treatment options are of vital importance. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a possible but ...

  3. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Aquacultural Facilities - A Foundation for Future Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale M. Licata

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model for computing the oxygen consumption and leakage of nutrients and organic matter from an aquacultural facility has been implemented. It is based upon the energy equation for fish and accounts for metabolism and growth over a range of temperatures and fish weight classes.

  4. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Aquacultural Facilities - A Foundation for Future Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dale M. Licata

    1986-01-01

    A numerical model for computing the oxygen consumption and leakage of nutrients and organic matter from an aquacultural facility has been implemented. It is based upon the energy equation for fish and accounts for metabolism and growth over a range of temperatures and fish weight classes.

  5. End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Nielsen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each...

  6. Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2014-01-01

    This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;…

  7. Modeling environmental and human health risks of veterinary medicinal products applied in pond aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Geng, Yue; Focks, Andreas; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    A model called ERA-AQUA was developed to assess the risks posed by the use of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) applied in aquaculture ponds for the targeted produce, surrounding aquatic ecosystems, consumers, and trade of the aquaculture produce. The model calculates risks by following a risk quotient approach, calculating predicted exposure concentrations (exposure assessment) and predicted no-effect concentrations (effect assessment) for the endpoint under study. The exposure assessment is performed by combining information on the environmental characteristics of the aquaculture pond, characteristics of the cultured species, aquaculture management practices, and physicochemical properties of the compound under study. The model predicts concentrations of VMPs in the pond water, pond sediment, cultured species, and watercourse receiving pond effluent discharges by mass balance equations. The effect assessment is performed by combining (eco)toxicological information and food safety threshold concentrations for the studied compound. In the present study, the scientific background, strengths, and limitations of the ERA-AQUA model are presented together with a sensitivity analysis and an example showing its potential applications.

  8. Exploring RNAi as a therapeutic strategy for controlling disease in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paula C; Harris, James O; Cook, Mathew

    2013-03-01

    Aquatic animal diseases are one of the most significant constraints to the development and management of aquaculture worldwide. As a result, measures to combat diseases of fish and shellfish have assumed a high priority in many aquaculture-producing countries. RNA interference (RNAi), a natural mechanism for post-transcriptional silencing of homologous genes by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has emerged as a powerful tool not only to investigate the function of specific genes, but also to suppress infection or replication of many pathogens that cause severe economic losses in aquaculture. However, despite the enormous potential as a novel therapeutical approach, many obstacles must still be overcome before RNAi therapy finds practical application in aquaculture, largely due to the potential for off-target effects and the difficulties in providing safe and effective delivery of RNAi molecules in vivo. In the present review, we discuss the current knowledge of RNAi as an experimental tool, as well as the concerns and challenges ahead for the application of such technology to combat infectious disease of farmed aquatic animals.

  9. Nitrate removal effectiveness of fluidized sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification biofilters for recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop practical methods to reduce nitrate -nitrogen loads from recirculating aqua-culture systems to facilitate increased food protein production simultaneously with attainment of water quality goals. The most common wastewater denitrification treatment systems utilize methanol-...

  10. A Needs Assessment of Aquaculture Extension Agents, Specialists, and Program Administrators in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael H.; Gibson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here identified continuing education and training needs of aquaculture Extension agents, specialists, and program administrators in 10 competency areas relating to the need for continuing education or training. Fourteen resources on the AquaNIC Web site were also evaluated, as was the efficacy of the AQUA-EXT listserv. Data were…

  11. Extension Approach for an Effective Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Service in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, M.; Vimala, D. Deboral; Chandrasekaran, V. S.; Alagappan, M.; Raja, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Public-funded fisheries extension services have been blamed as poor and responsible for the slow pace of aquaculture development in India. The present investigation aimed to find concrete interventions to streamline the extension service by understanding the research-extension-farmer linkage indirectly in terms of information sources of…

  12. Recent advances within intensive Recirculated Aquaculture System cultivation of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Højgaard, Jacob Kring; Drillet, Guillaume;

    2014-01-01

    and the nauplii can be feed to marine fish larvae. A restriction is that copepod cultures for producing eggs are after 30 years of research still not stable and in large enough scale for bulk production of eggs. Recently a unique copepod Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS) at Roskilde University (Denmark...

  13. Effects of feed loading on nitrogen balances and fish performance in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of applying four fixed feed loadings to three replicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on water quality changes, nitrogenous balances and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Feed loadings ranged from 1.6 to 6.3kgfeed/m3 make...

  14. Optimization of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) seed culture using recirculation aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Garcia, A.; Kamermans, P.

    2015-01-01

    By introducing recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) in the nursery phase of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) (17–18 mm), we aimed at a similar growth and survival and a similar water quality compared to the commonly used flow-through systems (FTS). To calculate water flow and size of the biofilte

  15. Design and operation of nitrifying trickling filters in recirculating aquaculture: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review deals with the main mechanisms and parameters affecting design and performance of trickling filters in aquaculture. Relationships between nitrification rates and easily accessible process parameters, like bulk phase concentration of TAN, O2, organic matter (COD), nitrite, temperature, HC

  16. Minimizing noise in fiberglass aquaculture tanks: Noise reduction potential of various retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment used in intensive aquaculture systems, such as pumps and blowers can produce underwater sound levels and frequencies within the range of fish hearing. The impacts of underwater noise on fish are not well known, but limited research suggests that subjecting fish to noise could result in imp...

  17. Optimizing hydraulic retention times in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors treating recirculating aquaculture system wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to treat high-nitrate wastewaters from aquaculture systems has not previously been demonstrated. Four pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors (approximately 1:10 scale) were constructed and operated for 268 d to determine the optimal range of design hy...

  18. Geosmin causes off-flavour in arctic charr in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “earthy” and “muddy” off-flavors in pond-reared fish are due to the presence of geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the flesh of the fish. Similar off-flavors have been reported in fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS); however, little information is available regarding the ...

  19. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. O. KAREEM; S. B. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to fost er development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  20. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-lo

  1. The image of fish from aquaculture among Europeans: impact of exposure to balanced information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Verbeke, W.; Vanhonacker, F.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of balanced, nonpersuasive information related to safety, healthiness, and sustainability of aquaculture on the image of farmed fish among European consumers. It was demonstrated that there is neither positive nor negative influence of this type of information on t

  2. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean's anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin. PMID:27092158

  3. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  4. Particle sieve analysis for solids removal efficiency for recirculating aquaculture system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the aquaculture industry develops, opportunites for small-scale farms to become an integral part of the industry will become more prevalent. For small-scale operations it is important to have a system design that is efficient in water and energy use. If such operations decide to utilize recircula...

  5. A history of fish vaccination. Science-based disease prevention in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudding, R.; Muiswinkel, van W.B.

    2013-01-01

    Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an import

  6. Performance evaluation of pumping systems used in commercial-scale, split-pond aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Split-pond aquaculture systems have been adopted widely by United States catfish farmers as a way to improve production performance. The split-pond consists of a fish-culture basin that is connected to a waste-treatment lagoon by two water conveyance structures. Water is circulated between the two b...

  7. Local agro-industrial by-products with potential use in Ghanaian aquaculture: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe;

    2015-01-01

    The inability of Ghana’s capture-based fisheries to meet national demand has placed aquaculture in an advantageous position to satisfy this supply deficit. The majority of fish farmers in Ghana, however, resort to local feed mixtures, occasionally in combination with commercial aquafeeds, demonst...

  8. Bacteriophage remediation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture: a review of the technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophages have been proposed as an alternative to antibiotic usage and several studies on their application in aquaculture have been reported. This review highlights progress to date on phage therapies for the following fish and shellfish diseases and associated pathogens: hemorrhagic septicem...

  9. Impact of pond aquaculture effluents on seagrass performance in NE Hainan, tropical China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seagrass performance in relation to large-scale pond aquaculture was assessed. • Effluent-affected seagrass meadows have a low biodiversity, shoot density and biomass. • Shading by epiphytes and sulphide poisoning are major decline mechanisms of seagrasses. • Distance to effluent source and pond agglomeration size are major determinants of seagrass degradation. - Abstract: The impact of pond aquaculture effluents on the distribution and performance of seagrasses was examined in NE Hainan, tropical China. Samples were taken along transects in three back-reef areas with different extent of aquaculture production in their hinterland. High δ15N in seagrass leaves and epiphytes (6–9‰) similar to values in pond effluents documented aquaculture as dominant nitrogen source in the back-reefs with decreasing impact with distance from shore. Seagrass species abundance, shoot density and biomass were lower and concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll and suspended matter were higher at nearshore sites with high and moderate pond abundance than at the control site. High epiphyte loads and low δ34S in seagrass leaves suggest temporal shading and sulphide poisoning of the nearshore seagrasses. Observed gradients in environmental parameters and seagrass performance indicate that the distance from the pond outlets and size of the adjacent pond agglomeration are major determinants of seagrass degradation

  10. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  11. HRT and nutrients affect bacterial communities grown on recirculation aquaculture system effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Chabrillon-Popelka, M.; Smidt, H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recirculation aquaculture system the drumfilter effluent can be used as substrate for heterotrophic bacterial production, which can be recycled as feed. Because the bacteria might contain pathogens, which could reduce its suitability as feed, it is important to characterize these communities. B

  12. Fisheries And Aquaculture Resources And Their Interactions With Environment in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, H.

    2003-04-01

    Turkey, with 8333 km of coast line, 151 080 sq. km economic sea area, many rivers with 177 714 total length, nearly, 1 million ha of natural lakes, 500 000 ha of dam reservoirs has rich marine and inland aquatic resource potential. Despite of these large resources, Turkish fisheries has the characteristics of small-scale fisheries and in general it can be considered as coastal fisheries. There is also great potential for inland fisheries and aquaculture. Being in half closed position, these seas have different characteristics in respect of biological, physical, chemical and ecological points. In addition; Turkey has favourable geographic position between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, this potential seems not to be fully utilised and therefore fisheries is not a major sector in the economy. According to the statistics of the fisheries for 2000 published by the Turkish government, Turkey's total fisheries production was 582.376 tons. Total catch consists sea fish (441 690 tons, crustaceans and molluscs (18 831 tons), freshwater fish (42.824 tons) and aquaculture (79. 031 tons). The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) is the Ministry responsible for the overall fisheries and aquaculture development, administration, regulation, promotion and technical assistance. In the past two decades, marine fish farming using net cages has developed in the coastal waters throughout Turkey. Such fish farming has allowed the production of large amounts of valuable fish and their supply to the internal and external markets on a regular basis. However, fish farming is sometimes fallowed by organic pollution of the water and bottom sediment in the vicinity of the cages. A comprehensive land and coastal planning survey of almost the whole coast of Turkey is currently being conducted. This master plan designates areas to be developed for forestry, agriculture, industry, urbanisation, environmentally protected areas, etc. The plan was undertaken before the

  13. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Joesting

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics, but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of marine aquaculture solid waste as a nutrient source for the nursery production of two salt tolerant plants commonly used in coastal salt marsh restoration, Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass and Juncus roemerianus (black needlerush. Specifically, measurements of plant biomass and tissue nitrogen and phosphorus allocation were compared between plants fertilized with dried shrimp biofloc solids and unfertilized controls, as well as between plants fertilized with dried fish solids and unfertilized controls. In both experiments, S. alterniflora plants fertilized with marine aquaculture solids showed few significant differences from unfertilized controls, whereas fertilized J. roemerianus plants had significantly greater biomass and absorbed and incorporated more nutrients in plant tissue compared to unfertilized controls. These results suggest that J. roemerianus may be a suitable plant species for the remediation of marine aquaculture solid waste.

