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  1. Prevalence and factors associated with congenital malformations in Tirana, Albania, during 2011-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çanaku, D.; Toçi, E.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Congenital Malformations (CMs) represent a challenge especially for developing countries. Data about CMs in Albania are rather scarce. In this context, our aim was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with CMs in Tirana, the capital of Albania. METHODS: Information on all CMs at

  2. A faunistic study on ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae in the Tirana district, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiders from the Tirana district of Albania were investigated. Currently, 78 species from 24 families and a collection of 400 specimens from January to August 2010 were recorded for Tirana. A total of 32 new records for the Albanian fauna are included in the present paper. Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878 is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Saitis graecus Kulczyński, 1905 was known before only from Greece and Bulgaria. Presently, 373 spider species are known for Albania.

  3. Academic PHD School at Faculty of Agriculture in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijo, B; Hoda, A; Thamaj, F

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT) is one of 12 public Universities in Albania. There are five Faculties within AUT. The study courses in AUT except of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, are organized in three levels. Courses of the first level offer the fundamental knowledge. The students at the end of this cycle own 180 credits and obtain a first level diploma. In the second level study courses, the students get deeper theoretical and practical knowledge and modules are spread across 120 credits. At the end of this level the students obtain a second level diploma, according to the study course. In FVM, the study courses are organized as integrated program of second level that is spread across 300 credits. The students, who have finished the first level course, may go further in "Master of First level" for a professional training, where they do obtain 60 credits. The program of third cycle includes the courses of "Master of Second level" and the programs of PhD. The course of "Master of second level" is offered to the students who have achieved a Diploma of Second Level, and the students get deeper knowledge of scientific and professional character and do obtain at least 60 credits. PhD programs have totally an academic character. The principal aspect is the research and independent scientific activity. This program can be followed by the students who have a diploma of second level, or a diploma of "Master of Second level". The PhD program is organized in four years. The first year, consists of theoretical knowledge of the students. The second year is mainly research. The third year is research, data manipulation, publications, oral presentations and the last year is compilation of PhD thesis, its presentation and defense. Here is presented newly established doctoral school at Faculty of Agriculture and Environment.

  4. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

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    Valbona Koçi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  5. Osteological proofs of torture and cruelty: forensic findings form a secret cemetery in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinamati, Admir; Tahiri, Anila; Ymaj, Besim; Ismaili, Zija; Vyshka, Gentian; Cipi, Bardhyl

    2011-01-01

    Two decades after the fall of the communism in Albania, documenting the human rights violations and proving torture and cruelties suffered from ex-politically persecuted and dissidents of the regime, is still a societal priority. Due to several reasons, the judicial way toward redressing the historical injustices has been slowed down. This is mainly because of the lack of proper documentation of torture, mass executions and extrajudicial ill-treatment. Several governmental and civil society organizations have tried to define the issue, but perpetrators have rarely, if ever, been brought to court. Secret cemeteries and mass graves have recently been found in different zones of Albania, and victims exhumed; thus proofs of torture and ill-treatments are being made widely known, potentially creating the necessary legal conditions for punishing the perpetrators and for identifying victims. In the present paper, authors describe osteological forensic findings from Linza secret cemetery in Tirana, where several ante mortem fractures prove the severe and cruel ill-treatment the victims suffered before the execution that was usually by bullet shot in the posterior region of the skull.

  6. Prevalence and aetiology of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation among children aged 8-10 years in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, D; Kuscu, O O; Droboniku, E; Toti, C; Xhemnica, L; Caglar, E

    2016-03-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) describes the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralisation of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars (PFMs) that are frequently associated with affected incisors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and aetiology of MIH in children living in Tirana, Albania. The study was conducted at the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, and Tirana Dental Public Health Service. A total of 1,575 school children aged 8-10 years were examined by 7 calibrated examiners (dentists) (kappa: 0.86). The Weerheijm criteria were used for the diagnosis of demarcated opacities, post-eruption breakdown, atypical restorations, and extracted PFMs due to MIH. Prevalence of MIH was found to be 14% (n=227). In the 227 children with MIH, tooth 36 was the most affected PFM, and tooth 46 the least affected. Tooth 21 was the most affected incisor and tooth 32 the least affected incisor by MIH. MIH(+) children had significanly more childhood diseases in the first 3 years of life (p=0.006). Among the children who used antibiotics, MIH(+) cases were 1.41 (1.06-1.87) times higher than in children who did not usedantibiotics, MIH(-) cases. MIH was found to be common among 8-10 year-old Tirana children.

  7. Smart Tirana

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    Antonella Lerario

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Albania represents an interesting case of a newly emerging destination in the international tourist market, with intensive pressures coming from seasonal visit flows and the related impacts on the environment. The Albanian Culture Marketing Strategy, while correctly focusing on heritage for the de-seasoning of visits in congested areas and for awareness-raising about the country’s cultural identity among tourists and residents, presents some limitations in the definition of application patterns and concrete solutions. In particular, the active contribution of potential users, of ICTs and, in particular, the potentialities of widespread tools such as mobile apps seem to be overlooked. In this article, the current scenario of the Albanian tourism sector, with particular emphasis on the cultural segment, is presented through a detailed analysis of relevant program documents in order to outline strengths and weaknesses of the underlying approach. Then, the potential contribution of mobile apps to the sustainable development of destinations are analyzed and the market of available technologies is presented through a taxonomy of a consistent number of representative cases. Finally, the SOS-Tirana app is presented and its adequateness to the context is discussed.

  8. A Study on the Epidemiology and Aetiology of Acute Gastroenteritis in Adult Patients Presenting at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Tirana, Albania

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    Gentian P. Stroni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a common cause of hospital emergency room visits in Albania. However, the aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalization in adults frequently remains unclear. Aims: Our objective was to study the epidemiology and causes of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult patients presenting to hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from January 2010 to January 2012, among patients ≥15 years old with community-acquired gastroenteritis presenting to the emergency room of the University Hospital “Mother Theresa” in Tirana, Albania. Stool samples and rectal swabs were collected from the patients for microbiological testing. Results: The median age of the study patients was 33 (15-88 years and 577 (58% were females. The median age of males was 35 (15-87 years. The vast majority of cases occurred in urban area (849, 85%, p<0.01. Patients were admitted throughout the year with peak admissions for patients infected by bacterial pathogens in summer and those affected by viral pathogens in autumn. A total of 917 (91.7% patients underwent a laboratory examination. The overall isolation rate was 51%. Bacterial pathogens were found in 29%, viral pathogens in 19% and protozoal pathogens in 2.5% of patients. No aetiological agent or other cause of acute diarrhoea was found in 449 (49% patients. Twenty-nine (3.2% patients were hospitalized. Conclusion: Despite extensive laboratory investigations, enteropathogens were detected in only 51% of adult patients who presented to the hospital ER with acute gastroenteritis. Viral infections ranked as the second most common cause of gastroenteritis in adults.

  9. Evaluation of the heating share of household electricity consumption using statistical analysis: a case study of Tirana, Albania

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    Flamur Bidaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania’s residential sector represents a large share of the country’s energy consumption, especially of electric power. Other important characteristics of the sector include fast growing energy demand and a high level of energy losses, which challenge the possibility of sustainable development. A large share of the electricity demand is used for heating purposes – a demand that could potentially be met in a more energy efficient manner. However, the precise portion of electricity used to meet heat needs is unknown. The main objective of this article is thus to determine the share of electricity used for heating in the largest Albanian city Based on a sample of households in Tirana, a statistical model is established and applied to perform a regression analysis to derive an estimation of household electricity demand. The heating share of the domestic electricity consumption is then quantified using additional information validated by actual measurements. The distribution of the electricity consumption data is better understood through an analysis of heat-related electricity consumption. Additionally, the monthly relative share of household electricity consumption reveals the number of households with electricity demand above the monthly 300kWh limit established by the Albanian Energy Regulatory Authority, which must be met in order to avoid triggering a higher electricity tariff. It is suggested that household electricity consumption will continue to grow in the near future, due to rising incomes and changing climatic conditions that are influencing the amount of heat used by Albanians, who rely primarily on electricity to heat their homes.

  10. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant

  11. DNA-PCR systems TH01 and VWA31: population data from Albania and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckenbeck, W; Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Scheffrahn, W

    2000-06-01

    The microsatellite systems TH01 and VWA31 have been typed and analyzed for three populations from Albania (city population of Tirana, and Aromuns from a small-sized village, named Andon Poci, near Gjirokaster) and Romania (city population of Constanta). The genetic data have been compared with other, particularly South-Eastern European population.

  12. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

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    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  13. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ESTABLISHING HOLOCAUST STUDY IN ALBANIA

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    Efrat KEDEM-TAHAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute a practical study model based on long term, deep, mainly historical studies about the Holocaust inAlbania. A similar model has already existed forthe eight years in Bucharest, Romania. Based on its advantages and the needs in Albania I built a new model. The article describes the relevanthistorical backgroundand raised the humanistic questions that have interested and challenged many historians over the last 20 years.The article is based on theoretical methods from other fields and integrates them into the original model. The model is divided into two parts that are interdependent. The conclusion and discussion summarize all the factors in order to convince the Albanian Ministry of Education and University of Tirana to adopt its idea.

  14. Mobility, Equity and Sustainability Today in Tirana

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    Dorina Pojani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the development of transport inequalities in Tirana during its rapid population and economic growth since the fall of communism in 1990. The first part provides background on the development of Tirana and its urban travel systems, in an effort to take a step towards filling the research void on this city. Tirana’s case is particularly interesting because during communism private car ownership was prohibited and there were virtually no cars on the streets. Subsequently, when the population acquired wealth and personal freedom, the city grew substantially in all directions and was invaded by car traffic. The second part of this article analyses the findings of recent transportation surveys, conducted by this author, with a focus on the transport disadvantage that women, children, the poor, the elderly, and the handicapped experience. This discussion is preceded by a brief review of studies reflecting the emergence of concerns about transport inequality issues in other European nations during the past few decades. The article concludes with policy recommendations based on public opinions on transport issues, collected through the author’s surveys.

  15. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

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    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    positive relation with profitability (ROA/ROE but statistically insignificant for the model. [1] According to the Bank of Albania, in December 2014, banks in the Albanian sector are divided by size of activity: 1 The bank group 1 (0-2% of total banking sector assets include United Bank of Albania, Veneto Bank, International Commercial Bank, First Investment Bank, Credit Bank of Albania; 2 The bank group 2 (2-7% of total banking sector assets include Procredit Bank, Credit Agricole Bank, National Bank of Greece, Societe Generale Bank - Albania, Alpha Bank - Albania, Union Bank; and 3 The banks group 3 (about 7% of total banking sector assets include Raiffeisen Bank, Credins Bank, National Commercial Bank, Intesa Sanpaolo Bank-Albania, Tirana Bank.

  16. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  17. Trends and demographic characteristics of hemorrhagic stroke in Albania during the period 2004-2015

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    Petrit Gjorgji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim was to describe the trend over time and the demographic distribution of hemorrhagic stroke in Albania in the past decade. Methods: This study included all patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke and admitted during the period 2004-2015 at the University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa” in Tirana (988 cases overall; 34% women; overall mean age: 57.8±19.3 years. Information about selected demographic characteristics was also collected for all study participants.   Results: The proportion of older patients (≥70 years was slightly, but not significantly, higher in women than in men (32% vs. 27%, respectively; P=0.163. Furthermore, the proportion of Tirana residents was similar in both sexes (47% in men vs. 45% in women. Overall, there was evidence of a significant linear trend over time (Mann-Kendall test: P<0.01, indicating a gradual increase in the number of hemorrhagic stroke cases in Albania for the period 2004-2015. Conclusion: This study provides useful information about the increasing trend of hemorrhagic stroke in Albania, a transitional country in Southeastern Europe which is characterized by rapid changes including unhealthy dietary habits.

  18. THE STRATIGRAPHIC RECORD OF NEOGENE EVENTS IN THE TIRANA DEPRESSION

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    ROMANO GELATI

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tirana Depression is located in the eastern and inner part of the Periadriatic Depression.It forms an elongated NW-SE oriented structural element,60 km in length, located between the front of west -verging Dinaric structures and the east-verging Paper Rova anticline-Preze homocline alignment, which acted as a back-thrust till post-Pliocene age. Some significant stratigraphic sections were examinated mainly south of Tirana on the eastern and western limbs of a wide syncline.Physical and micropaleontological data, including marker levels,unconformities and planktonic foraminifera content were used to correlate the sections. Two Lithothamnium levels, uppermost Langhian and Serravallian, were esed markers. The generalized occurence of planktonic Foraminifera- bearing mudstones,uppermost Serravallian-Tortonian in age,is interpreted as significant.The Langhian and Serravallian uncoformities, recognizable at the base of the Lithothamnium limestone levels,are thought to be of regional importance. Continental and shallow marine sediments are largely prevailing. Deep-marine sediments are limited to the Oligocene-earliest Miocene and Serravallian-Tortonian p.p., and crop out only along the western margin of the Tirana Depression.The sequence was compared with the Langhian-Tortonian foredeep succession of the Preze homocline,which belongs to the Periadriatic Depression.The Tirana Depression differs from the Periadriatic Depression in the following developmental steps: during the late Oligocene-Aquitanian it can be considered as a narrow unstable shelf, probably forming the eastern margin of the foredeeps; during Burdigalian -early Serravallian time, it behaved as a "thrust sheet top basin", related to the front of west-vergin Dinaric thrust; during the Serravallian-Tortonian it played the role of foreland zone of the backthrust, whose ultimate enucleation is post-Pliocene in age.  

  19. Quality Assessment of Cheese in Markets of Tirana City

    OpenAIRE

    YLLKA ALLARAJ; NEFAIL BIBA; ANJEZA COKU; ELDA ÇUKA

    2014-01-01

    Mycological control of cheese is considered an important process related to food safety. Food borne disease in our days remains an important issue for public health because they causes infection to the consumers and an important economic damage. A mycological survey of different kind of cheeses sold at five big markets in Tirana is conducted during March - Septembre 2013, in order to identify if potentially toxicological and pathogenic fungi were or were not present. A total 140 samples of c...

  20. Public places contamination in Tirana from dogs intensinal geonematodis

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    Violeta Zanaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of infestation of stray dogs that attend public areas of Tirana by geohelminths zoonotic: Toxocara canis (T. canis, Ancylostomatids and Trichuris spp., and indirectly to assess the level of environment contamination by invasive exogenous stages of these parasites. Methods: A total of 240 fecal samples was collected from stray dogs in public three urban areas of Tirana. These samples were analyzed by using the centrifugation-flotation technique. Results: Result showed that 54.6% of the dogs were infested from T. canis, Ancylostomatids (Ancylostoma spp. and Uncinaria spp. and Trichuris spp. Those infested dogs from Ancylostomatids were 37 (15.4%, from T. canis were 47 (19.6% and from Trichuris sp. were 47 (19.6%. Conclusions: Tirana public places are contaminated by exogenous stages of invasive intestinal dog’s geohelminths all through the year. But the contamination level is higher during the spring and autumn and the parks with trees and grass are more polluted than the bare areas. So these environments have become a permanent risk factor of infection from parasitic zoonoses for the humans and animals that frequent those places. It is the duty of local authorities who takes care of legislation compilation, to prevent the public areas to become fecalized from dogs and to implement a plan with different actions to minimize the number of stray dogs.

  1. Correlates of rheumatoid arthritis among women in Albania

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    Julia Kollcaku

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim was to assess the association of rheumatoid arthritis with socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors among women in transitional Albania.      Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012-2013 including a sample of 2198 women aged 30 years and above who attended the Rheumatology services at primary health care clinics in Tirana municipality (mean age: 60.2±9.7 years; overall response rate: 95%. The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was based on the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to all study participants including information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral factors. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of rheumatoid arthritis with covariates. Results: Overall, 437 (19.9% women were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (both incident and prevalent cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, rheumatoid arthritis was positively and significantly related to older age (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.3-2.6, a lower educational attainment (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9, smoking (OR=1.5, 95%CI=1.1-2.0, alcohol intake (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.2-3.1 and overweight and obesity (OR=1.5, 95%CI=1.2-2.0 and OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.2-2.0, respectively.    Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence about selected correlates of rheumatoid arthritis among women attending specialized primary health care services in Albania. Health professionals and policymakers in Albania should be aware of the magnitude and consequences of this chronic condition in the adult population.

  2. African Journals Online: Albania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan, Aland Islands, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antarctica, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas ...

  3. Information literacy in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Basha, Athina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about the Albanian public's understanding and awareness of Information Literacy (IL) and the role of libraries in implementing policies, fostering Life Long Learning (LLL), and IL. Our research, carried out through a questionnaire, targets the national level, but for the purpose of this research , was distributed only in Central Albania. The survey has shown, that the government and its ministries, libraries and universities, lack an understanding of the concept and use of IL. ...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI

    2014-01-01

    Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albani...

  5. Social accounting in Albania

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    Gentiana Filipi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Social accounting is the process of communicating the social and environmental effects of organizations economic actions to particular interest groups within society and to society at large. This research paper is focused on the concepts of social and environmental accounting, viewed as an important part of the Albanian policy preparation for European Union integration. Presently, however, the EU notion of corporate engagement and Social accounting is still a new concept in the region. The paper aims to reveal the Albanian reality, as a country with strong aspiration toward EU. For this purpose we have analysed the main initiatives and projects implemented in the region and in Albania aimed at developing corporate social responsibility (CSR. This paper examines the applicable and relevant paragraphs of the global financial reporting standards (IFRS. The relevant paragraphs for environmental accounting have been analyzed in relation to the environmental financial reporting. We believe that this research may serve as a starting point for further studies on this topic. This paper concludes that social and environmental reporting practices are increasing day by day in the region. In Albania the awareness of CSR and how it can be applied is still quite low, perceived mainly as an opportunity to adopt international standards and engage in environmental protection. Hence we believe that improvements in quality of environmental financial reporting are required.

  6. Social housing and situation of Roma minority in Albania

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    Lindita Xhillari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to social housing is sanctioned as a fundamental human right in a number of international instruments ratified by Albania, but currently this right does not find adequate protection in Albania’s legislation. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Affairs of the United Nations, has set standards concerning the right to adequate housing. The right to social housing should not be equated with having a roof over head, but should be seen as the right to live somewhere safely and with dignity. The right to social housing should be provided to all people regardless of their income and implemented in a manner consistent with their resources. Lack of an adequate legal framework of the right to housing, today has consequences on several issues as for examples the case of the eviction of Roma to the Lake area in Tirana, lack of adequate housing, families with low income, beneficiary families by the aid schemes, homeless women victims of domestic violence, or even the category of tenants housed in former state apartments. Through this paper we will seek to cover many issues and present some recommendations for the improvement and creation of facilities for vulnerable groups such as the Roma minority, in order to meet and set objective standards regarding social housing

  7. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo: Report di un viaggio

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    Renzo Carlucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando la redazione di GeoMedia ha ricevuto l’invito da parte della rete di Impresa GIS Italiana GeoNetCom di partecipare come “osservatore” ad un interessante mercato estero (l’Albania e di verificare come 5 aziende italiane (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I&S Informatica e Servizi Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Sistemi Territoriali srl Pisa e Tecnopiani srl Roma-Chieti e due new entry della rete (MARSec spa Benevento e ISE-Net Torino stanno lavorando insieme per l’internazionalizzazione, l’offerta era troppo ghiotta per rinunciarci, anche perchè per il sottoscritto era l’occasione di rientrare in contatto con Tirana dopo ben 16 anni.5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & KosovoGeoMedia  has  received  an  invitation  from  GeoNetCom, an Italian  network  of  Enterprise  GIS,  to  participate  as  "observ-ers" to a foreign market attractive (Albania and to see how five Italian Companies (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I & S Infor-mation Technology and Services Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Regional Systems srl Rome-Pisa and Infopiani Chieti with two new entries in the network (MARSEC ISE-net spa Benevento and Turin, are working together to bring their activity at the international level in a Country quickly growing as Albania.

  8. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo: Report di un viaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando la redazione di GeoMedia ha ricevuto l’invito da parte della rete di Impresa GIS Italiana GeoNetCom di partecipare come “osservatore” ad un interessante mercato estero (l’Albania e di verificare come 5 aziende italiane (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I&S Informatica e Servizi Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Sistemi Territoriali srl Pisa e Tecnopiani srl Roma-Chieti e due new entry della rete (MARSec spa Benevento e ISE-Net Torino stanno lavorando insieme per l’internazionalizzazione, l’offerta era troppo ghiotta per rinunciarci, anche perchè per il sottoscritto era l’occasione di rientrare in contatto con Tirana dopo ben 16 anni. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo GeoMedia  has  received  an  invitation  from  GeoNetCom, an Italian  network  of  Enterprise  GIS,  to  participate  as  "observ-ers" to a foreign market attractive (Albania and to see how five Italian Companies (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I & S Infor-mation Technology and Services Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Regional Systems srl Rome-Pisa and Infopiani Chieti with two new entries in the network (MARSEC ISE-net spa Benevento and Turin, are working together to bring their activity at the international level in a Country quickly growing as Albania.

  9. Distribution of mammals in Albania

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    Claudio Prigioni

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.

  10. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  11. Primo studio di prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere presso il Centro Ospedaliero Universitario (QSUT di Tirana, Albania: training e studio pilota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Faria

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: training: fornire strumenti conoscitivi ed operativi per svolgere un’indagine di prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere (IO; studio pilota: valutare la qualità dei rilevatori e della scheda di raccolta dati, le problematiche organizzative del QSUT (circa 1.600 posti-letto, l’operatività della microbiologia.

    Metodi: training: destinato a 17 operatori del QSUT, si è svolto in due giorni. Nel primo si sono introdotti i concetti di base della sorveglianza epidemiologica delle IO, nel secondo si è presentato il protocollo dell’indagine di prevalenza, di cui si sono discussi gli aspetti organizzativi. Per valutare l’apprendimento si è somministrato un test in entrata e in uscita, costituito da 10 quiz a risposta multipla. Studio pilota: in un giorno si è sperimentata l’indagine in tre reparti: chirurgia, rianimazione ed ematologia pediatrica.

    Con la scheda predisposta ad hoc e la supervisione dei docenti del corso, i rilevatori hanno raccolto dati dalle cartelle cliniche, visita dei pazienti e chiesto informazioni al personale dei reparti; le IO sospette sono state validate secondo i criteri dei Centers for Disease Control, USA.

    Risultati: training: la proporzione media delle risposte esatte per ogni partecipante è passata dal 54,2% del pre-test al 74,2% del post-test, quella delle risposte esatte per ogni domanda è stata del 57,9% nel pre-test versus l’81,4% del post-test.
    Studio pilota: si sono arruolati 79 pazienti, di cui 49,4% femmine; di età media 36,6 anni; il 58,2% dei pazienti era esposto ad almeno una procedura invasiva, gli operati erano il 65,8% e il 66,7% era in trattamento antibiotico. La prevalenza di pazienti con IO è del 9,3%, quella di IO del 13,9%; nessuna IO ha avuto conferma con esame microbiologico.

    Conclusioni: selezionare meglio i componenti del gruppo di lavoro, apportare modifiche alla scheda di raccolta dati, utilizzare anche il registro operatorio come fonte dei dati, preparare un protocollo per il laboratorio di microbiologia e fornire a questo il materiale necessario, addestrare tre infermiere per la raccolta standard dei campioni microbiologici.

  12. Epidemiology of goiter and benign tumors of the thyroid gland in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruka, Ibrahim; Gjata, Arben; Roshi, Enver

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics and disease patterns among patients with thyroid nodular abnormalities (goiter) and benign tumors of the thyroid gland in Albania, a transitional country in South Eastern Europe. Our study included all patients diagnosed with goiter and/or benign tumors of the thyroid gland who were hospitalized at the University Hospital Center (UHC) "Mother Teresa" in Tirana between 2004 and 2012 (N=2258). All patients underwent the same examination and interviewing procedures. Demographic characteristics included gender, age, and place of residence. Binary logistic regression was used to compare the demographic characteristics between patients with benign tumors of the thyroid gland and those with goiter. Overall, there were 2204 patients with goiter and 54 patients with benign tumors of the thyroid gland hospitalized at UHC over the period 2004-2012. There was no evidence of statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics (age, gender, or place of residence) between patients with benign tumors of the thyroid gland and those with goiter. Our study provides useful evidence on the epidemiology of benign tumors of the thyroid gland and the thyroid nodular abnormalities (goiter) in the Albanian population. Future studies in Albania should assess the main determinants of thyroid gland disorders and compare them with findings pertinent to other similar populations.

  13. A NEGLECTED ZOONOSIS IN ALBANIA: WHY ECHINOCOCCOSIS IS BECOMING A SURGEON’S EXCLUSIVITY?

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    Arben Pilaca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean area, with Albania interested actually to a level that is becoming a public health concern. Authors describe preliminary data from the only tertiary (university medical facility of Albania, positioned in the capital of the country (Tirana, with 333 new cases diagnosed and treated during the period 2005 – 2011. Out of all these 333 new cases an impressive majority of 91% had a surgical treatment right from the first admission, rendering the disease almost a surgical exclusivity. Even more, 80% of all patients from the study group were hospitalized straightforwardly in surgical wards, with options of surgical intervention’s percentages outrunning figures from other sources and authors of the same geographical area. Such a situation, together with a very important level of patients’ origin from highly urbanized areas such as those of the capital, suggest the necessity of well-organized interventions, among which might be the mandatory notification of all human cases with Echinococcus infection.

  14. Aquaculture; Acquacoltura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-12-01

    This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

  15. PUBLIC DEBT DETERMINANTS IN ALBANIA

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    Edlira Kalaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available State budget is one of the most important instruments where the government reflects its future policies, priorities and commitments. Its reading in recent years clearly shows the increased size of public debt beyond the upper limit of 60% of GDP, in many countries including Albania. This fact constitutes analarming trend signaled even by many international financial institutions. However, the worldwide increasing levels of budget deficits and public debtsare not accidental. Through this article we aim to explore the relationships that exists between different determinants such as governance, social and economic variables that directly affect the size of public debt in Albania, where demographic factors are noted as the main contributors, followed by political systems along with various economic developments that the country has experienced in years.

  16. Aquaculture Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peninah

    human populations in the world indicating that the demand for fish and fish products will .... Figure 3: Aquaculture fish production trend for the last ten years .... timely fashion. This will require providing extension workers with funding and access to transportation. The challenge of poor extension services is likely to increase ...

  17. Albania – Europe’s reluctant gatekeeper

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    Ridvan Peshkopia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-communist Albania has become a transit point for refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants. Asylum policies and procedures put in place under UNHCR and EU tutelage are fragile and serve the interests of Europe, not Albania.

  18. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  19. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  20. Albania economy toward official euroisation

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    Erjola BARBULLUSHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The euroisation issue in European Integration context, is a continuous process of discussions between different researchers and regulatory institutions. Nowadays, different aspects of collaboration and integration processes between countries in the region, are extended in all politics, economic and security dimensions. In this study, we are going to treat one of the aspects of this process integration for Albania: the possibility of substituting the Albanian Lek with Euro, beginning with the explanation of the concept of euroisation. Also we are going to identify the actual non-official replacement level of lek and how it is expected to be realized in the future. Albania like other developing countries is lack of a currency with which people can buy abroad and which can be used in short-run and long-run credit contracts. On the other hand, the exchange rate represents an important risk, especially for the business which realizes transactions in foreign currency. Here in we are focused on the measurement of the money replacement level in Albania through three main methods. For this purpose is used the regression analysis in order to test the hypothesis under evaluation in two directions: endogenous and exogenous potential factors affecting this replacement. Through the factor analysis identifying the pro and cons of the euroisation phenomenon, we will give the potential alternative in our county economy conditions. Finally, the replacement rate cannot be assessed without being related to the degree of money in circulation replacement and the degree of assets replacement and without being connected with the exchange rate between currencies.

  1. Internationalization of higher education in Albania - Dilemmas and challenges: Albanian public and private universities in the new globalization era

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    Dr.Sc. Teuta Dobi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education in Albania although an emerging necessity is still in very low figures not only as a connection between institutions but even as mobility between students. This paper sheds lights on internationalization at the regional and at the global level. It analyzes how the globalization and European integration processes are affecting public and private higher education institutions in Albania, their study programs and universities internal management structures. Firstly, it examines the overall changes in the Albanian HE sector since the beginning of 1990s. Then it explores the differences in internationalization between public and private universities and the ultimate changes on the Albanian labor market. My main thesis is that Albanian HE institutions increasingly need to put more efforts to internationalize their internal management structures and to put in practice international study programs. The paper analyzes more the advantages of the international study programs and the difficulties in a development country like Albania to implement them. The paper is based on the case study of the European University of Tirana and explores the difficulties of the faculties of this university to find financial support for international programs, research and travelling abroad, to develop courses with one international perspective, support for its students to study abroad, support to students from other countries and on other indicators such as grants, contracts and linkages in international areas. However the paper deals also with the academic requirements the issue of quality of universities in general. At the end the paper makes a prognosis of some strategies and gives some recommendations how to integrate the Albanian higher education institutions at a regional or global level.

  2. Television viewing, leisure-time exercise and acute coronary syndrome in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Goda, Artan; Kark, Jeremy D

    2008-07-01

    To assess the association of leisure-time exercise and television (TV) viewing, a sedentary marker, with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Albania, a transitional country in Southeast Europe. A population-based case-control study was conducted among Tirana residents in 2003-2006. Information on leisure-time exercise (transformed into kilocalories of energy expenditure) and daily hours of TV viewing was obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaire. 460 non-fatal ACS patients (368 men, 92 women) and 628 coronary heart disease-free controls (413 men, 215 women) were studied. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, conventional coronary risk factors and leisure-time exercise, TV viewing was associated with ACS in women (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.12-2.46 per hour/day viewing), but not in men (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.81-1.07; P for sex-interaction=0.02). A low level of leisure-time exercise (adjusted also for TV viewing) was associated with ACS similarly in men and women (pooled sexes OR=2.03, 95%CI=1.29-3.22 for bottom vs top tertile of energy expenditure). Leisure-time inactivity is confirmed as an important risk factor for ACS also in Southeastern Europe. TV viewing may be an informative coronary risk marker in transitional societies, especially in women.

  3. I've been where it's gone, so I know what I got ... An American Fulbright Lecturer in Albania, 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, W G

    1996-11-15

    Spending 10 months as a Fulbright Lecturer in Medical Sciences at the University Medical Center, University of Tirana, Albania, gave me a first-hand view of academic medicine in a country merging from more than 45 years of Communist rule that impoverished the country and isolated it from the rest of the world. Even after the fall of Communism, every aspect of medicine in Albania continues to be government controlled. Early specialization is still the rule for academic physicians. Division chiefs exert absolute authority over their domain and seldom delegate this authority. Learning and teaching resources are scant, and access to current western medical literature is extremely limited because of both poverty and priority. Despite these obstacles, the medical students and postgraduate trainees I encountered were bright and receptive, which strongly reinforces the tremendous urge to help them. Fellowships abroad, however, are limited and available only to selected junior faculty; students and clinical trainees do not qualify. If we are to help, we must take the training to them. It takes time to become an effective clinical teacher in Albania: time to understand the system; time to devise the best teaching vehicles; and time to gain the trust of the students, trainees, and faculty. Given the time, the effort can be successful. The problem is, where do we find physicians with the time and interest? Might this be a role for still-energetic retired physicians? My experience in Albania permitted me only to formulate these questions; the answers must now come from this side of the Atlantic.

