Çanaku, D.; Toçi, E.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.
AIM: Congenital Malformations (CMs) represent a challenge especially for developing countries. Data about CMs in Albania are rather scarce. In this context, our aim was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with CMs in Tirana, the capital of Albania. METHODS: Information on all CMs at
Bijo, B; Hoda, A; Thamaj, F
Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT) is one of 12 public Universities in Albania. There are five Faculties within AUT. The study courses in AUT except of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, are organized in three levels. Courses of the first level offer the fundamental knowledge. The students at the end of this cycle own 180 credits and obtain a first level diploma. In the second level study courses, the students get deeper theoretical and practical knowledge and modules are spread across 120 credits. At the end of this level the students obtain a second level diploma, according to the study course. In FVM, the study courses are organized as integrated program of second level that is spread across 300 credits. The students, who have finished the first level course, may go further in "Master of First level" for a professional training, where they do obtain 60 credits. The program of third cycle includes the courses of "Master of Second level" and the programs of PhD. The course of "Master of second level" is offered to the students who have achieved a Diploma of Second Level, and the students get deeper knowledge of scientific and professional character and do obtain at least 60 credits. PhD programs have totally an academic character. The principal aspect is the research and independent scientific activity. This program can be followed by the students who have a diploma of second level, or a diploma of "Master of Second level". The PhD program is organized in four years. The first year, consists of theoretical knowledge of the students. The second year is mainly research. The third year is research, data manipulation, publications, oral presentations and the last year is compilation of PhD thesis, its presentation and defense. Here is presented newly established doctoral school at Faculty of Agriculture and Environment.
Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen
From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤ 6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age harboured significantly (pcaninum, T. hydatigena, A. caninum, U. stenocephala and T. vulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination, there was no indication for lungworm infection; however, two adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were found in the right ventricle of one dog.
Full Text Available Spiders from the Tirana district of Albania were investigated. Currently, 78 species from 24 families and a collection of 400 specimens from January to August 2010 were recorded for Tirana. A total of 32 new records for the Albanian fauna are included in the present paper. Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878 is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Saitis graecus Kulczyński, 1905 was known before only from Greece and Bulgaria. Presently, 373 spider species are known for Albania.
Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.
Hysi, D; Kuscu, O O; Droboniku, E; Toti, C; Xhemnica, L; Caglar, E
Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) describes the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralisation of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars (PFMs) that are frequently associated with affected incisors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and aetiology of MIH in children living in Tirana, Albania. The study was conducted at the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, and Tirana Dental Public Health Service. A total of 1,575 school children aged 8-10 years were examined by 7 calibrated examiners (dentists) (kappa: 0.86). The Weerheijm criteria were used for the diagnosis of demarcated opacities, post-eruption breakdown, atypical restorations, and extracted PFMs due to MIH. Prevalence of MIH was found to be 14% (n=227). In the 227 children with MIH, tooth 36 was the most affected PFM, and tooth 46 the least affected. Tooth 21 was the most affected incisor and tooth 32 the least affected incisor by MIH. MIH(+) children had significanly more childhood diseases in the first 3 years of life (p=0.006). Among the children who used antibiotics, MIH(+) cases were 1.41 (1.06-1.87) times higher than in children who did not usedantibiotics, MIH(-) cases. MIH was found to be common among 8-10 year-old Tirana children.
Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the
Cavalli, Alessandra; Desario, Costantina; Kusi, Ilir; Mari, Viviana; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cirone, Francesco; Kumbe, Ilirjan; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola
An epidemiological survey for Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was conducted in Albania. A total of 57 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic dogs in the District of Tirana during 2011-2013. The molecular assays detected 53 and 31 CPV- and CCoV-positive specimens, respectively, with mixed CPV-CCoV infections diagnosed in 28 dogs. The most frequently detected CPV type was 2a, whereas IIa was the predominant CCoV subtype. A better comprehension of the CPV-CCoV epidemiology in eastern European countries will help to assess the most appropriate vaccination strategies to prevent disease due to infections with these widespread agents of acute gastroenteritis in the dog.