  14. Dynamics of the adoption of improved aquaculture technologies among fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye Olalekan Jacob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the adoption of improved aquaculture technologies among fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of 90 fish farmers were sampled through the multistage sampling technique. A validated and pretested interview schedule was used to obtain primary information from the fish farmers. Obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results obtained revealed that more than half and about one-third of the fish farmers sourced credit facilities from cooperative societies and Esusu, respectively, while almost all sold their fishes as smoked fish. Higher proportions of the fish farmers were aware, tried and adopted most of the improved aquaculture technologies with some of the fish farmers also discontinuing most of the previously adopted technologies. The findings of the study also reported that the fish farmers had positive attitude towards the adoption of improved aquaculture technologies. Results of regression analysis revealed that secondary occupation of the fish farmers (β=−0.324, p<0.01, annual income level (β=−0.471, p<0.05, cost of pond construction (β=0.477, p<0.05 and total profit realized (β=−0.466, p<0.05 were significant predictors of the adoption of improved technologies by the fish farmers with an R2 implying that 46.0% of the variability in the fish farmers’ adoption of improved aquaculture technologies is explained by the socio-economic and production characteristics of the fish farmers. The study concluded that the adoption of improved aquaculture technologies is dynamic and highly influenced by the socio-economic characteristics of the fish farmers which also change with time. It is therefore recommended that technologies that received low level of adoption or which discontinued after earlier adoption should be worked on so that the adoption of those technologies would translate to increased income level of fish farmers, reduced cost of pond construction and increased profit

  15. Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture efficacy of the main culture species of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. The results were as follows: under a flow rate of 1.4-5.5 m3/h for the recirculation treatment, the average removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand for the aquaculture effluent amounted to 40.5, 43.5, 31.9, 23.9, 20.7 and 52.4%, respectively, But the dissolved oxygen content in the rice fields increased obviously. During the whole process of fish rearing, the main physicochemical parameters of water quality for the experimental ponds were all maintained at a suitable level for the growth of the grass carp. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in DO, TSS, NH4+ -N, NO--N, BOD5 and Chl-&alpha between the experimental and control ponds. As far as the yield per unit and survival rate was concerned, the level of the experimental ponds was obviously higher than that of the control, while the feed conversion ratio displayed the opposite trend. Overall, the new aquaculture system realized the double aims of water reuse and the reduction of waste water discharge.

  16. Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Van den Brink, Paul J; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies. PMID:27137193

  17. A scoping analysis of peer-reviewed literature about linkages between aquaculture and determinants of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Wade, Joy; Stephen, Craig; Toews, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    For many of the world's poor, aquatic products are critical for food security and health. Because the global population is increasing as wild aquatic stocks are declining, aquaculture is an increasingly important source of aquatic products. We undertook a scoping review of the English-language peer-reviewed literature to evaluate how the research community has examined the impacts of aquaculture on four key determinants of human health: poverty, food security, food production sustainability, and gender equality. The review returned 156 primary research articles. Most research (75%) was focused in Asia, with limited research from Africa (10%) and South America (2%). Most research (80%) focused on freshwater finfish and shrimp production. We used qualitative content analysis of records which revealed 11 themes: famer income; the common environment; shared resources; integrated farming/ polyculture; employment; extensive vs. intensive production; local vs. distant ownership; food security; income equity; gender equality; and input costs. We used quantitative content analysis of records and full-text publications about freshwater finfish and shrimp aquaculture to record the frequency with which themes were represented and the positive or negative impacts of aquaculture associated with each theme. Scatter plots showed that no theme was identified in more than half of all articles and publications for both production types. Farmer income was a theme that was identified commonly and was positively impacted by both shrimp and fresh water finfish aquaculture. Polyculture, employment, and local ownership were identified less often as themes, but were also associated with positive impacts. The common environment and shared resources were more common themes in shrimp aquaculture than freshwater finfish aquaculture research, while polyculture and local ownership were more common themes in freshwater finfish aquaculture than shrimp aquaculture. Gender equality, employment, and

  18. Influence of environmental variables in the efficiency of phage therapy in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Yolanda J; Costa, Liliana; Pereira, Carla; Cunha, Ângela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-09-01

    Aquaculture facilities worldwide continue to experience significant economic losses because of disease caused by pathogenic bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. This scenario drives the search for alternative methods to inactivate pathogenic bacteria. Phage therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics for inactivation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture systems. While phage therapy appears to represent a useful and flexible tool for microbiological decontamination of aquaculture effluents, the effect of physical and chemical properties of culture waters on the efficiency of this technology has never been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical properties of aquaculture waters (e.g. pH, temperature, salinity and organic matter content) on the efficiency of phage therapy under controlled experimental conditions in order to provide a basis for the selection of the most suitable protocol for subsequent experiments. A bioluminescent genetically transformed Escherichia coli was selected as a model microorganism to monitor real-time phage therapy kinetics through the measurement of bioluminescence, thus avoiding the laborious and time-consuming conventional method of counting colony-forming units (CFU). For all experiments, a bacterial concentration of ≈ 10(5) CFU ml(-1) and a phage concentration of ≈ 10(6-8) plaque forming unit ml(-1) were used. Phage survival was not significantly affected by the natural variability of pH (6.5-7.4), temperature (10-25 °C), salinity (0-30 g NaCl l(-1) ) and organic matter concentration of aquaculture waters in a temperate climate. Nonetheless, the efficiency of phage therapy was mostly affected by the variation of salinity and organic matter content. As the effectiveness of phage therapy increases with water salt content, this approach appears to be a suitable choice for marine aquaculture systems. The success of phage therapy may also be enhanced in

  19. Food Supply Values and Their Factors of Three Pond Aquaculture Ecosystems: A Case Study of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyong; YANG; Xinzheng; ZHANG; Zhenfang; HAN; Keyong; TANG

    2014-01-01

    Studies on food supply values,the basis of eco-service values,and their factors of different pond aquaculture ecosystems are helpful to explain the influences of the inputted factors and their variations among these ecosystems and provide information for stakeholders to adjust their decisions and behaviors to increase their total eco-service values. On the basis of continued records from 2011 to 2012 of 18 ponds of three pond aquaculture ecosystems,namely Litopenaeus vannamei,Macrobrachium nippponensis and carp fresh water pond aquaculture ecosystems in Qingpu,Fengxian,and Jiading,three suburban districts of Shang,this paper analyzed the costs,returns,net food supply values and their regional and temporal fluctuations. The results showed that:(1) the net food supply values of the three ecosystems are 143252. 4,135883. 7,and 52623. 1Yuan /Ha in 2011 correspondently,with the Litopenaeus vannamei pond aquaculture ecosystem(LVPAE) ranking highest and the carp pond aquaculture ecosystem(CPAE) lowest among them,and the trend was same in 2012,but the values decreased than that of 2011 with the rate of 30. 0%( LVPAE),38. 0 %( Macrobrachium nippponensis pond aquaculture ecosystem,MNPAE) and 13. 7 %( CPAE).(2)The dominant factors of the net food supply values of these ecosystems are the produce price and variable costs; fry and feed costs are the main variable factors producing the noticeable difference among the ecosystems.(3) The cost- benefit ratio of per unit product of the CPAE,LVPAE and MNPAE changed from 27. 5%,91. 7%,129. 0% in 2011 to 23. 0%,73. 8% and 63. 8% in 2012,with the CPAE ranked lowest among them in both years.(4) For all the three ecosystems,their net food supply values may not always change in same trends with their net eco-service values,if stakeholders want to keep a balance between these two types of values,MNPAE should be encouraged in these districts.

  20. Carbon sequestration in the soils of aquaculture ponds, crop land, and forest land in southern Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Lal, Rattan; Wang, Han-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Soil samples were collected from four aquaculture ponds (yellow perch culture), a control pond (without aquaculture activities, fallow pond), crop land (under corn), and forest land to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential in the Piketon county, Ohio, USA. The averaged total of C was 6.5 ± 2, 8.8 ± 2, 8.53 ± 0.2 and 10.49 ± 1.1 Mg/ha (Mg=10(6)g) in  2.5mm), for aquaculture ponds, control ponds, cropland and forest land, respectively. The soil/sediment C pool followed the order of forest > crop land soils > aquaculture pond soils.

  1. Aquaculture, Fresh Water, AGR, Published in 2006, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Massachusetts Emergency Managment Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aquaculture, Fresh Water dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described...

  2. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). The allocation of space in Norwegian aquaculture - from local lottery to central planning?

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2003-01-01

    Resource management in the coastal zone involves a large number of stakeholders and resource users, from traditional fishermen and recreational housing owners to state and municipal government. The aim of this study is to show how spatial scarcity in Norwegian aquaculture is not solely a technical definition, but scarcity also depends upon the social context in which it operates. That is, what has influenced Norwegian aquaculture policy in spatial terms? This question is answer...

  3. Vertical Segregation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Sediment of a Freshwater Aquaculture Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shimin; Liu, Xingguo; Ma, Zhuojun; Liu, Qigen; Wu, Zongfan; Zeng, Xianlei; Shi, Xu; Gu, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    Pond aquaculture is the major freshwater aquaculture method in China. Ammonia-oxidizing communities inhabiting pond sediments play an important role in controlling culture water quality. However, the distribution and activities of ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along sediment profiles are poorly understood in this specific environment. Vertical variations in the abundance, transcription, potential ammonia oxidizing rate, and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) a...

  4. Vertical segregation and phylogenetic characterization of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in the sediment of a freshwater aquaculture pond

    OpenAIRE

    Shimin eLu; Xingguo eLiu; Qigen eLiu; Zhuojun eMa; Zongfan eWu; Xianlei eZeng; Xu eShi; Zhaojun eGu

    2016-01-01

    Pond aquaculture is the major freshwater aquaculture method in China. Ammonia-oxidizing communities inhabiting pond sediments play an important role in controlling culture water quality. However, the distribution and activities of ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along sediment profiles are poorly understood in this specific environment. Vertical variations in the abundance, transcription, potential ammonia oxidizing rate, and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) a...