  4. The present geodynamics of Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçi, Rexhep; Dushi, Edmond; Begu, Enkela; Bozo, Rrezart

    2017-04-01

    Geological structure of Albania comprises different formations widely varying in age beginning since the Paleozoic era to Quaternary. From the tectonic stand point Albanides belongs to folded Alpine belt, representing a particular node in the geology of the Mediterranean Alps. Albanian geological environment have a long and complicated history. It is folded and dissected by many tectonic faults. During the Alpine geological evolution of Albanides, an imbricated tectonic thrusting system, with considerable amplitude, has been developed in the outer part, while a series of normal faults have been developed in the inner part. The convergence of the geological structures is southwest oriented, from inner to external tectonic area, associated by mass displacement. These displacements can be observed nowadays from geodynamic measurements, of the GPS networks in Albania, and the surrounding. GPS data for Albanian territory, recorded during a 10-years period, in reference to the Eurasia and Apulia plates, reveal an important pre-Pliocene compression of the outer Albanides, including Sazani, Ionian and Kruja zones, undergoing a major post-Pliocene shortening in the western side. The outer Albanides are structured by infringements of over-thrust and up-thrust type, by NNW-SSE oriented folds, which in some cases are dislocated by transverse faults, of NE orientation. Actual results from GPS measurements of the points located in outer Albanides show a displacement towards west and northwest in relation to Eurasia, and southwest in relation to Apulia block. From numerous focal mechanisms solutions (FMS) of shallow earthquakes it results a horizontal compression dominating along the Adriatic collision contact. Active tectonics in this area is reflected from historical and instrumental strong earthquakes. Quite often, they are generated from the activation of tectonic faults, which in turn are responsible for this seismic activity of the country. Referring to the historical data

  5. Foreing direct investments in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermira Korra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investments are a very important segment in the economic activity of a country, due to the effects they bring with. This is mainly because of the trade liberalization, as well as other advantages such as higher returns on investments, potential resource seeking, new market seeking, or cheap labor force. The issue of Foreign Direct Investment is very broad, but in concrete terms, the main goal of this article is the theoretical analysis and its impact in related policies in Albania. Another objective is closely connected with the help of government authorities to better understand the potential and effective impact of FDI in the Albanian economy and use this information in their decision-making.

  6. Histocompatibility Testing for Organ Transplantation Purposes in Albania: A Single Center Experience

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    Erkena Shyti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histocompatibility testing (HT which includes donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, cross-match testing (XMT and anti-HLA antibody searching are crucial examinations in solid organ transplantation aiming to avoid the hyperacute graft rejection and also to predict the immunological outcome of the graft. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue typing data collected at the Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, in order to define those actions that should be taken for improvements in the situation of kidney transplantation in Albania. Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The donor/recipient cross-match testing was performed through a standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC assay using separated donor T and B cells that were tested in parallel with the recipient serum sample. All recipient sera were screened for anti-Class I and anti-Class II HLA antibodies using a bead based Luminex anti-HLA antibody screening test. In the case of detected positivity, an allele-specific anti-HLA antibody determination was conducted with the respective Luminex anti-Class I and Class II HLA antibody determination kits. Results: A total of 174 recipients and 202 donors were typed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation at our laboratory between January 2006 and December 2012. The mean age and female gender proportion of patients were 34.9 years and 34.5%, respectively, and 48.0 years and 65.3% for the donors, respectively. Here, 25.9% of the patients reported a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test and/or a positive anti-HLA antibody testing result. Eighteen patients that were negative for the complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test were positive for anti-HLA antibodies. Conclusion: The predominant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our patient population are chronic pyelonephritis and

  7. Gender and migration from Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Carletto, Calogero; Azzarri, Carlo; Davis, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women's access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system-a product of the Communist era-while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women's migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women.

  8. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  9. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  10. Knowledge, practice and approaches of health professionals to adverse events following immunization and their reporting in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsida Mehmeti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, the reporting of an adverse events following immunization (AEFI is done not only by immunization providers but also from clinicians providing clinical treatment of AEFI in health posts, health centers and private or public hospitals. The AEFI reporting system in Albania has started in 2001 with the establishment of National Regulatory Authority of Vaccines in the Institute of Public Health. The most important problems of passive surveillance systems include underreporting, deficiency and inaccuracy of information. A structured questionnaire containing 68 questions constructed from immunization experts constituted the study tool. The questionnaire addressed health professionals working at child consultant’s facilities and primary health centers in the district of Tirana. There were a total of 102 health professional interviewed. The majority of the respondents working at health centers in the district of Tirana in general, had poor knowledge levels on AEFI surveillance. The lowest score were received in knowledge about the role of different stakeholders involved in AEFI surveillance. The number of years practicing the profession did not influence in the total score of “practice and attitude toward reporting and managing an AEFI”. Although the majority of health care professionals have encountered an AEFI during their practice (72/102, 70,5%, only half of them have never reported an AEFI (37/102, 36,2%. Barriers to reporting included lack of interest, unclear definition of AEFI and lack of awareness of what to report. Nevertheless, the main reason for not reporting was because a respondent thought he or she had not observed an AEFI in the last years (44,1%. Majority of the respondents did not have any training about AEFI (68,6%, 70/102. From this study it is concluded that it is necessary to develop training and educational programs in order to increase awareness of all health professionals involved in child health toward

  11. ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL WEB REPORTING IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIRAJ Rezart

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological changes have had a great impact on the accounting and financial environment. As other countries Albania has also been affected by developments such as the evolution towards using accounting information packages, financial web reporting, XBRL and cloud computing. Throughout this paper we try to analyze the current situation of accounting and financial reporting in Albania and the impact that the web reporting has had on the simplification of the accounting procedures. We present how tools such as cloud computing and XBRL have impacted the use of the accounting systems and also other reporting institutions in Albania. Describing the current development of cloud services we give information on the part of software vendors in Albania. We find that cloud computing has been used extensively not only by the private companies offering accounting infomations systems, but also by other companies in the public sector (i.e. education. On the other hand we find that XBRL, even though a promising technology, has not been gained great recognition in Albania and is currently not used by any on the institutions or companies, neither by institutions whose mission is to create extensive databases (such as the Registrar of the Companies and which might benefit the most from this technology.

  12. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  13. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  14. Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, Rustem; Ylli, Fatos

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory

  15. Entrepreneurial spirit and factors affecting it: Case study based on the students of the European University of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    Qosja, Ermira; Druga, Ertila

    2015-01-01

    In any country, the students’ entrepreneurial spirit is of great economic and social importance. Students will be the entrepreneurs of the future and it is their plans and entrepreneurship which would deeply influence the society of tomorrow and its economic wellbeing. This paper intends to offer an input on the understanding of entrepreneurial spirit among students (of the European University of Tirana), to analyse such a spirit and goals, as well as factor affecting them: entrepreneurship e...

  16. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Albania is a country on the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. Recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in Albania. However, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in Albania is scarce. Methods Serum and EDTA-blood samples collected from 146 domestic cats from Tirana during 2008 through 2010 were examined for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania infantum, and Anaplasma spp. with IFAT, for infection with L. infantum, A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and haemotropic mycoplasmas with conventional PCR and real-time PCR and for Dirofilaria immitis with antigen ELISA. Additionally blood smear microscopy was carried out for detection of blood-borne pathogens. Results Antibodies to T. gondii (titre ≥1:100) were demonstrated in 91 cats (62.3%). Antibodies to N. caninum (titre ≥1:100), L. infantum (titre ≥1:64) and Anaplasma spp. (titre ≥1:100) were found in the serum of 15 (10.3%), 1 (0.7%) or 3 (2.1%) cats, respectively. DNA of haemotropic mycoplasmas was detected in the blood of 45 cats (30.8%), namely Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (21.9%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (10.3%), and Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (5.5%), with ten cats harbouring co-infections of two mycoplasmas each; blood from one cat was PCR positive for Bartonella henselae. No DNA of Leishmania spp. and A. phagocytophilum or circulating D. immitis antigen was detected in any cat sample. The overall prevalence of haemotropic mycoplasmas was significantly higher in male compared to female cats (40.6% vs. 24.1%, p = 0.0444); and age was associated positively with the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii (p = 0.0008) and the percentage of haemotropic

  17. Aquaculture project formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Insull, David; Nash, Colin E

    1990-01-01

    .... The first part of the document contains a broad introduction to project formulation, describing the integration of aquaculture projects within development plans, the organization and management...

  18. REGULATIONS AND FINANCING OF SMEs IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltiana Muharremi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor that has contributed in the realization of a positive economic growth in Albania in the last 20 years is undoubtedly the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME sector. SME financing is a topic of significant research interest to academics, and an issue of great importance to the policy makers around the world. Economic, as well as technical and social arguments warrant the promotion of SMEs. They create large scale, low-cost employment opportunities, use locally available inputs and technologies, mobilize small and scattered private savings, develop entrepreneurship, and correct the regional imbalance in development that exists in industrialized countries. Several studies identify financing, infrastructure facilities, taxes, regulations and stability in policies as major obstacles for the growth of small and medium businesses. Improving the business environment for SME development is a key objective of the policy framework in Albania.

  19. Tourism, the Future of Economy in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjana Kadiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.

  20. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J, RODWELL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  1. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DRING

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  2. Key barriers to the use of modern contraceptives among women in Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Nielsen, Siff Malue; Butler, Robb

    2012-01-01

    organisations involved in promoting modern contraception, and four focus group discussions with 40 women from Tirana and a rural village in the periphery of Tirana, divided according to age and residence, were also conducted. Content analysis was used to analyse both the interviews and focus group discussions...

  3. Isotopes in aquaculture research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Dash, B.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The applications of isotopes in aquaculture research include areas like aquatic production process, nutrient cycles and food chain dynamics, fish nutrition, fish physiology, genetics and immunology. The radioisotopes commonly used are beta emitters. The use of different radioisotopes in aquaculture research are presented. 2 tabs

  4. New chorological data and floristic notes for Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, L.; Malo, Sadik; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Twelve taxa belonging to fi ve families are reported based on fi eldwork in Albania from 2007 to 2010. Eleven have not been recorded for the country in the relevant volumes of Flora Europaea, Flora of Albania or the Med-Checklist. Notes on ecology and distribution are provided and all the taxa ar...

  5. On terrorism and legal response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjëll Likmeta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal Albanian doctrine encompasses different meanings in relation to terrorism. This paper aims to give a general overview on various definitions of terrorism, as one of the main threatening phenomenon of our society. The paper also treats the origin of the word ‘terrorism’, back to the French Revolution of 1789 as the label used by the establishment to describe the conduct of revolutionaries. In this paper will be treated the main factors that have affected over the creation and development of terrorism, the content, format and main characteristics of terrorism, the main forms of occurrence of terrorist acts and Albanian legal mechanisms in the fight against terrorism, including the International agreements of which Albania is part of. Special attention will be paid to the moment when terrorist activities started in Albania and which are the most common forms of terror in Albania. The study of terrorism is multi-disciplinary, spanning a number of fields including political science, psychology, criminology, sociologist, history and many others. There are not few criminal norms provided in the Albanian Criminal Code that condemn terrorism. The Albanian Criminal Code expresses in separated articles the punishment of everyone who finances terrorism, hides funds and other assets that finance terrorism, even collects funds for terrorism financing, recruits persons for committing acts of terrorism or for terrorist financing, trains for committing terrorism acts, or makes public calls with terrorist purposes. A key challenge of understanding terrorism is both acknowledging the moral outrage at terrorist acts, while at the same time trying to understand the rationale behind terrorism.

  6. Political transition of Albania 1985-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunilda Duriçi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Political transition of Albania is a phenomenon that started since the death of Enver Hoxha, the dictator of communist regime in Albania. After the death of Enver Hoxha on 11 April 1985, Ramiz Alia was appointed as his successor, who for 40 years had been at Enver Hoxha’s side as his most trusted man. He succeeded Hoxha for nearly 6 years believing that he would maintain the communist system. Ramiz Alia came on duty as the head of the Albanian state when the economic situation was very precarious. Political and economic legacy led by Hoxha was almost miserable. The country had the severest political system throughout the communist bloc. In a political point of view, the country’s new leader was elected precisely to continue the political legacy of former leader Hoxha. Ramiz Alia was forced to take immediate measures to change the degraded situation. He undertook several reforms to improve the situation in the country. Among other things, Alia expressed the equality of Albanian citizens, freedoms and human rights. Events were passing each other, marking a great historical importance. Among other things, Alia approved the political pluralism giving way to significant social changes. Echoes of these events and the positive developments in the country do not remain outside the attention of internationals. The arrival of political pluralism and the establishment of Democratic Party, the first opposition party in the country and other political entities exposed the European dream of Albanians. Massive movements in the form of protests and rallies, aimed at overturning the communist regime in the country Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the Political transition of Albania 1985-1991.

  7. Aquaculture in mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    vegetation forms an integral part of most productive and presently underutilised coastal ecosystem. It needs to be used in controlled manner. This would offer immense opportunities for generating food resources through aquaculture...

  8. Evaluation of Maternal Complications in Severe Preeclampsia in a University Hospital in Tirana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriseida Ndoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive multisystem disorder of pregnancy that complicates up to 10% of pregnancies worldwide and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. AIM: To evaluate maternal complications associated with severe preeclampsia. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in the UHOG “Koço Gliozheni”, in Tirana. Primary outcomes evaluated: maternal death, eclampsia, stroke, HELLP syndrome, and pulmonary edema. Secondary outcomes: renal failure, admission in ICU, caesarean section, placental abruption, and postpartum hemorrhage. Fisher’s exact test and Chi-squared test were used as statistical methods. RESULTS: In women with severe preeclampsia we found higher rates of complications comparing to the group with preeclampsia. Eclampsia (1.5% vs. 7.1%, P < 0.001, HELLP syndrome (2.4% vs. 11.0%; P < 0.001, stroke (0.5% vs 1.9%, P = 0.105 pulmonary edema (0.25% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.0035, renal failure (0.9% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.107, admission in ICU (19.5% vs. 71.4%, P = 0.007, caesarean section rates (55.5% vs. 77%, P = 0.508, placental abruption (4.3% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.103 and severe postpartum hemorrhage (3.2% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.628. CONCLUSION: Severe preeclampsia is associated with high rates of maternal severe morbidity and early diagnosis and timely intervention can prevent life treating complications.

  9. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs

  10. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  11. Tra Albania e Italia: storie solide e confini liquidi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recensione di: Emma Bond e Daniele Comberiati (a cura di, Il confine liquido. Rapporti interculturali fra Italia e Albania, Nardò, Besa, 2013, 229 p., ISBN: 9788849708950, € 18,00.

  12. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Myth of Greater Albania In outlining the frontiers of Albania it has been often necessary to disregard ethnography for larger reasons; but there is...outbreak of a world war.”29 In 1986 the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts compiled another platform to deal with Albanians. The platform entitled “On...Academy of Science and Arts , On the Political, Economic and Constitutional Position of Serbia in the Yugoslav Federation (Belgrade: Duga, 1986), 55. 31

  13. Free to Learn: The Rationale for Legalizing Homeschooling in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Paul Hagen

    2011-01-01

    In the years following the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania allowed greater freedom in educational choice by abolishing the government monopoly on education and allowing private schools to operate. However, it is only now, two decades after the fall of communism, that Albania is moving towards officially recognizing the most natural and fundamental option for educating its citizens – allowing parents to educate their children at home. By looking at homeschooling from the perspectives of...

  14. Aquaculture report 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-04-08

    Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

  15. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous...... of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological...... questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined...

  16. Does FDI influence economic growth in Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Koroci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has been viewed as a power affecting economic growth (EG directly and indirectly during the past few decades. Foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries brings economic development and enhances the international competitiveness of domestic enterprises. It is argued in the existing literature that foreign direct investment (FDI influences economic growth through technology diffusion, human capital formation, etc. FDI accounts for the largest and most important proportion of foreign capital in Albania, which undoubtedly plays an important role in the Albania’s economic development growth. However, as the country’s FDI increases, and in this paper I want to make an empirical research how the FDI has influenced the economic growth of the country. The findings revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between the FDI inflows and the GDP for the studied period which covers 1995 to 2012, thus a positive effect on the economic growth.

  17. Radiation Protection and Safety infrastructure in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, F.; Dollani, K.; Paci, R.

    2005-01-01

    On 1995 Albania Parliament approved the Radiation Protection Act, which established the Radiation Protection Commission as Regulatory Body and Radiation Protection Office as an executive office. The licensing of private and public companies is a duty of RPC and the inspections, enforcement, import - export control, safety and security of radioactive materials, are tasks of RPO. Regulations on licence and inspection, safe handling of radioactive sources, radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials have been approved. The Codes of practice in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine have been prepared. Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out monitoring of personal dosimetry, response to the radiological emergencies, calibration of dosimetric equipment's, management of radioactive waste, etc. Based in the IAEA documents, a new Radiation Protection Act is under preparation

  18. Safety in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  19. Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben; Hall, Derek

    2013-01-01

    ) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called “blue revolution” requires addressing a range of environmental and social problems, including water pollution, degradation of ecosystems, and violation of labor standards....

  20. Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Belton, B.; Hall, D.; Vandergeest, P.; Murray, F.J.; Ponte, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Islam, M.S.; Mol, A.P.J.; Hatanaka, M.; Kruijssen, F.; Ha, T.T.T.; Little, D.C.; Kusumawati, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild)

  1. Aquaculture. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan S.

    This color-coded guide was developed to assist teachers in helping interested students plan, build, stock, and run aquaculture facilities of varied sizes. The guide contains 15 instructional units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, instructor supplements,…

  2. Molecular genetics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Di Stasio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in molecular genetics have deeply changed the way of doing research in aquaculture, as it has already done in other fields. The molecular revolution started in the 1980’s, thanks to the widespread use of restriction enzymes and Polymerase Chain Reaction technology, which makes it possible to easily detect the genetic variability directly at the DNA level. In aquaculture, the molecular data are used for several purposes, which can be clustered into two main groups. The first one, focused on individuals, includes the sex identification and parentage assignment, while the second one, focused on populations, includes the wide area of the genetic characterization, aimed at solving taxonomic uncertainties, preserving genetic biodiversity and detecting genetic tags. For the future, the increase in the number of molecular markers and the construction of high density genetic maps, as well as the implementation of genomic resources (including genome sequencing, are expected to provide tools for the genetic improvement of aquaculture species through Marked Assisted Selection. In this review the characteristics of different types of molecular markers, along with their applications to a variety of aquaculture issues are presented.

  3. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  4. Microalgae for aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the project ‘Zeeuwse Tong’ (Zeeland Sole) was founded with support of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands. The aim of the Zeeuwse Tong project was to establish an innovative land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture sector, which is producing sole, ragworms, algae, shellfish and

  5. Aquaculture in the ecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holmer, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    ... aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, comparable to the computer technology industry (Chapters 9 and 10). The demand for marine products is controlled by a complexity of factors in our society, not least the increasing human population and the increasing global affluence that allows the consumer to buy higher price...

  6. The Priorities of English for Business in Albania and the Intercultural Communicative Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyso, Kozeta; Alimema, Zamira

    2015-01-01

    New developments in the years of democracy in Albania enabled the English out of business in the first plan as the need for businessmen and students studying for business. Albania is rapidly changing with the aim of being part of the process of development and globalization. The higher education in Albania is facing challenges posed by…

  7. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-10-17

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

  8. Sustaining Cultural and Natural Heritage in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Dollani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ongoing project “School for Cultural Heritage through Map Exploitation” (SCHEME, an integrated set of activities designed to support social inclusion in heritage promotion processes in Albania. The main project goal is delivering ICT tools (map and crowdfunding platforms and procedures as well as improving the capacity of stakeholders to sustainably valorize hidden resources. The underlying approach has capitalized on existing technologies and experiences through the development of an advanced interactive multimedia map using data produced in the Ljubljana Process. Subsequently, the map will be extended by collecting more data on the Lake Ohrid Region, which has been selected as a pilot area to promote the neglected inland, relieving pressure on more famous coastal sites. A contest among schools will enrich the database, uploading multifaceted memories collected by students. The winning cultural asset will be the object of a small-scale rehabilitation project supported by a fundraising campaign through a crowdfunding platform. The centrality of people’s active participation will contribute to governance innovation by reverting to traditional top-down promotion processes and practices, in which heritage consumers represent passive recipients of ready-made offers and messages. The map platform also holds specific potential for cultural tourism purposes, avoiding mistakes in the geo-localization of sites.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Emergency Contraceptive Use in Transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, Dajana; Italia, Salvatore; Burazeri, Genc; Brand, Helmut

    2017-11-06

    Objectives The two emergency contraceptive drugs ("morning-after pill") ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel are available without prescription in many European countries. In Albania, ulipristal acetate is not marketed yet and levonorgestrel has still prescription-only status. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of emergency contraceptive (EMC) use, collect sales figures, and gain information on the women's way of purchasing EMCs in post-communist Albania. Methods For this cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were made accessible to women in Albania in March 2015 by hard copy or online via social networks. Women were asked about lifetime use and last year's use of EMCs, and if they purchased EMCs with or without a prescription. Additionally, pharmacies were contacted and asked about EMC sales figures. Results Of the 205 participating women, 80.5% knew about the availability and use of EMCs, and 15.1% reported EMC use during the previous 12 months. The lifetime prevalence of use was 46.8%. Although having prescription-only status in Albania, 96% of the women bought EMCs without a physician's prescription. Knowledge was significantly lower among the lower educated women and among women residing in small cities. Use of EMCs was significantly higher in women with a weaker financial background and, compared with small cities, in those from large or mid-sized cities. The 54 participating pharmacies (3% of all Albanian pharmacies) reported selling 11 EMCs on average per month. The use of EMCs may be estimated at 0.22 defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Compared to January 2015, EMC sales increased by 17% in February 2016. Conclusions Compared to other European countries, the prevalence of EMC use seems to be higher in Albania. Use and knowledge of EMCs depend on socioeconomic characteristics. It is recommended to switch EMCs to non-prescription status in transitional Albania. © Georg

  10. THE ADMISSION OF ALBANIA IN THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

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    Deona Cali Kalaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on the questions of how important was the admission of Albania to the League of Nations as well as what was the reason of the change of attitude of the Great Powers and neighbors against Albanian candidature. In the paper is scrutinized the situation of Albania before membership in the League of Nations as well as the reasons that led it before this international body. The topic is interesting as the scrutiny of this moment of Albanian history in international relations helps to understand the events that followed in 1920s and how contributed this admission on the issue of borders and on international recognition.

  11. The Migration’s Consequences in Albania after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the most prominent phenomena in these ultimate years. It has brought some consequences, such as the concentration of population in major cities and the economic development, but also a number of social problems too. The change of political and economic system in Albania after 1990, put Albanian society in front of a series of phenomena. Democracy in Albania gave way to the free movement of people. This paper is focused on issues such as: economic-financial difficulties, unemployment, forced child labor, spread of deviant behavior, lack of shelter, dropout, perturbation of the nature element.

  12. Fiesta de La Tirana en el contexto del Centenario de 1910: Mito y consolidación temprana de su origen y prestigio

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    Pablo R. García Vásquez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The theme that this paper deals with the phenomenon of the religious festival of La Tirana, that by the early twentieth century, had been happening during the month of July of each year in the town of La Tirana, located in the current Commune Pozo Almonte, about 75 kilometers south-east of Iquique, in the Province of Tamarugal First Tarapacá Region - Chile. We believe that as social phenomenon - religious holiday that begins to take shape in the late eighteenth century found in the nineteenth century, the culmination of its development and consolidation of its temporal and geographical layout, as well as its prestige within the horizon of social Pampa del Tamarugal making, that the party is established in the main, influential and best-known popular regional event. Already by the end of the nineteenth century the feast of Tirana, can be defined as a complex network of relationships, of various degrees of order and interest, among which economic, fiscal and religious firmly established and grounded, which allows us to assume that behind the party and operating a complex cultural organization or industry, in this case religion.

  13. Tourism impacts and trends; Albania in focus

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    Arjana Kadiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is certainly one of the fastest developing industries in the world and it is ranked among the biggest, in terms of contribution to the economy. It offers huge employment opportunities in all its related sectors, such as construction, tele- communication, transport or others and has a great social and cultural impact. Especially over the last decades, tourism grew continuously and aimlessly. The growing number of new destinations had its significant impact in the socio- economic progress all over the world. For many world countries including Albania, which are in a developing phase, tourism represents one of the most important sources of income. But not only; compared to the oil exports, automobiles industry or food industry, the volume of tourism is equal and sometimes, in certain areas, it surpasses these important industries. Therefore, tourism is currently ranked among the leading industries, which have a crucial influence in the international commerce. The more tourism grows, the tougher the competition becomes. Hence, countries should work hard to improve their touristic offer. Obviously, the bett er the quality, the higher the revenue and the contribution to the conomy. According to studies from the UNWTO (the organization that supports countries to fi nd a sustainable position in the current national and international markets, particularly developing countries are in the position to benefit from sustainable tourism. But what is Albania’s position in the world map of Travel and Tourism? How big is the impact of tourism industry in the economy and employment of this developing country? What are the current trends and issues? Is it given priority to the development of this industry? Although its potential is great, its resources are very diverse and rare and now this country is recuperating all those missing years, issues related to globalization, must be considered very carefully. If resources are not properly and

  14. Aquaculture. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan

    This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…

  15. Multi-elements atmospheric deposition study in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarri, Flora; Lazo, Pranvera; Stafilov, Trajce; Frontasyeva, Marina; Harmens, Harry; Bekteshi, Lirim; Baceva, Katerina; Goryainova, Zoya

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, the moss biomonitoring technique and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) analytical technique were applied to study multi-element atmospheric deposition in Albania. Moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected during the summer of 2011 and September-October 2010 from 62 sites, evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention-ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. ICP-AES analysis made it possible to determine concentrations of 19 elements including key toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, As, and Cu. Cluster and factor analysis with varimax rotation was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values of the elements in moss samples of Albania were high for Al, Cr, Ni, Fe, and V and low for Cd, Cu, and Zn compared to other European countries, but generally were of a similar level as some of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania. This study was conducted in the framework of ICP Vegetation in order to provide a reliable assessment of air quality throughout Albania and to produce information needed for better identification of contamination sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Albania, associated with toxic metals.

  16. Free to Learn: The Rationale for Legalizing Homeschooling in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Paul Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years following the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania allowed greater freedom in educational choice by abolishing the government monopoly on education and allowing private schools to operate. However, it is only now, two decades after the fall of communism, that Albania is moving towards officially recognizing the most natural and fundamental option for educating its citizens – allowing parents to educate their children at home. By looking at homeschooling from the perspectives of student achievement, individual freedom, and natural rights, this paper will show that it is good and proper for Albania – and all countries worldwide – to legally recognize the natural right of parents to homeschool their children. While homeschooling is the best option for some children, it may not be the best for all children. Homeschooling should be one option alongside public schools, private schools, private tutoring, and distance-learning programs. While this article focuses on homeschooling in Albania, relying on research from North America, it contributes to the wider discussion of homeschooling policy in Europe, where policies range from homeschooling being largely illegal in nations such as Bulgaria and Germany to being freely permitted with minimal regulation in a nation such as the United Kingdom.

  17. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  18. Rapeseed use in aquaculture

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    Adem Halime Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the aquaculture sector is the provision of suitable and sufficient fish feed, because the most important protein source in aquaculture, the fish meal, is a limited resource. Due to their high nutritional value the rapeseed proteins have great potential as an alternative protein source for the fish nutrition. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a manufacturing process of high quality rapeseed protein concentrates, which can replace the limited marine resource. For this purpose, small pilot scale processing procedures were performed to produce a rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC. The meal for protein extraction was prepared by gentle meal processing. Rapeseed protein fractions were prepared by an aqueous extraction procedure. The obtained protein solution is further purified and then dried. The investigated rapeseed protein extraction process provides RPC with high nutritional value and low levels of antinutritional factors. From the nutritional point of view the produced RPC can be compared with the fishmeal. Its amino acid profile reflects the amino acid demands of fish. The obtained RPC was utilized for experimental setups of fish meal replacement in diets for rainbow trout, turbot, common carp and wels catfish. Experimental results from the conducted feeding trials demonstrate an enormous potential of RPC as protein source in aquafeeds. The highest fishmeal replacement level (up to 100% was observed in the feeding trials with rainbow trout. Therefore, especially in the nutrition of rainbow trout, RPC was identified as an excellent fishmeal alternative.

  19. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  20. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

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    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  1. Legal Provisions, Discrimination and Uncertainty on LGBT community in Albania. Laws on human rights vs exerted rights of LGBT persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana Curi

    2018-03-01

    On March 13, 2010, the Anti-Discrimination Law, one of the essential legal instruments that protects human rights in Albania, and also includes the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, came into force. Albania has already the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination. Two LGBT organizations have already been established in Albania: the Alliance against Discrimination LGBT and LGBT Pro Albania. They aim to protect the rights of sexual minorities in Albania and promote a national movement of social mobilization to protect and promote the rights of this community in Albania

  2. Chinese aquaculture in light of green growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leilei Zou; Shuolin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Over China’s long history of aquaculture development, great achievements have been made by enhancing aquaculture as the major contributor to aquatic products supply, while lessons have also been learnt that aquaculture has been developing at the cost of environment. Priority is now given to the aquaculture development in the light of green growth, which attaches importance to both environment protection and high productivity. To sustain Chinese aquaculture in a green-growth manner, polices ch...

  3. ”Fear of Floating” in Albania and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besart Kadia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavours to understand the volatility of the exchange rate in Albania and to see if there are sign of “fear of floating” present. De jure Albania currently applies a flexible exchange rate regime. Traditionally the main argument in favour of this policy is that monetary policy is not constrained by the predetermined level of the exchange rate. Thus, monetary policy sets interest rates in order to achieve domestic equilibrium (ie. price stability while the nominal exchange rate adjusts to balance the external accounts. Theoretical evidence concerning the impact of exchange rate stability on growth is mixed. The theoretical arguments in favour of flexible exchange rates are mainly of macroeconomic nature, as flexible exchange rates allow for an easier adjustment in response to asymmetric country specific real shocks. From a microeconomic perspective low exchange rate volatility can be associated with lower transaction costs for international trade and capital flows thereby contributing to higher growth.