Full Text Available Albania represents an interesting case of a newly emerging destination in the international tourist market, with intensive pressures coming from seasonal visit flows and the related impacts on the environment. The Albanian Culture Marketing Strategy, while correctly focusing on heritage for the de-seasoning of visits in congested areas and for awareness-raising about the country’s cultural identity among tourists and residents, presents some limitations in the definition of application patterns and concrete solutions. In particular, the active contribution of potential users, of ICTs and, in particular, the potentialities of widespread tools such as mobile apps seem to be overlooked. In this article, the current scenario of the Albanian tourism sector, with particular emphasis on the cultural segment, is presented through a detailed analysis of relevant program documents in order to outline strengths and weaknesses of the underlying approach. Then, the potential contribution of mobile apps to the sustainable development of destinations are analyzed and the market of available technologies is presented through a taxonomy of a consistent number of representative cases. Finally, the SOS-Tirana app is presented and its adequateness to the context is discussed.
Background notes on Albania, by the U.S. State Department, are brief because of scarce information from this tightly controlled communist nation. Albania is on the Adriatic coast between Greece and Yugoslavia. Albania has about 3 million people. Literacy is reported to be 75%; life expectancy 72 years. Per capita income is $900, the poorest and most agricultural of all Europe, but nevertheless, they are not self-sufficient in food. There are 2 ethnic groups, and 70% were formerly Muslim, although religious practice is banned. Albania has been under the domination of some other power for virtually all of its history, notably the Turks for centuries, and its own puppet communist regime since 1941. The communist government was aligned with Yugoslavia until 1948, then with Russia until 1961, then with China until 1978, and now is on its own. Albania has no relations or aid from any major power, and attempts to export goods to Western European countries in exchange for imported needs, largely machinery and equipment. Exports include electric power, metal ores, copper, petroleum, coal, tobacco, and textiles.
OLTIANA PETRI; ARBEN LUZATI; ANJEZA ÇOKU; TOMI PETRI; SILVANA MARDHA; ERJONA ABAZAJ
Fruits products contamination present a particular concern for human health, since many of these products are raw consumed without any prior treatment, which would eliminate or reduce biological, microbiological or physical risks. The aim of this study is to gather basic information on microbiological quality in fresh and dried fruits, which are traded currently in Tirana, as this city presents almost one third of Albania. This study was conducted during the period November 2010-March 2013 in...
Full Text Available This article examines the Tirana Independence Monument, first inaugurated in November of 2012 on the hundredth anniversary of Albanian independence from the Ottoman Empire. The monument, designed by Visar Obrija and Kai Roman Kiklas, swiftly fell into disrepair until it was recently renovated in November of 2015. The article analyzes the monument’s function in terms of its doubled existence as a sign of perpetual natality (the possibility of the rebirth of national consciousness and as a ruin with a spectral pseudo-presence (as an object that continually reminds us of the disjunctures that divorce the present from its historicity. It considers the way the monument’s inauguration relates to the politics of monumentality in contemporary Albania, and argues that the monument’s gradual ruination between 2012 and 2015 can be read as a particular manifestation of the history of the image in late capitalist society.Keywords: spectrality, natality, monumentality, Albania, Tirana, independence, national identity, grid, public sculpture
Full Text Available This article discusses the development of transport inequalities in Tirana during its rapid population and economic growth since the fall of communism in 1990. The first part provides background on the development of Tirana and its urban travel systems, in an effort to take a step towards filling the research void on this city. Tirana’s case is particularly interesting because during communism private car ownership was prohibited and there were virtually no cars on the streets. Subsequently, when the population acquired wealth and personal freedom, the city grew substantially in all directions and was invaded by car traffic. The second part of this article analyses the findings of recent transportation surveys, conducted by this author, with a focus on the transport disadvantage that women, children, the poor, the elderly, and the handicapped experience. This discussion is preceded by a brief review of studies reflecting the emergence of concerns about transport inequality issues in other European nations during the past few decades. The article concludes with policy recommendations based on public opinions on transport issues, collected through the author’s surveys.
Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute a practical study model based on long term, deep, mainly historical studies about the Holocaust inAlbania. A similar model has already existed forthe eight years in Bucharest, Romania. Based on its advantages and the needs in Albania I built a new model. The article describes the relevanthistorical backgroundand raised the humanistic questions that have interested and challenged many historians over the last 20 years.The article is based on theoretical methods from other fields and integrates them into the original model. The model is divided into two parts that are interdependent. The conclusion and discussion summarize all the factors in order to convince the Albanian Ministry of Education and University of Tirana to adopt its idea.
Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi
positive relation with profitability (ROA/ROE but statistically insignificant for the model.  According to the Bank of Albania, in December 2014, banks in the Albanian sector are divided by size of activity: 1 The bank group 1 (0-2% of total banking sector assets include United Bank of Albania, Veneto Bank, International Commercial Bank, First Investment Bank, Credit Bank of Albania; 2 The bank group 2 (2-7% of total banking sector assets include Procredit Bank, Credit Agricole Bank, National Bank of Greece, Societe Generale Bank - Albania, Alpha Bank - Albania, Union Bank; and 3 The banks group 3 (about 7% of total banking sector assets include Raiffeisen Bank, Credins Bank, National Commercial Bank, Intesa Sanpaolo Bank-Albania, Tirana Bank.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes a evolution of the financial system in Albania. The paper highlights that a two-tier banking system was created following passage of a new Central Bank Law and Commercial Banking Law in April 1992. The State Bank of Albania became the Bank of Albania and retained only the functions of a central bank. Its commercial operations were hived off to become the National Bank of Albania in July 1992, which was subsequently merged with the Albanian Commercial Bank to form the Nati...
Angjeli, V; Reme, B; Leno, L; Bukli, R; Bushati, G
Microbiological pollution of drinking water is a major health problem in the suburbs of the Albanian capital. Intermittent supply and contamination, resulting in several gastrointestinal manifestations, are the main concerns for the population and health workers. The risk of outbreaks of water-borne diseases is high. Pollution originates from contamination of drinking water with domestic sewage. This research investigated the drinking water cycle from its natural source to the consumer, analysing samples and verifying pollution levels in the microbiological and chemical setting. The most important pollution sources were found in the distribution network, due to cross-contamination with sewers and illegal connections. The second pollution source was found around the extraction wells. This is related to abusive constructions within the sanitary zone around the wells and maybe the highly sewage-contaminated river water which feeds the aquifer.
Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of infestation of stray dogs that attend public areas of Tirana by geohelminths zoonotic: Toxocara canis (T. canis, Ancylostomatids and Trichuris spp., and indirectly to assess the level of environment contamination by invasive exogenous stages of these parasites. Methods: A total of 240 fecal samples was collected from stray dogs in public three urban areas of Tirana. These samples were analyzed by using the centrifugation-flotation technique. Results: Result showed that 54.6% of the dogs were infested from T. canis, Ancylostomatids (Ancylostoma spp. and Uncinaria spp. and Trichuris spp. Those infested dogs from Ancylostomatids were 37 (15.4%, from T. canis were 47 (19.6% and from Trichuris sp. were 47 (19.6%. Conclusions: Tirana public places are contaminated by exogenous stages of invasive intestinal dog’s geohelminths all through the year. But the contamination level is higher during the spring and autumn and the parks with trees and grass are more polluted than the bare areas. So these environments have become a permanent risk factor of infection from parasitic zoonoses for the humans and animals that frequent those places. It is the duty of local authorities who takes care of legislation compilation, to prevent the public areas to become fecalized from dogs and to implement a plan with different actions to minimize the number of stray dogs.
Iliriani, E; Asllani, P
Under the previous pronatalist regime, Albania was the country with the youngest population and the highest birth rate in Europe. Nevertheless, sexuality used to be repressed, and the penalty for homosexuality was 10 years in prison. The repercussions of this period when information, education, and services in the field of sexual health were withheld are still felt. There are still thousands of young people and teenagers who lack the knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. Every day in Albania, at least one student has an abortion. The Organization for the Propagation of Sexual Education (SOPSE) was officially launched in November 1993, and it was initially based among students of the University of Tirana. After attending workshops concerned with health education, they became the first peer educators for sex, contraception and AIDS information. SOPSE has carried out about 700 sessions of counseling in student residences at the branch created at the University of Korca and has also distributed about 2000 condoms. SOPSE also organized a masked ball for students at the University of Tirana. 25 SOPSE members each invited 4 other students, and everyone received a free condom. The ball was also attended by representatives from Action Plus, an Albanian nongovernmental organization concerned with AIDS prevention, which distributed condoms and information at the ball. In addition, there were participants from the UN Development Programme, the World Health Organization, the Ministry of Health, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Albanian Family Planning Association, as well as a number of journalists and medical professors. Part of the evening was devoted to telling the students about SOPSE, putting across safe sex messages, introducing contraceptive methods, and discussing sexuality and the risks of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection.