  5. Reared fish, farmed escapees and wild fish stocks— a triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Mladineo, Ivona

    2013-01-01

    Although aquaculture in the Mediterranean is a relatively young industry, finfish diseases have been reported to cause considerable problems and mortalities among the farmed stocks. In general, the farming activity and the open design of Mediterranean aquaculture systems allow the transmission of infectious pathogens within and among farm facilities. Fish health and biosecurity programmes at farms have focused on the most obvious pathways for transmission of pathogens, i.e. through transport ...

  6. Aquaculture, Salt and Brackish Water, Rhode Island Aquaculture Locations; Point Locations for Aquaculture operations in Narragansett Bay and the coastal ponds of Rhode Island., Published in 2005, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aquaculture, Salt and Brackish Water dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It...

  7. [Preliminary studies on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in typical aquaculture area of the Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xi-Mei; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Shi, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Traditional and quantitative PCR techniques were used to determine the occurrence and quantities of ARGs, including three types of genes resistant to sulfonamide, seven for tetracycline resistance and one for quinolone resistance, as well as one integron gene in typical aquaculture of the Pearl River Estuary. The results showed that all genes except for tetW were detectable in the aquaculture environment, and sull, sul2 and int1 were the most frequently detected genes (detectable percentage, 100% ). Relative abundances of ARGs increased with the prolongation of rearing time under the same aquaculture pattern, suggesting a cumulative effect. Moreover, the occurrences of ARGs in the ponds were different with different aquaculture patterns, indicating that the aquaculture pattern might play an important role in the abundances and distributions of ARGs. Relative abundances of intl, as a horizontal mobile genetic element, were significantly correlated to the levels of sull and the total ARGs (P aquaculture substantially increased the abundances of ARGs probably owning to the induction of horizontal gene transfer of ARGs among bacteria.

  8. Emerging research priorities for the aquaculture sector in sub-Saharan Africa - a case study of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of aquaculture research in Nigeria. The achievements and limitations of research in aquaculture development are discussed. It identifies strategic prioritization of research objectives in three phases namely; the short term, medium term and long term to properly foster real growth in the aquaculture sector with the dawn of privatization in the country. Ex post assessments are also fundamental in evaluating the viability and effectiveness of past research activities. Participatory approach in research prioritization and process, increased private funding of research and extension, programmes of intervention by the government are required to maximize the untapped potentials in aquaculture for its rapid transformation to a full-fledged economically viable sector. Thus, profitable, sustainable ecological aquaculture and ‘water smart’ culture systems consistent with different geographical zones of the country must be designed with potentials for sequestration of anthropogenic carbon and nutrients. Adoption of Guidelines on Best Management and Practices in Aquaculture Schemes is a necessity. Above all is the question of an enabling institutional framework, autonomy and pragmatic sector - specific policies without which nothing can be realistically achieved.

  9. The Use of Garlic (Allium sativum as a Growth Promoter in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Dikel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging use of antibiotics and medicaments has resulted in chemical residue and resistant pathogens in cured fish. Chemical residue not only pollutes the environment, but also threatens consumer’s health. On the contrary, garlic as a well-known natural antibiotic that causes no environmental or physical side effects has shown to be effective for the treatment of many diseases in humans and animals. In aquaculture applications, garlic promotes growth, improves the immune system, stimulates appetite, and reinforces the control of fungal and bacterial pathogens. This review emphasis on the application of garlic in promotes of fish growth and the expectations of using garlic arrangements in aquaculture.

  10. Aquaculture as yet another environmental gateway to the development and globalisation of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Dölz, Humberto J

    2016-07-01

    Aquaculture uses hundreds of tonnes of antimicrobials annually to prevent and treat bacterial infection. The passage of these antimicrobials into the aquatic environment selects for resistant bacteria and resistance genes and stimulates bacterial mutation, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. The potential bridging of aquatic and human pathogen resistomes leads to emergence of new antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and global dissemination of them and their antimicrobial resistance genes into animal and human populations. Efforts to prevent antimicrobial overuse in aquaculture must include education of all stakeholders about its detrimental effects on the health of fish, human beings, and the aquatic ecosystem (the notion of One Health), and encouragement of environmentally friendly measures of disease prevention, including vaccines, probiotics, and bacteriophages. Adoption of these measures is a crucial supplement to efforts dealing with antimicrobial resistance by developing new therapeutic agents, if headway is to be made against the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine. PMID:27083976

  11. Indicative and pathogenic microbiological quality of aquacultured finfish grown in different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullela, S; Fernandes, C F; Flick, G J; Libey, G S; Smith, S A; Coale, C W

    1998-02-01

    The nature and number of indicator and pathogenic microbes in fish reared using recirculating and nonrecirculating water systems were compared. For each system, 20 samples of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops), and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) were randomly selected and gutted, and microbial analyses were performed using AOAC procedures. Five fish were subsampled and analyzed for indicative microbial quality with 3M Petrifilm (). The general microbial quality differed significantly (P spp. were not isolated form the fish sampled. However, Clostridium botulinum botulinum was isolated from all the aquacultured fish sampled except pacu and tilapia grown in a recirculating aquaculture system. However, the counts were very low, ranging from 0.0 to 2.3 MPN/g. PMID:9708283

  12. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1995-12-04

    Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms, is the newest and fastest growing US agricultural sector. In New Mexico, low winter temperatures and limited freshwater sources narrow culture production possibilities; however, it has long been recognized that the state has abundant supplies of both saline and geothermal ground waters. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the achievable energy savings and value enhancement of the byproduct geothermal energy by cascading fluids for the production of commercial aquaculture species. Specifically the project involved evaluating the heating systems performance in terms of heating budget for the geothermal assist, determine the total quantity of water used for culture and heating, amount of geothermal byproduct heat extracted, and ability of the system to maintain culture water temperatures during critical heating periods of the year. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of this new system with existing greenhouse heating requirements.

  13. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve;

    2012-01-01

    activities such as recreation, tourism, facilities for renewable energy production, all of which are expected to increase in importance. There is also increasing focus on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Thus, competition for available sites will probably increase, emphasizing the need for Marine Spatial......Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include...... Planning (MSP) and improved management tools supporting policies for space allocation along the entire European coastline. Successful MSP is not likely to be achieved without a certain level of conflict, and without iterative adaptations in management actions. MSP is viewed an essential part of advancing...

  14. The role of allochthonous (non-native fish species in Serbian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran MARKOVIĆ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish farming is the only type of aquaculture in Serbia. Fish farming is mostly carried out in cyprinid and salmonid (trout fishponds (over 95% of the total fish produced, with considerably lower ichthyoproduction being practiced in cages and some bodies of open water such as reservoirs and channels. Serbian aquaculture currently includes 12 fish species, 4 of which are allochthonous (non-native. With the exception of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and, to a certain extent, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, allochthonous fish species have no economic importance. The presence and abundance of certain allochthonous species in fishponds and open waters have a negative effect on the total ichthyoproduction.

  15. Aquaculture as yet another environmental gateway to the development and globalisation of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Dölz, Humberto J

    2016-07-01

    Aquaculture uses hundreds of tonnes of antimicrobials annually to prevent and treat bacterial infection. The passage of these antimicrobials into the aquatic environment selects for resistant bacteria and resistance genes and stimulates bacterial mutation, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. The potential bridging of aquatic and human pathogen resistomes leads to emergence of new antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and global dissemination of them and their antimicrobial resistance genes into animal and human populations. Efforts to prevent antimicrobial overuse in aquaculture must include education of all stakeholders about its detrimental effects on the health of fish, human beings, and the aquatic ecosystem (the notion of One Health), and encouragement of environmentally friendly measures of disease prevention, including vaccines, probiotics, and bacteriophages. Adoption of these measures is a crucial supplement to efforts dealing with antimicrobial resistance by developing new therapeutic agents, if headway is to be made against the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine.

  16. Water Quality Monitoring and Control for Aquaculture Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daudi S. Simbeye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and presented a wireless sensor network monitoring and control system for aquaculture. The system can detect and control water quality parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen content, pH value, and water level in real-time. The sensor nodes collect the water quality parameters and transmit them to the base station host computer through ZigBee wireless communication standard. The host computer is used for data analysis, processing and presentation using LabVIEW software platform. The water quality parameters will be sent to owners through short messages from the base station via the Global System for Mobile (GSM module for notification. The experimental evaluation of the network performance metrics of quality of communication link, battery performance and data aggregation was presented. The experimental results show that the system has great prospect and can be used to operate in real world environment for optimum control of aquaculture environment

  17. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  18. Probiotics as beneficial microbes in aquaculture: an update on their multiple modes of action: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Delshad, Somayeh Torabi; Adel, Milad;

    2016-01-01

    Wide and discriminate use of antibiotics has resulted in serious biological and ecological concerns, especially the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics, known as beneficial microbes, are being proposed as an effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics. They were first applied...... in aquaculture species more than three decades ago, but considerable attention had been given only in the early 2000s. Probiotics are defined as live or dead, or even a component of the microorganisms that act under different modes of action in conferring beneficial effects to the host or to its environment....... Several probiotics have been characterized and applied in fish and a number of them are of host origin. Unlike some disease control alternatives being adapted and proposed in aquaculture where actions are unilateral, the immense potential of probiotics lies on their multiple mechanisms in conferring...

  19. Introducing individual transferable quotas on nitrogen in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential gains from changing the existing regulatory framework for fresh water aquaculture production in Denmark. The regulatory framework is changed from an input regulation based on farm-specific feed quotas, to an individual transferable quota...... behavioral and technical assumptions, whilst keeping the overall pollution level of nitrogen constant. Furthermore, the effect of a catchment area restriction on nitrogen is analyzed to comply with the EU Water Framework Directive. The paper quantifies the gains of a policy change from a command and control...... system to an incentive based system. The estimated results suggest that the changed regulation could increase Danish aquaculture production by 16 to 55%, whilst actual profitability could be increased 5 to 10 times....

  20. Natural occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and fish from aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Josefa; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Ferrer, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of enniatins (ENs) and beauvericin (BEA) in fish feed and fish tissues by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with linear ion trap (LC-MS/MS-LIT) was developed. Results showed that the developed method is precise and sensitive. The presence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins, ENs and BEA, was determined in samples of aquaculture fish and feed for farmed fish, showing that all feed samples analyzed were contaminated with mycotoxins, with 100% coexistence. In aquacultured fish samples, the highest incidence was found in edible muscle and liver. As for the exposure assessment calculated, it was found that average consumer intake was lower than tolerable daily intake (TDI) values for other Fusarium mycotoxins.