  4. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

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    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  5. Issues On Religious Coexistence Tolerance In Albania 1912-1945

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    Ahmed Kalaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The religious tolerance is one of the rarest values of the tradition of the Albanian people. It is widely accepted that Albanian people are well known about these values about an excellent coexistence among the believers of different religious communities that are in Albania mainly Muslims and Christians. In this study we bring the essentials of this phenomenon promotional roots of these values while viewed from a previously untreated point of view and in an attempt to answer the questions Where does it stem from the religious coexistence in Albania What are the main promoters of this phenomenon What has been the attitude of the religious clergy in Albania Have they been and are the imams and priests the promotion of tolerance and religious coexistence in Albania These are some of the questions answered in this modest study focusing on how nice and with how much delicacy the lectures of the Clergy have addressed this issue to the faithful or to the world in general. Since they enjoyed undisputable reputation and influence in the majority of the population in the most critical moments of national history the leaders of Muslims believers not only have promoted tolerance and religious coexistence but they have considered the believers of other faiths as brothers preaching this conviction in front of their Muslim believers. These preachings were firstly begun by VehbiDibra who was the first Chairman of the Muslims and all clerics without exception to this day. Also unforgettable are the sermons of priests like Fr. GjergjFishta Fr. ShtjefnGjeovi or Metropolitan VisarionXhuvani to conclude with pearls of Orthodox priest Fan S. Noli who amazed the world with his three speeches in front of world leaders the League of Nations being representative of all Albanians although Orthodox believers were only 20 of the population.

  6. Legal Aspects of Corporate Governance in Albania: A critical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Fana

    2015-01-01

    The academic debate on legal aspects of corporate governance, be it at national or international level, has strongly intensified especially during the last two decades. Such tendency has also influenced the relevant Albanian legal framework, as it is evidenced by the most recent amendments on the Law “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies” of 2014. This article focuses exactly on an analyses of the legal and quasi-legal norms of corporate governance in Albania (IFC principles), providing ...

  7. Albania and the teaching of religion in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2017-01-01

    The paper makes an analysis of the potential effects this might have considering its application related to the initial purposes of the project, by introducing the case of Italy and its strategy of religious education over the years as a comparative tool in order to analyze and predict the potential outcomes of this intent, by considering the national background of Albania and some specific learning traits and outcomes on such topics related to age and cultural set up.

  8. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    James Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces ...

  9. La Banca Datis 'Tess' e la cultura musiva in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Omari, E.

    2013-01-01

    Lo studio riportato in questo documento è parte di un progetto più ampio che mira a studiare e catalogo globale le mosaici conosciuti pavimenti e marciapiedi presenti nella moderna Albania. Questo documento riguarda il database chiamato TESS, che è, usato in questa ricerca per il censimento dei marciapiedi albanesi e si basa su tecnologie digitali di acquisizione dati in Beni Culturali. Essa permette di descrivere l'edificio e le camere dove si trovano mosaici, nonché per pr...

  10. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: annotated list and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Bego

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta così come alcuni dati già pubblicati. L'esame di 161 località distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie  (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.

  11. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...

  12. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN ALBANIA: EFFECTS OF TERRITORIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM

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    Mariola KAPIDANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  13. Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

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    Këlliçi Klejd

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement, a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

  14. Contraceptive social marketing in Albania - the NESMARK story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravani, Ardian; Orgocka, Aida

    2013-06-01

    To present the history of social marketing of modern contraceptives in Albania. We review documentation and activity of NESMARK, an Albanian non-governmental social marketing organisation, and national data on adoption of modern contraception. During 15 years of awareness raising, sales of affordable products, and provider training, NESMARK has impacted the introduction and adoption of modern contraception in Albania. NESMARK is the country's main distributor of emergency contraception (EC) and complements the public sector in the distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives. NESMARK has made major efforts to overcome prevalent taboos and misinformation held by medical and nursing personnel, pharmacists and the general public, regarding the effectiveness and safety of condoms, oral contraceptives, and EC. NESMARK has contributed to increasing the choices for modern contraception methods in Albania by providing affordable contraceptives, training providers, and educating the general population. However, widespread use of withdrawal coupled with the belief that it is as or more effective than modern contraception, continues to limit uptake of new methods and is a significant challenge to comprehensive and sustained social marketing programmes.

  15. BIODIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM IN ALBANIA

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    Mehmet Metaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania possesses a wide range of ecological systems including coastal zones, estuaries and lagoons, lakes and wetlands, grasslands, middle-low altitude coppice forests, high altitude forests, alpine vegetation and glacial areas. The country possesses about 3,250 species of vascular plants, 165 families and more than 900 genera. Medicinal plants (botanicals and non-timber forest products have a long history of importance in the culture and traditional knowledge of Albania. Proper legislation and especially legal and regulatory framework enforcement for the regulation of this developing industry remains lacking. A Strategy of Biodiversity plan developed in 2000 calls for an increase in the Protected Areas system which currently covers some 6 % of Albania's area to a total area of 435,600 ha, approximately 15 % of the country's territory. Changes in the legal and policy framework as well as institutional structures is required to move forward and provide an environment for biodiversity conservation and a sustainable protected areas system. The various threats to biodiversity and constraints to improvement are outlined as well as recommendations for sustainable use, assessment and regulation.

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  17. Management of radium needles used for medical and industrial applications in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qafmolla, L.

    2002-01-01

    The use of radium and other radiation sources in Albania in the area of medicine and industry is outlined. The efforts and current activities undertaken by the Institute of Nuclear Physics to safely manage disused radiation sources in Albania are described. (author)

  18. The road from capitalism to capitalism : Infrastructures of (Post)Socialism in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalakoglou, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    The overarching question of this article is how can we develop a critical understanding of the social place of highways and automobility in the case of a non-capitalist European context such as socialist Albania? Socialism was a period of modernisation for Albania. Part of this modernisation project

  19. Microfinance Institutions and Credit Unions in Albania : Regulatory, Supervisory and Market Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present an assessment of the current legal, regulatory, and supervisory framework in Albania for microfinance, as well as an assessment of institutions rendering microfinance services (MFIs), including the Savings and Credit Associations (SCAs) and credit unions (CUs), to identify future development priorities. Economic conditions have improved in Albania...

  20. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Atmospheric Administration Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy and Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy... National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy...

  1. Impact of aquaculture on coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    Since aquaculture is intimately linked with aquatic environmental quality, entry of pollutants to coastal waters constitutes the greatest threat to marine environmental quality and, hence, to long term viability of coastal aquaculture. Fish...

  2. Dependency on aquaculture in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Minh, Hanh; Phan, Van Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu

    2017-01-01

    Whilst a range of studies address the aquaculture livelihoods in southern Vietnam’s Mekong Delta, the role of aquaculture in northern Vietnam remains less described. We, therefore, conducted interviews with 199 households in the two northern provinces Quang Ninh and Nghe An in 2014 to analyse...... the dependence on aquaculture in these two provinces and amongst farmers specializing in shrimp and freshwater fish production, respectively. Further, we tested the ability of different socio-economic variables to explain the observed reliance on aquaculture using an ANCOVA model. The study identifies...... a substantial reliance on aquaculture of farmers in the study area with at least half of their income generated by aquaculture. Our analyses highlight that the educational background of farmers explain their engagement in aquaculture better than how long they have worked as aquaculture farmers. Freshwater fish...

  3. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto

    aquaculture requires production systems with minimal environmental impact, e.g. recirculation technology, efficient feeds and waste management. Although the nutrient-poor hydropower dams in northern Sweden may tolerate nutrient load the strategy for the required development of Swedish aquaculture has......, products, etc. 2. Environmental efficient production with trapping of solid waste and balanced nutrient management (recirculation technology, waste heat/green energy/integrated production systems). 3. Policy instruments: legislation, economic incentives, socioeconomic...... due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...

  4. Aquaculture Thesaurus: Descriptors Used in the National Aquaculture Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, James A.; And Others

    This document provides a listing of descriptors used in the National Aquaculture Information System (NAIS), a computer information storage and retrieval system on marine, brackish, and freshwater organisms. Included are an explanation of how to use the document, subject index terms, and a brief bibliography of the literature used in developing the…

  5. Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through Social Learning in Sri Lanka (CIFSRF). Sri Lanka is looking toward aquaculture for rural economic diversification and increased food production, especially in the northern and eastern provinces recently liberated from civil conflict. While aquaculture holds ...

  6. Climate adaptation and innovation in Mekong aquaculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate adaptation and innovation in Mekong aquaculture – AQUADAPT Mekong. Aquaculture is an important economic sector, source of livelihood, and contributor to the resilience of food systems across the Mekong region. In 2012, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam ranked among the top ten aquaculture producers ...

  7. Promoting aquaculture in rural Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increased aquaculture productivity and income. • Improved knowledge and information-sharing between aquaculture farmers. • Widespread availability of technical information in local languages. • Creation of a legacy of farmers, particularly women, able to access, share, and apply knowledge about sustainable aquaculture.

  8. Increased competition for aquaculture from fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    ; and supplies from aquaculture have grown continuously. In this paper, the impact of improved fisheries management on aquaculture growth is studied assuming perfect substitution between farmed and wild fish. We find that improved fisheries management, ceteris paribus, reduces the growth potential of global...... aquaculture in markets where wild fisheries constitute a large share of total supply....

  9. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  10. Evaluation of national food and nutrition policy in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersini, Ehadu; Hyska, Jolanda; Burazeri, Genc

    2017-06-01

    The paper aims to describe the progress that has been made in the implementation of the Albanian food and nutrition policy since 2003, so as to consider its impacts to date, and to identify strategic priorities/critical areas and priorities for Albania's future policy on improving the national food and nutrition situation. In 2011-2012, an expert group applied an intersectoral participatory approach to evaluate the implementation of Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2003-08 in Albania. The experts employed the quantitative method, using a 9 question logical assessment matrix to measure the achievements of the individual goals of the Plan, and a qualitative tool for the interview of an interdisciplinary sample of 68-key informants-persons operating in public health nutrition, food safety and food availability related subfields, from a wide range of pertinent institutions and stakeholders. The quantitative and qualitative assessment revealed that the implementation process has faced serious barriers linked to the design of the plan, which did not accurately anticipate a theoretical framework, or structured methods for its implementation. Other impeding factors included the lack of institutional/infrastructure support, lack of intersectoral coordination and motivation, as well as insufficient capacities and know-how. Intersectoral response to the multifaceted nature of double burden of malnutrition is of key importance to improve nutritional wellbeing and health outcomes in Albania. Participatory approaches that involve all relevant sectors and actors in the development, monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of public health policies based on comprehensive action-oriented assessments are promising and should be further supported.

  11. Water Quality Index Assessment of Pogradec Water- Supply, in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    , P. Icka; , R. Damo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is applied for the first time in Albania Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) for assessment of water quality of water supply network on Pogradec city. CCME WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess spatial and temporal changes on the quality of any water body. Calculations of the index are based on a combination of three factors: scope - the number of variables whose objectives are not met; freq...

  12. The relationship between financial and tax accounting in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Duhanxhiu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically ‘income tax’ laws rely on financial accounting data to determine the taxable income of a business entity, although financial and tax accounting have different goals and requirements. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between financial and tax accounting rules in Albania. The study employs a mixed methodology, comprising a review of the legislation, institutional framework and context, and semi-structured interviews with accountants, academics and institutional players. By reviewing the development of this relationship during the past 20 years, we aim to identify and explain the major divergences at present between two sets of rules.

  13. Customs as Facilitation of Trade. Case of Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etleva Bajrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic cooperation and trade between countries of region is very important as a opening step for entering in big markets like EU-s. All agreements have a huge impact in customs administration for elimination of customs taxes and for facilitation of trade during customs crossing. Trade integration is seen as faster way for countries to complete all necessary condition for European Integration. This process requires fulfillment of all reforms, needed for approaches the development and integration between countries. This process is spread in time because of the feature and difference between society and their economies. Regional economic integration is considered an import component for longterm integration of South Eastern European countries in EU. Membership of Albania in WTO brings a number of free trade agreements, with the main purpose trade liberalization. The essences of these agreements have been liberalization of customs tariffs for increasing foreign trade and attract foreign investors. The loss of customs income will be compensating from imports increasing and economic development in general. The role of Customs has changed from one of a complete focus on revenue collection to a broad role encompassing components of revenue collection, trade facilitation and border security. Simplified customs procedures and documents are very important for improving relation of business and government and also improving business performance. The aim of this paper is to point out the roles, responsibilities and challenges of customs, for concluding this we have conducted a survey for analyzing the performance of customs in Albania.  

  14. Abuse of dominant position in Albania based in jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Competition law and cartel is the basis of a modern economy. While in the US, competition law exists and is terminologically known and is part of legislation since 1890 (Sherman Law, in Europe, it has become part of the founding treaties of the EU since 1957 by the Treaty of Rome. However, at that time, “culture of competition” would be born in the member states of the EU, which traditionally favour cartel agreements, state aid and the promotion of national products. Some EU member states have included competition law in their national legislation in the early 90-s. Rules were set for the first time on competition in the coal and steel market under Articles 65 and 66 of the Treaty of Rome, constituted a new terminology for member states. Albania has worked during these 24 years of democracy, to apply the basic principles of market economy and along with it the Lisbon Treaty, Regulations and EU Directives in the frame of competition. Main purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the abuse of dominant position in the frame of the most important court decision of this legal institution in Albania.

  15. Geoculture world system, access to Balkan and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilirjan Çukaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally

  16. Multiple antimicrobial resistance among Avian Escherichia coli strains in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 101 Escherichia (E. coli isolates from broilers, laying hens and turkeys which had died from colibacillosis, collected from 37 intensive and rural farms in Albania, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility toward 12 different molecules. The highest levels of resistance were observed for Erythromycin (E (100% Amoxicillin (AMX (99.1%, Tetracycline (TE 30 (96.07%, Streptomycin (STR (93.07% and Neomycin (N30 (85.15%. Considerable resistance was also detected for fluoroquinolones. Moreover, 73.33% of E. coli resistant to at least one fluoroquinolone were also resistant to the two other fluoroquinolones checked. No evident differences were found between the E. coli from intensive and from rural farms. Multiple antibiotic resistance was expressed by all the E. coli tested. 23.63% and 17.39% of E. coli isolated from intensive and rural farms, respectively, were resistant towards all the drugs tested. These data would seem to indicate incorrect use of antibiotics on poultry farms in Albania.

  17. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in Albania. The target is university students. Many programs that foster entrepreneurship such as incubator centers, business plan competitions along with new educational practices have been developed. In addition, even though studies conducting in this field are few, Albanian education institutions have shown a willing to study the factors influencing entrepreneurship development. The reason is the belief that developing and supporting entrepreneurial activities among youth will positively influence the economy of the country in terms of economic growth. This study widely represents the Albanian students and shows the deteminants of entrepreneurial intention they have. Hopefully the findings of this study would be useful to the policy makers and the Albanian government to undertake effective policies focused on entrepreneurial activity; targeting economic development of the country.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parise

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, about one quarter of the country is occupied by outcroppings of soluble rocks; thus, karst represents an important and typical natural environment. Today karst areas are seriously threatened by a number of hazards, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Many problems are related to agricultural practices: the use of heavy machinery, ever-increasing in recent years, results at many sites in destruction of the original karst landscapes. Use of pesticides and herbicides, in addition, causes the loss of karst ecosystems of great biological relevance, as has been observed in the Dumre district, where about 80 lakes of karst origin are present in the evaporites of Permian-Triassic age. Agricultural practice performed on slopes with medium to high gradient is a further factor which greatly predispose the slopes to erosion. The cave heritage of Albania (estimated so far in about 1000 caves is at risk because of the uncontrolled quarrying activities which determine the total or partial destruction of karst caves, including many of naturalistic, archaeological and speleological interest. Many caves have also become sites of illegal disposal of solid and liquid wastes, which causes pollution of the karst ecosystems and of the aquifer therein present, with heavy negative consequences on the quality of water. Even though most of the cases here mentioned are related to anthropogenic activities, the natural hazards, such as subsidence phenomena, floods, and the development of sinkholes, have not to be disregarded.

  19. An estimation of impact of anthropogenic aerosols in atmosphere of Tirana on solar insolation. Part II: Modification of solar energy potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzra, Urim, E-mail: rimibuzra@yahoo.com; Berberi, Pellumb; Mitrushi, Driada; Muda, Valbona [Department of Engineering Physics, FIMIF, PUT, Tirana (Albania); Halili, Daniela [Department of physics, FNS, AXHU, Elbasan (Albania); Berdufi, Irma [Institute of Nuclear Physics, INP, TU, Tirana (Albania)

    2016-03-25

    Change of irradiative properties of the atmosphere during clear days is an indicator, among others, of existence of atmospheric aerosols and can be used as an indicator for assessment both air pollution and local modifications of solar energy potentials. The main objective of this study is estimation of influence of anthropogenic aerosols on solar energy falling in a horizontal surface during a cloudless day. We have analyzed and quantified the effect of aerosols on reducing the amount of solar energy that falls on the horizontal ground surface in cloudless sky conditions, estimating temporal evolution, both in daily and hour scale, considering also, side effects caused by relative humidity of the air wind speed and geometric factor. As an indicator of concentration of aerosols in atmosphere, we agreed to use the attenuation of solar radiation after the last rainy day. All data were corrected by factors such as, variations of relative humidity, wind speed and daily change of incident angle of solar radiation. We studied the change of solar insolation in three sites with different traffic intensity, one in city of Shkodra and two in city of Tirana. Fifteen days after last rainy day, approximate time needed to achieve saturation, the insolation drops only 3.1% in the city of Shkodra, while in two sites in city of Tirana are 8.5 % and 18.4%. These data show that reduction of solar insolation is closely related with anthropogenic activity, mainly traffic around the site of the meteorological station. The day to day difference tends to decrease with increasing of number of days passed from the last rainy day, which is an evidence of a trend toward a dynamic equilibrium between decantation process of aerosols during the night and their generation during the day.

  20. Albania’s Counter-Terrorism Policy Options: Finding a Strategy of Common Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Hoxha, Banner of Struggle for Freedom and Socialism (Tirana, N.p., 1985), 107. 15 Aleks Luarasi, Historia e Institucioneve Juridike Shqiptare...Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed in Rome on 4 November 1950 and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States...1988. 8. Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done at Rome on 10 March 1988 9. Protocol

  1. Offshore Aquaculture Development in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Alvarado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.

  2. Spiders (Araneae from Albania and Kosovo in the collection of Carl Friedrich Roewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spider collection (Arachnida: Araneae from Albania and Kosovo in the Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main is reviewed. A total of 122 adult specimens were found belonging to 73 species. Records of 48 species for Albania and 28 species for Kosovo, 20 of them new to Kosovo, are presented. Furthermore there are seven new country records for Albania: Platnickina nigropunctata, Erigone remota, Tenuiphantes tenebricola, Pardosa agrestis, Callobius claustrarius and Zelotes femellus. Additionally, Pardosa cavannae is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. So far 381 species are known for Albania. A total of 106 species is known from Kosovo now; a list of the 86 spider species formerly known to Kosovo is included.

  3. Exploring Links between Internal and International Migration in Albania : a View from Internal Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; Van Wissen, Leo J. G.

    Over the last 20years, Albania has experienced sweeping economic and social changes, caused in part by increasing internal and international migration flows. Migration trajectories of Albanians represent a combination of internal, international, and return migration. Whereas scholars have previously

  4. Intelligence Reform in Albania: Its Relation to Democratization and Integration into the EU and NATO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bala, Eduart

    2008-01-01

    After more than 17 years since the fall of the Soviet Union, the western Balkans countries, particularly Albania, have not yet reached the same objectives as other Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs...

  5. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  6. Collection of Various Medicinal and Spice Crops from Wild Genetic Diversity in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Voci; , K. Korro

    2012-01-01

    This paper will present the Şndings of a four-year period program related to the collection of germplasm funded by the World Bank and the Albania Government. This project is implemented during 2006-2010 by team Albanian experts. The selection & collecting process was implemented in close collaboration among different specialists and experts and other interested actors in medicinal & spice crops chain in Albania, information on the economic importance of medicinal & spi...

  7. Family Photographs in Communist Albania: State Photography and the Private Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    De Rapper, Gilles; Durand, Anouck

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first results of an on-going research project on the social uses of photography in communist Albania. If we are interested in official and propaganda photography, we would like to focus here on a less known aspect of photography in Albania, family photography. Social sciences have long been interested in the relationship between family and photography and it is established that photography tells a lot about family forms and kinship relations. Family alb...

  8. INCREASING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS. COMPARISON BETWEEN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN KOSOVO AND ALBANIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Denisa Mamillo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the actual research is the diagnosis of the organizational effectiveness in the public sector in Albania and Kosovo. The research will be focused only on two public institutions, one in Kosovo and one in Albania. The Organizational Diagnosis Questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was based on the Weisbord Six- Box organizational diagnosis model which includes six components: purpose, structure, rewards, relationship, helpful mechanisms and leadership. The results of the question...

  9. Potential drivers of virulence evolution in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A.; Kurath, Gael; Brito, Ilana L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Read, Andrew F.; Winton, James R.; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases are economically detrimental to aquaculture, and with continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture, the importance of managing infectious diseases will likely increase in the future. Here, we use evolution of virulence theory, along with examples, to identify aquaculture practices that might lead to the evolution of increased pathogen virulence. We identify eight practices common in aquaculture that theory predicts may favor evolution toward higher pathogen virulence. Four are related to intensive aquaculture operations, and four others are related specifically to infectious disease control. Our intention is to make aquaculture managers aware of these risks, such that with increased vigilance, they might be able to detect and prevent the emergence and spread of increasingly troublesome pathogen strains in the future.

  10. Regulatory aspects of radiation sources safety in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollani, K.; Kushe, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper are presented the regulatory aspects of the radiation sources safety in Albania, based in the new Radiological Protection Act and Regulations. The radiation protection infrastructures and procedures are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing and regular inspection, personal dose monitoring, emergency preparedness which are developed in the frame of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Programme. The issue of the security of radiation sources is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country. A special attention is paid to the identification and location of lost sources for their finding and secure storage. (author)

  11. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  12. Albania among Bank Based System’s Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Rovena Troplini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian financial system has entered a new phase of its development. Financial system in Albania is bank oriented, as financial market is not active. Because of the important and deep changes that have altered the image of the banking system, the conditions for more dynamic development of non-banking intermediaries and capital markets have been created. The analysis is based on the standard indicators of size and activity of banking intermediaries. The results of the analysis show that the size and activity of Albanian banking system is growing faster but limiting the crediting process only on banks. However, the achieved level of development of banking intermediaries is still below of other advanced transition economies. Albanian financial system needs to develop quickly the activities of pension funds, investment funds and bond/asset markets in order to create great opportunities to the Albanian economy.

  13. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Hoxha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

  14. Environmental impact of aquaculture and countermeasures to aquaculture pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Yi; Yang, Chengtai; Yuan, Zonghui; Xiong, Shanbo; Diana, James

    2007-11-01

    Aquaculture activities are well known to be the major contributor to the increasing level of organic waste and toxic compound in the aquaculture industry. Along with the development of intensive aquaculture in China, concerns are evoked about the possible effects of ever-increasing aquaculture waste both on productivity inside the aquaculture system and on the ambient aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, it is apparent that appropriate waste treatment processes are needed for sustaining aquaculture development. This review aims at identifying the current status of aquaculture and aquaculture waste production in China. China is the world's largest fishery nation in terms of total seafood production volume, a position it has maintained continuously since 1990. Freshwater aquaculture is a major part of the Chinese fishery industry. Marine aquaculture in China consists of both land-based and offshore aquaculture, with the latter mostly operated in shallow seas, mud flats and protected bays. The environmental impacts of aquaculture are also striking. Case studies on pollution hot spots caused by aquaculture have been introduced. The quality and quantity of waste from aquaculture depends mainly on culture system characteristics and the choice of species, but also on feed quality and management. Wastewater without treatment, if continuously discharged into the aquatic environment, could result in remarkable elevation of the total organic matter contents and cause considerable economy lost. Waste treatments can be mainly classified into three categories: physical, chemical and biological methods. The environmental impacts of different aquaculture species are not the same. New waste treatments are introduced as references for the potential development of the waste treatment system in China. The most appropriate waste treatment system for each site should be selected according to the sites' conditions and financial status as well as by weighing the advantages and disadvantages of

  15. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  16. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The success and profitability of aquaculture production is highly dependent on the proper management employed during the culture period. This management is synonymous with water management since water of suitable quality and quantity is a pre-requisite for any successful aquacultural production. The knowledge of ...

  18. Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-13

    ISBN: 9781552504611. Download PDF · Read the e-book · Order the book. Les exemples présentés dans Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture illustrent la nature unique de l'aquaculture en Asie et cernent, pour la première fois, le parcours et ...

  19. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... contributed to lower growth rates and that these countries are falling behind emerging and developing economies that have more lenient environmental regulations....

  20. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success and profitability of aquaculture production is highly dependent on the proper management employed during the culture period. This management is synonymous with water management since water of suitable quality and quantity is a pre-requisite for any successful aquacultural production. The knowledge of ...

  1. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... potential to improve the quality and quantity of fish reared in aquaculture, although, not without significant contro ... benefits both producers and consumers of aquacultural products. Areas of biotechnology in .... become easier with the development of artificial breeding techniques, such as the use of pituitary ...

  2. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  3. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  4. Exploring Aquaculture. Curriculum Guide for Agriscience 282.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in "Exploring Aquaculture, Agriscience 282," one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. This introductory course is designed to acquaint students with the growing industry of aquaculture; it includes…

  5. Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Rural Income from Sustainable Aquaculture through Social Learning in Sri Lanka (CIFSRF). Sri Lanka is looking toward aquaculture for rural ... lessons through farmer-government-academic networks. And, they will explore the role of women as community conduits for applying and sustaining extension lessons.

  6. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, I Chiu; Chao, Nai-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.

  7. Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-13

    Oct 13, 2009 ... Sena S. De Silva is Director General of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia- Pacific and Honorary Professor of Aquaculture and Fisheries Biology at the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. F. Brian Davy is Senior Fellow at the International Institute for ...

  8. Outlook on principles for designing integrated and cascade use of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasheri, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    In the countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan, the technologies of a new generation evolved to exploit high and low enthalpy geothermal sources and mineral waters. There are great experiences for modern complex exploitation of these resources, which increase natural wealth values, in European Community Countries. In Albania, rich in geothermal resources of low enthalpy and mineral waters, similar new technologies have been either partly developed or remain still untouched. Modern complex exploitation is very rare phenomena. Large numbers of geothermal energy of high and low enthalpy resources, a lot of mineral water sources and some CO 2 gas reservoirs represent the base for successfully application of modern technologies in Albania, to achieve economic effectively and success of complex exploitation. Actuality, there are many geothermal, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, biological and medical investigations and studies of thermal and mineral water resources carried out in Albania. Generally, these investigations and studies are separated each from the other. Their information and data will serve for studies and evaluations in Albania regional scale. These studies and evaluations are necessary to well know in regional plane the thermal and mineral water resources potential and geothermal market of the Albania. According to results of these new studies, the evaluation for the perspective level of the best areas in country will be necessary. After the evaluation is possible to start investments in these areas. These investments will be profitable in a short period of time. Integrated and cascade use of geothermal energy of low enthalpy it is important condition for profitable investment. In Albania, there are several geothermal energy sources that can be used. Such geothermal energy sources are natural thermal water springs and deep wells with a temperature of up to 65,5 o C. Deep abandoned oil wells can be used as 'Vertical Earth Heat Probe'. The integrated and

  9. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  10. Evaporite karst of Albania: main features and cases of environmental degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Qiriazi, Perikli; Sala, Skender

    2008-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the description of the main evaporite karst areas of Albania, and on their environmental problems. Even though the majority of the karst areas in Albania is represented by carbonates, evaporites crop out significantly at several sites, and deserve a specific attention for their morphological, karstic and speleological peculiarities. Vulnerability of karst is well marked by pollution and degradation problems in regions such as Dumre (central Albania), where some tens of lakes of karst origin are present in the Permian-Triassic evaporites. Water pollution with negative effects on the local ecosystems, and anthropogenic changes of the natural karst landscape in the last century resulted in intense environmental degradation at Dumre. Messinian evaporites crop out in the Kavaja area (near the Adriatic coast), and at other sites in central-southern Albania. In these areas, surface karst morphology is characterized by a number of dolines, ponors and blind valleys, which often correspond to inlet points of subterranean drainages and caves. Notwithstanding these peculiarities, and the relevance of the area for biospeleological studies, many caves have been destroyed by quarrying activities, resulting in severe losses to the natural heritage. Following a general description of the evaporite karst areas of Albania, the paper focuses on the present situation of the evaporites in the country, which is frequently affected by degradation and environmental losses in the karst landscape, and pollution of the aquifers.

  11. Albania-EU Relationship and the Course towards the European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeta Goxha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the communist regime in Albania made possible the country’s opening to the west, a country that had chosen the way of total isolation. Albania was the first country in the Balkans region who signed a commercial agreement in 1992 with the European Union. This article aims to study Albania's path towards European integration. The position and role played by the European Union during that critical period for our country, as the crisis of 1997. The objective of this paper is to create a clear panorama of relationships between the EU and Albania and to highlight the problems that have come across over the years. The author of this paper will also provide an overview of the political developments in Albania after the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement. The method of operation is qualitative. This paper was accomplished through a bibliographic research, drawing on the European Union legislation, the agreements signed between the two countries and also the strategies of the Albanian government during these years.

  12. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  13. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms...... of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...... for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain...

  14. INNOVATION IN THE AQUACULTURE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Candelaria Beltrán Meza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently the globalized business environment prompts companiesto develop strategies to stay within international competition, which has generated in organizations the need to offer new products and services that boost their competitiveness. In this context, innovation is a process that requires vision and creative ideas, guided by a leader and developed by an interdisciplinary team, become an added value for consumers. Nowadays, it is common to collaborate with competitors to share risks, complementing one's strengths with the other's weaknesses, in a new way of doing business, this strategic alliance can be strengthened by linking research centers integrated in the business innovation projects. The purpose of the study is to describe the innovation agenda that an aquaculture company plans to carry out in the short, medium and long term, in order to maintain its competitiveness in the international market.

  15. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put? Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic? How do rates of organic production vary temporally? Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates? Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of 14 C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two

  16. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics. Case Study: Vodafone Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everest Haxhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many discussions about ethics beginning with a fair and fundamental question: “What is ethics all about?” It is the same as morality, or is kind of a soft law that imposes values but without enforcing them? What is the contribution of the society in imposing values and ethical standards, and how business is involved? Ethical standards are applied in business word, differing from social responsibilities that business has in the social environment where it operates. To better exemplify those concepts the researcher goes through one of the largest companies that offers wireless communications, Vodafone Albania; also one of the world’s largest mobile telecommunication operators. The bright side of social responsibilities is associated in some cases by regressive informal standards applied to all investors and new businesses in the country. The cost of informality is paid in full by the society diminishing the values of social responsibilities and ethical standards applied by business organizations. Even though, Vodafone has successfully implemented social responsiveness initiatives through cause promotions initiatives, corporate social marketing, cause related marketing, company philanthropy, community volunteering, and socially responsible business practices that support social causes to improve community well-being and protect the environment.