The transition to a market economy in Albania is a relatively long and complex process. It is characterized by the demolition of old structures and the establishment of new ones, often in parallel, until a new, completely different economic system emerges. During this difficult and innovative process, a myriad of interconnected problems have…
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ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI
Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albani...
Stormer, Ame; Tun, Waimar; Guli, Lisa; Harxhi, Arjan; Bodanovskaia, Zinaida; Yakovleva, Anna; Rusakova, Maia; Levina, Olga; Bani, Roland; Rjepaj, Klodian; Bino, Silva
Injection drug users in Tirana, Albania and St. Petersburg, Russia were recruited into a study assessing HIV-related behaviors and HIV serostatus using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS), a peer-driven recruitment sampling strategy that results in a probability sample. (Salganik M, Heckathorn DD. Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling. Sociol Method. 2004;34:193-239). This paper presents a comparison of RDS implementation, findings on network and recruitment characteristics, and lessons learned. Initiated with 13 to 15 seeds, approximately 200 IDUs were recruited within 8 weeks. Information resulting from RDS indicates that social network patterns from the two studies differ greatly. Female IDUs in Tirana had smaller network sizes than male IDUs, unlike in St. Petersburg where female IDUs had larger network sizes than male IDUs. Recruitment patterns in each country also differed by demographic categories. Recruitment analyses indicate that IDUs form socially distinct groups by sex in Tirana, whereas there was a greater degree of gender mixing patterns in St. Petersburg. RDS proved to be an effective means of surveying these hard-to-reach populations.
Full Text Available Social accounting is the process of communicating the social and environmental effects of organizations economic actions to particular interest groups within society and to society at large. This research paper is focused on the concepts of social and environmental accounting, viewed as an important part of the Albanian policy preparation for European Union integration. Presently, however, the EU notion of corporate engagement and Social accounting is still a new concept in the region. The paper aims to reveal the Albanian reality, as a country with strong aspiration toward EU. For this purpose we have analysed the main initiatives and projects implemented in the region and in Albania aimed at developing corporate social responsibility (CSR. This paper examines the applicable and relevant paragraphs of the global financial reporting standards (IFRS. The relevant paragraphs for environmental accounting have been analyzed in relation to the environmental financial reporting. We believe that this research may serve as a starting point for further studies on this topic. This paper concludes that social and environmental reporting practices are increasing day by day in the region. In Albania the awareness of CSR and how it can be applied is still quite low, perceived mainly as an opportunity to adopt international standards and engage in environmental protection. Hence we believe that improvements in quality of environmental financial reporting are required.
Full Text Available The right to live is a right guaranteed by the constitution as well as international legal acts in force in a country, and is based on the moral of a society. But does the right to live imply a parallel individual right to die? Or should the state protect the right to life of a person who does not want to live anymore, going like this against the will of that person? Albanian anthropology, as a post-communist society lacks the tradition of freedom, as in this case of the freedom that belongs to a man affected by an incurable disease. For this reason, in Albania not only we do not have a law on euthanasia, but the issue of euthanasia is not raised as an issue nor by the legislator nor by civil society. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of euthanasia in Albania, as well as on some specific problems facing the Albanian reality. The methodology used in the paper consists with the combination of comparing legal provisions of euthanasia (or the lack of them in a vertical historical continuity.