  1. The Use of Garlic (Allium sativum) as a Growth Promoter in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Suat Dikel

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging use of antibiotics and medicaments has resulted in chemical residue and resistant pathogens in cured fish. Chemical residue not only pollutes the environment, but also threatens consumer’s health. On the contrary, garlic as a well-known natural antibiotic that causes no environmental or physical side effects has shown to be effective for the treatment of many diseases in humans and animals. In aquaculture applications, garlic promotes growth, improves the immune system, stimu...

  2. Genetic variability and selective breeding for traits of aquacultural interest in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Boudry, Pierre; Degremont, Lionel; Taris, Nicolas; Mccombie, Helen; Haffray, Pierrick; Ernande, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The most significant genetic improvement for production of Pacific oyster (Crassastrea gigas) has been obtained through the breeding of triploids, especially since the development of tetraploids. Quantitative genetics studies suggest that significant gains, for disease resistance or for other traits of aquacultural interest, could be obtained using this approach. However, the limited extent of hatchery-propagation (versus natural recruitment) and/or various technical difficulties and biologic...

  3. Potential applications of reproductive and molecular genetic technologies in the selective breeding of aquaculture species

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, N.H.; Ponniah, A.G.; Ponzoni, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of reproductive and genetic technologies can increase the efficiency of selective breeding programs for aquaculture species. Four technologies are considered, namely: marker-assisted selection, DNA fingerprinting, in-vitro fertilization, and cryopreservation. Marker-assisted selection can result in greater genetic gain, particularly for traits difficult or expensive to measure, than conventional selection methods, but its application is currently limited by lack of high density linkag...

  4. A Decision Support System for Evaluatingquality Safety Risk Contaminated By Water Pollution in Aquaculture Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dong; Li, Nan; Huang, Honghui; Fu, Zetian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    Water pollution is becoming the major factor damaging the sustainable development of aquaculture and the quality security of aquatic product in China. This paper introduces a decision support system for evaluating and managing quality risk contaminated by water pollution. The architecture, main components and their functions, especially a series of risk evaluation methods and models are described. At present, the system is in pilot in the city of Beijing in China. The stage achievements in developing the system are summarized.

  5. Coupling aquaculture with forest plantations for food, energy, and water resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Shawn Dayson; Culbreth, Allison; Hazel, Dennis; Daniels, Harry; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater aquaculture and forest bioenergy markets are expanding globally in areas concurrently experiencing human population growth, urbanization and water shortages. Coupling these agroecosystems can improve food, energy, and water resiliency by enhancing ecosystem services through fertilization, water-reuse, carbon storage, and bioenergy via biomass production. This study evaluated how a model aquaculture-managed forest plantation could (1) provision fish and woody biomass; (2) regulate carbon, groundwater infiltration, and groundwater quality; and (3) support nutrient cycling over a two-year period. A 0.5-hectare hardwood bioenergy plantation was established with 12 Populus spp. genotypes adjacent to a 0.6-hectare freshwater aquaculture operation (hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops×M. saxatilis); pond waters were land-applied on the plantation for two years. The aquaculture operation produced ~3.5Mg of fish and trees yielded 5.9Mgha(-1)yr(-1) of oven-dry biomass, sequestered 2.9Mg carbon (C) ha(-1)yr(-1) and stored 0.028Mg nitrogen (N) ha(-1)yr(-1). Biomass productivity, carbon storage, and nitrogen storage differed significantly among the evaluated Populus genotypes. Land application of pond water increased groundwater infiltration by 60% relative to the previous year. The integrated system regulated chlorophyll a, total organic carbon, and nitrogen in groundwater at concentrations below regulatory limits. This study demonstrated that coupled agroecosystems could deliver productive yields of food and bioenergy as well as support water re-use while meeting water quality regulations. More research is needed to evaluated long-term sustainability and economic viability of this coupled system and other land management practices that seek to improve food, energy, and water resiliency. PMID:27481452

  6. Fingerponds: seasonal integrated aquaculture in East African freshwater wetlands : exploring their potential for wise use strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kipkemboi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was stimulated by the need for an integrated approach in wetland wise use. Sustainable management is critical for long-term ecosystem health and people's livelihoods. The potential for smallholder integrated agriculture-aquaculture as one of the possible wetland wise use strategies was explored in two sites on the northern Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria: Kusa and Nyangera.Most riparian communities living along the shores of Lake Victoria rely on wetland farming or harvesting of nat...

  7. Capacity building and services to assist local farmers to improve aquaculture management in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lebailly, Philippe; Bui Thi, Nga; Ngo Thi Thu Hang; Tran Thi Nang, Thu

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, we can observe important changes in traditional production systems of coastal communes in North Vietnam. Faced with relatively low incomes, rice farms converted the surfaces available to them in aquaculture ponds. These are difficult to reverse conversions were carried out by farmers seeking to improve family income in areas of relatively low rice productivity. These changes have had a significant impact on the revenues generated in coastal villages with changes in work organizati...

  8. Integration of a wind farm with a wave- and an aquaculture farm

    OpenAIRE

    He, J.; Weissenberger, J; Bergh, Øivind; Hjøllo, Solfrid Sætre; Wehde, Henning; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth; Chen, Z.; Olason, D.; Thorsteinson, B.; Fosso, O.B.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in placing wind farms offshore. 140 GW of offshore wind are currently being planned to reach the EU energy 2020 goal. However, an offshore wind farm occupies a large area and competes with other users of the maritime space. The integration of an offshore wind farm with other marine energy producers such as wave energy and other maritime users such as aquaculture farms may result in significant benefits in terms of economics, optimising spatial utilization, and mini...

  9. Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Arabi,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

  10. Viral Metagenomics: A Tool for Virus Discovery and Diversity in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Alavandi, S. V.; Poornima, M.

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are abundant biological entities on earth and the emergence of viral pathogens has become a serious threat to aquaculture and fisheries worldwide. However, our response to viral pathogens has been largely reactive, in the sense that a new pathogen is usually not discovered until it has already reached epidemic proportions. Current diagnostic methods such as PCR, immunological assays and pan-viral microarrays are limited in their ability to identify novel viruses. In this context, the ...

  11. A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Espinosa-Faller; Guillermo E. Rendón-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system.Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup.The high fish densities required in these systems to become economically viable present a case where sensornetworks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss ofproduction. Modules for reading and transmitt...

  12. Using computer simulation to reduce costs at a recirculating aquaculture facility

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, John

    2005-01-01

    The Recirculating Aquaculture System can be considered as a dynamic system in which the system variables change instantaneously during the growing period. This effort uses a combination of discrete and continuous simulation to model this system. Changing the values of a certain set of variables (regressors) result in changes to another set of variables (responses). So the inter relationship between the regressors and responses are first defined. Then the changes to the regressors are defined...

  13. Denitrification of Recirculating Aquaculture System Waters Using an Upflow Biofilter and a Fermented Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jennifer Brooke

    1997-01-01

    The ability of an upflow, denitrifying biofilter using a fermentation generated carbon source to treat the high nitrate concentrations typically seen in recirculating aquaculture systems was studied using a synthetic nitrate wastewater supplied at two nitrate loadings, 1.13 and 2.52 kg NO3-N/m3/day. A supplemental carbon source was provided primarily through the fermentation of fish food which generated volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the form of acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, 2-me...

  14. Phylogenetic characterization of the heterotrophic bacterial communities inhabiting a marine recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, L; Lo Giudice, A; Troussellier, Marc; Smedile, F; Bruni, V.; Blancheton, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present work was to characterize the heterotrophic bacterial community of a marine recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Methods and Results: An experimental RAS was sampled for the rearing water (RW) and inside the biofilter. Samples were analysed for bacterial abundances, community structure and composition by using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The most represented species detected among biofilter clones was Pseudomonas stutzeri, whi...

  15. Assessement of Growth Performances of Juvenile Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Raised in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mărioara Nicula; Zoltan-Tibor Szelei; Nicolae Pacala; Marian Bura; Eliza Simiz; Silvia Erina; Marian Hotea; Adela Marcu

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon rearing in Herneacova village, Timis County, on a population of juvenile sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) aged between 346-431 days. Specimens were housed in five round tanks (Ø=3 m, V=6 m3, h=100 cm) and fed with commercial extruded pellets (3 mm granulation, 48% CP, and 10% EE). Fish from each tank were individually weighed and measured once every two weeks. Bioproductive indices such body weight gain (BW), specifi...

  16. The technical development and application of a recirculating aquaculture respirometer system (RARS) for fish metabolism studies

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, Kevin Torben

    2016-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde ein Recirculating Aquaculture Respirometre System (RARS) technisch entwickelt und die Einsatzmöglichkeiten in verschiedenen metabolischen Studien an Fischen unter Einbeziehung der Futtermittelverwertung evaluiert. Kapitel 1 stellt das RARS und die eingebauten online Messgeräte vor. Die Funktionalität des RARS wurde durch einige Beispielmessungen an Regenbogenforellen (Oncorhynchus mykiss) und Steinbutt, (Scophthalmus maximus) gezeigt. Im Kapitel 2 wurden über 8 W...

  17. An economic analysis of the use of recirculating aquaculture systems in the production of Tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Appiah-Kubi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An economic analysis of tilapia production was conducted using a recirculating aquaculture system facility, situated at the Norwegian University of Life Science (UMB). The goals were; (1) to evaluate and estimate the operational cost involved and from this, estimate the breakeven cost, (2) identify and describe the constraints unique to the RAS, (3) to perform financial feasibility of a (hypothetical) scale-up production, and (4) to conduct sensitivity analysis on some variables to highlight ...

  18. Probiotic effects on cobia Rachycentron canadum larvae reared in a recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    M. Angélica Garrido-Pereira; Michael Schwarz; Brendan Delbos; Ricardo V. Rodrigues; Luis Romano; Luís Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a marine finfish with good potential for mariculture. This study analyzes the effects of probiotic Bacillus spp. on the performance of cobia larvae reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Larvae were stocked into two independent RAS for 26 days after hatching. One of the systems (Probiotic treatment) received the addition of a commercial probiotic consisting of B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus directly into the water and by live feed. Su...

  19. An integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture in Amazonian fresh water

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Sylvain; Ismino, R.; Sanchez, H.; David, F.; Nunez Rodriguez, Jesus; Dugué, Rémi; Darias, Maria Jose; Römer, U.

    2014-01-01

    A prototype of an integrated closed system for fish-plankton aquaculture was developed in Iquitos (Peruvian Amazonia) in order to cultivate the Tiger Catfish, Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855). This freshwater recirculating system consisted of two linked sewage tanks with an intensive rearing unit (a cage) for P. punctifer placed in the first, and with a fish-plankton trophic chain replacing the filters commonly used in clear water closed systems. Detritivorous and zooplan...