  18. Library and Information Science Education: An Approach to Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bitri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and suggest to Albania an applicable academic-level Library and Infor­mation Science (LIS educational program approach parallel to world developments in this aspect. Scientific and technological developments have deeply impacted LISfield. The development-education interaction has reflected even in the curriculum changes. In an era where scientific and technological changes can deeply affect education merely a flexible and general approach that could place profes- sional developments and local characteristics of the country could be suggested. A descriptive method was used and a survey questionnaire was applied to 94 librarians from different types of libraries and 6 educators. From the questionnaires it was concluded that a LIS education in a university level is needed in the country. As conclusion this study suggested a conceptual educational approach regarding LIS education. This approach is comprised of eight general modules/subject areas such as information resources, information organization, information users and communication, research, theory and phi- losophy, systems and information technology management, and other disciplines.

  19. Civil rights between legal provisions and political reality in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Koliqi Malaj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic principles of civil rights is that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The life protection, liberty and property should be equally guaranteed to citizens to exclude discrimination of minorities or other parts of the population. These rights are an important part of civil liberties and are considered as an essential element for effective citizenship. Arbitrary arrest, terror, torture or other serious and unlawful interference, both by state and private actors, significantly affect the well-being of democracy as it affects the very essence of it. In liberal democracies, leaders legitimized by the people must be involved within the norms and principles of the rule of law in order to establish a healthy relationship between the state and the citizen. This relationship is considered to be damaged in non-liberal democracies as it is affected by the suspension of individual freedoms and rights. This paper aims to analyze whether these individual rights are guaranteed and protected in Albania, considering from the perspective of the legal framework as well as in the political reality. This study aims to analyze the development of human rights, judicial rights and their implementation in our country to come to the conclusion, whether our system is that of a liberal democracy or not.

  20. The Performance of Public Investments During Fiscal Consolidation in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Zilja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Investments are generally accepted as one of the main factors which contribute in the economic growth of a country, despite that several studies bring evidences that these variables are not always strongly correlated to each other. However, the sensitivity of economic growth to Public Investments (PI and the high level of budget funds spent from governments for capital expenditures have made the issue on PI in general and moreover the factors that influence on PI very important to researchers and public as well.This paper gives a broad insight of public investments performance in developed or developing countries over time, underlining several factors that have assessed this performance, focusing especially on the impact of fiscal consolidation. It brings the views of many authors over the fact whether the governments during fiscal consolidation, in order to control debt stock and the budget balance prefer to cut current expenditures or capital expenditures. Furthermore, it analyses how Albania has reacted during its periods of fiscal consolidation and which has been the behavior of different governments toward PI.

  1. The size of the public sector: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosti Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The government is one of the key players in the economic area of each country. Its impact is evident in all areas, such as political, economic and socio-cultural ones. This impact is measured by an indicator which economists call 'the size of the public sector'. As government's influence is so significant a question naturally arises: Should the impact of the government be big or small? There are many arguments in favor and against this issue and it is difficult to come to a consensus on the extent of government's intervention in the economy. That is why the purpose of this paper is to present a picture of this intervention in the economic life of our country by connecting this indicator with the budget deficit. First, we will elaborate the progress of the size of the public sector in Albania and its measurement by various indicators. Secondly, we will compare the size of the public sector in Albanian with the sizes of the public sector of other countries in the region. Finally, we will present the results of a study on the optimal size of the public sector in the economy of a country being analyzed and in terms of our country.

  2. General Impact Of A Single Market - Albania Goes Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Pano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Brexit did trigger some discussion about the European Single Market future The Commission strategy for an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods persons services and capital is ensured remains the same and increasingly attracts the attention and interest of policy makers and researchers. The digital single market a recent concept developed in the context of the European Union goes beyond the Cloud computing IoT and Big Data that are present-day words frequently mentioned in country strategies. The aim of coming together into a single market is to maximise the benefits of technology while simultaneously preserving values we hold timeless. Expanding this concept and considering the configuration of a digital market in Albania is the underpinning of this paper. Goods and services provided on-line will grant a better access and improved service to the benefit of customers under conditions of fair competition and a high level of consumer and personal data protection. A single platform necessarily digital can incorporate the banking industrial education investment markets and contribute to their unification. This first step of placing the idea should be followed by considering components like digital infrastructure development digitally educated people collaborative economy and others. There is a vision for the country development with no timeline yet above and beyond the brainstorming approach.

  3. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  4. Legal Aspects of Corporate Governance in Albania: A critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Fana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The academic debate on legal aspects of corporate governance, be it at national or international level, has strongly intensified especially during the last two decades. Such tendency has also influenced the relevant Albanian legal framework, as it is evidenced by the most recent amendments on the Law “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies” of 2014. This article focuses exactly on an analyses of the legal and quasi-legal norms of corporate governance in Albania (IFC principles, providing a comparison between the latter and the European Union norms or other internationally recognized principles of good corporate governance, such as the OECD principles. Main objective of this article is to provide a critical analyses of legal rules on two main components of corporate governance, namely shareholder rights and stakeholder protection in a corporation, identifying in this way, when relevant, the necessity for reforming commercial norms. Lastly, from a methodological point of view, the article employs the functional interpretative method of legal norms, critical analyses of relevant case law and when it comes to the comparison between the national and supra-national approaches to corporate governance; it uses the functional comparative method.

  5. The historical development of property-, and commercial Law in Albania until 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal system during communism is understandable in Albania only if we study its legal institutions and development. In this context, a chronological presentation is needed, based mainly on the work of Krisafi, Ballanca, Luarasi, Gjika, Elezi, Omari, Brozi, Gjilani (2009. In this framework, the analysis of this manuscript is closely related to the pre communism situation, not only in the frame of history of property law, but also institutions and content they had during the communism era. Main purpose of this article is the analysis of property- and commercial law in Albania, in the context of the consequences they brought in the transformation process of Albania with the fall of Communism and establishment of democracy.

  6. L’Albania fascista (1939-1943. Stato della ricerca e piste da seguire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redi Halimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will provide an overview of the scientific studies about Italy’s occupation of Albania during World War II. It also suggests the issues still to be addressed and shows the disposal of new archival sources, finally available to scholars. Documentary collections on the Union between Italy and Albania are abundant but there are just a few historical works that analyze them thoroughly. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part briefly describes the major events and the Union’s institutional framework. The second one provides an overview of the historiography about Albania during 1939-1943. The third part gives an overview of the documents available in recent years. The last one suggests the main research the mes related to Italy as an occupying power during World War II.

  7. Seawater circulating system in an aquaculture laboratory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The note gives an account, for the first time in India, of an Aquaculture Laboratory with open type seawater circulating system developed at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. Besides describing the details of the system...

  8. The use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOSEPH

    . Key words: Probiotics, Chemotherapeutic, Fish Culture, Crustaceans, Water Quality,. Correspondence: jummyedun@yahoo.com, john_edun@yahoo.com. Introduction. Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector in the world.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...... the enzyme activity. This was, however, not measured. The model developed successfully described the removal of HP in aquaculture water from three types of RAS and model parameters are estimated. The model and the model parameters provide new information and are valuable tools to improve HP application...

  10. Aquaculture practices and the coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    . The size of the industry which is now beginning to emerge, the scale of its individual production units, raise questions concerning the high input rate of feed and chemical and a correspondingly high production of wastes. In intensive aquaculture system...

  11. Aquaculture in Coastal and Marine US Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. The presence and location of...

  12. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented.

  13. Towards the Importance for Sustainable Development: Case Study: Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodiana Gorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Information has become an important element without which society cannot achieve its objectives. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays, because of the importance and necessity of information in today's dynamic environment. Western countries are convinced that the information society will result in economic and social benefits (Audenhove 2000. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, notes that information infrastructures are expected to stimulate economic growth, increase productivity, create jobs, and improve on the quality of life (Gichoya 2005. It is for these reasons that many studies state that the role of ICTs as enablers of sustainable development is growing. The overall goal of this paper is to point out the importance of ICT market development for the sustainable development of all the economy and the final development of Information society, especially in developing countries, where Albania is the case study illustration. The first step of this research is to show the importance of studying ICTs in the light of building an information society. In fact, the efforts of a country to build an information society, in order to benefit in terms of sustainable development, are closely related to the efforts of building strong information infrastructures and a growing ICT sector. Many indicators related to Information society measurement deal in fact with the infrastructures needed and the products and services of ICT sector. But, failures to submit ICT in contexts which are contrary to techno-economic rationality are reflected in many cases in developing countries. Thus, a defining characteristic of this research is to understand the contexts that confront ICT and information systems development in developing countries in terms of their conditions. In fact the development of ICT sector, depend not only on the political, economic and social conditions of each country, but also on the phase of e

  14. Constructivist Methods in Teaching: The Case for Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous century many theories were created for the teaching.  One of them is the constructivist method widely used. The focus of constructivist theory is oriented towards the pupil. It presupposes that the environment of learning should provide view points or different interpretations of reality, building knowledge, wealth content, and activities that are based on experience. Constructivism is focused on lore and knowledge and not in mechanic imitation of subject content. It is based on a persuasion that the person builds his lore based on his experience, mental structure and faiths used for interpretation of objects and phenomena. The mind is used like an instrument in the interpretation of the event, goals and prospects because they are personal and individual. The main goal of the survey is the coverage and elaboration of some theoretical and practical views, reported from a considered number of research examples about constructivist methods and an actual analysis of Albanian educational system. As a research methodology we have exploited quantitative data. National and international surveys are used, dedicated, to the evaluation of Albanian Pre-university educational system. In the last decadeAlbania, started adopting some reforms in the teaching methodology. Some experts in educational field published some textbooks and manuals about constructivist methods. Prior to these reforms in the field of teaching, policy making bodies approved ordinance and legal drafts in adjustment of this methodology. But even after these reforms, the Albanian educational system is behind the regional education system in regards to the achievements of pupils. The lack of specific training of educational staff, non-adaptation of educational software, inappropriate physical infrastructure of schools, the lack of technical equipments hamper the practicability of this method. Another aspect is insufficient financial budget dedicated to education. Albanian

  15. Judicial police, functions and its development in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asllan Dogjani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in

  16. Training Sessions Fostering Transdisciplinary Collaboration for Sustainable Development: Albania and Kosovo Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jonas; Mader, Marlene; Zimmermann, Friedrich; Çabiri, Ketrina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine sustainability-related challenges in the two Western Balkan countries--Albania and Kosovo. It discusses the opportunities of local higher education institutions (HEIs) taking responsibility to tackle these challenges by providing professional development through science-society collaboration in…

  17. Lone mothers and welfare policies in Albania : Conditions, experiences, expectations, 1944-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruda, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is an action research that endeavors to construct the category of ‘lone mothers’ in Albania, through their own voice, for the purpose of creating the socio-political discourse on their real needs they and their children have. It talks about lone mothers not as needy or vulnerable, but as women

  18. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  19. Detection of Leishmania infantum and a Novel Phlebovirus (Balkan Virus) from Sand Flies in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Velo, Enkelejda; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Kota, Majlinda; Kadriaj, Perparim; Ozbel, Yusuf; Charrel, Remi N; Bino, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    To organize entomological campaigns to trap sand flies in selected regions of Albania and to test them for the presence of existing or new phleboviruses and for leishmania DNA. Sand flies were collected in 14 locations from May to October 2014 using three different types of traps. Pools with a maximum of 30 individuals were prepared according to gender, trapping site, and trapping date; they were tested for the presence of (1) phlebovirus RNA with three different PCR systems (2) and Leishmania DNA using two different real-time PCR assays. A total of 972 sand flies (568 females, 404 males) were aliquoted to 55 pools. Three pools (in two different regions) were positive for Leishmania infantum. Two pools (Kruje region) were positive for phlebovirus RNA and a 575-nucleotide (nt) colinearized sequence of a novel virus most closely related to but clearly distinct from Tehran virus (16% and 3% divergence at nt and amino acid levels). Next generation sequencing analysis indicated that this virus might be transmitted by either Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus tobbi, or both vectors. Visceral leishmaniasis has been clinically recognized in Albania for at least 80 years; however, this is the first time that L. infantum, detected by molecular means, has been reported in sand flies in Albania. At the outset of this study, only Adria virus (Salehabad species) was recognized in Albania. A novel virus, Balkan virus, was identified and genetic analysis revealed that it belongs to the Sandfly fever Naples virus group containing human pathogens.

  20. Tax evasion and the source of income: An experimental study in Albania and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.

    2003-01-01

    A series of experiments among different social groups in both Albania and the Netherlands give the opportunity to compare behavioral patterns related to tax evasion. Aside from the decision whether or not to evade taxes, subjects have to choose a source of income, where one type enables subsequent

  1. Challenges in Albania for improving Labor Market Information System and Labor Market Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshat Zeneli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.

  2. Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoxha, F.; Tafaj, A.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania. Hoxha F, Tafaj A, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Mater Sociomed. 2015 Jun;27(3):163-6. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.163-166. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PMID: 26236161 [PubMed] Free PMC Article

  3. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: distribution and diversity (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Bego

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper new records are reported for 23 species of small terrestrial mammals (STM of Albania collected during the field work campaigns organised in the framework of the project “Strengthening capacity in National Nature Protection – preparation for Natura 2000 network” (NaturAL in Albania during the summer and autumn of 2016 and 2017 Data on small mammals were primarily collected through Sherman live-trapping campaigns in six high priority protected areas of Albania: Korab-Koritnik, Bredhi i Hotovës, Tomorri, Llogara-Karaburun, Divjakë-Karavasta, Liqeni i Shkodrës (Skadar lake, Lëpushë-Vermosh. Other data were obtained by analysis of owl pellets or by direct observation of individuals (dead or alive in the field. For 21 species Erinaceus roumanicus, Neomys anomalus, Crocidura suaveolens, Crocidura leucodon, Suncus etruscus, Talpa stankovici/caeca, Myocastor coypus, Sciurus vulgaris, Glis glis, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Microtus levis/arvalis, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus thomasi, Microtus felteni, Myodes glareolus, Apodemus sylvaticus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus epimelas, Mus musculus, and Mus macedonicus additional records are provide and their distributions reviewed, while the presence of two new species of shrews (Sorex araneus and Sorex minutus for Albania is reported for the first time. A comprehensive review of the published and unpublished distribution records of STM species of the country is made, together with an updated checklist and distribution maps of the species.

  4. Attractiveness of foreign investments in Albania: a focused analysis of factors, constrains and policy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Dragusha (Spahija

    2013-01-01

    Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  5. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from livestock in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Velo, Enkeleda; Kadiaj, Perparim; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Kota, Majlinda; Bino, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Albania is a Balkan country endemic for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). It was shown previously that CCHF virus (CCHFV) sequences from Albanian patients cluster into Europe 1 clade. Aim of the present study was to test for CCHFV ticks collected in several regions of Albania, and to determine the genetic lineage(s) of the CCHFV strains in relation with their geographic distribution. A total of 726 ticks (366 Hyalomma marginatum, 349 Rhipicephalus bursa and 11 Rhipicephalus sanguineus) collected from livestock during 2007-2014 were included in the study. Thirty of 215 (13.9%) tick pools were positive for CCHFV. Lineage Europe 1 was detected in H. marginatum ticks collected in the endemic region of Albania, while lineage Europe 2 was detected mainly in R. bursa ticks in various regions of the country. Both genetic lineages were detected in the CCHF endemic area (northeastern Albania), while only Europe 2 lineage was detected in the south of the country. A higher genetic diversity was seen among Europe 2 than Europe 1 Albanian sequences (mean distance 3.7% versus 1%), suggesting a longer evolution of AP92-like strains (Europe 2) in their tick hosts. The present study shows that besides CCHFV lineage Europe 1, lineage Europe 2 is also present in Albania. Combined with results from recent studies, it is concluded that lineage Europe 2 is widely spread in the Balkans and Turkey, and is associated mainly with R. bursa ticks (at least in this region). Its pathogenicity and impact to the public health remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANIC AQUACULTURE. CASE STUDY: ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture contribute ever more to the production of aquatic food worldwide, even if the sustainable limits for majority of wild fish stocks, are now almost reached or even exceeded. In the EU, aquaculture is an important economic activity in many coastal and continental regions. Aquaculture plays an important role in terms of access to food resources and it is necessary to use its potential to contribute to sustainable development, food security, economic growth and employment. In this regard, starting from EU aquaculture objectives, the paper intend to make an analysis of the national situation of aquaculture and its current potential. The paper presented the progress of Romanian investments in aquaculture, identifying needs and opportunities for the Romanian aquaculture development. Taking into consideration the natural resources available and the growth of global request of organic product, the development of ecologic aquaculture might represent o niche market for local producers.

  7. Freshwater Institute: Focused on improving recirculating aquaculture system technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) technologies help to overcome barriers to domestic aquaculture expansion and enhance the sustainability of the modern fish farming industry through reduction in environmental impacts. With RAS, fish farm expansion is no longer highly constrained by competition ...

  8. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  9. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  10. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, E. S.; dos Santos, C. L.; Jahncke, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglec...

  11. Genomic approaches in aquaculture and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancela, M. Leonor; Bargelloni, Luca; Boudry, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Despite the enormous input into the worldwide development of fish and shellfish farming in the recent decades, in part as an attempt to minimize the impact of fishing on already overexploited natural populations, the application of genomics to aquaculture and fisheries remains poorly developed....... Improving state-of-the-art genomics research in various aquaculture systems, as well as its industrial applications, remains one of the major challenges in this area and should be the focus of well developed strategies to be implemented in the next generation of projects. This chapter will first provide...

  12. Aquaculture at Oregon Inst. of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1976-07-01

    The geothermal hot water resource developed from on-campus wells is used for space heating and heating the college's potable hot water supply. The development of this resource has provided waste water for aquaculture. The available water for aquaculture is a volume of 200 to 250 gal/min with a mean temperature of 57/sup 0/C. This water was tested on mosquitofish, guppies, and crayfish. A program is now underway to see if the giant freshwater prawn may be grown commercially in geothermal waste water. (MHR)

  13. What shapes food value chains? Lessons from aquaculture in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, I; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive role...... on the sustainability challenges of aquaculture and provide four broad observations on the governance of food value chains....

  14. An Overview of Aquaculture in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Ariel, Ellen; Lyngstad, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems, envir...... is for human consumption, significant numbers of fish are grown for restocking of rivers, lakes, or other bodies of freshwater or seawater....

  15. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (DOC) is... United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to...

  16. Preliminary investigation on the conversion of aquaculture solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversion of aquaculture solid wastes into single cell protein (SCP) for fish feed through solid state fermentation using three fungi species, Aspergilus niger, Trichodema viride and Rhizopus species were investigated. Solid aquaculture waste was collected from the sedimentation unit of a re-circulating aquaculture farm in ...

  17. Aquaculture for increased fish production in East Africa | Rutaisire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish is produced for human consumption and other purposes through capture fisheries and aquaculture. Fish production from natural stocks has already reached its limits and is declining while aquaculture production is increasing. Aquaculture is making a significant contribution to fish production in several countries thus ...

  18. A research update for the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2016 totaled 90 million tons valued at $180 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  20. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  1. Corporate governance in Balkan financial institution, case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezart Dibra

    2013-06-01

    this paper is to make such connections and ground the policy debate on scientific evidence. The Corporate Governance in banks is one of the most important discussions overall the world, being reinforced especially after the crises period. It is related with the sensitive situation and the stage of developments of the local economy and moreover with the impact of the crises that is still ongoing. As an answer, during late 2008 and beginning 2009, it has been noticed a fast reaction and total focus from all banks on building (if missing and improving their structures of Corporate Governance. The liquidity problems suddenly affecting the banking sector constrained Banks to enlarge their activities / operations and forced them in better evaluating their investments. The importance of a strong financial sector in impacting the country’s economy growth through both level of banking development and stock market liquidity (Levine and Sara Zervos 1996, 1998 is quite evident even in the developing countries. Moreover, Peter Rousseau and Watchel (2000 findings’ confirm the positive impact of the stock market activity and the banking development. For this reason the governments in the developing countries are insisting in increasing credits of banks towards the private firms. The banking system in Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Albania has certain similarities in terms of development stage, related with the economic growth rate as well. The banking system, there is operating for more than 100 years instead of 15-20 years of development in the remaining countries.

  2. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia: contributions to food security. Did you know? • Fish are one of the healthiest foods, and throughout the world, contribute to support of livelihoods of people living in poverty. • Bolivia has vast flood plains and more than 200 species of fish that are used by people living by.

  4. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  5. Hybrid governance of aquaculture: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Joanna; Haward, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    The development of third party assessment and certification of fisheries and aquaculture has provided new forms of governance in sectors that were traditionally dominated by state based regulation. Emerging market based approaches are driven by shareholder expectations as well as commitment to corporate social responsibility, whereas community engagement is increasingly centered on the questions of social license to operate. Third party assessment and certification links state, market and community into an interesting and challenging hybrid form of governance. While civil society organizations have long been active in pursuing sustainable and safe seafood production, the development of formal non-state based certification provides both opportunities and challenges, and opens up interesting debates over hybrid forms of governance. This paper explores these developments in coastal marine resources management, focusing on aquaculture and the development and operation of the Aquaculture Stewardship Council. It examines the case of salmonid aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia, now Australia's most valuable seafood industry, which remains the focus of considerable community debate over its siting, operation and environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  7. Application of physics technology in aquaculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yaxiang; Hu Yucai; Yang Guijuan

    2002-01-01

    Experiments show that after hydrobiology stimulation by a certain dosage of a physical field such as electromagnetic, laser, or neutron irradiation, hydorbiological activity can be improved, and consequently yield and quality enhanced. Recent advances in the application of physical fields in aquaculture are summarized, and prospects for future developments presented

  8. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  9. Inverness College: Innovations in Aquaculture Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper describes the aquaculture program developed at Inverness College in Scotland. Inverness is located in the Scottish Highlands and serves an area roughly the size of Belgium, but with a population of only 300,000. The regional infrastructure and human capital resources in the Highlands are relatively weak due to inadequate transportation,…

  10. Biotechnology and species development in aquaculture | Ayoola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biotechnology in various aspects of human endeavour have obviously created a great impact but not without some risks. Not withstanding, there is still the need for its adoption as more of the already adopted biotechnologies are being improved upon with lesser demerits. Aquaculture is not also left out in the ...

  11. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  12. Legal issues in E-commerce and E-contract in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uarda Roshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development of e-commerce is an important element of national economy. Being a new important sector, e-commerce can only flourish where there is a good infrastructure, both legal and technological, which is attractive to consumers and business. So the need for rules and principles facilitating e-commerce has become increasingly evident, too. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the regulatory framework, legal issues and the challenges in the development of electronic commerce in Albania.

  13. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Rashiti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.

  14. Economics of Tertiary Education - Challenges and dynamics of the public tertiary education in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledian Llatja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary education is a critic mechanism for the socio-economic progress, for individuals who aspire a brighter future and it is also considered an important catalyzer of the economic mobility (Department of Treasury and Department of Education, 2012, 2. Based on the positive role and impact that the tertiary education has on the sustainable development, President Obama once stated that it is of damage to treat education as a luxurious public service. In line with the general considerations about the tertiary education in the U.S. the parallel comparison with Albania comes as a direct interpretation of utopia in the education policy-making. As policies are usually drafted based on data and findings, in the case of Albania there is a lack of data on expenses on tertiary education as share of GDP. This stands also for the main limitation of the paper.

  15. Reorganization of water utilities - regionalization, an opportunity to increase their efficiency A comparative literature - Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Naqellari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the study and analysis of factors affecting the need for reorganization of entities engaged in water supply services. From this perspective, the research seeks to identify international practices made in this regard and how they can be adapted to water utilities in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show that regionalization of water utilities is a successful development direction not only of studied literature but also practice in Albania. The study is based on sources of information taken from primary and secondary sources. The selected method for collecting and processing information from primary sources is the empirical method through direct surveys and questionnaires, whereas from secondary sources is descriptive and analytical method. As secondary sources, we are consulted and referred to academic resources, such as articles, books, studies and reports carried out and published by national organizations, local and foreign companies in this field.

  16. Can a South East European Country Have a Strong Currency? Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriatik Kotorri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma which is presented in this article is connected with problem of excessive for a currency. The discussion is based on South Eastern European country case, which is the Albania and its currency Lek. This currency has a very low marketability outside Albania and a pretty short history in the currency exchange market, during which it had experienced high fluctuations. But we should accept that after the 2000s, our national currency began to reach relatively constant ratios with the main currencies on the exchange market. This stability has fulfilled the normalization picture of the macroeconomic parameters, which were so much unstable during the fast essential changes that happened in the first years of transition. In this article we will try to present the real position of the Albanian currency in the Albanian exchange market.

  17. Mortgage lending and house prices in Albania - a co-integrated analysis based on VECM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjona REBI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general view that the banks’ lending plays a crucial role in the real estate market was again confirmed during the recent financial crisis. During the precrisis period, house prices in Albania increased rapidly, supported also by a fast expansion of mortgage lending. This study aims to empirically analyse the relation between housing prices and banks’ financing in the long run, referring to a VECM model. The estimated results confirm the important role of mortgage to house prices. Meanwhile, the relation between house prices and interest rates resulted statistically insignificant. Unlike the previous literature, exchange rate has been included as an endogenous variable. Results show positive correlation and statistical significance between house prices and exchange rate. Finally, this paper is expected to contribute to the literature as there are very few studies that elaborate on the macroeconomic factors’ influence on the housing prices in Albania.

  18. Autonomy and Financial Sources, Key Factors in the Performance of Health Insurance Scheme: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Avdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy of public health insurance scheme comprises political, financial, organizational, normative and contractual aspects. The paper analyses the role and position of a health insurance scheme (HIS within the overall healthcare system in Albania, the relationship to all other institutions, stakeholders and actors. By analyesing published literature and collected data through secondary sources, the paper focuses on financial autonomy, which refers first of all to a certain level of budgetary independence regarding source generation and spending on health services. For assuring effective and efficient performance of the single payer for health care services in Albania, need effective changes in the legislation do take into account the various levels of autonomy mentioned above.

  19. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  20. THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture provided 31.7% of the world needs for aquatic products. The total production and industrialization of aquaculture will continue. Planning of aquaculture development in Croatia and the preparations for joining the European Economic Community must take into account the status of aquaculture and trends in the world, the common fishery policy of EEC (green document, the production in EEC member states and EEC–candidate states and especially the production in neighboring countries. The number, the size and the strength of organizational structures helping the development of aquaculture in EEC are showing these factors to be of decisive importance for the future of sustainable aquaculture in Croatia, too. The very low fish consumption in the country is a negative health factor for the Croatian citizens and it emphasizes the importance of faster development of aquaculture. The paper is intended to stimulate improvements in the aquaculture development strategy, to promote more positive approach towards this food production sector and to speed up its successfulness in Croatia.

  1. Prevalence of malocclusions, oral habits and orthodontic treatment need in a 7- to 15-year-old schoolchildren population in Tirana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, Giuseppina; Masucci, Caterina; Fabi, Francesco; Bollero, Patrizio; Cozza, Paola

    2013-06-14

    The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions, oral habits and the need for orthodontic treatment in a sample of 7- to 15-year-old Albanese schoolchildren. The final sample comprised 2,617 subjects (1,257 males and 1,360 females), all orthodontically untreated. Occlusal relationship and the functional analysis were recorded for all subjects. The prevalence rates for the dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) were calculated. Comparisons between genders were performed for the prevalence of malocclusions, oral habits and IOTN grades (chi-square tests). Class I, class II and class III malocclusions and asymmetries were observed in 40.4%, 29.2%, 3.2% and 27.1% of the sample, respectively. There were 2,108 subjects (80.6%) that showed oral habits, with females (82.1%) presenting with a greater prevalence rate than males (78.9%). The objective need for orthodontic treatment (grades 4 and 5 of IOTN) was registered in 1,077 subjects (41.2%). This prevalence rate is higher than those reported for other European countries. No significant differences between genders were found for the IOTN grades. The findings of the present study revealed the need to improve public health plans for orthodontic prevention and screening and to organise the resources in this area in Albania.

  2. Albania’s Road Toward Integrated and Accession into the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Audiovisual Media, improving the legislative framework for audiovisual media in the country.143 The improvements relate to the internal political...and secondly to apply them effectively. In addition, as a pre- condition, Albania has to translate the EU legislation composed of approximately...Party of Labor (APL) during communism, to an information tool with guaranteed freedom of expression. With the adoption of the Law on Audiovisual

  3. The right to appeal under the constitution of Albania and court jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donika Plakolli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to appeal is both a fundamental human right and a procedural tool, whereby parties exercise examination of the lawfulness of court rulings, etc. The constitution of the Republic of Albania, 1 approved in 1998, expressly provides for and guarantees the right to file an appeal. Unlike other rights, this fundamental right was not restricted, being in accordance with Article 17 of the Constitution, except for cases otherwise provided in the Constitution. In accordance with this constitutional right and guarantee, all codes of administrative procedures, civil and criminal procedure, provided for and widely guaranteed the exercise of the right to file an appeal. This absence of restriction of the right to fi le an appeal brought about an overload of court cases and trial delays, thus making the completion of the adjudication within a reasonable deadline uncertain. As a result, there rose the necessity to limit this right in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania. The amendments to the Constitution by Law no. 76/2016 also limited the right to fi le an appeal under Article 17 of the Constitution. However, these amendments were not complete, as they did not entail the exercise of the right to file an appeal against decisions of administrative authorities. The jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Albania is a guarantee of the right to appeal/effective access in the civil and administrative process, although slightly controversial in the criminal process. However, positive developments regarding the guarantee of effective access to the court have recently occurred. Even in the broad jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights, when cases from Albania have been adjudicated, violations of the right to effective appeal have been observed in the criminal process.

  4. Public Administration Professionalism and Political Changes in Albania under EU Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Robert DUMI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Albania is making big steps in the process of integration toward western institutions and organizations. The domestic political factor plays a leading role in Albanian society as an indicator of expressing the willingness to help the process of integration through well designed reforms. However, the resistance of political forces, especially those with direct or indirect heri tages from the old political class, is preventing the transition to newer western political concepts of doing politics. Reforms to improve democracy requires leadership from within the country as a prerequisite in building the political will for reform as very important for consolidating democracy and strengthen ties with European Union and distancing the society from its troubled past. In this paper I want to illustrate the model of development in politics of public administration in Albania, to be part of the political management in my country. Moreover, one of the biggest challenges in public reforming of Albanian economy and making Albania attractive to foreign investments is the implementation of the property rights. This still remains one of the biggest challenges due to the lack of transparency of the process of legalization and lack of state guidance in development of urban and rural areas. In this paper we analyze two topics directly related to change the public administration with Strategy of Decentralization and Local Autonomy.

  5. Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Guzmán

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 geochronological ages already published or acquired for this work. The five lower terraces of the four studied rivers are well dated (10 new and 23 already published ages. These terraces are younger than 30 ka and their remnants are numerous. Their restoration allows estimating the regional trend of incision rate and the identification of local shifts. We argue that these shifts are linked to the active tectonics when they coincide with the faults already mapped by previous authors. Vertical slip rates for eight active faults in southern Albania are thus estimated for the last 19 ka and vary from ~0.1 to ~2 mm/a. The Lushnje Tepelene Thrust, that extends more than 120 kilometers, has a throw rate that varies from 0.2 to 0.8 mm/a, whereas the active faults of the extensional domain are segmented but are very active, with throw rates reaching locally 2 mm/a.