Full Text Available Quando la redazione di GeoMedia ha ricevuto l’invito da parte della rete di Impresa GIS Italiana GeoNetCom di partecipare come “osservatore” ad un interessante mercato estero (l’Albania e di verificare come 5 aziende italiane (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I&S Informatica e Servizi Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Sistemi Territoriali srl Pisa e Tecnopiani srl Roma-Chieti e due new entry della rete (MARSec spa Benevento e ISE-Net Torino stanno lavorando insieme per l’internazionalizzazione, l’offerta era troppo ghiotta per rinunciarci, anche perchè per il sottoscritto era l’occasione di rientrare in contatto con Tirana dopo ben 16 anni. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo GeoMedia has received an invitation from GeoNetCom, an Italian network of Enterprise GIS, to participate as "observ-ers" to a foreign market attractive (Albania and to see how five Italian Companies (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I & S Infor-mation Technology and Services Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Regional Systems srl Rome-Pisa and Infopiani Chieti with two new entries in the network (MARSEC ISE-net spa Benevento and Turin, are working together to bring their activity at the international level in a Country quickly growing as Albania.
Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen
One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100
Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.
Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert
International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...
strategies for ensuring that Kenya becomes one of the leading producers of fish from aquaculture in ... been only marginally included in the international debate on food security and nutrition. . ... stocked trout into rivers for sport fishing .
Bøe, Trond Anders
Salmon fish farming has evolved to become a multi-billion dollar industry for Norway, with a significant growth in the last 10 years. With the introduction of modern and advanced technical equipment and higher environmental demands, follows a need for further training of experienced fish farmers and aquaculture students. Spreading knowledge about aquaculture and get people interested in the industry is important in order to secure future growth. This project will continue the development o...
De Murtas, I D [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente
This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.
Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: ; 500 women, mean age: ; response rate: 84.5%. Assessment of GERD was based on Montreal definition. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors with GERD. Results. The overall prevalence of GERD was 11.9%. There were no significant sex differences, but a higher prevalence among the older participants. In fully adjusted models, there was a positive relationship of GERD with smoking, physical inactivity, fried food consumption, and obesity, but not so for alcohol intake and meat consumption. Conclusion. We obtained important evidence on the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of GERD in a Western Balkans' country. Smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were strong “predictors” of GERD in this population. Findings from this study should be replicated in prospective studies in Albania and other transitional settings.
Summary The electricity production in Albania is highly based on hydro-power, accounting for 97% of the total production. However, the amount of electricity produced by the hydropower plants (HPPs) varies much every year due to climate factors such as th
Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors
This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.
Full Text Available State budget is one of the most important instruments where the government reflects its future policies, priorities and commitments. Its reading in recent years clearly shows the increased size of public debt beyond the upper limit of 60% of GDP, in many countries including Albania. This fact constitutes analarming trend signaled even by many international financial institutions. However, the worldwide increasing levels of budget deficits and public debtsare not accidental. Through this article we aim to explore the relationships that exists between different determinants such as governance, social and economic variables that directly affect the size of public debt in Albania, where demographic factors are noted as the main contributors, followed by political systems along with various economic developments that the country has experienced in years.
Full Text Available Post-communist Albania has become a transit point for refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants. Asylum policies and procedures put in place under UNHCR and EU tutelage are fragile and serve the interests of Europe, not Albania.
Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.
This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.
Full Text Available The euroisation issue in European Integration context, is a continuous process of discussions between different researchers and regulatory institutions. Nowadays, different aspects of collaboration and integration processes between countries in the region, are extended in all politics, economic and security dimensions. In this study, we are going to treat one of the aspects of this process integration for Albania: the possibility of substituting the Albanian Lek with Euro, beginning with the explanation of the concept of euroisation. Also we are going to identify the actual non-official replacement level of lek and how it is expected to be realized in the future. Albania like other developing countries is lack of a currency with which people can buy abroad and which can be used in short-run and long-run credit contracts. On the other hand, the exchange rate represents an important risk, especially for the business which realizes transactions in foreign currency. Here in we are focused on the measurement of the money replacement level in Albania through three main methods. For this purpose is used the regression analysis in order to test the hypothesis under evaluation in two directions: endogenous and exogenous potential factors affecting this replacement. Through the factor analysis identifying the pro and cons of the euroisation phenomenon, we will give the potential alternative in our county economy conditions. Finally, the replacement rate cannot be assessed without being related to the degree of money in circulation replacement and the degree of assets replacement and without being connected with the exchange rate between currencies.