  20. Water chemistry characterization and component performance of a recirculating aquaculture system producing hybrid striped bass

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Eight identical and independent pilot scale recirculating aquaculture production systems were populated with fingerling hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Three population densities were established with two replicates at 132 fishlm3 and three replicates each at 66 and 33 fishlm3. Water chemistry and water quality characteristics were monitored throughout the 228 day growth trial for all eight systems. A system component performance analys...

  1. Conditioning of broodstock of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem Mustafa; Mohd. Hafizzie Hajini; Shigeharu Senoo; Annita Yong Seok Kian

    2015-01-01

    Closing the cycle of commercial species of fish in a recirculating aquaculture system is gaining importance for a number of practical advantages. Founder broodstock originating from the wild population is conditioned to live in hatchery tanks under suitable environmental and feeding conditions and is induced to breed. The juveniles are grown to maturity and facilitated to spawn in captivity to close the life cycle in the hatchery. This experiment was carried out on tiger grouper (Epinephelus ...

  2. Water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems (ras) for arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus L.) culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Isla Molleda , M.

    2008-01-01

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish culture have been used for more than three decades. The interest in RAS is due to their have advantages such as greatly reduced land and water requirements in places where the water resources are limited; but the RAS have also disadvantages like the deterioration of the water quality if the water treatment processes within the system are not controlled properly. The water quality problems in RAS were associated with low DO and high fish waste m...

  3. Comparison of Atlantic salmon net pen and recirculating aquaculture systems: economical, technological and environmental issues

    OpenAIRE

    Dekhtyarev, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    The modern aquaculture industry is a rapidly developing sector of the fisheries industry. Among the fish species reared in marine waters Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) shares a significant part. Nowadays, the largest salmon producing countries are Norway, Chile and Scotland. The common technology used in the salmon production is a sea cage, which is presented in a form of floating plastic rings or robust metal installations fastened to a barge. In both cases, the fish is placed ...

  4. Aquaculture of Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) and a Comparison of its Quality: Microbiological, Sensory, and Proximate Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Pullela, Sharma V. S.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract (Piaractus mesopotamicus) initially weighing 72.0 g were fed three diets - a) 0.5% vegetable (zucchini), b) commercial 32% (P32) and c) commercial 36% (P36) protein diets for 24 weeks and their growth performance compared. Processing yields and proximate composition were determined following dressing of pacu. The microbiological quality of pond cultured pacu was compared to aquacultured hybrid striped bass, tilapia, and rainbow trout grown in pond ...

  5. Assessment of coastal aquaculture ponds in Asia with high resolution SAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Ottinger, Marco; Clauss, Kersten; Vo Quoc, Tuan; Künzer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing animal food production sectors worldwide and is the main source of valuable animal protein in many countries. The farming of fish, crustaceans and mollusks generated income and employment for many people in rural coastal areas and has attracted considerable attention for its high export value and potentials in terms of protein supply and global food security. Rising demand for fish, crustaceans and mollusks, and international trade has driven the rapi...

  6. The role of the market in the development of aquaculture in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Hamenoo, Edmond Kwablah

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture in Ghana has over the years been little productive despite earlier claims about the high potential of the country. These claims are supported by an abundance of latent natural resources that can support large scale commercial production and the existence of a strong traditional market for fish products. A survey of consumer behavior in the local market for tilapia and fish in general was conducted in Ghana. The data were subjected to tabulation and multivariate analysis to assess ...

  7. Creating stability in constant uncertainty : dealing with crisis in the Chilean aquaculture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Vilde Steiro

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a fieldwork conducted in Fish Inc., a Chilean branch of a Norwegian-owned company dealing with equipment for fish farming. The Chilean aquaculture industry has since the sanitary and financial crisis of 2007 experienced a constant unpredictability, with extreme fluctuation between incredible upswings and crashing downturns. The instability and uncertainty of the industry has generated the necessity of creating a sense of continuity for employees in dealing with th...

  8. Observations on Side-Swimming Rainbow Trout in Water Recirculation Aquaculture Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Christopher; Davidson, John; Kinman, Christin; Kenney, P. Brett; Bæverfjord, Grete; Summerfelt, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRASs), it was observed that Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRASs exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side swimming (i.e., controlled, forward swimming but with misaligned orientation such that the fish's sagittal axis is approximately parallel to the horizontal plane). To further our understanding of this abnormality, a substudy was conducted wherein side swimmers and n...

  9. Thirty Years of Research on the Application of Cybernetic Methods in Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jens G. Balchen

    2000-01-01

    The paper surveys the research activities at the Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, in the application of cybernetic principles in fisheries technology, aqua-culture technology and ocean ranching during the period 1969-1999. It is believed that the results obtained in these activities will have an impact upon the future developments in one of the most important sectors of the Norwegian economy. Numerous reports and publica...

  10. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Integration of aquaculture and agriculture: a route to sustainable farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lightfoot, C. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    The integration of agriculture and aquaculture as a means of intensifying resource use and improving the productivity of many current farming practices in Southeast Asian and African countries is discussed. A brief account is given of work undertaken by ICLARM in Malawi and India regarding the improved use of marginal lands to integrate crops, vegetables, trees, livestock and fish, outlining also the various problems involved in the extension of such integrated fish farming systems.

  12. In situ estimation of water quality parameters in freshwater aquaculture ponds using hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Croxton, Matthew; Pande-Chettri, Roshan; Toor, Gurpal S.; Smith, Scot; Hill, Jeffrey

    Knowledge of water quality parameters is integral to sustainability of freshwater aquaculture operations that raise ornamental fish. Our objective in this study is to evaluate the ability of a mobile, ground-based hyperspectral (HS) imaging sensor to determine chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in working aquaculture ponds, which represent manipulated, shallow, nutrient-rich systems, and to determine the effect of using submerged reflectance targets on the accuracy of Chl-a estimation. We collected Chl-a measurements from aquaculture ponds ranging from 0.8 to 494 μg/L. Chl-a measurements showed a strong correlation with two-band and three-band spectral indices computed from the HS image reflectance. Coefficient of determination ( R2) values of 0.975 and 0.982 were obtained for the two- and three-band models, respectively, using spectra captured from the submerged target at 10 cm depth. Using spectra captured from water (no submerged targets), R2 values were slightly lower at 0.833 and 0.862 for two- and three-band models. Data from the submerged target at 30 cm depth had the lowest correlation with measured chlorophyll-a concentrations, potentially due to variations in water column properties and shadows cast by the platform. Modeling total Phosphorous (P) and Nitrogen (N) concentrations of the collected samples with the spectral indices sensitive to Chl-a concentrations showed a moderate level of correlation. Removing a model outlier (observation with maximum N and P concentrations) led to a significant increase in the models' coefficient of determination ( e.g. from 0.478 to 0.823 for the P model using three-band index values), which highlighted the possibility of using HS imagery to estimate N and P concentrations and the need for more research to model the interrelationships between Chl-a and nutrient concentrations in aquaculture water systems.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Three Biofilter Types Treating Wastewater Produced in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Antar Gamble

    1999-01-01

    Nine recirculating systems at the Virginia Tech Aquaculture Center were placed on line and stocked with yellow perch, Perca flavescens, fingerlings. Fish were stocked at a density of approximately 455 fish m-3. Biofilter types were the only factor differing among system designs and were an upflow pulsed bed bead filter, packed tower trickling filter and a rotating biological contactor (RBC). After stocking, systems were allowed to acclimate using ammonia excreted by the yellow perch. Foll...

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE BIOFILTER TYPES TREATING WASTEWATER PRODUCED IN RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Antar Gamble

    2000-01-01

    Nine recirculating systems at the Virginia Tech Aquaculture Center were placed on line and stocked with yellow perch, Perca flavescens, fingerlings. Fish were stocked at a density of approximately 455 fish m-3. Biofilter types were the only factor differing among system designs and were an upflow pulsed bed bead filter, packed tower trickling filter and a rotating biological contactor (RBC). After stocking, systems were allowed to acclimate using ammonia excreted by the yellow perch. Foll...

  15. Semigroup analysis of structured populations with distributed states-at-birth arising in mathematical aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, József Z.; Green, Darren; Hinow, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the modelling of structured parasite populations in aquaculture we consider a class of physiologically structured population models, where individuals may be recruited into the population at different sizes in general. That is, we consider a size-structured population model with distributed states-at-birth. The mathematical model which describes the evolution of such a population is a first order nonlinear partial integro-differential equation of hyperbolic type. First, we use po...

  16. FAO FishCode Aquatic Commons: improving information for responsible fisheries and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Jean (FAO); Reynolds, Eric

    2007-01-01

    FishCode was established by FAO as a programme of global partnerships to promote application of the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and related international fisheries instruments. Aquatics Commons, a program of IAMSLIC, is one of several initiatives that can support the FischCode goals of improving access to fisheries and aquaculture management information and ensure equal participation by developing countries in global information mainstreaming. (Leaflet)

  17. Dioxin and furan levels in feedingstuffs used in Spanish turbot aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrado, C.; Quintela, C.; Blanco, L.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Vieites, J.M. [ANFACO-CECOPESCA, Vigo (Spain); Cabaleiro, S. [CETGA, Riveira (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    At the end of 90's we have attended several cases of contamination by ''dioxins'' that have damaged food image and have focused consumer attention on these polluting agents. Very recently a new mediatic alert affected the consumer safety perception of both wild and farmed salmon. This and other studies point to feedinstuffs as the key to control the risks associated to contamination of aquacultured fish. Persistent Organic Pollutants in feedingstuffs could be caused by inadequately treatment or enriched them with unsuitable materials as it has been happening in previous episodes like in 1999 in Belgium where the feeding stuffs consumed by farm animals showing high dioxin levels or another one in Spain in 2000 known as ''coline chloride'' which is an habitual component in feeding stuffs manufactured. But the main reason is that fish feedingstuffs are made mainly from fish oil and fish meal, being fish fat one of the main components where dioxins and furans are accumulated due bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the aquatic environment. Spain is a world-leader in turbot aquaculture due to the optimal conditions of the sea water of the northwest of the country. The aim of this project is to study the levels of dioxin and furans in commercial feedingstuffs used in Spain for turbot aquaculture.