  6. Moving towards Practice-Oriented and Research-Based Teacher Education: Challenges of Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher education from a research-based and practice orientation. This article is based primarily on findings from desk research conducted at public universities in Kosovo and Albania, more specifically analyzing the university curricula and other documents related to the provision of teacher education courses. In addition, the research involves the analysis of work completed and documents produced as a result of the 2009-2011 Trans-European Mobility Program for University Studies (TEMPUS Project “Development of Master Study Programs in Education” (DEMED. The article outlines the similarities and differences of teacher education systems in Kosovo and Albania and emphasizes the need for small countries to co-operate on joint reform that leads to wider regional impact and facilitates mobility of staff and students. Identifying common goals is thus important. The two priority goals for these two countries are: development of practice and research-based teacher education. Conclusions are presented with the intent of findings being extrapolated to similar small, developing countries.

  7. Comparisons of stakeholders’ perception towards the sustainable tourism development and its impacts in Shkodra Region (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drita Kruja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries, and has been identified as a means of generating national income in less industrialized economies. Like other countries, Albania has promoted tourism as a major source of national income. The tourism industry in Albania currently focuses on coastal areas, rather than on the unique features that set this country apart from its neighbors. Albania’s natural features have the potential to attract tourists seeking ecological and cultural experiences. Thoughtful, sustainable development of these resources could enhance community livelihoods throughout Albania. The purpose of this study was to discover if differences in perceptions of sustainable tourism development and principles in Shkodra Region existed between four stakeholder groups: residents, entrepreneurs, government officials, and tourists. Data were collected from stakeholders using a self competed questionnaire, which included Likert-style questions inquiring about attitudes and perceptions of sustainable tourism development in the community. The data gathered illustrate that the perception of sustainable tourism principles varies considerably among stakeholder groups. As a distinct stakeholder group, the majority of local residents generally were welcoming of tourism.

  8. The tourism consumption, a special economic category of the final demand in Albania and in the countries of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakela THANO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an international activity which includes a combination of economic, political, environmental and social factors whose consequences are becoming more and more complex, controversial and which emerge in delicate and unexpected ways. Today tourism is characterized by a development which is not only continuous but also sensitive to rapidly-changing attitudes. The effects of tourism are multifaceted: economic, social, natural or environmental, political, and cultural. In this article we will talk about the effects of the development of tourism on the international and total tourism consumption regarding Albania accompanied with empirical data and a comparison of their respective statistics. We will also try to study the effect of financial crisis on the international tourism consumption in Albania. All the data have been collected from INSTAT and Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2012, for the time period 2006-2012. The number of visitors to Albania after 2000 has been increasing and consequently the positive impact of tourism on total consumption has become stronger. Nevertheless, after 2006, Albania shows strong fluctuations in tourism consumption compared to other countries in the region. This is due to the fact that Albania is a relatively new destination in the development of tourism market.

  9. Estimating the association between economic performance and Okun misery index in Albania: January 2005- December 2014 F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Kolaneci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to develop a statistical analysis of the GDP growth rate, Okun misery index and association between them for Albania during the period January 2005-December.Some results of the present study include: • The official data of the quarterly GDP growth rate for Albania during the period January 2005 – December 2014 contradict Kolmogorov’s Central Limit Theorem at the confidence level77.1%. • The GDP growth rate for Albania during the specified period is anunfair game at the confidence level78.2%. • The official data of the quarterly Okun misery index for Albania during January 2005-December 2014 contradict Central Limit Theorem at the confidence level 86.4%. • The miserably process in Albania during the specified period is an unfair game at the confidence level 98.3%. • Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient between quarterly GDP growth rate and quarterly Okun misery index is -0.0606, which indicates a quite weal negative association between these two random variables.

  10. Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Hwang, S Y; Hong, M K; Kwon, K H

    2012-04-01

    The aquaculture industry has grown dramatically, and plays an important role in the world's food supply chain. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with food animals receives much attention, and drug use in aquaculture is also an important issue. There are many differences between aquatic and terrestrial management systems, such as the methods used for administration of drugs. Unique problems are related to the application of drugs in aquatic environments. Residual drugs in fish products can affect people who consume them, and antimicrobials released into aquatic environments can select for resistant bacteria. Moreover, these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, or their resistance genes, can be transferred to humans. To decrease the risks associated with the use of antimicrobials, various regulations have been developed. In addition, it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquatic animals by vaccination, to improve culture systems, and to monitor the amount of antimicrobial drugs used and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

  11. New aquaculture drugs under FDA review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

  12. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effect...

  13. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  14. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  15. The Determinants of Actual Migration and the Role of Wages and Unemployment in Albania: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cattaneo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the determinants of internal migration in Albania, adopting the Harris-Todaro approach to migration: an internal migration function is estimated using district wage and unemployment rate differentials. The aggregate level wages and unemployment, included in the migration equation, are retrieved from a first stage wage and unemployment equations, estimated controlling for personal characteristics. Moreover, in order to test the predictions of the human capital model of migration, the difference between migrants and non-migrants is emphasized in the estimation. The data source is the "Living Standard Measurement Survey for Albania" (2002, undertaken by the national Institute of Statistics and the World Bank jointly. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differentials are important determinants of the propensity to migrate in Albania. This conclusion is further emphasized by noting that migrants gain substantially in terms of higher returns to individual characteristics after emigration.

  16. Effects of nanoparticles in species of aquaculture interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Katuli, Kheyrollah; Prato, Ermelinda; Lofrano, Giusy; Guida, Marco; Vale, Gonçalo; Libralato, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    Recently, it was observed that there is an increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in aquaculture. Manufacturers are trying to use nano-based tools to remove the barriers about waterborne food, growth, reproduction, and culturing of species, their health, and water treatment in order to increase aquaculture production rates, being the safe-by-design approach still unapplied. We reviewed the applications of NPs in aquaculture evidencing that the way NPs are applied can be very different: some are direclty added to feed, other to water media or in aquaculture facilities. Traditional toxicity data cannot be easily used to infer on aquaculture mainly considering short-term exposure scenarios, underestimating the potential exposure of aquacultured species. The main outputs are (i) biological models are not recurrent, and in the case, testing protocols are frequently different; (ii) most data derived from toxicity studies are not specifically designed on aquaculture needs, thus contact time, exposure concentrations, and other ancillary conditions do not meet the required standard for aquaculture; (iii) short-term exposure periods are investigated mainly on species of indirect aquaculture interest, while shrimp and fish as final consumers in aquaculture plants are underinvestigated (scarce or unknown data on trophic chain transfer of NPs): little information is available about the amount of NPs accumulated within marketed organisms; (iv) how NPs present in the packaging of aquacultured products can affect their quality remained substantially unexplored. NPs in aquaculture are a challenging topic that must be developed in the near future to assure human health and environmental safety. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. Aquaculture development in China: the role of public sector policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hishamunda, Nathanaël; Subasinghe, R. P

    2003-01-01

    This report was prepared withing the framework of the FAO Fisheries Department's continued efforts to contribute to poverty alleviation and hunger reduction in developing countries through aquaculture development...

  18. Does Aquaculture Support the Needs of Nutritionally Vulnerable Nations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture now supplies half of the fish consumed directly by humans. We evaluate whether aquaculture, given current patterns of production and distribution, supports the needs of poor and food-insecure populations throughout the world. We begin by identifying 41 seafood-reliant nutritionally vulnerable nations (NVNs, and ask whether aquaculture meets human nutritional demand directly via domestic production or trade, or indirectly via purchase of nutritionally rich dietary substitutes. We find that a limited number of NVNs have domestically farmed seafood, and of those, only specific aquaculture approaches (e.g., freshwater in some locations have the potential to benefit nutritionally vulnerable populations. While assessment of aquaculture's direct contribution via trade is constrained by data limitations, we find that it is unlikely to contribute substantially to human nutrition in vulnerable groups, as most exported aquaculture consists of high-value species for international markets. We also determine that subpopulations who benefit from aquaculture profits are likely not the same subpopulations who are nutritionally vulnerable, and more research is needed to understand the impacts of aquaculture income gains. Finally, we discuss the relationship of aquaculture to existing trends in capture fisheries in NVNs, and suggest strategies to create lasting solutions to nutritional security, without exacerbating existing challenges in access to food and land resources.

  19. Cultural/Heritage Tourism Strategic Planning in Albania. Analysing Berat, as a World Heritage Patrimony, Protected by UNESCO

    OpenAIRE

    Frosina Londo; Fioralba Vela

    2014-01-01

    Cultural/Heritage tourism market has always been seen as very important in tourism development in Albania, even before 90‘s. It‘s important in nowadays to be focused in a very well planned development of this form of tourism, as cultural tourism is trying to be one of the key determinants of Albanian tourism development. In Albania it has been developed since before 90‘s, time when tourism itself did not have the proper attention by the government. It must be emphasized that cultural tourism ...

  20. Six new subterranean freshwater gastropod species from northern Albania and some new records from Albania and Kosovo (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Moitessieriidae and Hydrobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Grego

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During a field trip to the western part of the Balkan Peninsula in 2016, investigations of several caves and karstic springs revealed six new gastropod species living in subterranean waters and resulted in some noteworthy faunistic records. Five of the new species are assigned to the genus Paladilhiopsis Pavlović, 1913, namely P. prekalensis sp. n., P. lozeki sp. n., P. szekeresi sp. n., P. wohlberedti sp. n., P. falniowskii sp. n. and one to the genus Plagigeyeria Tomlin, 1930, namely P. steffeki sp. n. New Albania and Kosovo distribution records are given for Iglica illyrica Schütt, 1975, Plagigeyeria zetaprotogona Schütt, 1960, Vinodolia matjasici (Bole, 1961, and the first georeferenced record is given for Saxurinator schlickumi Schütt, 1960. The most important environmental factors influencing habitat selection of these subterranean freshwater gastropods are briefly discussed.

  1. Proteomics and its applications to aquaculture in China: infection, immunity, and interaction of aquaculture hosts with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [A child health promotion intervention in Albania: results and lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonomo, E; Doro Altan, A M; Cenko, F; Godo, A; Scarcella, P; Fioramonti, L; Marazzi, M C; Palombi, L

    2007-01-01

    Albania is a Balkan country in South-Eastern Europe which, in recent years, has undergone complex demographic, political and economical changes. A notable drop in infant and maternal mortality rates and a significant rise in economic indicators have been observed in recent years. Despite this, over 15% of the population living in the northern and north-eastern areas of the country lives in extreme poverty conditions. In recent years various healthcare system reforms have been introduced, including the introduction of private healthcare and improvement of the main hospital infrastructures but not much has been done to increase the provision of essential healthcare services especially in rural and poor areas. Inequalities in health care are therefore widespread and these particularly affect children living in critical areas. In this paper we describe a paediatric healthcare intervention programme conducted in Albania from 2002 to 2004, aimed at improving the health and nutrition status of children and tackling healthcare system inequalities. The intervention consisted in offering free healthcare services and assistance, delivered through the Albanian healthcare system, to 5280 children. It also involved a health education programme for the mothers. The impact of the programme on the prevalence of infant malnutrition was evaluated by examining the medical records of 1745 infants followed for at least 6 months. Prevalence of malnutrition significantly decreased, from 13.4% to 4.2% during the study period. Mortality in children aged 0-5 years also showed a considerable drop. These results confirm that an efficient and sustainable model of paediatric healthcare assistance in Albania is possible.

  3. The influence of women's empowerment on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-08-01

    Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change and the expected impact in water resources in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiraj, Eglantina; Mucaj, Liri; Bicja, Mirela

    2004-01-01

    The climate change scenarios for Albania are prepared by using MAGICC/SCENGEN software, by CRU/UEA. MAGICC is run to calculate the global changes by using the mid- range IS92a emission scenario as the reference scenario and SRESA1, SRESA2, SRESB1 and SRESB2 as policy scenarios. SCENGEN is run using 6 of the available standardized GCM global warming patterns (HadCM2, UKTR, ECHAM4, CSIRO-TR, UIUC-EQ, GFDLLO). A composite pattern is constructed by using these 6 GSM altogether for each scenario. The climate change scenario for Albania leads to an annual increase in temperature up to 3.6 o C and decrease in precipitation to -12.5% by 2100 related to 1990. Severe summers with high temperatures (up to 4.10 o C) and low precipitation (up to -27%) are expected to meet over the territory that may cause negative or positive impacts. Autumn seems to play the second role in annual changes. Milder winters and warmer springs are expected as well. A decrease in the long term mean annual and seasonal runoff has to be expected for the whole territory and for three time horizons (years 2025, 2050, 2100). It would affect the surface water flow, reducing its amount. Under reduced surface flow and increased evaporation, the storage of reservoirs will decrease, which will effect the energy production by hydropower stations. Because of the reduction of stream flows in the wetlands, western part of Albania would experience both increasing demands for water and reduced supply of water, which would decrease wetland area. Other consequences of expected warming include not only changes in total water amount and levels, but also erosion of riverbeds, and modification of turbidity and sediment load. (Author)

  5. High-resolution molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtypes in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salemi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemic in Western Europe is largely due to subtype B. Little is known about the HIV-1 in Eastern Europe, but a few studies have shown that non-B subtypes are quite common. In Albania, where a recent study estimated a ten-fold increase of AIDS incidence during the last six years, subtype A and B account for 90% of the know infections.We investigated the demographic history of HIV-1 subtype A and B in Albania by using a statistical framework based on coalescent theory and phylogeography. High-resolution phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis showed a limited introduction to the Balkan country of subtype A during the late 1980s followed by an epidemic outburst in the early 1990 s. In contrast, subtype B was apparently introduced multiple times between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. Both subtypes are growing exponentially, although the HIV-1A epidemic displays a faster growth rate, and a significantly higher basic reproductive number R(0. HIV-1A gene flow occurs primarily from the capital Tirane, in the center of the country, to the periphery, while HIV-1B flow is characterized by a balanced exchange between center and periphery. Finally, we calculated that the actual number of infections in Albania is at least two orders of magnitude higher than previously thought.Our analysis demonstrates the power of recently developed computational tools to investigate molecular epidemiology of pathogens, and emphasize the complex factors involved in the establishment of HIV-1 epidemics. We suggest that a significant correlation exists between HIV-1 exponential spread and the socio-political changes occurred during the Balkan wars. The fast growth of a relatively new non-B epidemic in the Balkans may have significant consequences for the evolution of HIV-1 epidemiology in neighboring countries in Eastern and Western Europe.

  6. Fiscal Impacts on Output in a Small Open Economy: The Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patonov Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to study the effects of total government spending and tax revenue on the annual GDP growth rate in Albania. On this base, we can examine whether and to which extent the macroeconomic governance could rely on those fiscal instruments in terms of a small open economy. The empirical methodology is based on regression analysis which includes OLS estimation on simply specified regression model and Vector Autoregressive estimates. The results support the assumptions that government expenditure is a weak instrument for policy impacts and the government must rely on taxation to stimulate economic growth.

  7. Application Of Geographic Information Systems Towards Flood Management In Shkodër, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Medjon HYSENAJ

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the advantages of GIS in monitoring and improving flood response management in Albania. A full statistic overview of the last flooding occured in the region of Shkodra will be presented. The delicate area balances as far as water management is concerned, have turned into repetitive problematic that have become endemic to the region. The flooding in 2010 and 2011 due to heavy rain, snow melting and hydropower management caused a strong impact in the socio-econo...

  8. Costs of performance based maintenance for local roads: Case study Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Igor; Grujić, Bojana; Zeljić, Dragana; Grujić, Žarko; Svilar, Mila

    2017-12-01

    The provision and maintenance of road infrastructure is a major global business, consequently it is essential that road maintenance services are provided in the most cost effective manner. Without regular maintenance, roads can rapidly fall into disrepair, preventing realization of the longer term impacts of road improvements on development, such as increased agricultural production and growth in school enrollment, which is of particular importance for a network of local (access) roads. Inadequate local roads maintenance in Albania is proposed to be solved by implementing performance based maintenance approach for which the costing exercise is presented within the paper.

  9. Human resource development – A key factor for the sustainable development of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlat Lame

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the current situation of labor resources in Albania and its trends from the viewpoint of their contributions to the overall country progress. A real partnership between business and public institutions, the efforts to formalize the economy, to promote discipline and better application of international standards are considered key issues for the future country developments. The effective management of human resources and coordination could not be reached without profound structural and economic reforms, without free entrepreneurship initiative encouragement, and without mutual confidence between the employers and the employees.

  10. The rediscovery of Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) on Mt Tomor, south central Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Gjeta, Ermelinda

    2015-01-01

    Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) placed by Sytin & Podlech in a section of its own (A. sect. Baldaccia) was described from a single specimen in the Barbey-Boissier Herbarium at Geneva. Our observations show that its placement in A. sect. Hololeuce would also be appropriate. The species was first...... collected by Baldacci in 1892 on Mt Tomor in south central Albania and rediscovered by Markgraf at the locus classicus in June 1928. A complete and amended description of the species is here provided as corolla features were not available in the type material and the flower colour was incorrectly described...

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Albania 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Albania carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  13. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.

  14. Use of probiotics for sustainable aquaculture production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics is a natural ingredient in finfish, shellfish and culture environment and its appropriate application will save Nigeria aquaculture from losses due to diseases. It will make available, aquaculture products that are safe for consumption as well ensuring a healthy aquatic environment. However research should be ...

  15. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Documents. The effects of warning information about flow conditions on the performance of river cage aquaculture in the Nan River, Northern Thailand. Documents ... Documents. The role of middlemen networks and markets in responding to climate variability and extremes in the aquaculture sector in Northern Thailand ...

  16. Support to the CGIAR Program on Aquaculture | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Support to the CGIAR Program on Aquaculture. More than 700 million people depend on aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) for their livelihood. These are diverse farming systems that include a mix of cultivation, livestock-raising, aquaculture, fishing, and gathering natural resources such as fruits, seeds, timber and wildlife.

  17. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    scale aquaculture value chains in two pilot areas: capture fisheries in the northern Bolivian Amazon (Paiche) and pond aquaculture of native fish in the Marmoré basin in the northeastern Amazon. The team will analyze the nutritional value of ...

  18. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Risk Management Practices. Briefs. Aquaculture and Climate. Journal articles. River-based cage aquaculture of tilapia in Northern Thailand : sustainability of rearing and business practices. Journal articles. Learning about climate-related risks: decisions of Northern Thailand fish farmers in a role-playing simulation game ...

  19. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    adaptation, en déterminant et en mesurant l'apport de l'aquaculture à la résilience des ménages. ... Thermal tolerance and performance of key species and climate change adaptation options for inland aquaculture in Northern Thailand. IDL-56222.pdf.

  20. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, research on climate change and aquaculture is limited compared to many other agricultural activities. This project focuses on tilapia grown in farm ponds or floating cages in rivers and reservoirs in northern Thailand. It explores both how aquaculture practices should adapt to changing climatic conditions and the ...

  1. Capacity building for sustainable aquaculture and fisheries development in Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steins, N.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Taal, K.; Bolman, B.C.; Bink, E.; Dop, van H.; Dekker, A.; Numan, J.; Spek, van der G.; Pijl, van der W.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the results of a Dutch public-private capacity building (Knowledge to Knowledge or K2K) mission for fostering sustainable aquaculture and fisheries development in Myanmar. The objectives of the K2K mission were to: 1) analyse Myanmar’s aquaculture and fisheries knowledge

  2. Contribution Of Information Channels To Adoption Of Aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution Of Information Channels To Adoption Of Aquaculture Technologies Among Fish Farmers In Anambra State And Implication For Training. ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... By implication, both fish farmers and EAs need training to improve their knowledge on aquaculture technologies.

  3. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Naylor, R.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Tyedmers, P.H.; Folke, C.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Crépin, A.S.; Ehrlich, P.; Gren, A.; Kautsky, N.; Levin, S.A.; Nyborg, K.; Osterblom, H.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.; Xepapadeas, A.; de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment

  4. Aqua-Topics. Aquaculture for Youth and Youth Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Eileen

    This booklet contains information on aquaculture and ideas for aquaculture projects. The information provided is for students at upper elementary through high school learning levels. Recommended activities at the end of the text are organized by level of difficulty. The activities can be modified depending on area and availability of resources. A…

  5. Major constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study contributes to nationwide attempts to enhance the contributions of aquaculture to the fishery subsector, and consequent overall gross domestic product of Nigeria, as well as to the protein intake of her citizenry. The focus is on the determination of the magnitude of constraints affecting aquaculture development in ...

  6. Potential hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, is fraught with potential hazards and risks which are categorized into occupational, environmental, food safety and public health. This paper reviewed major hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry and proffered strategies for their management and control.

  7. Scaling-up Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Pilot interventions tested the effectiveness of mobile short text messaging to disseminate information to farmers and others in the aquaculture industry. ... The project will also test the efficacy of different governance models for sustainable aquaculture management, to understand which institutional partnerships work best for ...

  8. Fish production practices and use of aquaculture technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of aquaculture in meeting the increasing demand for fish all over the World cannot be over emphasized. The study investigated types of improved aquaculture technologies used by the fish farmers in Oyo State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 117 (60%) fish farmers randomly selected from ...

  9. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It explores both how aquaculture practices should adapt to changing climatic conditions and the value of aquaculture as an adaptation strategy. Researchers will explore past impacts and future risks of floods and droughts on farms using different risk-management practices. They will look at the effects of climate variability ...

  10. Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 oct. 2009 ... Sena S. De Silva is Director General of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia- Pacific and Honorary Professor of Aquaculture and Fisheries Biology at the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. F. Brian Davy is Senior Fellow at the International Institute for ...

  11. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TIRANA’S BLACK OLIVE THROUGH THE CLONE SELECTION.

    OpenAIRE

    Valdete Vorpsi; Hajri Ismaili; Uran Abazi; Ilir Cici

    2010-01-01

    The olive is among the oldest cultivated trees in the world, olive cultivation is associated with several countries of the Mediterranean See basin and plays an important role in the diets economies and cultures of the region. There are different region in Albania that are suitable for olive cultivation in our country. The olive growing is very ancient in Tirana district and constitutes an important sector of economy. "Black of Tirana" olive cultivar has originated from Tirana district and occ...

  13. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    Aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) has been the fastest-growing animal food-producing sector in the world during the last three decades. At present, more than half of the world’s human fish consumption comes from aquaculture. Despite the positive trend, the aquaculture industry faces...... challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable....... To this end, key challenges should be thoroughly examined to identify sustainable and efficient solutions. Thus, the thesis focuses on two important bottlenecks in the growth of the aquaculture sector—namely, lack of nutritionally suitable live feed items for marine finfish production and negative...

  14. Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Huete-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  15. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Civil Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey 20070; Department of Civil Engineering, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania; Department of Civil Engineering, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey 44280; Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey 06531 ...

  16. Pattern of Engagement of People with Disabilities and Their Family Members in the Policy Making Process in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Cani Drenofci

    2010-07-01

    Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  17. IMPACT OF THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON POVERTY REDUCTION IN ALBANIA AS A COUNTRY IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina BAZINI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fighting poverty is a major challenge for Albania, in which tourism can make a significant contribution. However, it is important to analyze the basic concepts behind specific policies and actions that would allow tourism to be effective, like the possibilities offered by micro-credit. In fact, tourism development must be properly managed, avoiding anarchic, speculative development, so that it can be transformed into benefits for the local people and their environment. This paper will list seven areas of action through which tourism development in Albania as a Mediterranean country could fight poverty, with several of them relating to the possibilities created by micro-credit. After analyzing each of these approaches, a methodology must be drawn up for selecting the most effective projects from two points of view – interest for tourism and impact on poverty reduction.

  18. Extradition institution and international standards for its implementation in the Republic of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Metaliaj (Softa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The states between them create a kind of cooperation, which appears in the creation of political alliances, increase in the level of cooperation, greater use of more efficient and streamlined means for unifying ways of acting. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters comes as an old tradition, with different stages of development and dictated by political and historical conditions in which every country has passed. In the case of Albania, seen in a historical context, since the birth of the Albanian state and during the existence of the communist regime (1944-1990, judicial cooperation in criminal matters in general, and the implementation of extradition, in particular refers to only bilateral treaties between different countries, which were a clear expression of political alliances of the time. With the democratic changes occurring in the early 90s, along with the establishment of relations with many countries of Europe and the world, judicial cooperation in criminal matters was given an important role in setting the bases in the legislative framework and this led to the signing of the European Convention “On Extradition” (and its Protocols which its ratification by the Republic of Albania, which has become part of the domestic Albanian legislation, establishing a set of binding standards, which have already been applicable to the Albanian legislation.

  19. Relational governance – an examination of the apple sector in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blendi GËRDOÇI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an in-depth analysis of the value chain governance in the fruit sector in Albania. Particular attention was paid to the nature of relations between agricultural producers and marketing channel chosen by them, distinguishing between big wholesalers, local collectors and exporters, longer-term relations, commitment and trust, and contracting along the value chain. Given the absence of, or weak, contract enforcement and the clear evidence of embeddedness in dyadic relationships in this chain, we focused our analysis on sustained relationships, contracting and personal bonds as a determinant factor to improve business relationship quality. This paper is based on a structured survey targeting 182 orchard farmers in two leading fruit production regions in Albania, namely Korca and Peshkopia. The survey showed a weak prevalence of verbal contracts in embedded relationships. The percentage of contracts between farmers and local collectors is slightly higher compared to wholesalers. This evidence is much stronger when we investigate the incidence of contracts in stable relationships (i.e. selling to the same buyer. We also find that mature relationships generate higher sustainability - a result which does not come as a surprise, although the coordination between farmers and other actors downstream is only at early stages. The main implications which arise from our analysis are relevant for agribusinesses, farmers and policy makers.

  20. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  1. CLUSTER PRACTICES IN HERITAGE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT – CASE STUDY IN SOUTHERN ALBANIA

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    Mirdaim AXHAM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As competitiveness is growing in the Balkans, a new approach in the development of heritage tourism, which can adapt to these circumstances, is required. Cluster practices can be the new approach that can improve competitiveness of Albanian tourism. Considering the nature of Albania and its rich heritage, it is a very attractive “magnet” for foreign tourists. The article starts with a presentation of tourism experience in Albania and discusses why heritage tourism is possibly the only way to develop tourism now and for the future, in the country. Some brief explanation concerning cluster practices follow: a presentation of the main issues about cluster practices, their benefits and drawbacks, their implementation and the ways they can be monitored and evaluated. It is important to direct attention to the fact that cluster practices are becoming an important means to development and to the enforcement of social capital in the geographical areas where they are implemented. In the end of the article is shown why cluster practices can be worth of being implemented in area of Butrint-Saranda-Gjirokastra-Korca. The paper concludes with the main findings and conclusions of the analysis.

  2. The potentials of rural tourism in developing rural areas in Albania

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    Henrietta Nagy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The inspiration that drove us to this study is that conventional tourism in Albania is focused more on promoting seaside, cultural tourism, luxury resorts, etc. which has demonstrated a good trend. At the same time, specific parts of the country have been abandoned due to their underdeveloped situation. Given their assets as constructed and indigenous habitat, they progressively appear as regions for rural tourism development. It could provide good development opportunities in remote mountainous areas that every day more are abandoned by the population because they do not have enough employment opportunities. But as for other rural areas which have a great potential for development of rural tourism, they are not preferred by the population either to live because they do not have developed agriculture. They do not provide the opportunity to earn enough money to live on at the appropriate standard. So the development of rural tourism would help the population in such areas to diversify their activities and earn some extra income, motivating inhabitants to stay in their own areas. Overall, it would contribute to the balanced development of the regions of Albania.

  3. Wage Tendency in Albania; The Reaction to the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

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    Imelda Sejdini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wage of both public and private sectors is a very important source of incomes for most of the population in Albania. The importance of public sector wage policy exceeds the sector's actual share of total employment, because the level of wages in this sector is, to a certain extent, a point of reference for wages in the private sector, too. During the first transition years the wages of a great number of the employees, whose enterprises had stopped being operational, were practically a form of social support. The data for this paper are gathered from all the surveys done on wages during transition from the public sources and the institute of statistics. From these data results that the wages have increased recurrently, first of all to counter the inflationary effects and to provide a better remuneration to the employees in both sector, despite the global financial crisis. This is due to the lack of full integration in the global markets. In this paper we discuss about the wage tendency in Albania as a country in further development, exposed to the risks of the global financial crisis, and the reaction to the difficulties encountered while the country is preparing for the EU integration.

  4. The complexity of heritage and societal development - The example of Gjirokastra, Albania

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    Bosse Lagerqvist

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Albania is formerly the most closed country in Europe and has suffered from severe economic and political problems during the last two decades. In the southern part lies Gjirokastra, birthplace of former dictator Enver Hoxha, and home to diverse communities of Albanians and Greeks. Gjirokastra Old Town, proclaimed Museum City by the regime in 1961 and later turned into a UNESCO World Heritage City, climbs the steep western side of the Drinos valley. During the communist era the city was heavily industrialized with a metal work factory as well as factories for products such as shoes, refrigerators, and umbrellas. On the eastern side is the archaeological site of the ancient city of Antigonea, thus defining a landscape with long historical processes and a multitude of narratives and interpretations. In recent years this landscape has witnessed increased efforts to secure what are perceived heritage values, focusing on the older structures i.e. the world heritage part of the city and the archaeological site. However, the structures of post-war era of Albania contribute significantly to the full context of the landscape, but since the mid-1990s and the collapse of Albanian post-communist economy the former industrial sites are increasingly deteriorating. Parallel with severe economic problems with massive volumes of unemployed, a criminally based economy on drug trafficking is increasing. This paper will discuss the societally based problems in securing different heritage assets for a positive societal development.

  5. Albania: Trends and patterns, proximate determinants and policies of fertility change

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    Letizia Mencarini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For a very long time, Albania has had one of the highest levels of fertility in Europe: in 2002 the total fertility rate of 2.2 children per woman was the highest in Europe. Although this current level is high, the country has experienced a rapid fertility reduction during the last 50 years: a TFR decline from 7 to 2.2. This reduction has occurred in the absence of modern contraception and abortion, which indicates the significance of investments in the social agenda during the communist regime that produced policies with indirect effects on fertility. Most significant of these were policies focused on education, in particular on female education. Social and demographic settings for a further fertility reduction in Albania have been present since 1990. Contraception and abortion have been legalized and available since the early 1990s, but knowledge of their use is still not widespread in the country, largely due to the interplay between traditional and modern norms of Albanian society. This chapter points out that future fertility levels will be determined not only by new policies that might be introduced, but predominantly by the balance of this interplay.