Burazeri, Genc; Qirjako, Gentiana; Roshi, Enver; Brand, Helmut
We aimed to assess the extent and the socioeconomic correlates of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in Albania, a country in transition from rigidly structured socialism to a market-oriented system. 2797 students (93% of all students) at the Medical Faculty, Tirana, filled out an anonymous structured questionnaire in April-June 2009. Information on witnessed father-to-mother physical violence during childhood and/or adolescence and sociodemographic and socioeconomic data were collected. The association of witnessed parental violence with socioeconomic factors was assessed with multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. 736 (26.7%) of students witnessed father-to-mother physical violence, and 36 (1.3%) reported 'very often' witnessing episodes. In multivariable-adjusted models, independent predictors of witnessed violence were: low family income [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-3.2], rural origin (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5), father's lower education and unemployment (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 4.1-7.1 and OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.9-3.2, respectively) and mother's educational and employment advantage compared with the spouse (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9-3.8 and OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.6-2.8, respectively). Father's socioeconomic disadvantage and mother's socioeconomic empowerment were each independently related to increased risk for witnessed father-to-mother physical violence among university students in this transitional patriarchal society. Health professionals in post-communist Albania should be aware of the ways in which witnessed domestic violence influences physical and psychological health of young adults.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little information is available about infantile visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Albania as regards incidence, diagnosis and management of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Demographic data, clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic findings were considered in children admitted to University Hospital of Tirana from 1995 to 2009, and diagnosed as having VL. The diagnosis was based on bone-marrow microscopy/culture in 77.5% of patients, serology in 16.1%, and ex juvantibus in 6.4%. A total of 1,210 children were considered, of whom 74% came from urbanized areas. All patients were in the age range 0-14 years, with a median of 4 years. Hepatosplenomegaly was recorded in 100%, fever in 95.4% and moderate to severe anemia in 88% of cases. Concomitant conditions were frequent: 84% had bronchopneumonia; diarrhea was present in 27%, with acute manifestations in 5%; 3% had salmonellosis. First-line therapy was meglumine antimoniate for all patients, given at the standard Sb(v dosage of 20 mg/kg/day for 21 to 28 days. Two children died under treatment, one of sepsis, the other of acute renal impairment. There were no cases of primary unresponsiveness to treatment, and only 8 (0.67% relapsed within 6-12 months after therapy. These patients have been re-treated with liposomal amphotericin B, with successful cure. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral leishmaniasis in pediatric age is relatively frequent in Albania; therefore an improvement is warranted of a disease-specific surveillance system in this country, especially as regards diagnosis. Despite recent reports on decreased responses to antimonial drugs of patients with Mediterranean VL, meglumine antimoniate treatment appears to be still highly effective in Albania.
Dr.Sc. Teuta Dobi
Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education in Albania although an emerging necessity is still in very low figures not only as a connection between institutions but even as mobility between students. This paper sheds lights on internationalization at the regional and at the global level. It analyzes how the globalization and European integration processes are affecting public and private higher education institutions in Albania, their study programs and universities internal management structures. Firstly, it examines the overall changes in the Albanian HE sector since the beginning of 1990s. Then it explores the differences in internationalization between public and private universities and the ultimate changes on the Albanian labor market. My main thesis is that Albanian HE institutions increasingly need to put more efforts to internationalize their internal management structures and to put in practice international study programs. The paper analyzes more the advantages of the international study programs and the difficulties in a development country like Albania to implement them. The paper is based on the case study of the European University of Tirana and explores the difficulties of the faculties of this university to find financial support for international programs, research and travelling abroad, to develop courses with one international perspective, support for its students to study abroad, support to students from other countries and on other indicators such as grants, contracts and linkages in international areas. However the paper deals also with the academic requirements the issue of quality of universities in general. At the end the paper makes a prognosis of some strategies and gives some recommendations how to integrate the Albanian higher education institutions at a regional or global level.
Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth
Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.