  18. Use of UASB reactors for brackish aquaculture sludge digestion under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyan, Natella; Gross, Amit

    2013-05-15

    Treatment and disposal of high volume of salty waste production in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) is a major challenge and the sludge is often a source of environmental pollution and salinization of receiving soils and water bodies. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient mean for the treatment of wastes of different origins and might serve a useful tool for the reduction of salty aquaculture discharge load. Use of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for digestion of brackish aquaculture sludge from RASs under different C:N ratios, temperatures, and hydraulic retention times demonstrated high removal efficiencies of over 92% as volatile solids (VS), 98% as chemical oxygen demand and 81% as total suspended solids in all reactors. Methane production topped 7.1 mL/gVS d and was limited by low C:N ratio but was not influenced by temperature fluctuations. The treated liquid effluent from all reactors was of sufficient quality for reuse in the RAS, leading to significant water recycling and saving rates. UASB may be an attractive solution for brackish sludge management in RASs.

  19. In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Caralt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of the most reliable methods to supply pharmaceutical companies with sufficient quantities of the target compound. In this study, we focus on the aquaculture of the sponge Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862, which produces avarol, a sterol with interesting pharmaceutical attributes. The soft consistency of this species makes the traditional culture method based on holding explants on ropes unsuitable. We have tested alternative culture methods for D. avara and optimized the underwater structures to hold the sponges to be used in aquaculture. Explants of this sponge were mounted on horizontal ropes, inside small cages or glued to substrates. Culture efficiency was evaluated by determination of sponge survival, growth rates, and bioactivity (as an indication of production of the target metabolite. While the cage method was the best method for explant survival, the glue method was the best one for explant growth and the rope method for bioactivity.

  20. Toxicity of three antibiotics used in aquaculture on the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin Butch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Seoane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture facilities are a potential source of antibiotics to the aquatic ecosystems. The presence of these compounds in the environment may have deleterious effects on non-target aquatic organisms such as microalgae, which are often used as biological indicators of pollution. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity induced by chloramphenicol (CHL, florfenicol (FLO and oxytetracycline (OTC, three antibiotics widely used in aquaculture, on the marine microalgae Tetraselmis suecica, a species also used in aquacultural practices. Toxicity was evaluated taking into account alterations on growth and cellular viability and activity, being these parameters monitored using flow cytometry technique. Results showed that all three antibiotics assayed inhibit growth of T. suecica with 96 h IC50 values of 11.16, 9.03 and 17.25 mg l-1 for CHL, FLO and OTC, respectively. After 24 hours of exposure, the integrity of the cell membrane, related with cellular viability and assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI, was not altered; therefore cells remained viable. However, FLO and OTC were found to significant reduce the metabolic activity at higher concentrations assayed, as indicated the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA. Since growth inhibition and significant physiological alterations were observed, it can be concluded that T. suecica was sensitive to the three antibiotics tested, thus the use of these antibiotics should be carefully monitored to reduce the potential risk of contamination of the marine environment.

  1. Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yflin@ms12.hinet.net; Jing, S.-R. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Lee, D.-Y. [Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-F. [Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China); Shih, K.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2005-04-01

    A water treatment unit, mainly consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland cells, was integrated into a commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture system for intensive shrimp culture. This study investigated performance of the treatment wetlands for controlling water quality. The results showed that the FWS-SF cells effectively removed total suspended solids (55-66%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (37-54%), total ammonia (64-66%) and nitrite (83-94%) from the recirculating water under high hydraulic loading rates (1.57-1.95 m/day). This led to a water quality that was suitable for shrimp culture and effluent that always satisfied the discharge standards. The area ratios of wetlands to culture tank being demonstrated (0.43) and calculated (0.096) in this study were both significantly lower than the reported values. Accordingly, a constructed wetland was technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive aquaculture system. - A constructed wetland was found to be technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system.

  2. A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring an Aquaculture Recirculating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Espinosa-Faller

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ZigBee wireless sensor network was developed for monitoring an experimental aquaculture recirculating system.Temperature, dissolved oxygen, water and air pressure as well as electric current sensors were included in the setup.The high fish densities required in these systems to become economically viable present a case where sensornetworks can be applied to preserve a healthy livestock and to reduce the risk of failures that end up in the loss ofproduction. Modules for reading and transmitting sensor values through a ZigBee wireless network were developedand tested. The modules were installed in an aquaculture recirculating system to transmit sensor values to thenetwork coordinator. A monitoring program was created in order to display and store sensor values and to comparethem with reference limits. An alert is emitted in case reference limits have been reached. E-mail and an SMSmessage alert can also be sent to the cellular phone of the system administrator, so immediate action can be taken. Aweb interface allows Internet access to the sensor values. The present work demonstrates the applicability of ZigBeewireless sensor network technology to aquaculture recirculating systems.

  3. Potential of Constructed Wetlands for Removal of Antibiotics from Saline Aquaculture Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bôto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the potential of constructed wetlands (CWs for removal of antibiotics (enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline and antibiotic resistant bacteria from saline aquaculture wastewaters. Removal of other contaminants (nutrients, organic matter and metals and toxicity reduction and the influence of antibiotics with these processes were evaluated. Thus, nine CWs microcosms, divided into three treatments, were assembled and used to treat wastewater (doped or not with the selected antibiotics between October and December of 2015. Each week treated wastewater was removed and new wastewater (doped or not was introduced in CWs. Results showed >99% of each antibiotic was removed in CWs. After three weeks of adaptation, removal percentages >95% were also obtained for total bacteria and for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Nutrients, organic matter and metal removal percentages in CWs treated wastewater were identical in the absence and in the presence of each antibiotic. Toxicity in treated wastewaters was significantly lower than in initial wastewaters, independently of antibiotics presence. Results showed CWs have a high efficiency for removing enrofloxacin or oxytetracycline as well as antibiotic resistant bacteria from saline aquaculture wastewaters. CWs can also remove other contaminants independently of drug presence, making the aquaculture wastewater possible to be reutilized and/or recirculated.

  4. Virome-associated antibiotic-resistance genes in an experimental aquaculture facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Stefano; Arioli, Stefania; Guglielmetti, Simone; Lunelli, Fernando; Mora, Diego

    2016-03-01

    We report the comprehensive characterization of viral and microbial communities within an aquaculture wastewater sample, by a shotgun sequencing and 16S rRNA gene profiling metagenomic approach. Caudovirales had the largest representation within the sample, with over 50% of the total taxonomic abundance, whereas approximately 30% of the total open reading frames (ORFs) identified were from eukaryotic viruses (Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae). Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) within the virome accounted for 0.85% of the total viral ORFs and showed a similar distribution both in virome and in microbiome. Among the ARGs, those encoding proteins involved in the modulation of antibiotic efflux pumps were the most abundant. Interestingly, the taxonomy of the bacterial ORFs identified in the viral metagenome did not reflect the microbial taxonomy as deduced by 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun metagenomic analysis. A limited number of ARGs appeared to be mobilized from bacteria to phages or vice versa, together with other bacterial genes encoding products involved in general metabolic functions, even in the absence of any antibiotic treatment within the aquaculture plant. Thus, these results confirm the presence of a complex phage-bacterial network in the aquaculture environment.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of metal based nanoparticles against microbes associated with diseases in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, P; Nayak, S K; Sasmal, A; Behera, T; Barik, S K; Swain, S K; Mishra, S S; Sen, A K; Das, J K; Jayasankar, P

    2014-09-01

    The emergence of diseases and mortalities in aquaculture and development of antibiotics resistance in aquatic microbes, has renewed a great interest towards alternative methods of prevention and control of diseases. Nanoparticles have enormous potential in controlling human and animal pathogens and have scope of application in aquaculture. The present investigation was carried out to find out suitable nanoparticles having antimicrobial effect against aquatic microbes. Different commercial as well as laboratory synthesized metal and metal oxide nanoparticles were screened for their antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacterial and fungal agents including certain freshwater cyanobacteria. Among different nanoparticles, synthesized copper oxide (CuO), zinc oxide (ZnO), silver (Ag) and silver doped titanium dioxide (Ag-TiO2) showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity. On the contrary, nanoparticles like Zn and ZnO showed antifungal activity against fungi like Penicillium and Mucor species. Since CuO, ZnO and Ag nanoparticles showed higher antimicrobial activity, they may be explored for aquaculture use.

  6. Hydrocyclonic separation of invasive New Zealand mudsnails from an aquaculture water source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, R. Jordan; Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, NZMS) have infested freshwater aquaculture facilities in the western United States and disrupted stocking or fish transportation activities because of the risk of transporting NZMS to naive locations. We tested the efficacy of a gravity-fed, hydrocyclonicseparation system to remove NZMS from an aquaculture water source at two design flows: 367 L/min and 257 L/min. The hydrocyclone effectively filtered all sizes of snails (including newly emerged neonates) from inflows. We modeled cumulative recovery of three sizes of snails, and determined that both juvenile and adult sized snails were transported similarly through the filtration system, but the transit of neonates was faster and similar to the transport of water particles. We found that transit times through the filtration system were different between the two flows regardless of snail size, and the hydrocyclone filter operated more as a plug flow system with dispersion, especially when transporting and removing the larger sized adult and juvenile sized snails. Our study supports hydrocyclonic filtration as an important tool to provide snail free water for aquaculture operations that require uninfested water sources.

  7. Evidence for anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in freshwater sediments of aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Ruan, Yun-jie; Xu, Xiang-hua; Li, Ji; Ma, Shi-jie; Zheng, Pei-hui

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, which can simultaneously remove ammonium and nitrite, both toxic to aquatic animals, can be very important to the aquaculture industry. Here, the presence and activity of anammox bacteria in the sediments of four different freshwater aquaculture ponds were investigated by using Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing, quantitative PCR assays and (15)N stable isotope measurements. Different genera of anammox bacteria were detected in the examined pond sediments, including Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia and Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, with Candidatus Brocadia being the dominant anammox genus. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria ranged from 5.6 × 10(4) to 2.1 × 10(5) copies g(-1) sediment in the examined ponds. The potential anammox rates ranged between 3.7 and 19.4 nmol N2 g(-1) sediment day(-1), and the potential denitrification rates varied from 107.1 to 300.3 nmol N2 g(-1) sediment day(-1). The anammox process contributed 1.2-15.3% to sediment dinitrogen gas production, while the remainder would be due to denitrification. It is estimated that a total loss of 2.1-10.9 g N m(-2) per year could be attributed to the anammox process in the examined ponds, suggesting that this process could contribute to nitrogen removal in freshwater aquaculture ponds.

  8. Growing, losing or introducing? Cage aquaculture as a vector for the introduction of non-native fish in Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Monteiro de Azevedo-Santos; Odila Rigolin-Sá; Fernando Mayer Pelicice

    2011-01-01

    Cage aquaculture has been developed in many countries, including Brazil. This form of production, although economically productive, may cause several impacts to the environment. Considering the historical relationship between aquaculture and species introduction, our study investigated the potential of cage aquaculture in spreading non-native species into hydroelectric reservoirs. We interviewed 19 fish farmers in Furnas Reservoir, Grande River basin. All producers have grown exclusively Nile...