  6. Government Participation in Bad Debts Resolution; Case of Kosovo and Albania

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    MSc. Valdrin Dervishaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks need to make thorough analysis and take into consideration all the potential risks that arise related to their lending, preventing bad loans mostly during economic slowdown. The Non-Performing Loans (now on referred as NPL in Kosovo continued falling from 8.7% as it was in 2013 to 8.3% in 2014. While in 2014 NPL level decreased, the provisioning for loans continued to increase from 110.5% to 114.4%. This is a positive toward any unexpected situation. Lost loans have continued to increase in moderated way for the last four years.  Banking Sector in Albania since the last economic recession entered into third period of development which shows huge problems with high NPL ratio, credit shrink, lower banks’ profitability and intensive attempts to introduce stabilizing mechanisms. NPL ratio was the highest in South East Europe Countries (now on referred as SEEC region, number of outstanding loans tended to decrease such as profit in banking sectors. As a response to highest NPL ratio compared to world level, Kosovo authority has set only guidelines for restructuring and monitoring the process of regularity.  This provides banks with a wide range of autonomy in the procedures of restructuring. Authority in Albania has been active in the process of normalizing the system. In 2013 has introduced the guideline on corporate loan restructuring. The guideline promotes 12 principles.

  7. The Management Accounting Practices in Albania in the Context of Globalization

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    Manjola Naco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to provide relevant findings on the status of management accounting in Albanian Accounting Practices, based on the direct survey with selected companies and individuals (experts on the field. In our analysis we have used as a benchmark the IFAC statement on Management Accounting Concepts and its description of the evolution of management accounting. To achieve our objectives we prepared and provided to a large group of professional accountants (that mainly are dealing with bookkeeping and financial statement preparations a structured questionnaire, containing several questions on the status of the practices applied in Albania on management accounting. This survey was carried out during the first half of 2009. Findings of this paper are based on the answers given by 300 respondents. These answers point out that management accounting practices in Albania tend not to be complex and sophisticated. Budgeting, product profitability and financial performance measurement remain the central pillars, while other, most contemporary, management accounting techniques are sporadically used. There is also little evidence of management accounting concerned directly with "value creation".  

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Instruments for the regional sustainable development in Albania - Instruments for supporting the implementation of regional development policy

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    Manjola Duli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a cross-cutting issue. The current approach to regional development in Europe is place-based, in which multidimensional analyses are carried out and strategies and policies developed in relation to territorially defined socio-economic and environmental factors. In our study we have largely followed this approach, looking at long-term changes in a wide set of development indicators across Albania. As a result several regional typologies are presented as well as broad recommendations for regional development policy formulation. Albania has two levels of governance: national, county (qarks and local (municipalities. Directly elected bodies exist at central and local levels. Qark councils consist of delegated representatives from local units. Albania’s territory is organized into 12 counties and 61 local government units. There are neither administrative nor self-governing regions in Albania corresponding to NUTS 21 level classification. Qarks are the equivalent of NUTS 3 level. Currently in Albania there is no clear definition of a development region. In general it is perceived that qarks can be considered an appropriate level at which regional development is analyzed, promoted and monitored. Although we have followed this concept, both due to data available and no better practical alternative, there are clearly other possibilities which could surface in the medium-term perspective, for example: NUTS 2 delineation for Albania could lead to a situation when development issues will become also relevant at the macro level – practically the number of NUTS 2 regions in Albania could vary between 2 and 3 unless the country is allowed to stay one region; Territorial and administrative reforms could lead to a much smaller number of LGUs both at the basic municipality level and the qark level, especially that from a general RD perspective some of the qarks represent very small units, both in terms of population and size of the

  10. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

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    Alejandro H Buschmann

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  11. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.

  12. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

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    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  13. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  14. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  15. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  16. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

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    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  17. Utilisation des "algues-fourrage" en aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Robert, Rene; His, Edouard

    1986-01-01

    Les travaux concernant l'utilisation d'algues unicellulaires pour la nutrtion de larves et de juvéniles de bivalves d'intérêt commercial sont analysés. Sur une cinquantaine d'espèces d'algues testées, un dizaine seulement sont produites en grande quantité dans des écloseries commerciales sous le non "d'algues fourrage". Les principales espèces employées sont décrites et leurs caractéristiques majeures illustrées. Les critères permettant de retenir une espèce pour son utilisation en aquacultur...

  18. Technology Model of Aquaculture Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, K. W.; Salleh, S. M.; Abdullah; Ezree, Mohd; Zaman, I.; Hatta, M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ismail, A. E.; Mahmud, W. A. W.

    2017-10-01

    The high market demand has led to the rapid growth in fish farming. The young generation are inexperienced in determining the estimated results of fish farming and the preparation of fish pond during the period of fish farming. These need a complete guide as their reference which includes the knowledge of fish farming. The main objective of this project is to develop a practical design of real pond appropriate with aquaculture technology and fish farming production. There are three parts of study in this project which include fish farming cage, growth of fish and water quality of fish farming pond. Few of experiments were carried out involved the collection data in terms of growth of fish and parameters of water quality.

  19. Photoinactivation of major bacterial pathogens in aquaculture

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    Heyong Jin Roh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.

  20. THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

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    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.

  1. Peran End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography And Trafficking Of Children For Sexual Purposes (Ecpat) Internasional dalam Menanggulangi Kasus Child Trafficking di Albania (2007-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Faisyal; Rafiqa, Adni Luthfi

    2015-01-01

    This research purpose to explain about the role of End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) International to solve child trafficking case in Albania (2007-2012). ECPAT International is a non-governmental organization which take focus on solving child trafficking case and ECPAT International has had affiliate in some country in the world, one of them is Albania.Authors analyze and explain about child trafficking condition which is occure...

  2. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  3. Aquaculture Asia, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.1-42, October-December 2005

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    *Table of Contents* Sustainable aquaculture Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: Small-scale pond culture in Bangladesh. People in aquaculture Community based aquaculture - issues and challenges H.K. De and G.S. Saha. Aquaculture as an action programme: An exercise in building confidence and self worth. B. Shanthi, V.S. Chandrasekaran, M. Kailasam, M. Muralidar, T. Ravisankar,.C. Saradad and M. Krishnan The STREAM Column: Transforming policy recommendations into pro-p...

  4. Quality of service of the public administration in the Road transport service in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suela E. Shpuza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality represents a key element to achieve the performance, especially customer service quality. In response to the pressure of globalization, the market has become increasingly competitive and many organizations actively seek ways, to add value to their services and improve their quality of service. Organizations usually tend to make their operations efficient. This process begins with the assessment of customer needs, their requirements and performance of domestic human resources. Based on the study of literature questions regarding the impact of customer quality, customer service are aroused in the performance of the departments of Road Transport Services in Albania, based on interviews collecting information about the process, methods, system and process quality management.

  5. Legal time limits vs. discretional limits of administrative judicial review in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerti Shella

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Administrative courts in Albania were established in 2012, as a separate branch of the court system, following enactment of the Law No. 49/2012 “On the Organization and Functioning of the Administrative Courts and Adjudication of Administrative Disputes”. One of the main features of the administrative adjudication is the swiftness at which it should be carried out. The law provides carefully for many time limits and procedural deadlines, to achieve such intended effect. This article focuses specifically on the time limits of concluding (1 the judicial review in administrative courts and 2 on due delivery of the final decision in court secretariat. These two distinct procedural phases constitute 98% of the length of a court case in time terms. The main thesis of this paper is that time limits which are explicitly written and required by the law produce better results in terms of compliance of judges with law and higher efficiency compared to discretional time limits.

  6. Information society development through ICT market strategies Albania versus other developing countries

    CERN Document Server

    Kordha Tolica, Ermelinda; Gorica, Klodiana

    2015-01-01

    ​This book examines the relationship between information society and information communication technology (ICT) markets, while evaluating the ICT impact on Albanian society and its economy. It offers insights on the country's information society development and compares it to other nations. The book begins with a general introduction to information society and efforts that can be used for ICT strategy. It then takes a look at ICT as an industrial sector and uncovers the importance for a strong ICT infrastructure management. Using this background information, the book finally explores the growing information society and ICT sector found in Albania. It measures the information society being created, and compares it to other countries in South Eastern Europe. Next the authors introduce a theoretical model for ICT driven development, focusing on ICT innovation and investment as factors that can affect the ICT market. These factors have also taken into account for strategy development in the national and industr...

  7. The Alide Iconography between Theological Debate and Popular Piety in Contemporary Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Bria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analysed the intertwining of social transformations and evolution of lived religion through the kaleidoscope of Alid iconographic worship in a postsocialist context such as Albania. In this framework, the Bektashi community restored and renewed Alid iconography, at first supported by transnational Iranian and Alevi networks, in order to hold social and political legitimation within the fragmented religious field. The embodying experiences of iconographic worship could shape the cognitive perceptions and moral dispositions of believers who partly play, critically and individually, their own religiosity. Finally, the spread of the icons seems to indicate a marketization of religious piety and a surfacing of public Islam, promoted by the Bektashiyya, in order to renegotiate power relations within Albanian society.

  8. Terrorism as a notion and source of international law in the context of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asllan Dogjani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently the world has become more uncertain by the terrorist acts of the Islamic State of ISIS, who attacked the center of Europe (Brussels, Paris and attacks almost every day in Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Oman, North Africa, and the latest case in Orlando, Florida in the US, leaving behind many victims and bringing panic, fear, uncertainty and significant economical damages. The Islamic state with the theory "a state a flag" is attacking every day in every country where it is finding space, occupying certain territories, by trained terrorists, and threatening in all languages of the world that is recruiting in the name of Muslim religion. Seeing terrorism as a problem of great concern to citizens all over the world, we aim at analyzing this phenomenon and its risks in Albania.

  9. A comparative study of satellite estimation for solar insolation in Albania with ground measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrushi, Driada, E-mail: driadamitrushi@yahoo.com; Berberi, Pëllumb, E-mail: pellumb.berberi@gmail.com; Muda, Valbona, E-mail: vmuda@hotmail.com; Buzra, Urim, E-mail: rimibuzra@yahoo.com [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering Mathematics and Engineering Physics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Bërdufi, Irma, E-mail: irmaberdufi@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics, Tirana University, Street “Th. Filipeu”, Tirana (Albania); Topçiu, Daniela, E-mail: topciudaniela@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Physics, “Aleksander Xhuvani” University, Elbasan (Albania)

    2016-03-25

    The main objective of this study is to compare data provided by Database of NASA with available ground data for regions covered by national meteorological net NASA estimates that their measurements of average daily solar radiation have a root-mean-square deviation RMSD error of 35 W/m{sup 2} (roughly 20% inaccuracy). Unfortunately valid data from meteorological stations for regions of interest are quite rare in Albania. In these cases, use of Solar Radiation Database of NASA would be a satisfactory solution for different case studies. Using a statistical method allows to determine most probable margins between to sources of data. Comparison of mean insulation data provided by NASA with ground data of mean insulation provided by meteorological stations show that ground data for mean insolation results, in all cases, to be underestimated compared with data provided by Database of NASA. Converting factor is 1.149.

  10. IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICIES ON INPUTS AND PRODUCTION COSTS IN GREENHOUSE IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvin ZHLLIMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis agriculture input related taxes and tariffs policies and their impact on input prices, production costs and profitability, focusing on the greenhouse sector in Albania. The study combines desk research and expert interviews to collect data and to analyse the main policy reforms and the tariff regime. A financial cost benefit analysis is implemented in order to observe the effect of the change of taxes in both sides: at farm gate profitability of Albanian farmers as well as in terms of revenues forgone in the state budget based on revenues collected.According to our research findings, tax exemption on inputs such as agrochemicals and fuel would significantly affect positively the profitability at the farm level and the overall agriculture sector competitiveness. Several political implications of the various scenarios of tax reduction are discussed and provided to policy-makers.

  11. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully...... and that mortality of infected fish larvae can be reduced significantly by probiotic bacteria. However, the successful management of the aquaculture microbiota is currently hampered by our lack of knowledge of relevant microbial interactions and the overall ecology of these systems....... protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial...

  12. Proximate analyses - Utilization of Marine Process Waste for Aquaculture Feeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...

  13. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  14. Japanese aquaculture with thermal water from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.

    1977-01-01

    The present level of thermal aquaculture, utilizing thermal water which is waste cooling water from nuclear power plant, in Japan is reported. There are 13 major potential areas for thermal aquaculture in cooperation with conventional type thermal power plants, seven of which are actually operating. Aquaculture facilities of all these are on land, none in the sea. Of these seven centers, those that have already commercialized their nursery methods or are approaching that stage of research and development, are Tohoku Hatsuden Kogyo Ltd., Tsuruga Hama Land Ltd. and Kyushu Rinsan Ltd. Major problems faced specialists in Japanese thermal aquaculture are water temperature, water quality, radioactivity and costs. For keeping the water temperature constant all seasons, cooling or heating by natural sea water may be used. Even negligible amounts of radioactivity that nuclear power plants release into the sea will concentrate in the systems of marine life. A strict precautionary checking routine is used to detect radioactivity in marine life. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. ECOLOGICAL CAPABILITY EVALUATION FOR AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES BY GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reyahi Khoram, M. Shariat, N. Moharamnejad, A. Azar and H. Mahjub

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information System (GIS is the best suitable system for land evaluation. In this research, at the first step, the Makhdoum's model is introduced‚ and then Hamadan Province, from aquaculture point of view and capabilities of the lands to fulfill aquaculture activities is evaluated. GIS was used for the mentioned purposes. The software used was Arc View (version 3.2 a, with the UTM projection. For evaluation, Mc Hark method of Maps overlaying was utilized. According to the results, the suitable surface area for aquaculture activities was introduced, which was equal to 13.1 percent of Hamadan Province. According to the evaluations, this province has limited potentials for aquaculture activities. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to these limitations in development plans.

  16. Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond L.; Hardy, Ronald W.; Bureau, Dominique P.; Chiu, Alice; Elliott, Matthew; Farrell, Anthony P.; Forster, Ian; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Goldburg, Rebecca J.; Hua, Katheline; Nichols, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it. PMID:19805247

  17. Aquaculture in South Africa: A cooperative research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Safriel, O

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years the National Programme for Environmental Sciences has been involved in assessing the potential of aquaculture in South Africa and in formulating a research policy which will provide the information needed to place...

  18. Future directions in breeding for disease resistance in aquaculture species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. Houston

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infectious disease is a major constraint for all species produced via aquaculture. The majority of farmed fish and shellfish production is based on stocks with limited or no selective breeding. Since disease resistance is almost universally heritable, there is huge potential to select for improved resistance to key diseases. This short review discusses the current methods of breeding more resistant aquaculture stocks, with success stories and current bottlenecks highlighted. The current implementation of genomic selection in breeding for disease resistance and routes to wider-scale implementation and improvement in aquaculture are discussed. Future directions are highlighted, including the potential of genome editing tools for mapping causative variation underlying disease resistance traits and for breeding aquaculture animals with enhanced resistance to disease.

  19. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  20. DIAGNOSIS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALVARADO VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Rangel-López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register” (RFC; in the socio-economic aspects: 187 jobs are generated; on technical aspects: the average area for cultivation is 410.11 ha, 79% of production is Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.. The aquaculture activity on Alvarado, Veracruz, it is in a learning process, therefore strategies are needed in order to the development of the activity and increasing production; improving cultivation methodologies and training producers on managing their aquaculture units.

  1. Impact of converison of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    Mangroves, one of the highly productive ecosystems are considered as nature's own aquaculture systems because species of marine fishes, molluscs and crustaceans use tham as nursery grounds. Thus the mangrove ecosystem sustains tremendous fishery...

  2. Offshore Aquaculture: I Know It When I See It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley E. Froehlich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Offshore aquaculture is increasingly viewed as a mechanism to meet growing protein demand for seafood, while minimizing adverse consequences on the environment and other uses in the oceans. However, despite growing interest in offshore aquaculture, there appears to be no consensus as to what measures commonly define an offshore site or how effects of offshore aquaculture—relative to more nearshore practices—are assessed. This lack of agreement on what constitutes offshore aquaculture has the potential to convolute communication, create uncertainty in regulatory processes, and impede understanding of the ecological implications of offshore farming. To begin addressing these issues, we reviewed and analyzed biologically-focused primary and gray literature (Ntotal = 70 that categorize and quantify characteristics of offshore aquaculture from around the world. We found that many “offshore” descriptions are relatively close to shore (<3 nm and significantly shallower (minimum depth ≤30 m than may be assumed. We also uncovered an overall lack of consistent reporting of even the most common location-focused metrics (distance from shore, depth, current, a dearth of impact related studies (n = 17, and narrow scope of the studies themselves (i.e., 82% nutrient pollution. Of the finite subset of articles that investigated negative ecological impacts of offshore aquaculture, we found the probability of any measurable impact from an offshore farm appears to significantly decrease with distance from the farm (probability of measurable response at 90 m ± SE = 0.01 ± 0.03. Such general, but informative points of reference could be more robustly quantified with better systematic and standardized reporting of physical farm characteristics and a broader scope of ecological investigation into the effects of marine aquaculture. With offshore aquaculture still in its infancy, consistent metrics are needed for a comparable framework to guide sustainable

  3. Aquaculture as a part of a multi-use platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Svenstrup Petersen, Ole; Aarup Ahrensberg, Nick

    2014-01-01

    aquaculture. These developments urgently require effective marine technology and governance solutions to facilitate installation, operation and maintenance of these novel offshore activities. Simultaneously, both economic costs and environmental impact have to remain within acceptable limits, in order...... to increase the feasibility of the use of ocean space. Aquaculture can play an important role in the multi-use of ocean space. This idea is tested on four different sites around Europe, where this paper focus on the one in the Baltic Sea....

  4. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  5. Aquaculture en milieu rural au Sri Lanka | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Sri Lanka se tourne vers l'aquaculture pour diversifier son économie rurale et accroître sa production alimentaire, particulièrement dans les provinces du nord et de l'est du pays, qui se relèvent du conflit civil. Bien que l'aquaculture représente une stratégie de sécurité alimentaire prometteuse, elle doit être gérée de ...

  6. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

      One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been recently developed. Residual concentrations of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture farms may enter the environment by waste-water discharges, posing a risk for the biodiversity of surrounding ecosystems...

  7. An Intelligent Four-Electrode Conductivity Sensor for Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Jiaran; Li , Daoliang; Wang , Cong; Ding , Qisheng

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Conductivity is regard as a key technical parameter in modern intensive fish farming management. The water conductivity sensors are sophisticated devices used in the aquaculture monitoring field to understand the effects of climate changes on fish ponds. In this paper a new four-electrode smart sensor is proposed for water conductivity measurements of aquaculture monitoring.The main advantages of these sensors include a high precision, a good stability and an intrinsic...

  8. The effect of demographic variables on the user’s behavior in the Mobile Telecommunication Market of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Terezi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mobile operator users living in Tirana, urban area and its outskirts. The level of confidence for sampling is 95%, (p <0.05. The used methodology is implemented through interviews with experts (the employee of mobile operators, as well as, observation of the service process in general and face to face interview according to a properly designed questionnaire. The evaluation methods for approving the hypothesis are based on linear regression and ÷2 tests. This paper aims to find a significant correlation between the duration of contractual agreement and the occupation of the mobile service users. There is significant dependence between groups of age and the variables like Web-page of the operator, signal coverage and the price of 3Gservice

  9. The karyotype of Festucopsis serpentini (Poaceae Triticeae) from Albania studied by banding techniques and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, I.; Seberg, O.; Frederiksen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The karyotypes of two populations of Festucopsis serpentini (2n = 2x = 14) endemic to Albania were investigated in detail by Giemsa C- and N-banding, AgNO3 staining, and in situ hybridization with an rDNA probe. The complements consisted of 14 large chromosomes, 10 metacentric and 4 SAT-chromosom......The karyotypes of two populations of Festucopsis serpentini (2n = 2x = 14) endemic to Albania were investigated in detail by Giemsa C- and N-banding, AgNO3 staining, and in situ hybridization with an rDNA probe. The complements consisted of 14 large chromosomes, 10 metacentric and 4 SAT...... plants was only possible for the SAT-chromosomes. A comparison between the C-banded karyotypes of F. serpentini and Peridictyon sanctum supports their position in two genera....

  10. Potential and Barriers to Adoption of B2B E-Commerce in SMEs in Transition Economies: Case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimha Rao Vajjhala; Salu George Thandekkattu

    2017-01-01

    Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can benefit significantly from investments in e-commerce and e-business. However, the adoption of e-commerce has been quite slow and limited among SMEs, especially in transition economies. Interviews were conducted with senior managers from 30 medium-sized enterprises in a transition economy – Albania, three from each of the ten key sectors, namely, information and communication technology (ICT), tourism, banking, financial servi...

  11. Spatial and Temporal Growth Variation of Pinus heldreichii Christ. Growing along a Latitudinal Gradient in Kosovo and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Trees growing at high elevations are particularly sensitive to climate variability. In this study, tree-ring chronologies of Pinus heldreichii Christ. have been developed to examine their dynamism along a 350 km latitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in 6 high elevation sites along a latitudinal gradient from Kosovo and Albania. Two opposite cores from 148 healthy and dominant P. heldreichii trees were taken using an increment borer. Th...

  12. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pest...

  13. When land markets 'do not work' and status-quo agrarian structures persist: A case study from rural Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Qineti, Artan; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Braha, Kushtrim; Ciaian, Pavel; Demaj, Jona

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides micro-analyses of land market development after two decades of Albanian transition. We use data from a survey conducted in four Albanian villages during May 2013. The results indicate that land markets are highly rigid with almost no structural changes took place over the last two decades. Sale markets are almost non-existent due to property rights insecurity and prevalence of subsistence farming in rural Albania. Rental markets are more sizable but due to property rights ...

  14. Sea Cruises as a New Branch of the Tourism Industry in Albania and in the Region of Saranda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakela Thano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism offers, for small and rural communities, significant opportunities for social and economic development. Cruise industry creates jobs and income for tourist destinations. The Mediterranean region is an important market for the global cruise industry. Albania is oriented in coastal tourism, cultural tourism and nature tourism. In coastal tourism involved and cruise tourism, that is a new industry in Albania. Albanian ports are investing in infrastructure to suit international travel. Port of Saranda is a "clean port", he has an ideal geographical position for "port of call" for the international tourist ships. The aim of the study is to analyze the development of cruise tourism in Albania, in the region of Saranda and the effects of this industry in the tourist destination. The study period is: 2009-2015. The data are taken from the Port of Saranda, JSC. Through analysis descriptive and comparative, using existing statistical data from official sources secondary, we have concluded that the industry of cruisers is a new branch of tourism for the region of Saranda, which is being developed with the fast rhythms and has positive effects for the region.

  15. The causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania: Evidence from ARDL bound testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Ilhan [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, 33800 Mersin (Turkey); Acaravci, Ali [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between energy and economic growth in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 1980 to 2006 by employing energy use per capita, electric power consumption per capita and real GDP per capita variables. To examine this linkage, we use the two-step procedure from the Engle and Granger model: In first step, we explore the long-run relationships between the variables by using recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Secondly, we employ a dynamic vector error correction (VEC) model to test causal relationships between variables. The bounds test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between energy use per capita and real GDP per capita and evidence of two-way (bidirectional) strong Granger causality between these variables only in Hungary. On the other hand, the ARDL bounds test results show that there is no a unique long-term or equilibrium relationship between energy consumption variables and real GDP per capita in Albania, Bulgaria and Romania. In other words, no cointegration exists between these variables in these three countries. The econometric analysis suggests that any causal relationships within dynamic error correction model for Albania, Bulgaria and Romania cannot be estimated. (author)

  16. Assessing consumer preferences and willingness to pay for organic tomatoes in Albania: a conjoint choice experiment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjell Skreli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Albania has potential for developing the organic agriculture sector; however, it is a new industry and constraints abound including lack of consumer preferences information for organic food. Knowledge on consumer preferences and behaviour toward organic (bio products is crucial for market development benefiting potential entrepreneurs and government policies. They need to know the preference for preferred product attributes and willingness to pay. Tomato, which is the most important vegetable in terms of consumption and production in Albania, is the subject of this study. A conjoint choice experiment with the most important product attributes: production type (bio vs. conventional, production system (open field vs. greenhouse, origin and price were used to design the choice surveys. Four distinct classes have been identified as significant using latent class analysis. The classes are summarized as: bio-ready consumers, price sensitive consumers, variety seeking consumers and quality seeking consumers. Origin played a small influence on preference. Education and income did show some influence on preference for organic tomatoes. Although the organic food market in Albania is in its infancy stage, organic tomatoes are clearly preferred and many consumers are willing to pay a premium price.

  17. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: Current status, challenges, and priorities for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product qua...

  18. Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia Salazar, Brunilda

    1997-01-01

    The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country [es

  19. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  20. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  1. Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

  2. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10 5 kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10 6 kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10 4 kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated

  3. Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Nedelcheva, Anely; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Quave, Cassandra L

    2014-03-31

    Ethnobotany in South-Eastern Europe is gaining the interest of several scholars and stakeholders, since it is increasingly considered a key point for the re-evaluation of local bio-cultural heritage. The region of Gollobordo, located in Eastern Albania and bordering the Republic of Macedonia, is of particular interest for conducting ethnobiological studies, since it remained relatively isolated for the larger part of the 20th Century and is traditionally inhabited by a majority of ethnic Macedonians and a minority of Albanians (nowadays both sharing the Muslim faith). An ethnobotanical survey focused on local food, medicinal, and veterinary plant uses was conducted with 58 participants using open and semi-structured interviews and via participant observation. We recorded and identified 115 taxa of vascular plants, which are locally used for food, medicinal, and veterinary purposes (representing 268 total plant reports). The Macedonian Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) was greater than the Albanian TEK, especially in the herbal and ritual domains. This phenomenon may be linked to the long socio-cultural and linguistic isolation of this group during the time when the borders between Albania and the former Yugoslavia were completely closed. Moreover, the unusual current food utilisation of cooked potatoes leaves, still in use nowadays among Macedonians, could represent the side effect of an extreme adaptation that locals underwent over the past century when the introduction of the potato crop made new strategies available for establishing stable settlements around the highest pastures. Additionally, the difference in use of Helichrysum plicatum, which is popular in the local Macedonian folk medicine but absent among Albanians, confirms the particular significance of this taxon as it relates to the yellow colour of its flowers in South Slavic folklore. Botanical studies with an ethnographic approach are crucial for understanding patterns of use of plants within

  4. Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethnobotany in South-Eastern Europe is gaining the interest of several scholars and stakeholders, since it is increasingly considered a key point for the re-evaluation of local bio-cultural heritage. The region of Gollobordo, located in Eastern Albania and bordering the Republic of Macedonia, is of particular interest for conducting ethnobiological studies, since it remained relatively isolated for the larger part of the 20th Century and is traditionally inhabited by a majority of ethnic Macedonians and a minority of Albanians (nowadays both sharing the Muslim faith). Methods An ethnobotanical survey focused on local food, medicinal, and veterinary plant uses was conducted with 58 participants using open and semi-structured interviews and via participant observation. Results We recorded and identified 115 taxa of vascular plants, which are locally used for food, medicinal, and veterinary purposes (representing 268 total plant reports). The Macedonian Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) was greater than the Albanian TEK, especially in the herbal and ritual domains. This phenomenon may be linked to the long socio-cultural and linguistic isolation of this group during the time when the borders between Albania and the former Yugoslavia were completely closed. Moreover, the unusual current food utilisation of cooked potatoes leaves, still in use nowadays among Macedonians, could represent the side effect of an extreme adaptation that locals underwent over the past century when the introduction of the potato crop made new strategies available for establishing stable settlements around the highest pastures. Additionally, the difference in use of Helichrysum plicatum, which is popular in the local Macedonian folk medicine but absent among Albanians, confirms the particular significance of this taxon as it relates to the yellow colour of its flowers in South Slavic folklore. Conclusion Botanical studies with an ethnographic approach are crucial for

  5. Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Harizi (Shemsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and

  6. Occupational Health and Safety in Aquaculture: Insights on Brazilian Public Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Pedro Keller; Cavalli, Richard Souto; Kunert Filho, Hiran Castagnino; Carvalho, Daiane; Benedetti, Nadine; Rotta, Marco Aurélio; Peixoto Ramos, Augusto Sávio; de Brito, Kelly Cristina Tagliari; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; da Rocha, Andréa Ferretto; Stech, Marcia Regina; Cavalli, Lissandra Souto

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture has many occupational hazards, including those that are physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and mechanical. The risks in aquaculture are inherent, as this activity requires particular practices. The objective of the present study was to show the risks associated with the aquaculture sector and present a critical overview on the Brazilian public policies concerning aquaculture occupational health. Methods include online research involved web searches and electronic databases including Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scielo and government databases. We conducted a careful revision of Brazilian labor laws related to occupational health and safety, rural workers, and aquaculture. The results and conclusion support the idea that aquaculture requires specific and well-established industry programs and policies, especially in developing countries. Aquaculture still lacks scientific research, strategies, laws, and public policies to boost the sector with regard to occupational health and safety. The establishment of a safe workplace in aquaculture in developing countries remains a challenge for all involved in employer-employee relationships.

  7. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hambly, Adam; Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs...

  8. Mechanisms of quorum sensing and strategies for quorum sensing disruption in aquaculture pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Chen, M; Quan, C S; Fan, S D

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, infectious diseases are a considerable threat to aquaculture. The pathogenicity of micro-organisms that infect aquaculture systems is closely related to the release of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, both of which are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Thus, QS disruption is a potential strategy for preventing disease in aquaculture systems. QS inhibitors (QSIs) not only inhibit the expression of virulence-associated genes but also attenuate the virulence of aquaculture pathogens. In this review, we discuss QS systems in important aquaculture pathogens and focus on the relationship between QS mechanisms and bacterial virulence in aquaculture. We further elucidate QS disruption strategies for targeting aquaculture pathogens. Four main types of QSIs that target aquaculture pathogens are discussed based on their mechanisms of action. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Responsible aquaculture in 2050: Valuing local conditions and human innovations will be key to success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diana, J.S.; Egna, H.S.; Chopin, T.; Peterson, M.S.; Cao, L.; Pomeroy, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Slack, W.T.; Bondad-Reantaso, M.G.; Cabello, F.

    2013-01-01

    As aquaculture production expands, we must avoid mistakes made during increasing intensification of agriculture. Understanding environmental impacts and measures to mitigate them is important for designing responsible aquaculture production systems. There are four realistic goals that can make

  10. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, cultur...... for determining bacterial activity might provide a means for future monitoring and assessment of microbial water quality in aquaculture farming systems......Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation...

  11. Microbial populations causing off-flavour in recirculated aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Schramm, Edward; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    the distribution of geoA in more than 50 European and Brazilian aquaculture systems has allowed us to identify the diversity among geosmin-producing bacteria. The different populations of geosmin-producers were evaluated relative to plant design, environmental and operational parameters in full-scale aquaculture...... systems using multivariate statistics. The influencing parameters identified were subsequently validated by testing their gene expressions in well-controlled pilot scale aquaculture systems. The results show that the geoA gene is a relative well-conserved gene with limited horizontal gene transfer events...... phase. Furthermore, the gene expressions of the individual groups show positive correlations to the organic loading and presence of oxygen. The current study reveals the presence of important populations involved in geosmin production and which parameters are of importance for their presence...

  12. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...... effect on N removal rates followed by the interaction with EBCT, and EBCT2 (quadratic term). The study thus indicates that woodchip beds may be applied and optimized for removing nitrate from aquaculture effluents. Statement of relevance: This study is a relevant contribution to research in aquaculture...

  13. ARE COPEPODS VIABLE OPTIONS AS LIVE FOOD IN AQUACULTURE HATCHERIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Iba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This present paper overviews the use of copepods in aquaculture. Some culture methods and nutritional values also described to decide whether copepods are viable and reliable to be used as live food in aquaculture hatcheries. Copepods have been known to have higher nutritional value than Artemia and rotifers. In aquaculture, they have been used to fed various species of marine finfish with better results in terms of growth, larval survival and pigmentation compared to some fish larvae fed on other live feeds. However, culturing copepods in intensive systems to harvest high number of copepods is not well established yet due to lack of funding and knowledge. Meanwhile extensive and semi intensive systems are possible to transfer parasites and diseases from wild environment. Furthermore, nutritional value can not be controlled in such systems.

  14. Aquaculture Asia, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp.1-60, July - September 2002

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    CONTENTS: Sustainable Aquaculture - Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: Aquaculture for Poverty Alleviation and Food Security - Part II. Shrimp pond waste management by U Win Latt. The role of rural extension in the sustainable development of Chinese aquaculture by Min Kuanhong. Farmers as Scientists: Diversity enhances profitability and sustainability by M.C. Nandeesha. Properties of Liming Materials by Claude E. Boyd, Mali Boonyaratpalin & Taworn Thunjai. Seed Produc...

  15. Land-based salmon aquacultures change the quality and bacterial degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Nimptsch, Jorge; Harir, Mourad

    2017-01-01

    characterization of aquaculture DOM quality and its bacterial degradation using four salmon aquacultures in Chile. Fluorescence measurements, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the DOM revealed specific and extensive molecular alterations caused by aquacultures...... and thus impairing the ecosystem health. The bacterial DOM degradation rates explain the attenuation of aquaculture DOM within the subsequent stream reaches. This knowledge may aid the development of improved waste processing facilities and may help to define emission thresholds to protect sensitive stream...

  16. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and transferable resistance genes in fish pathogens and other bacteria in the aquatic environment. From these reservoirs, resistance genes may disseminate by horizonta...... industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....

  17. Microbial populations causing off-flavour in recirculated aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Schramm, Edward

    and are found in at least six phylogenetic groups covering 0.1% of the total community with only a minor fraction being culturable. Quantification of geoA within recirculated aquaculture systems reveals that geosmin-producing bacteria are more abundant in the water treatment compartments compared to the water......Microbial production of geosmin, a secondary metabolite with an earthy off-flavour is a serious economic problem in wine production, drinking water and aquaculture. Geosmin is produced by a small group of bacteria all harboring the geosmin synthetase gene (geoA). Sequencing and analyzing...

  18. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    , larvae of flatfishes undergo a particularly evident and dramatic metamorphosis, because flatfishes completely reprogram their body to move from the pelagic habitat, in the water column, to the benthic habitat, on the sea floor. Due to the complex morphological and physiological changes, in aquaculture...... capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...

  19. Fort, Tower, or House? Building a Landscape of Settlement in the Shala Valley of High Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Galaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of archaeological, (ethno-historic, and ethnographic research in the Shala River valley of northern Albania. We argue that through time and in different periods of occupation - Middle Palaeolithic, Iron Age, Late Medieval, and Modern - the valley's residents have met similar challenges of extreme geography and a harsh environment differently, in particular by interacting in different ways and at different levels of intensity with the outside world. These shifts caused changes in population, settlement, and socio-political organisation that are reflected strongly in the local landscape and built environment. Population, settlement, and socio-political organisation did not hold constant, but were influenced by external forces, despite the seeming isolation of the valley and its occupants. This article demonstrates how thin material and documentary records can be greatly enhanced through carefully integrated, interdisciplinary studies of settlement, home construction, and neighbourhood expansion and abandonment. We present select results drawn from an on-line database and GIS, along with photos, drawings, and audio recordings of transcribed interviews. An interactive system of blogs allows the authors to direct readers to additional sources of data, and readers to tell authors and other readers how they have accessed and displayed these data, and with what results.

  20. Injecting behaviour and service use among young injectors in Albania, Moldova, Romania and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busza, Joanna; Douthwaite, Megan; Bani, Roland; Scutelniciuc, Otilia; Preda, Marian; Simic, Danijela

    2013-09-01

    This study examines socio-demographic profiles, injecting risk and use of health services among young injectors (15-24) in Albania, Moldova, Romania and Serbia. The objective was to provide age-disaggregated data to identify differences between adolescents (Moldova (Chisinau, Balti and Tiraspol) and Serbia (Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis). Data were collected on risk behaviours, service use and contact with police and other authorities. Analysis focused on associations between unsafe injecting behaviour and key determinants including demographic background, source of needles/syringes, use of harm reduction services and interactions with law enforcement. Although drug use and health-seeking varied across settings, sources of injecting equipment were significantly associated with sharing needles and syringes in Moldova, Romania and Serbia. Obtaining equipment from formal sources (pharmacies, needle-exchange programmes) reduced likelihood of sharing significantly, while being stopped by the police or incarcerated increased it. Adolescents relied on pharmacies more than public sector services to obtain equipment. Adolescents comprise a small proportion of PWID in this region, but have poorer access to harm reduction services than older peers. Engaging young PWID through private and public sector outlets might reduce unsafe practices, while use of the justice system to address drug use complicates efforts to reach this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Evaluation Of Advertising Models In Emergent Countries – The Case Of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenica Pjero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The market today is confronted with cornucopia of challenges and opportunities. The unfolding scenario is being closely watched by marketers across the globe and they are competing with each other to grasp the market share. In order to win over the consumers, marketers are constantly evolving strategies.The western firms based and operating from market-based economies are progressively being confronted with the growing challenge of creating brand awareness amongst the perspective consumers. As a result, advertising has become an essential marketing tool for these foreign firms in establishing their relatively less or unknown brands and products. The study aims to report the results of a survey about changing attitudes towards advertising in Albania. It examines the questionnaire - based response of a sample population of consumers from the city of Vlora, in their general attitudes towards advertising. Findings will contribute to the understanding of theoretical explanations for advertising in emerging markets, and of western firms using advertising marketing tool to penetrate these markets.

  2. Pseudochazara amymone (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in Albania: Variability analysis, androconial scales and new distributional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Cuvelier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a comparison of variable external characters of a series of males and females of Pseudochazara amymone (Brown, 1976 from southern Albania is conducted. Pseudochazara amymone, flying together with P. mniszechii tisiphone (Brown, 1980, was local and quite common in steep valleys on ophiolite substrate on two separate mountains, one of which is a recently discovered locality by Eckweiler (2012, while the other one is a new locality. An analysis of external characters of all specimens from the two localities suggests no statistically significant differences. In the field, patrolling P. amymone males are easily distinguished from P. mniszechii tisiphone males but this is not the case for females, and therefore we provide determination keys for males and females of these two species. These are based on a statistical analysis of a specimen series from one Albanian P. mniszechii tisiphone population compared with all P. amymone in this study. Photographs of androconia, copula and some extreme forms of P. amymone are presented. To encourage further research in this poorly explored country a map is included, showing all historical records of Papilionoidea from literature, including our own observations.

  3. The impact of political instability on economic growth (Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerta Xhaferi (Gorjani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define the impact of political instability on economic growth. Considering the multidimensionality of a factor like political instability, the study employs only four variables to measure it. The variables used to measure political instability are civil liberties, political rights, number of women in parliament and the government changes during years. Regarding the economic growth this study employs the variable of real GDP growth rate as the best factor indicating economic growth. The data are obtained from national and international sources like “INSTAT”, “Bank of Albania” and “The Global Economy”, and takes into consideration the period from 1990-2015. According to the literature it was expected to have a significant negative impact of political instability on economic growth. Through the results obtained from the econometric model the expectation holds. What is interesting is the insignificance of all explanatory variables beside the variable of civil liberty, which is found to be highly significant. The analysis reveals that an increase in civil liberties would have a positive impact on GDP growth rate. The study also concluded that the importance of civil liberties as a transmission channel of political instability can be justified with the weakness of the judicial system and the classification of Albania as a partly-free country.

  4. The actuality and the historical background of covert Euthanasia in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boçari, Gëzim; Shaqiri, Elmaz; Vyshka, Gentian

    2010-12-01

    Euthanasia is not legal in Albania, yet there is strong evidence that euthanising a terminally ill patient is not an unknown concept for the Albanians. The first mentioned case of euthanasia is found in 7(th) century AD mythology and during the communist regime (1944-1989), allegations of euthanising political prisoners and possible rivals in the struggle for power have widely been formulated. There is a trend among relatives and laymen taking care of terminally ill patients to apply tranquilisers in an abusive dosage, or even against medical advice, aiming at sedating the ailing patient. These actions, the refusal to keep on consistently applying life prolonging treatment, and other data, suggest that covert euthanasia is a practice and legal interventions are needed towards formalising it. This might well improve end-of-life care standards, since the inadequacy of structures, such as hospices and residential asylums, is becoming a major drawback in the struggle for dignity and accessible socio-medical help for third age persons and terminal patients.

  5. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  6. Forecasting the spatial and seasonal dynamic of Aedes albopictus oviposition activity in Albania and Balkan countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bino, Silvia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Mersini, Kujtim; Shukullari, Ada; Simaku, Artan; Rogozi, Elton; Caputo, Beniamino; Ducheyne, Els; della Torre, Alessandra; Reiter, Paul; Gilbert, Marius

    2018-01-01

    The increasing spread of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Europe and US raises public health concern due to the species competence to transmit several exotic human arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and urges the development of suitable modeling approach to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of the mosquito. Here we developed a dynamical species distribution modeling approach forecasting Ae. albopictus eggs abundance at high spatial (0.01 degree WGS84) and temporal (weekly) resolution over 10 Balkan countries, using temperature times series of Modis data products and altitude as input predictors. The model was satisfactorily calibrated and validated over Albania based observed eggs abundance data weekly monitored during three years. For a given week of the year, eggs abundance was mainly predicted by the number of eggs and the mean temperature recorded in the preceding weeks. That is, results are in agreement with the biological cycle of the mosquito, reflecting the effect temperature on eggs spawning, maturation and hatching. The model, seeded by initial egg values derived from a second model, was then used to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of eggs abundance over the selected Balkan countries, weekly in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The present study is a baseline to develop an easy-handling forecasting model able to provide information useful for promoting active surveillance and possibly prevention of Ae. albopictus colonization in presently non-infested areas in the Balkans as well as in other temperate regions. PMID:29432489

  7. Italy and Albania: The political and economic alliance and the Italian invasion of 1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  8. The Local Resources in Albania as Instruments to Increase the Autonomy of the Local Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriona Mucollari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  9. Riscrivere la storia. Modalità di rappresentazione del colonialismo italiano in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Comberiati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Departing from the contemporary work of migrant authors of Albanian origin − OrnelaVorpsi, Anilda Ibrahimi and Elvira Dones − as well as from the theatrical monologueItalianesi by Saverio La Ruina, this article delves into the question of identity within postcolonial discourse. What role, in fact, do the Italian colonizers that remainedbehind in the liberated colonies play? How does their ‘hybrid’ identity help us toreflect upon colonial violence and upon the difficulties the colonizers themselves would have experienced internally when faced with accepting this violence? Additionally, the specific discussion of Albania, vis-à-vis narratives of contemporary migrants, allows us to reflect upon the Italian situation in particular, which, from unification to the present day offers specific material for the discussion of the relationship to, and the confronting of, the theme of ‘otherness’. A broad definition of ‘European’ colonialism − that goes beyond the alleged African otherness and runs along the same lines as a redefinition vehemently proposed by new groups of migrants in Italy (in particular by those from the Albanian immigration wave of 1991− allows one to question the Italian ambitions in regards to the Balkans and the Eastern expansion across national borders.

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in ASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have

  11. 78 FR 5403 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-AS65 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf, and South Atlantic; Aquaculture AGENCY: National Marine...) previously published a NOI for the Fishery Management Plan for Regulating Offshore Marine Aquaculture in the... Management Plans for Offshore Aquaculture) on September 2, 2004. A notice of availability for the draft...

  12. 77 FR 50082 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service... requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture. This census is required by law under the ``Census of... results of the 2005 Census of Aquaculture were released in October 2006. For more information, visit...

  13. Sécurité alimentaire, pêches et aquaculture en Amazonie bolivienne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    Food security, fisheries and aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon : final technical report (March 1, 2011 to February 28, 2014). Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Pêches, aquaculture et bien vivre en Bolivie : contributions à la sécurité alimentaire. Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia ...

  14. Sécurité alimentaire, pêches et aquaculture en Amazonie bolivienne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    Food security, fisheries and aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon : final technical report (March 1, 2011 to February 28, 2014). Download PDF. Briefs. Pêches, aquaculture et bien vivre en Bolivie : contributions à la sécurité alimentaire. Download PDF. Briefs. Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia : contributions to ...

  15. A comparison of Asian aquaculture products using statistically supported LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, P.J.G.; Rico, A.; Zhang, W.; Al-Nahid, A.; Newton, R.; Phan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.; Jaithiang, J.; Dao, H.M.; Phu, T.M.; Little, D.C.; Murray, F.J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, Q.; Haque, M.M.; Kruijssen, F.; de Snoo, G.R.; Heijungs, R.; van Bodegom, P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different

  16. Support to the CGIAR Program on Aquaculture | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More than 700 million people depend on aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) for their livelihood. These are diverse farming systems that include a mix of cultivation, livestock-raising, aquaculture, fishing, and gathering natural resources such as fruits, seeds, timber and wildlife. However, there are many constraints that ...

  17. Aquaculture feed and fertilizer resource atlas of the Philippines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cruz, Philip S

    1997-01-01

    ... providing information on the feeding strategies employed by the aquaculture sector. It has been estimated that approximately 45 to 75 percent and 85 to 95 percent of the feed ingredients currently used in commercial aquafeeds for fish (mainly tilapia and milkfish) and marine shrimp, respectively, are imported, compared with only 20 to 30 percent for livestock and poultry feeds.

  18. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been

  19. Building successful fishing and aquaculture businesses in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amazon Fish for Food (CIFSRF Phase 2). The Bolivian ... Fisheries management and aquaculture farming Amazon fish are an underused resource that can improve food security options for the poor. This project aims to .... The importance of child care to improving economic opportunities for women. Researchers and ...

  20. New opportunities for aquaculture in Sri Lanka | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... ... for oyster culture. Read the story of change: New opportunities for aquaculture in Sri Lanka (PDF, 411KB). This document is part of a Stories of Change series that shares some of the emerging gender outcomes from research supported in Asia by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund.

  1. Success Stories in Asian Aquaculture | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -Pacific de même que professeur honoraire d'aquaculture et de biologie halieutique à la School of Life and Environmental Sciences de l'Université Deakin, qui se trouve dans l'État de Victoria, en Australie. Membre honoraire ...

  2. Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses nutrient conversions, which are taking place in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. In these systems fish is cultured next to other organisms, which are converting otherwise discharged nutrients into valuable products. These conversions are analyzed based on nitrogen and

  3. Implications of water pollution for aquacultural development in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution is an age – long problem which has become wide spread due to increase in human population, expanding human settlement and advances in production technologies. Similarly, aquaculture is also on the increase but as a result of increase in the demand of cheap, high quality protein necessitated by high ...

  4. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2017-01-01

    neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support...... a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast....

  5. Scaling-up Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will also test the efficacy of different governance models for sustainable aquaculture management, to understand which institutional partnerships work best for knowledge mobilization. Third, the project will find ways to overcome factors currently limiting sustainable production, namely the supply of fingerlings for ...

  6. Adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve eco-friendly and sustainable development of shrimp farming, adoption of improved shrimp farming practices is necessary. An attempt has been made in this study to collect data from shrimp farmers along the south Konkan region of Maharashtra to judge the level of adoption of improved aquaculture practices.

  7. Evaluating the Acid Soils for Aquaculture in Fish Pond Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining natural fish stocks due to over-exploitation of finite water resources and loss of habitats resulting from discharge of toxic contaminants, and increasing demand for fish products due to increasing population have necessitated the expansion of aquacultural development from aquatic ecosystems to upland ...

  8. Diurnal dynamics of water quality parameters in an aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recirculating greenwater aquaculture technology is an appropriate method for producing commercial quantities of tilapia in areas where water is scarce. Greenwater systems achieve better fish production, more than 90% water recycling and nutrient utilization. This study was designed to address the diurnal dynamics of ...

  9. Integration of Rural Aquaculture into Small Scale Farming Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many parts of Niger Delta, farming and fishing activities are the predominant occupation of the people living in the rural areas. To improve the livelihood of the people and to enhance their economy status, there is the need to integrate aquaculture (rearing of fish in ponds) into farming systems especially for the small ...

  10. Transforming Aquaculture from Subsistence to Commercial Level for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquaculture venture in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is an industry that encompasses fish cultivation in a controlled environment. It has evolved through numerous phases and stages with its potential yet to be fully tapped. To affirm this potential in contributing to human development, food security and improved standard of ...

  11. Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept...

  12. Exploring fish microbial communities to mitigate emerging diseases in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Irene; Liu, Yiying; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2018-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and

  13. The use of Probiotics in Aquaculture | Edun | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disease outbreaks are being increasingly recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade, affecting the economic development of the ... Most of the work reviewed in this article describes commercial hatchery experiments, probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans and live food with an ...

  14. Disease Risk and Market Structure in Salmon Aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.; Guttormsen, Atle; Smith, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We develop a model of a multi-national firm producing commodities for a global market in multiple locations with location-specific risks and different regulatory standards. Salmon aquaculture and disease outbreaks provide an empirically relevant example. We specifically examine details of the

  15. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world's aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology.

  16. Sustainable aquaculture in ponds: Principles, practices and limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The global aquaculture production of crustaceans, shellfish and fish has to increase to satisfy the growing demand and also to compensate for the reduced capture from overexploited fisheries. Extending the area of brackish and fresh water ponds is constrained by the limited availability of land and

  17. Aquaculture-oriented genetic researches in abalone: Current status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization, triploidization and genetic mapping were also briefly reviewed as aquaculture-oriented genetic techniques to improve growth and other commercially important traits. Cryopreservation and other biotechnologies potentially applicable on genetic improvement were also briefly mentioned as supporting tools for ...

  18. Support to the CGIAR Program on Aquaculture | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More than 700 million people depend on aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) for their livelihood. These are diverse farming systems that include a mix of cultivation, livestock-raising, aquaculture, fishing, and gathering natural resources such as fruits, seeds, timber and wildlife. However, there are many constraints that ...

  19. Boosting aquaculture production systems in Osun state: Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This scenario leaves a high percentage of the population who depend on fish and fish products food insecure, and thus, the need to boost aquaculture production to argument the supply from the wild. The study therefore looks into the possibility of boosting the production systems through the use of micro-credit and ...

  20. Peace Corps Aquaculture Training Manual. Training Manual T0057.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…

  1. Coral aquaculture: applying scientific knowledge to ex situ production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Petersen, D.; Osinga, R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral aquaculture is an activity of growing interest due to the degradation of coral reefs worldwide and concomitant growing demand for corals by three industries: marine ornamental trade, pharmaceutical industry and reef restoration. Although captive breeding and propagation of corals is a

  2. Dissolved oxygen and aeration in ictalurid catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed-based production of ictalurid catfish in ponds is the largest aquaculture sector in the United States. The feed biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD) typically is 1.1-1.2 kg O2/kg feed. Feed also results in a substantial increase of carbon dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphate to ponds, and this ...

  3. Aquaculture: A Course of Study for Sand Point Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.

    This program is designed to involve students in the economy of their community. It combines an interdisciplinary educational program with practical field and laboratory experience. This program provides opportunities in the area of aquaculture, controlled cultivation of marketable species and the total ecological corrections necessary to maintain…

  4. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  5. Identification of specific demands on Feed in Dutch Organic Aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of specific demands for organic feed focussed on feed demands for four fish species which can be cultured in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS), tilapia, African Catfish, shrimp and turbot. The evaluation of the various feed formulations indicates that there are several

  6. Application of porter's framework to assess aquaculture value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) is an agricultural as well as fisheries activity, competing with other agricultural enterprises and artisanal fisheries for the same basic inputs. Therefore ... Although fish farming is the driving function of the entire value chain, the significant capital investments required could be a barrier to entry.

  7. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

      One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been recently

  8. Recent Major Advances of Biotechnology and Sustainable Aquaculture in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world’s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. Objective: In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Conclusion: Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology. PMID:28553577

  9. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  10. Electrochemical removal of nitrite in simulated aquaculture wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical removal of nitrite at a concentration of 10 mg l-1 from synthetic aquaculture wastewater was investigated in this study using a batch reactor. The effects of important operating parameters such as electrode material and applied current density were studied. The highest nitrite removal is achieved with nickel ...

  11. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Risk aversion and emotions in the management of climate-related risks by fish farmers. IDL-56181.pdf. Papers. Climate-related risks to cage aquaculture in the reservoirs of Northern Thailand. IDL-56141.pdf. Papers. Weighing Costs, Weathering Risks: Adaptive Strategies of Fish Farmers Facing Multiple Risks in Northern ...

  12. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dieta del paiche - Arapaima aff. gigas (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) en el lago El Mentiroso, Río Madre de Dios (Bolivia). Download PDF. Studies. Food security and nutritional status in fishing communities in Bolivia's Northern Amazon : results of a household survey. Download PDF. Briefs. Pêches, aquaculture et bien ...

  13. Food Security, Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...

  14. A Farmer-participatory approach to aquaculture technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    primarily for cash (e.g., tobacco, cotton, coffee, tea, cacao) depending upon the climate. Small-scale African farming systems produce dozens of such crops, nearly 130 ..... WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. Brummett, R.E. 2000. Factors affecting fish prices in southern Malawi. Aquaculture 186 (3,4,243-251. Brummett ...

  15. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender and the management of climate-related risks in northern Thailand. Papers. Risk aversion and emotions in the management of climate-related risks by fish farmers. Papers. Mainstreaming climate change into inland aquaculture policies in Thailand. Papers. Improving climate risk management as an adaptation ...

  16. transformation of aquaculture from subsistence to commercial level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAMALDEEN

    Aquaculture venture in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is an industry that encompasses fish cultivation in a controlled .... the traditional practices and technology of fish farming are not meeting the demand for fish. And poverty in rural areas is ... for fish especially in homes, hotel, and restaurants. Hence the need to invest ...

  17. Fishery and Aquaculture Relationship in the Mediterranean: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RELINI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mediterranean represents only 0.8% of the world seas, it is the site of a very long-established fishing activity, characterized mainly by multispecific catch and by artisanal or coastal activity, resulting from a mosaic of very diversified structures and gears, along more than 45,000 km of coastline. Two main biological features of this sea are the occurrence of a large richness of species (it represents 5.5% - 7% of world marine fauna and 16.6% of macrophyta, which stands in contrast with its ‘trophic poverty’ and the absence of large monospecific fishery, except for some small and large pelagic fish. Another biological characteristic of Mare Nostrumis the high invasion of exotic species, some exploited by fishery and aquaculture, some others quite dangerous. For the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea, the production (catch + aquaculture had been steadily increasing over the period 1972-1988 from 1,140,000 t to 2,080,000 t . The period 1988-1991 has shown a drastic drop in catches (in 1991: 1,400,000 t. From 1990 to 1995 the total catch increased to 1,701,379 t then decreased and in 2000 reached 1,485,046 t . In 2000 Turkey had the first place with 496,174 t, 26.9% of the total value (1,846,026 t, including fishing and aquaculture, followed by Italy with 25%, Greece 9%, Spain 7.6% and Algeria 5.4%. As in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean is rapidly expanding. In 1970 the total aquaculture production was about 18,297 t of which 74.3% produced in Italy. In 2000 a value of 358,614 t was reached, about 1/4 of the total fishery catch, while the world aquaculture production corresponds to half of the world total catch. Italy is still the main producer with 46.7% , followed by Greece with 21.5%, Turkey 9.9% and France 6.7%. A sharp drop in the production of the European eel ( Anguilla anguilla and of the European flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis is recorded. Positive and negative interactions between

  18. An Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Leman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the logistic ecology of 30 large-scale networks that were active in human smuggling and trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium (1995–2003. Ten networks were studied in greater detail in order to determine three final profiles of networks, based on their use of structural and operational intermediary structures. They are called the “individual infiltration” and the “structural infiltration” human smuggling patterns, and the “violent-control prostitution” trafficking pattern. It should be noted that the business is organized in such a way that the organizers of the logistical support are never inculpated.

  19. THE USE OF MOTHER TONGUE IN EFL CLASSROOMS WITH YOUNG ENGLISH LEARNERS IN KORÇA, ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorela KAÇAUNI KONOMI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show to what extent English teachers speak the MT (Albanian in the EFL classrooms when they teach Young English Learners in a public school in Korça, Albania. To achieve this, the researcher analyzed the data collected from four classroom observations in grades 3 up to 6. Three English teachers were interviewed and compared to show how much they used Albanian and reasons why they used it. The data obtained from the classroom observations and interviews showed that all the teachers used Albanian in the EFL classrooms in different extents and for different reasons.

  20. Large-scale climatic effects on traditional Hawaiian fishpond aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel McCoy

    Full Text Available Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands. Data from adjacent weather stations were analyzed together with in situ water quality instrument deployments spanning a 12-year period (November 2004 -November 2016. We found correlations between two periods with extremely high fish mortality at He'eia Fishpond (May and October 2009 and slackening trade winds in the week preceding each mortality event, as well as surface water temperatures elevated 2-3°C higher than the background periods (March-December 2009. We posit that the lack of trade wind-driven surface water mixing enhanced surface heating and stratification of the water column, leading to hypoxic conditions and stress on fish populations, which had limited ability to move within net pen enclosures. Elevated water temperature and interruption of trade winds previously have been linked to the onset of El Niño in Hawai'i. Our results provide empirical evidence regarding El Niño effects on the coastal ocean, which can inform resource management efforts about potential impact of climate variation on aquaculture production. Finally, we provide recommendations for reducing the impact of warming events on fishponds, as these events are predicted to increase in magnitude and frequency as a consequence of global warming.

  1. Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: do we measure it correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P.; Mailloux, Nicholas A.; Love, David C.; Milli, Michael C.; Cao, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Globally, demand for food animal products is rising. At the same time, we face mounting, related pressures including limited natural resources, negative environmental externalities, climate disruption, and population growth. Governments and other stakeholders are seeking strategies to boost food production efficiency and food system resiliency, and aquaculture (farmed seafood) is commonly viewed as having a major role in improving global food security based on longstanding measures of animal production efficiency. The most widely used measurement is called the ‘feed conversion ratio’ (FCR), which is the weight of feed administered over the lifetime of an animal divided by weight gained. By this measure, fed aquaculture and chickens are similarly efficient at converting feed into animal biomass, and both are more efficient compared to pigs and cattle. FCR does not account for differences in feed content, edible portion of an animal, or nutritional quality of the final product. Given these limitations, we searched the literature for alternative efficiency measures and identified ‘nutrient retention’, which can be used to compare protein and calories in feed (inputs) and edible portions of animals (outputs). Protein and calorie retention have not been calculated for most aquaculture species. Focusing on commercial production, we collected data on feed composition, feed conversion ratios, edible portions (i.e. yield), and nutritional content of edible flesh for nine aquatic and three terrestrial farmed animal species. We estimate that 19% of protein and 10% of calories in feed for aquatic species are ultimately made available in the human food supply, with significant variation between species. Comparing all terrestrial and aquatic animals in the study, chickens are most efficient using these measures, followed by Atlantic salmon. Despite lower FCRs in aquaculture, protein and calorie retention for aquaculture production is comparable to livestock production

  2. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  3. Holocene evolution of Lake Shkodra: Multidisciplinary evidence for diachronic landscape change in northern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Galaty, Michael; Bejko, Lorenc; Sadori, Laura; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg; Koçi, Rexhep; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    A multidisciplinary micro-paleontological study of a sediment core (SK19) drilled in the coastal area of Lake Shkodra, northern Albania, integrated with archaeological data from the Projekti Arkeologjikë i Shkodrës (PASH), provides compelling evidence for a long-term relationship between Shkodra's natural environment and its inhabitants. Charophyte and ostracod data recovered from SK19 combined with those already studied from the distal core SK13 (Mazzini et al., 2015), reveal important information concerning the changing characteristics of the water body through time. In particular, the ostracod fauna display a truly Balkanic character with eight taxa endemic to the area. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the two cores indicates that a wide marshland extended towards the present eastern coast of the lake, fed discontinuously both by surface- and ground-water, beginning sometime before 12,140 cal yrs BP. For about 7000 years ostracods do not record any significant changes, whereas the Characeae record in the proximal zone displays important variations. Those variations do not match any of the climatic oscillations revealed in previous studies by δ18O or pollen data, thereby implicating human activities. Ostracods and charophytes indicate that permanent shallow waters occurred in the Shkodra basin only around 5800 cal yrs BP. Historical sources of the Roman Empire indicate a swamp (the Palus labeatis), crossed by the River Morača, which flowed into the River Buna. Evidence for local fires, whether natural or anthropogenic, is recorded in SK13, scattered between 4400 and 1200 yrs BP. From 4400 to 2000 yrs BP, during the Bronze and Iron Age, hill forts ringed the marsh and burial mounds marked its edges. But around 2000 cal yrs BP, a dramatic change in the water body occurred: the disappearance of Characeae. Possibly fires were used for the elimination of natural vegetation and the subsequent cultivation of olive and walnut trees, causing an increase on organic

  4. The function and content of the enterprise during communism in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marks, Engels and Lenin’s ideologies were the foundation of the theory of law, in the Albanian legal system. They were not contra positioned to the private law system, but were in contradiction with the bourgeois society and its private ownership (Reich, 1972, 27. Socialist law literature was based on the principle that state-owned enterprises had great advantages not only compared to enterprises but also compared to large capitalist corporates; not only because of their socialist nature which led to the disappearance of the exploitation of the masses, but also because of their economic nature, as part of a large and mechanized economy in which the successes of modern science and technology could be maximally implemented (Marjani, Malindi, Shtepani, 1982, 16. Either Article 8 of the Constitution of 1946, nor legal changes to 1950, or Article 26 of the Constitution of 1976 did contain a definition of the enterprise. The Constitution regulated only the basic principles of the planning economy, which was based on the planning economy and state-owned enterprises, cooperatives and other workers associations. Article 26 and 27 of the Constitution of 1976 define the following: “For the administration of the means, which are in ownership of the people, the state creates companies, which operate in the interest of the society, defined in the state plan”. “The prices of selling products of the companies and purchase prices of fruit products and animals are determined by the state”. These constitutional norms forced state-owned enterprises and agricultural cooperatives, to use the means of production in a centralized form, to meet the obligations of the plan and to ensure the interests of society (Çela, Çami, Hysi, Omari, 1978, 125. In this context, main aim of this article is the function and content of the enterprise during communism in Albania.