  9. Reproduction, maturation, and seed production of cultured species: Proceedings of the Twelfth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, October 25-29, 1983

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun during t...

  10. Proceedings of the Seventh U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Marine Finfish Culture, Tokyo, Japan, October 3-4, 1978

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was started by ...

  11. Marine Ranching: Proceedings of the Seventeenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture Ise, Mie Prefecture, Japan October 16, 17, and 18, 1988, Satellite Symposium: October 20

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun durin...

  12. Marine farming and enhancement: Proceedings of the Fifteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan October 22-23, 1986

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun du...

  13. How can plant genetic engineering contribute to cost-effective fish vaccine development for promoting sustainable aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Lössl, Andreas G; Martinussen, Inger; Daniell, Henry

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture, the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 % of the world's food fish (FAO in The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Rome, 2010). The global aquaculture production of food fish reached 62.7 million tonnes in 2011 and is continuously increasing with an estimated production of food fish of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012 (a 9.4 % increase in 1 year, FAO, www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16140 ). Aquaculture is not only important for sustainable protein-based food fish production but also for the aquaculture industry and economy worldwide. Disease prevention is the key issue to maintain a sustainable development of aquaculture. Widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, resulting in water and soil pollution. Thus, vaccination is the most effective and environmentally-friendly approach to combat diseases in aquaculture to manage fish health. Furthermore, when compared to >760 vaccines against human diseases, there are only about 30 fish vaccines commercially available, suggesting the urgent need for development and cost-effective production of fish vaccines for managing fish health, especially in the fast growing fish farming in Asia where profit is minimal and therefore given high priority. Plant genetic engineering has made significant contributions to production of biotech crops for food, feed, valuable recombinant proteins etc. in the past three decades. The use of plants for vaccine production offers several advantages such as low cost, safety and easy scaling up. To date a large number of plant-derived vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins have been produced for human health, of which a few have been made commercially available. However, the development of animal vaccines in plants, especially fish vaccines by genetic engineering, has not yet been addressed. Therefore, there is a need to exploit

  14. Towards environmentally sustainable aquaculture: Exploiting fermentation products from anaerobic sludge digestion for fueling nitrate removal in RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food production sector (FAO, 2007). The continuous growth in many countries, however, relies heavily on the ability to reduce the emission of nutrients and chemicals from the fish farms. A way to manage and treat the nutrient aquaculture wastes is by pro......Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food production sector (FAO, 2007). The continuous growth in many countries, however, relies heavily on the ability to reduce the emission of nutrients and chemicals from the fish farms. A way to manage and treat the nutrient aquaculture wastes...... is by production in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In Denmark, more than 50 % of total fresh-water rainbow trout production is made in semi-intensive RAS, called ModelTroutFarms (MTF). MTF efficiently removes organic matter (93%), phosphorous (76%), and nitrogen (50%) (Svendsen et al., 2008). This makes...... storage basins, to fuel denitrification in specific denitrification filters. In experimental filters (5.5 m3) nitrate-containing outlet water was mixed with drainage water from the sludge storage basins according to a factorial design varying C/N ratio from 4 to 12 (CODs /NO3-N) and hydraulic retention...

  15. Spatial analysis of potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic in aquacultural tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in blackfoot disease hyperendemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lin, Kao-Hung; Huang, Feng-Mei; Wang, Sheng-Wei

    2006-03-01

    This work analyzed spatially potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic (As) contents in aquacultural tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in coastal regions of southwestern Taiwan, where the blackfoot disease prevails. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was used to reproduce As exposure distributions in groundwater based on their three-dimensional variability. A target cancer risk (TR) associated with ingesting As in aquacultural tilapia was calculated to evaluate the potential risk to human health. Owing to sparse measured data, Monte Carlo simulation and SIS properly accounted for the uncertainty of assessed parameters. The probabilistic risk assessment formulated suitable strategies under various remedial stages. Aquacultural regions with high risks were mapped to elucidate the safety of groundwater use at different depths. Many TRs determined from the risks at the 75th and 95th percentiles exceed one millionth in the regions, indicating that ingesting tilapia farmed in the highly As-polluted regions poses potential cancer threats to human health. The 75th percentile of TR is considered in formulating a remedial strategy for the aquacultural use of groundwater in the preliminary stage. Additionally, this study suggests reducing the use of groundwater in aquaculture or changing the depths from which groundwater is withdrawn in the areas with high risks of cancer.

  16. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  17. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection and identification of aquaculture pathogens: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Gouranga; Sakai, Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Since its invention in 2000, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been one of the most extensively used molecular diagnostic tools in bio-medical fields due to the rapidity, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness of the technique. This technique has also earned popularity in aquaculture disease diagnosis. Aquaculture, as a result of its rapid intensification and expansion, experiences increased infectious disease occurrences. For maintenance of economic viability, rapid, sensitive and efficient diagnosis of disease causing agents is an important step prior to undertaking effective prevention and control measures in aquaculture. Constraints on time and expertise required for conventional biochemical, serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques offer avenues in adoption of the LAMP by the aquaculturists at field conditions. This assay has been successfully applied in detection of several bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens causing serious diseases in aquaculture. In this review, we endeavored to accommodate the LAMP methodology with its different recent improvements and an overview of its application for the detection of aquaculture-associated pathogens.

  18. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Helene Marie Schmitt

    Full Text Available Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12 and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20 were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  19. Nutrients' removal from aquaculture wastewater using the macroalgae Gracilaria birdiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho-Soriano, E.; Nunes, S.O.; Carneiro, M.A.A.; Pereira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto. de Oceanografia e Limnologia, Via Costeira, Praia de Mae Luiza, s/n, Natal, RN 59014-100 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Intensive aquaculture releases large amount of nutrients into aquatic ecosystems and can lead to eutrophication of coastal waters. Studies conducted in aquaculture systems have demonstrated that the seaweeds are efficient in reducing nutrients and at the same time provides extra income, when species of economic importance are used. This study was conducted to evaluate whether Gracilaria birdiae could be cultivated efficiently for the production of useful algal biomass and removal of nutrients from shrimp pond effluents. The results obtained showed a gradual increase in biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) over the experimental period. Mean RGR between the weeks varied significantly (p < 0.01), reaching a maximum of 3.6 {+-} 0.35% d{sup -1} and a minimum of 1.6 {+-} 0.52% d{sup -1}. The mean for the whole period was 2.6% d{sup -1}. The biofiltration capacity of G. birdiae was confirmed by the significantly reduced concentration of the three nutrients analyzed (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}) over the study period. The concentration of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} decreased by 93.5%, NH{sub 4}{sup +} by 34% and NO{sub 3}{sup -} by 100% after the 4-week experimental period. The results obtained in this study indicated that G. birdiae can be used in aquaculture systems as a biofilter. In addition, the macroalgae biomass produced offers alternative source of raw material for the extraction of the phycocolloid agar, human food and animal feed. (author)

  20. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. PMID:26258557

  1. Removal efficiency and balance of nitrogen in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Cheng, Shui P; He, Feng; Wu, Zhen B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) balance for aquaculture is an important aspect, especially in China, and it is attributed to the eutrophication in many freshwater bodies. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and ecosystem restoration. A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) consisting of CWs and 4 fish ponds was set up in Wuhan, China. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings were fed for satiation daily for 168 days with 2 diets containing 5.49 % and 6.53 % nitrogen, respectively. The objectives of this study were to investigate the N budget in the RAS, and try to find out the feasibility of controlling N accumulation in the fish pond. It is expected that the study can provide a mass balance for the fate of N in the eco-friendly treatment system to avoid eutrophication. The results showed that the removal rates of ammonia (NH(+)(4)-N), sum of nitrate & nitrite (NO(-)(X)-N), and total nitrogen (TN) by the CWs were 20-55%, 38-84 % and 39-57 %, respectively. Denitrification in the CWs was the main pathway of nitrogen loss (41.67 %). Nitrogen accumulation in pond water and sediment accounted for 3.39 % and 12.65 % of total nitrogen loss, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency and budget showed that the CW could be used to control excessive nitrogen accumulation in fish ponds. From the viewpoint of the nitrogen pollution control, the RAS combined with the constructed wetland can be applied to ensure the sustainable development for aquaculture. PMID:21644158

  2. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve.

  3. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account.

  4. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  5. Effect of Changes in Seasonal Rain Regime on Coastal Ecosystem Structure and Aquaculture Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimo, S.; Melaku Canu, D.; Libralato, S.; Cossarini, G.; Giorgi, F.

    2008-12-01

    A downscaling experiment linked climate forcing produced by a Regional Climate Model for Europe to a 3D high resolution coupled transport biogeochemical model for the Lagoon of Venice, which in turn forced: a) a food web model for evaluation of cascading effects on ecosystem structure and b) a population dynamic bioenergetic filter feeders bivalvae model for evaluation of effects on aquaculture activities. The hierarchy of models was used to compare result for a reference situation (RF, 1961-1990) with results for two future IPCC scenarios (2071-2100), representing market oriented and local sustainability policies (scenarios A2 and B2, respectively). Future climate projections suggest that, locally, annual mean rain will not change much but the seasonal patterns will likely do so. Summer and spring will be more dry and winter and autumn more rainy. This will potentially increase winter nutrient concentrations but -because of unfavourable timing - primary and secondary productions will decrease, and nutrient surplus will be exported from the Lagoon of Venice to the Adriatic Sea. The impacts on higher trophic levels could be softened thanks to presence of alternative energy pathways and role of omnivory. However, in our future scenario of the lagoon food web the suitability for higher trophic level organisms seems lower. A more detailed analysis on clam aquaculture indicates that this activity will suffer the decrease of primary productivity, and point to the need of implementation of proper aquaculture management policies. In the light of adaptive management. These policies cannot be a straightfoward extrapolation of present practises, but need to be defined basing on future conditions.