  5. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT THEORIES AND MODELS, A COMPARATIVE ANALYSE.CHALLENGE OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva\tDHIMITRI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Local governance is a broad concept and is defined as the formulation and execution of collective action at the local level. The purpose of local government is to ensure effective and efficient use of public resources and service delivery at the level closest to citizens. Regional development is a new concept that aims to stimulate and diversify the economic activity of a country (region, to encourage investment in the private sector, to create a new jobs vacancy and improves living standards of the country. Regional development policies are a number of measures designed and promoted by the central and local administration, but the cooperation undertaken at the actors are in a different one, which included the private sector and civil society. At the center of these regional policies or practices is the use of efficient potential of each region, being particularly focused on business, means promoting the development of the new enterprises, promoting labor market and investment, improve the quality of environment, health , education and culture. Traditional objective of regional development policies is the reduction of territorial disparities for achieving a relative balance between economic and social levels of development in different areas in the national territory. Regional development is the actual task of local government units in Albania, and is one of the tasks and challenges of the future. Currently it takes a special importance in the context of European Union integration. Reforms have begun to change the system in 1990 in order to implement local democracy and decentralization principles that are present today. Inequalities that exist within the region and between them indicate that in some regions the economic potential is not being fully utilized, and that it reduces the overall performance in national level.

  6. E-Banking and its features - Albania as a special case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermela Bashuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The e-banking system is a system which enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions such as: balance inquiries, account transfers, bill payments and some of them offer even the possibility to make loan or credit card applications on a website operated by the institution via internet at any place or time. The e-banking is referred to as online banking or internet banking. The banks have chosen to be part of the wide world of Web in order to stay competitive in the fast changing world of business and also to take further advantages. This innovation (accompanied by globalization and technology development has”obliged” the business entities to redefine and remodel their operations. Electronic banking is the wave of the future. It provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of the ease and cost of transactions. But it also poses new challenges for country authorities in regulating and supervising the financial system and in designing and implementing macroeconomic policy. In the first section there is an overview of E-banking products and services offered world wide and in Albania as a special case. In the second section there is a general overview of the e-banking advantages and disadvantages. In the third part there is a discussion above the features, challenges, advantages and disadvantages of E-Banking vs traditional banking. In the last part there are given some general recommendations to be taken in consideration in order to maintain effective and to further develop the operating environment for the existing and potential e-banks.

  7. Foliar and cortex oleoresin variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeneli, G; Tsitsimpikou, C; Petrakis, P V; Naxakis, G; Habili, D; Roussis, V

    2001-01-01

    Terpene composition of needle and cortical oleoresin from lateral shoots were analyzed by GC/MS for four Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations scattered in natural species range in Albania. More than sixty compounds were detected in the needle oleoresin, which was characterized by a high content of alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate. Three monoterpenes, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and limonene, and two sesquiterpenes, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D, comprised the majority of cortical oleoresin. The terpene composition differences among the populations that led to the recognition of two chemotypes. The needle oleoresin from the provinces of Puka, Bulqiza and Llogara were characterised by high amounts of beta-pinene, camphene and alpha-pinene and low amounts of limonene, while that from Drenova had high amounts of beta-pinene and limonene. A similar pattern was found in the cortical oleoresin with the exception of camphene that was a minor contributor. Geographical and seasonal variation between the populations was, also, investigated. Multivariate analysis of both needle and cortical oleoresin separated Drenova (southeastern population) from the other sites. When both major monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were considered four chemical profiles could be attributed. Based on their chemical profiles, the populations can be divided into two groups: Populations with high content of beta-pinene and alpha-pinene but a low content of limonene (Puka, Bulqiza and Llogara), typical of most of A. alba populations in all its distribution range. Population with a high content of limonene and a moderate content of beta-pinene and alpha-pinene (Drenova).

  8. Hyperaccumulators of mercury in the industrial area of a PVC factory in Vlora (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehu Julian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals is one of the major threats to soil and water as well as human health. Much attention is being paid to metal-accumulating plants that may be used for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Some plants can accumulate remarkable levels of metals, 100-1000-fold the levels normally accumulated in most species. This study evaluated the potential of mercury accumulation of 17 plant species growing on contaminated sites in the ex-industrial area of the PVC Factory, Vlora, Albania. Plant roots, shoots and soil samples were collected and analyzed for the selected metal concentration values. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC was calculated to evaluate the potential use of plant species for phytoremediation purposes. The concentration of Hg in soils inside the contaminated area varied from 45-301 mg/kg-1. The concentration of Hg in plant shoots and roots varied from 0.1 to 12.9 mg/kg-1 and 0.1 to 4.2 mg/kg-1, respectively. Species Medicago sativa L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter were found to be the most suitable plants for phytoremediation of the site contaminated with mercury (BAC values varied from 30-10 percent, respectively. Considering the BAC values, none of the plant species was found to be a hyperaccumulator; however, plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots have the potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. The results of this study can be used for the management and decontamination of soils with mercury using plant species having phytoremediation potential/characteristics.

  9. The Application of Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA Using Stratified Double Net Rounded Cage (SDFNC for Aquaculture Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto P. Putro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of fishery production nationally and internationally may impact on the potential emergence of a variety of environmental problems. The application of sustainable aquaculture is urgently needed by breeding fish for commercial purposes in a manner such that it has a minimum impact on the environment, contributing to the development of local communities and generating economic benefits. The design of the cage and farming practice in aquaculture activities are the important steps to ensure that farming activity is still observed in order to anticipate the risk of organic enrichment caused by the activities. The application of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  (IMTA on the Stratified Double Floating Net Cage  (SDFNC integrated with biomonitoring are an appropriate solution to the ongoing productive farming practices. IMTA is an aquaculture practice using more than one species of biotas which have ecologically mutual relationship as a part of the food chain in the area at the same time. The application of IMTA allows farmers to get several aquaculture products in the same area without increasing the horizontal area of the farms. At first, the SDFNC has been applied for farming Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia niloticus as polyculture system in freshwater ecosystem of Rawapening Lake, Central Java. Its operation has been able to increase the production capacity of at least 75% of conventional cages. The application of SDFNC-IMTA using milkfish (Chanos Chanos, seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii, and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been able to minimize the impact and maintain the water ecosystem in the Gulf Awerange, South Sulawesi.

  10. Ethnic affiliation, common memory and traditional culture of Macedonian Muslims in Albania: adaptating and preserving the identity (fieldworks of 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Novik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the question of ethnic affiliation of Macedonian Muslims in conditions of combined ethnical neighborhood. There are around ten settlements with Macedonian population in the Eastern part of the Republic of Albania (Mac. Golo Brdo, Alb. Golloborda. Five scientific researchers from St. Petersburg: Andrej Sobolev, Alexander Novik, Denis Ermolin, Maria Morozova and Alexandra Dugushina (Institute of Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography and St. Petersburg State University had organized fieldwork in the villages Trebisht, Klenje, Ostren etc. in 2008-2010. The author puts into academic context a new description of almost unexplored Macedonian community. The data have been obtained during the fieldworks in Eastern Albania. In conditions of long-term neighborhood with other languages and religious denominations, the adapting mechanisms have worked out specific approaches to preserving ethnical identity and traditional culture, perceiving their value and necessity of translating to descendants. Materials of fieldwork include data about identity, language, culture of Macedonian community in different periods of the state of Albania (Osmanli time, Royal Albania, Enver Hoxha monism period, post-communist transition, modern republic. These expedition materials are archived in the Kunstkamera (Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The founds of the Museum have traditional clothes of Macedonian Muslims from Golo Brdo which are collected during the fieldworks 2008-2010

  11. Late Glacial to Holocene climate change and human impact in the Mediterranean : The last ca. 17ka diatom record of Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania/Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane M.; Wagner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania/Greece) occupies an important location between Mediterranean and central European climate zones. Although previous multi-proxy research on the Late Glacial to Holocene sequence, core Co1215 (320cm; ca. 17cal ka BP to present), has demonstrated its great value as an

  12. Assessing the Ecological Integrity of a Major Transboundary Mediterranean River Based on Environmental Habitat Variables and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Aoos-Vjose River, Greece-Albania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzinikolaou, Y.; Dakos, V.; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological integrity has become a primary objective in monitoring programs of surface waters according to the European Water Framework Directive. For this reason we propose a scheme for assessing the ecological integrity of a major transboundary river, the Aoos-Vjose (Greece-Albania), by analysing

  13. The current status of phlebotomine sand flies in Albania and incrimination of Phlebotomus neglectus (Diptera, Psychodidae) as the main vector of Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Enkelejda; Bongiorno, Gioia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Myrseli, Teita; Crilly, James; Lika, Aldin; Mersini, Kujtim; Di Muccio, Trentina; Bino, Silvia; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp. genomic DNA. In the same year, Culicoides trapping was performed for bluetongue disease surveillance in 91 sites of southern Albania, targeting livestock farms regardless recent occurrence of VL in the surveyed areas. In 35 sites where sand flies were collected along with midges, Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most prevalent among the Phlebotomus species identified, however search for leishmanial DNA in females of this species was unsuccessful. In 2011, sand flies were trapped in 4 sites of north Albania characterized by high VL incidence, and females were dissected to search for Leishmania infections. Both P. neglectus and P. tobbi were collected at high densities. Two positive specimens were detected from a sample of 64 P. neglectus trapped in one site (3.1%). Parasites were successfully cultured from one specimen and characterized as belonging to Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1, the only zymodeme so far identified as the agent of human and canine leishmaniasis in the country. Altogether our studies indicate that P. neglectus is the main leishmaniasis vector in Albania.

  14. Enhancing the resilience of local communities threated by natural disaster: the experience of the Project "Shkoder", (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Fanti, Riccardo; Vannocci, Pietro; Krymbi, Ervis; Centoducati, Carlo; Ghini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been subject to a rapid development after the recent political changes, resulting in a general land degradation. Also the rate of migration from rural areas to the most urbanized areas currently represents a major problem for the National Civil Protection, since the urban sprawl in the suburbs are often located in high-risk areas, particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. The National Civil Protection system, in terms of subsidiary institutional and volunteer components, is relatively young in Albania. The progressive decentralization of the administrative competences triggered by the recent political changes is accompanied by the acquisition of new territorial information and the development of specific protocols for the emergency management, as well as the risk reduction. The management of natural disasters demands not only an early response to the criticalities, but also a correct mapping of the damage and the development of emergency plans for future events in order to protect lives, properties and the environment and moreover to spread the risk awareness in the population and to prepare it for such circumstances. The main purposes of the Pilot Project "Shkoder" is to enhance the resilience of a little community, located 9 kilometers south-west of Shkodra (Northern Albania), to flooding and earthquakes and to promote the subsidiarity principle by means of: a) demonstrating how basic information for the disaster planning (collected with a real demonstrative field survey) and the risk

  15. A Study of the Aquaculture Industry in Texas to Assist in Establishing Aquaculture as a Course Offering in Agricultural Science and Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, John; And Others

    A 1989-90 project determined the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in the aquaculture industry. The study identified technical materials and other resources available in private industry and higher education institutions. Two surveys determined the status of aquaculture in Texas school districts and identified tasks performed by…

  16. Overview of the application of nucleotide in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Do Huu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although long history application in infant formula, dietary nucleotide supplementation has been used only recently in the evaluation of growth performance, stress and pathogen resistance in aquaculture species. This paper addresses the present knowledge of the use of nucleotide supplemented in the diet for culture species. Research reveals that dietary nucleotide may have significant impact and is recommended to add to the feed of aquatic species to get better performance. However, more studies should also be conducted to have better understandings on dose requirement, duration of application, impact on different life stage and under different environmental stress and pathogens. Further study should also examine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation of intestinal microbiota and gut morphology, and immune response of aquaculture species.

  17. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr......One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades...... the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971-2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population...

  18. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang

    Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms......Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... all affected areas that the country managed to free itself totally from VHS. Molecular tracing of the origin of VHSV isolates revealed that despite strict trade regulations and ban on introduction of live salmonids into the country VHSV seemed to have crossed the boarders into Denmark in a couple...

  20. Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Teodor BURUIANĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of a large amount of certain types of beneficial bacteria can reduce the multiplication and development of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. A “probiotic” is a product that contains live microorganisms which positively influence the host intestinal microbiota by preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth and development of beneficial bacteria. Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria with beneficial effects in aquaculture industry. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. in fish culture improved especially growth performance, immune response and the disease resistance of fish against pathogenic bacterial infections. The objective of the current paper is to review the recent published investigations reported in the scientific literature on the use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in aquaculture, focusing on their beneficial effects on the host. This review includes the main effects of Bacillus spp. administration in shrimp culture, carp culture, tilapia culture, and other fish culture.

  1. Japanese aquaculture: use of thermal water from power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Takeya

    1983-01-01

    There is some merit of thermal water from power plants in the effect to marine life. Since 1963, the research and development on the aquaculture using this warm water have been carried out at some twenty power plants, seven nuclear and thirteen thermal, some of which are now in the commercial stage. These fish farming projects are operated variously from seed to adult fish production. They can also be classified as land and sea facilities, conforming to the characteristics of the respective sea areas. The current situation in this field and the future prospect are described: thermal aquaculture including seed production and adult fish farming; the projects in nuclear and thermal power plants, respectively; future problems in the facilities, breeding environment and marine life for cultivation. (Mori, K.)

  2. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  3. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez; Gerardo Rodríguez-Quiroz; Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal; Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1) and 20% (APL2) worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six we...

  4. Industrial agglomeration and production costs in Norwegian salmon aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This paper argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries, such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated rather restrictive production function specifications on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated o...

  5. Effects of regional agglomeration of salmon : aquaculture on production costs

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Ragnar

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This report argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated production functions on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated on firm level observations of Norwegian salmon aquacu...

  6. Biofloc technology application in aquaculture to support sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Bossier, Peter; Ekasari, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Summary Biofloc technology (BFT) application offers benefits in improving aquaculture production that could contribute to the achievement of sustainable development goals. This technology could result in higher productivity with less impact to the environment. Furthermore, biofloc systems may be developed and performed in integration with other food production, thus promoting productive integrated systems, aiming at producing more food and feed from the same area of land with fewer input. The...

  7. Biofloc technology application in aquaculture to support sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Bossier, P.; Ekasari, J.

    2017-01-01

    Biofloc technology (BFT) application offers benefits in improving aquaculture production that could contribute to the achievement of sustainable development goals. This technology could result in higher productivity with less impact to the environment. Furthermore, biofloc systems may be developed and performed in integration with other food production, thus promoting productive integrated systems, aiming at producing more food and feed from the same area of land with fewer input. The biofloc...

  8. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À l'heure actuelle, près de la moitié des animaux aquatiques que consomment les humains sont issus de l'aquaculture, une proportion qui est appelée à augmenter. Une grande partie de la production aquacole mondiale se trouve en Asie tropicale et subtropicale et constitue une importante source d'emploi et de sécurité ...

  9. Continuous host-macroparasite models with application to aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bouloux Marquet

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We study a continuous deterministic host-macroparasite system which involves populations of hosts, parasites, and larvae. This system leads to a countable number of partial differential equations that under certain hypotheses, is reduced to finitely many equations. Also we assume hypotheses to close the system and to define the global dynamics for the hosts. Then, we analyze the spatially homogeneous model without demography (aquaculture hypothesis, and show some preliminary results for the spatially structured model.

  10. Aquaculture intérieure et adaptation aux changements climatiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet porte sur l'élevage du tilapia dans de petits étangs fermiers ou des cages flottantes dans les rivières et les réservoirs du nord de la Thaïlande. Les chercheurs exploreront des façons d'adapter les pratiques aquacoles aux changements climatiques et analyseront la valeur de l'aquaculture comme stratégie ...

  11. Solar Thermal Aquaculture System Controller Based on Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    A. Doaa M. Atia; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. Ahmed; Hassen T. Dorrah

    2011-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most principle factors affects aquaculture system. It can cause stress and mortality or superior environment for growth and reproduction. This paper presents the control of pond water temperature using artificial intelligence technique. The water temperature is very important parameter for shrimp growth. The required temperature for optimal growth is 34oC, if temperature increase up to 38oC it cause death of the shrimp, so it is important to control water temperature...

  12. Fish to 2030 : The Role and Opportunity for Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mimako; Msangi, Siwa; Batka, Miroslav; Vannuccini, Stefania; Dey, Madan M.; Anderson, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood sector can contribute to the global food supply in an important way, and provide an important source of animal protein. Based on observed regional trends in seafood production and consumption and using a global, partial-equilibrium, multi-market model, this study investigates what the global seafood market may look like in 2030. The model projects that the total fish supply will increase from 154 million tons in 2011 to 186 million tons in 2030, with aquaculture entirely responsible f...

  13. Sustainable aquaculture of Asian arowana--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medipally, S R; Yusoff, F M; Sharifhuddin, N; Shariff, M

    2016-07-01

    Asian arowana, Scleropages formosus is a highly valued aquarium fish in the world, particularly in Asian countries, and has been listed as one of the most highly endangered species. This is a freshwater, carnivorous, fairly large mouth breeding fish belonging to the family Osteoglossidae. Arowana can be found in different colour varieties such as green, red, silver and golden. Among these varieties, Malaysian golden is the most valuable fish and is endemic to the Krian riverine system, Malaysia. However, overexploitation, habitat change and pollution have caused a serious decline of this arowana variety. Recently, arowana aquaculture industry is expanding rapidly in Southeast Asian countries. However, difficulties in an accurate differentiation of sex and strains, causing imbalanced stocking ratios for optimum spawning, remain major obstacles in maximizing arowana production. In addition, problems in sustainable water sources of suitable quality and prevention of diseases need to be addressed. Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and bioremediation are two possible technologies that could be used to minimize pollution and ensure adequate high-quality water for arowana culture. In addition, the application of appropriate molecular markers for sex and strain identification is also an important strategy required for the improvement of captive breeding. This review discusses several issues such as the importance of arowana as an aquarium fish, its market demand, current problems in the arowana aquaculture industry and the possible technologies to enhance reproductive capacity and increase culture production. ?

  14. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  15. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables

  16. Introduction to Music and Art in Albania during the 20-th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kaçinari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Albanian music, which dates back to the Albanian Independence, is characterized by two main aspects: supporting of patriotic, illuminist and democratic ideas and a model in most classical or romantic music as well as being linked to folk music. The history of last year’s is followed with the oppression and dream to come close to the European Culture. During this relatively long period (almost half century, the first musical compositions were created in Albania. Initially there were some pre - professional attempts to create genuine musical compositions which had a significant role in some aspects. First, these compositions leaded to the creation of the first musical genres of the Albanian music. Second, different vocal and orchestral ensembles started to include in their repertoires operas of Albanian authors and in the case of vocal operas, even with Albanian language texts. Third, the level of musical compositions was updated, from folk music towards a level that would improve decade after decade. From the ranking of piano operas of the Albanian music that I did and showed at the end of this work, it is noticed that the first operas of our piano music sprung during the first years of 20th century. Those years were filled with endeavours and struggles for national identity, for the protection of borders from excessive greed of our neighbours or superpowers interests and also years of the first attempts to follow the steps of developed countries’ cultures that surround us. So it was the time of efforts for cultivation of people and step by step creation of our cultural identity. Referring to this, the Albanian writer, aesthete, translator and teacher Ernest Koliqi wrote: “It is an axiomatic affirmation that small nations that would not know how to organise their culture, fatally would dissolve under huge political and social exacerbations emerging today. We are moving toward formation of a politically united Europe and through sufferings

  17. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  18. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  19. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in aquaculture: photoinactivation studies of Vibrio fischeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1 with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2 with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI conditions in situ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py(+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10-50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water; artificial white light (4 mW cm(-2 and solar irradiation (40 mW cm(-2 were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ≈10(7 CFU mL(-1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 10(5 relative light units--RLU. The variations in pH (6.5-8.5, temperature (10-25°C, salinity (20-40 g L(-1 and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (≈7 log reduction. The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py(+-Me-PF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to

  20. Growth-Climate Response of Young Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L. Coppice Forest Stands along Longitudinal Gradient in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Stafasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. is the most widespread species in Albania and less investigated from dendroclimatological point of view. Previous studies have reported that Q. cerris is sensitive to the environment when growing at different latitudes and ecological conditions. Based on this fact we have explored the response of different Q. cerris populations located along the longitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: The stem discs were sampled from six sites (Kukes, Diber, Rreshen, Ulez, Elbasan, Belsh along longitudinal gradient ranging from north-east to central Albania. All oak forests stands grow under the influence of specific local Mediterranean climate. Tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using a linear table, LINTAB and the TSAP-Win program. Following the standard dendrochronological procedures residual tree-ring width chronologies were built for each site. Statistical parameters commonly used in dendrochronology were calculated for each site chronology. Relations between the tree-ring chronologies were explored using Hierarchical Factor Classification (HFC and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while the radial growth-climate relationship was analyzed through correlation analysis using a 19-month window from April in the year prior to tree-ring formation (year t - 1 until October in the year of growth (year t. Results and Conclusions: The length of the site chronologies ranged from 16 to 36 years, with the Elbasan site chronology being the longest and the Belsh site chronology the shortest one. Trees at lower elevation were younger than trees at higher elevation. Statistical parameters (mean sensitivity (MS and auto correlation (AC of site chronologies were different among them and lower values of AC1 showed a weaker dependence of radial growth from climatic conditions of the previous growing year. Principal component analysis showed that Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were

  1. Biofloc technology as an integral approach to enhance production and ecological performance of aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ekasari, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to explore the contribution of biofloc technology (BFT) application to aquaculture productivity enhancement, while maintaining sustainable practices. To increase biofloc utilization and overall nutrient utilization, the potential of biofloc utilization by some aquaculture species has been elucidated. This study shows that particle size plays an important role in the nutritional quality and in situ utilization of bioflocs by some aquaculture species. Thi...

  2. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Aquaculture disturbance impacts the diet but not ecological linkages of a ubiquitous predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Kathleen C.; McDonald, P. Sean; VanBlaricom, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture operations are a frequent and prominent cause of anthropogenic disturbance to marine and estuarine communities and may alter species composition and abundance. However, little is known about how such disturbances affect trophic linkages or ecosystem functions. In Puget Sound, Washington, aquaculture of the Pacific geoduck clam (Panopea generosa) is increasing and involves placing nets and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes in intertidal areas to protect juvenile geoducks from predators. Initial studies of the structured phase of the farming cycle have documented limited impacts on the abundance of some species. To examine the effect of geoduck aquaculture on ecological linkages, the trophic relationships of a local ubiquitous consumer, Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), to its invertebrate prey were compared between geoduck aquaculture sites and nearby reference areas with no aquaculture. Mark-recapture data indicated that sculpin exhibit local site fidelity to cultured and reference areas. The stomach contents of sculpin and stable isotope signatures of sculpin and their prey were examined to study the trophic ecology of cultured and reference areas. Results showed that the structured phase of geoduck aquaculture initiated some changes to staghorn sculpin ecology, as reflected in sculpin diet through stomach content analysis. However, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes revealed that the general food web function of sculpin remained unchanged. The source of carbon at the base of the food web and the trophic position of sculpin were not impacted by geoduck aquaculture. The study has important implications for geoduck aquaculture management and will inform regulatory decisions related to shellfish aquaculture policy.

  4. Dynamic ecological-economic modeling approach for management of shellfish aquaculture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nobre, AM

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foundation for Science and Technology) Thank you for the attention Key references J.G. Ferreira, A.J.S. Hawkins, S.B. Bricker, 2007. Management of productivity, environmental effects and profitability of shellfish aquaculture – the Farm Aquaculture... Resource Management (FARM) model. Aquaculture, 264, 160-174. A. Sequeira, J.G.Ferreira, A.J.Hawkins, A.Nobre, P.Lourenço, X.L. Zhang, X.Yan, 2007. Trade-offs between shellfish aquaculture and benthic biodiversity: a modelling approach for sustainable...

  5. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  6. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  7. Aquaculture et environnement: aspects réglementaires : journées d'études, Nantes, 6-7 octobre 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    ...) L'aquaculture in Italie; 6) L'aquaculture au sein de la Communaute economique europeenne; 7) Freshwater aquaculture in the United States, complying with environmental protection law and policy; 8...

  8. Phylogenetic position and taxonomy of the enigmatic Orobanche krylowii (Orobanchaceae), a predominatly Asian species newly found in Albania (SE Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajman, Božo; Carlón, Luis; Kosachev, Petr; Pedraja, Oscar Sánchez; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2013-10-11

    We report on the occurrence of Orobanche krylowii in the Alpet Shqiptare (Prokletije, Albanian Alps) mountain range in northern Albania (Balkan Peninsula). The species was previously known only from eastern-most Europe (Volga-Kama River in Russia), more than 2500 km away, and from adjacent Siberia and Central Asia. We used morphological evidence as well as nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences to show that the Albanian population indeed belongs to O. krylowii and that its closest relative is the European O. lycoctoni , but not O. elatior as assumed in the past. Both Orobanche krylowii and O. lycoctoni parasitize Ranunculaceae ( Thalictrum spp. and Aconitum lycoctonum , respectively). We provide an identification key and a taxonomic treatment for O. krylowii , and suggest the IUCN category CE (critically endangered) for the highly disjunct Albanian population.

  9. Entrepreneurship and Human Resources as Important Forces Affecting Electronic Readiness in Building the Information Society in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Kordha (Tolica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Today information has become an important element without which society actors cannotachieve their goals. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays instead of theterms “production” or “consumption society”, because of the importance and necessity of informationin today's dynamic environment. In these conditions, even Albania is trying to give the properimportance and emphasis to, not just the use of information, but to the use of tools and technologiesthat enable efficiency in the collection, storage, processing, and distribution of data and the useinformation. Thus, information and communication technologies (ICT, are finding today in theAlbanian society, a steadily increasing use. For the Albanian Government has established andimplements the strategy is the national information and communication technologies (ICT.

  10. Potential and Barriers to Adoption of B2B E-Commerce in SMEs in Transition Economies: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Rao Vajjhala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs can benefit significantly from investments in e-commerce and e-business. However, the adoption of e-commerce has been quite slow and limited among SMEs, especially in transition economies. Interviews were conducted with senior managers from 30 medium-sized enterprises in a transition economy – Albania, three from each of the ten key sectors, namely, information and communication technology (ICT, tourism, banking, financial services, agriculture, healthcare, logistics, manufacturing, construction, and retailing. The qualitative data coded from the in-depth interviews was analysed using NVIVO® for identifying key themes. Four key themes were identified along with ten subthemes. This study identified the four key themes that can guide the organizational leadership of medium-sized enterprises in transition economies in strategically leveraging e-commerce technology. The four key themes identified in this study include resource constraints, external environmental factors, organizational issues, and resistance to acceptance of new technology. The identification of the key barrier factors will help the organizational leadership in transition economies, such as Albania devise strategies to promote adoption of e-commerce in the SMEs. The findings of this study will help the organizational leadership of SMEs in transition economies identify measures to address and resolve the barriers to adoption of e-commerce. This study also adds value to the limited literature on barriers to e-commerce adoption in the context of SMEs in transition economies. The study offers insights on e-commerce adoption by SMEs, which can be applied to other transition and emerging economies attempting to understand the barriers that might hinder the adoption of e-commerce by the SMEs.

  11. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumoharjo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

  12. L'aquaculture du Macrobrachium rosenbergii aux Antilles Francaises

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis

    1983-01-01

    L'aquaculture du Macrobrachium rosenbergii débute en Martinique en 1976 à l'initiative du Conseil Rëgional7~0ne premiere écloserie type "eau verte" est construite et ensemence les premiers bassins. En 1978, le CNEXO est sollicité pour apporter son concours scientifique qui se traduit par la construction d'une seconde écloserie type COP "eau claire", opérationnelle en 1980. Le développement des bassins (20 ha) entraîne celui des écloseries, unifiées en 1983 par une méthode unique enrichie d'un...

  13. Relance de l'aquaculture au Sri Lanka | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Aquaculture au Sri Lanka. L'adoption de l'ostréiculture dans deux collectivités côtières du Sri Lanka a donné lieu aux premières exportations d'huîtres du pays. Au Sri Lanka, le gouvernement a pour objectif de doubler la consommation de poisson par personne, de 11 kilos à 22 kilos par année, d'ici à la fin ...

  14. Predicting salt advection in groundwater from saline aquaculture ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.

  15. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...... that these results are closely linked to non-favourable developments in the output price and the fact that agricultural production, including rearing of livestock and service sector employment (self or wage employment), are much larger sources of income than fish pond production....

  16. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  17. Role of production intensification on water use efficiency in catfish pond aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Availability of fresh water is sometimes considered to be a limiting factor for future aquaculture development. This is certainly true at specific local levels where aquaculture may conflict with other water uses. A good example is the Yazoo-Mississippi River floodplain in northwest Mississippi, whe...

  18. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...

  19. The growth of finfish in global open-ocean aquaculture under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Dane H; Levin, Simon A; Watson, James R

    2017-10-11

    Aquaculture production is projected to expand from land-based operations to the open ocean as demand for seafood grows and competition increases for inputs to land-based aquaculture, such as freshwater and suitable land. In contrast to land-based production, open-ocean aquaculture is constrained by oceanographic factors, such as current speeds and seawater temperature, which are dynamic in time and space, and cannot easily be controlled. As such, the potential for offshore aquaculture to increase seafood production is tied to the physical state of the oceans. We employ a novel spatial model to estimate the potential of open-ocean finfish aquaculture globally, given physical, biological and technological constraints. Finfish growth potential for three common aquaculture species representing different thermal guilds-Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata ) and cobia ( Rachycentron canadum )-is compared across species and regions and with climate change, based on outputs of a high-resolution global climate model. Globally, there are ample areas that are physically suitable for fish growth and potential expansion of the nascent aquaculture industry. The effects of climate change are heterogeneous across species and regions, but areas with existing aquaculture industries are likely to see increases in growth rates. In areas where climate change results in reduced growth rates, adaptation measures, such as selective breeding, can probably offset potential production losses. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. A Methodological Note for the Development of Integrated Aquaculture Production Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tsani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production can yield significant economic, social, and environmental effects. These exceed the financial costs and benefits aquaculture producers are faced with. We propose a methodology for the development of integrated production models that allow for the inclusion of the socio-economic and environmental effects of aquaculture into the production management. The methodology develops on a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis context and it includes three parts: (i environmental, that captures the interactions of aquaculture with the environment, (ii economic, that makes provision for the incorporation of economic determinants in the production models and (iii social, that introduces the social preferences to the production and management process. Alternatives to address data availability issues are also discussed. The methodology extends the assessment of the costs and benefits of aquaculture beyond pure financial metrics and beyond the quantification of private costs and benefits. It can also support the development of integrated models of aquaculture production that take into consideration both the private and the social costs and benefits associated with externalities and effects not appropriately captured by market mechanisms. The methodology can support aquaculture management and policies targeting sustainable and efficient aquaculture production and financing from an economic, financial, social, and environmental point of view.