  6. [Influence of Marine Aquaculture Around Coal Power Plant on Mercury Species Change in Auuatic Ecological Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Wang, Yuan-na; You, Qiong-zhi; Gao, Xue-fei; He, Shan-shan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the influence of marine aquaculture around coal power plant on Hg species change in aquatic ecological environment, the fish farming area in Xiangshan Harbor, Zhejiang province, was studied. The concentrations of different Hg species in sea water collected from marine aquaculture sites (MS) and references sites (RS) were measured. The result showed that the total mercury (THg) concentration in the surface water reached 83.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 97.1 pmol x L(-1). Dissolved Hg (DHg) in pore water of core sediment decreased with the increasing depth. Meanwhile, the DHg content in pore water above 10 cm was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that below 10 cm, which confirmed the influence of coal-fired power plants on the surrounding areas. THg concentration in MS (96.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 133 pmol x L(-1)) was higher than that in RS (69.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 39.4 pmol x L(-1)), which was mainly resulted from the accumulation of sewage discharge by the employees and fish feed material in sediments during breeding that were further released to the overlying water. Methylmercury concentration in pore water of MS (24.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 16.7 pmol x L(-1)) was also significantly higher than that in RS (6.60 pmol x L(-1) +/- 5.11 pmol x L(-1)), which demonstrated that marine aquaculture activities promoted the methylmercury production by increasing the accumulation of organic matter in sediment. PMID:26592015

  7. The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery

  8. Predictive model of food intake of the Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax in closed aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish feeding is the main source of waste in aquaculture and is also responsible for most of the environmental impacts derived from this activity. The European Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax is one of the most farmed fishes in the continent, generating an important load of waste on the environment. The consumption of food in fishes is highly dependent on the water temperature and salinity, which create a source of variability on the amount of the ration consumed by fishes. This issue is often neglected by farmers, which aggravates the ration waste. The use of models in aquaculture is increasing in the recent years, and is an excellent tool to combine an increased production with the mitigation of environmental impacts. In this context, this study aimed at developing a predictive model of the D. labrax consumption rate in closed aquaculture systems. Based on the literature review we were able to develop a conceptual diagram and a prototype of the model using the STELLA software (isee®. The preliminary results indicated that the model was capable of predicting the ration consumption of the D. labrax according to the oscillations in the water temperature and salinity. The consumption rate and growth were higher at 21ºC and with a salinity of 28 psu. Laboratory assays are need to validate the models outputs, and they are scheduled to start in October 2015. Finally, the model’s structure, equations, inputs and outputs were integrated into an easy-to-use software developed by the FoodInTech® company, that will help farmers to increase their yields and reduce the waste of ration and the nutrient load on the environment.

  9. Program to monitor and evaluate a passive solar greenhouse/aquaculture system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A temperature monitoring program of Amity's solar greenhouse demonstrated that air, soil, and water temperatures can be maintained at optimal levels without supplemental heat. A foil reflector placed in front of the greenhouse glazing at an angle of between 0 and 5/sup 0/ above horizontal enhanced direct light entering the greenhouse by as much as 22%. Aquaculture in the water heat storage of a solar greenhouse has been a success. Fish reached harvest size in about seven months. The two species that were received the best by the public were African perch (Tilapia mossambica) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Although carp (Cyprinus carpio) were the fastest growers they were not well received by the public. Linking hydroponics to greenhouse aquaculture shows a lot of promise. Different support medias were examined and tomatoes and European cucumbers were raised successfully. A savonius windmill was successfully linked to an aquaculture aeration system but because of the wind pattern in the Willamette valley the windmill system did not provide air in the evening when it was needed most. Alternate designs are discussed. Locally grown fish diets were evaluated for their ability to promote fish growth. Diets such as water hyacinth, duckweed, earthworms, beans, and comfrey were raised on the Amity site, pelleted with a hand grinder and solar dried. Duckweed and earthworms appear to hold promise for a nutritous, easy to grow and pelletize, food source. Amity's solar greenhouse, three coldframe designs and a PVC tunnel cloche were compared in a vegetable growing trial. Most impressive was the cloche design because it provided adequate protection, was inexpensive and very easy to build.

  10. Use of Barley for the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater in a Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley was examined for its ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. The effects of seed sterilization using ethanol and bleach and seed density on germination and plant growth were investigated. Surface sterilization of barley seeds had a negative impact on germination. Increasing the ethanol concentration and/or the bleach concentration reduced the germination percentage. Barley seeds were first germinated in water in the hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency or disease. The average crop height at harvest was 25.5 cm and the yield varied from 25 to 59 t haˉ1, depending on the seed density. The hydroponically grown barley was able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N, and PO43--P reductions ranged from 52.7 to 60.5%, from 72.9 to 83.1%, from 76.0 to 76.0%, from 97.6 to 99.2%, from 76.9 to 81.6% and from 87.1 to 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent produced from the hydroponics system had slightly higher levels of TS (420-485 mg Lˉ1 than the 480 mg Lˉ1 recommended for aquatic animals. A sedimentation/filtration unit should be added to the hydroponics system.

  11. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  12. Characteristics of Dominant Microflora in Aquaculture Tanks of Juvenile Red Frog Crab, Ranina ranina

    OpenAIRE

    サン, ピューピュー; 坂田, 泰造; 浜田, 和久; 今泉, 圭之輔; サカタ, タイゾウ; ハマダ, カズヒサ; イマイズミ, ケイノスケ; Than, Phyu Phyu; SAKATA, Taizo; Hamada, Kazuhisa; Imaizumi, Keinosuke

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial counts and dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crabs were compared in various culture conditions. Survival rates of juvenile crabs decreased drastically after zoea 5 stage in 30 l or 500 l culture tanks with 3 or 9 turns per 15 h of seawater exchange. In general, 10^4 to 10^5 cfu/ml of viable bacterial counts in seawater of culture tanks were obtained on Z-CII agar plates. Swarming colonies were commonly found in about one tenth level of total colony counts...

  13. Private incentives for the emergence of co-production of offshore wind energy and mussel aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Robert M.; Buck, Bela H.; Krause, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    Technological solutions to increase the efficiency of spatial use can play a key role as part of the toolbox of marine spatial planning. Co-locating of multiple ocean uses can potentially increase the production and enjoyment of the ocean while limiting impacts. However, a basic precondition for co-locating or coproduction is that all parties' private incentives are aligned. We use a case study of co-locating an offshore wind energy firm and a mussel aquaculture firm to assess the incentive s...

  14. De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 王增福; 林伟

    2010-01-01

    The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH+4, NOˉ3, NO2ˉ as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 μmol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and c...

  15. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn.) recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair; Sanjib Moulick; Chanchal Kumar Mukherjee; Mohd Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn.) recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS) has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analys...

  16. The influence of pellets quality on the growth of sterlet, in recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Sion; Petronela G. Călin; Lucian Oprea; Aurelia Nica; Gianina M. Băcanu

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of food quality on the breeding of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The experiment took place over 30 days, in four pilot breeding units type aquaria of 300 liters in volume. Two kind of variants were compared, with repetition, V1 with 46% crude protein and V2 with 30% crude protein, respectively. The stocking density was of 14 fish/unit. The same feeding level of 8 g/kg metabolic w...

  17. Thirty Years of Research on the Application of Cybernetic Methods in Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys the research activities at the Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, in the application of cybernetic principles in fisheries technology, aqua-culture technology and ocean ranching during the period 1969-1999. It is believed that the results obtained in these activities will have an impact upon the future developments in one of the most important sectors of the Norwegian economy. Numerous reports and publications are listed in the comprehensive bibliography.

  18. Sea-cage aquaculture, sea lice, and declines of wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, L Neil

    2009-06-01

    A sea cage, sometimes referred to as a net pen, is an enclosure designed to prevent farm fish from escaping and to protect them from large predators, while allowing a free flow of water through the cage to carry away waste. Farm fish thus share water with wild fish, which enables transmission of parasites, such as sea lice, from wild to farm and farm to wild fishes. Sea lice epidemics, together with recently documented population-level declines of wild salmon in areas of sea-cage farming, are a reminder that sea-cage aquaculture is fundamentally different from terrestrial animal culture. The difference is that sea cages protect farm fish from the usual pathogen-control mechanisms of nature, such as predators, but not from the pathogens themselves. A sea cage thus becomes an unintended pathogen factory. Basic physical theory explains why sea-cage aquaculture causes sea lice on sympatric wild fish to increase and why increased lice burdens cause wild fish to decline, with extirpation as a real possibility. Theory is important to this issue because slow declines of wild fish can be difficult to detect amid large fluctuations from other causes. The important theoretical concepts are equilibrium, host-density effect, reservoir-host effect, and critical stocking level of farmed fish (stocking level at which lice proliferate on farm fish even if wild fish are not present to infect them). I explored these concepts and their implications without mathematics through examples from salmon farming. I also considered whether the lice-control techniques used by sea-cage farmers (medication and shortened grow-out times) are capable of protecting wild fish. Elementary probability showed that W ≈ W* - εF (where W is the abundance of wild fish, W* is the prefarm abundance, F is the abundance of farm fish, and ε is the ratio of lice per farm fish to lice per wild fish). Declines of wild fish can be reduced by short growing cycles for farm fish, medicating farm fish, and keeping

  19. Mercury biomagnification in the aquaculture pond ecosystem in the Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Liang, Peng; Shao, Ding-Ding; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Kun-Ci; Li, Kai-Bin; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2011-10-01

    This is the first study to investigate the rate of mercury (Hg) biomagnification in the aquaculture pond ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in various species of fish at different trophic levels (TLs). Species representing a gradient of trophic positions in the aquaculture pond food chains were chosen for analyzing THg and MeHg concentrations. In this study, there were two kinds of the aquaculture pond food chains: (1) omnivorous (fish feeds, zooplankton, grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus], and bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis]) and (2) predatory (zooplankton, mud carp [Cirrhina molitorella], and mandarin fish [Siniperca kneri]). Bighead carp and mandarin fish had the highest MeHg and THg concentrations, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than other species, in their respective food chains. More than 90% of the THg concentrations detected in bighead carp, mandarin fish, and mud carp were in the methylated form. In this study, %MeHg increased with TLs and MeHg concentrations, reflecting that MeHg is the dominant chemical species of Hg accumulated in higher concentrations in biota, especially biota associated with higher TLs in the food chains. The trophic magnification factors were 2.32 and 2.60 for MeHg and 1.94 and 2.03 for THg in omnivorous and predatory food chains, respectively, in PRD. Hg concentrations in fish tissue correlated to Hg levels in the ambient environment, and sediment seemed to be the major source for Hg accumulated in fish. In addition, feeding habit also affected Hg accumulation in different fish species. Four significant linear relationships were obtained between log-THg and δ(15)N and between log-MeHg and δ(15)N. The slope of the regression equations, as biomagnification power, was smaller in magnitude compared with those reported for temperate and arctic marine and freshwater ecosystems, indicating that THg and MeHg biomagnifications were lower in

  20. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (combined production of fish, mussels and seaweed)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    , mineral and vitamin content and profiles were monitored to evaluate the nutritional value and harvest time of the seaweed biomass. Sugarkelp showed to be efficient for bioremediation of nitrogen, with environmental and potentially economic benefits (e.g. waste water management and for production......The Danish marine aquaculture has, despite the huge potential, only been slowly increasing the last 25 years because of the imposed limits to the nitrogen (N) released to the environment. Mussels, seaweed and other organisms have been successfully tested as biofilters in integrated multi...