This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen
Full Text Available Abstract The massive use of mobile phone as a communication tool nowadays is accompanied the ever increasing interest of the public and researchers for the possibly impact on human health as a result of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that accompany these devices. Therefore knowing the level of exposure electromagnetic fields of this electronic equipment has been and will be in the future interest object to the public and the subject of study for the researchers. In this paper are presents the results of measurements of electromagnetic fields for the frequencies 900 MHz - 1800 MHz used in mobile telephone in Tirana. These frequencies are included in the area radio frequency RF and Microwave MW 300 Hz - 300 GHz in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves and belong to non-ionizing radiation. The measurements were performed in different areas of Tirana. The purpose is to assess the level of exposure electromagnetic fields especially near areas where mobile antennas are mounted construction of dynamic digital mapping and comparison with the permitted levels of the exposure defined by the International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP. Through this publication the aim of the authors is to provide real information and reliable for the population.
Burazeri, Genc; Goda, Artan; Kark, Jeremy D
To assess the association of leisure-time exercise and television (TV) viewing, a sedentary marker, with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Albania, a transitional country in Southeast Europe. A population-based case-control study was conducted among Tirana residents in 2003-2006. Information on leisure-time exercise (transformed into kilocalories of energy expenditure) and daily hours of TV viewing was obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaire. 460 non-fatal ACS patients (368 men, 92 women) and 628 coronary heart disease-free controls (413 men, 215 women) were studied. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, conventional coronary risk factors and leisure-time exercise, TV viewing was associated with ACS in women (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.12-2.46 per hour/day viewing), but not in men (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.81-1.07; P for sex-interaction=0.02). A low level of leisure-time exercise (adjusted also for TV viewing) was associated with ACS similarly in men and women (pooled sexes OR=2.03, 95%CI=1.29-3.22 for bottom vs top tertile of energy expenditure). Leisure-time inactivity is confirmed as an important risk factor for ACS also in Southeastern Europe. TV viewing may be an informative coronary risk marker in transitional societies, especially in women.
Busza, Joanna; Douthwaite, Megan; Bani, Roland; Scutelniciuc, Otilia; Preda, Marian; Simic, Danijela
This study examines socio-demographic profiles, injecting risk and use of health services among young injectors (15-24) in Albania, Moldova, Romania and Serbia. The objective was to provide age-disaggregated data to identify differences between adolescents (Romania, surveys were conducted in the capitals, respectively, Bucharest and Tirana. Respondents were recruited from 3 cities in Moldova (Chisinau, Balti and Tiraspol) and Serbia (Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis). Data were collected on risk behaviours, service use and contact with police and other authorities. Analysis focused on associations between unsafe injecting behaviour and key determinants including demographic background, source of needles/syringes, use of harm reduction services and interactions with law enforcement. Although drug use and health-seeking varied across settings, sources of injecting equipment were significantly associated with sharing needles and syringes in Moldova, Romania and Serbia. Obtaining equipment from formal sources (pharmacies, needle-exchange programmes) reduced likelihood of sharing significantly, while being stopped by the police or incarcerated increased it. Adolescents relied on pharmacies more than public sector services to obtain equipment. Adolescents comprise a small proportion of PWID in this region, but have poorer access to harm reduction services than older peers. Engaging young PWID through private and public sector outlets might reduce unsafe practices, while use of the justice system to address drug use complicates efforts to reach this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mone, Iris; Bulo, Anyla
We aimed was to assess the association of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with selected food groups pertinent to non-Mediterranean prototype in Albania, a transitional post-communist country in Southeast Europe. We conducted a case-control study in Tirana in 2003-2006 including 467 non-fatal consecutive ACS patients (370 men aged 59.1±8.7 years, 97 women aged 63.3±7.1 years; 88% response) and a population-based control group (469 men aged 53.1±10.4 years, 268 women aged 54.0±10.9 years; 69% response). A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 105 food items was administered to all participants based on which the daily calorie intake for selected food groups (meat products, overall oils and fats, sweets, and junk food) was calculated. General linear model was used to assess the association of food groups with ACS. Mean age-adjusted values of meat products, overall oils and fats, sweets and junk food were all considerably higher in cases than controls in both sexes. Cases had significantly higher mean "non-Mediterranean" diet scores (consisting of junk food, sweets, oils and fats except olive oil) than controls (10.3% vs. 5.9% in men and 15.2% vs. 8.3% in women, Pconsumption of processed foods was associated with considerable excess coronary risk which points to serious health implications for the Albanian adult population.
Full Text Available Background: Histocompatibility testing (HT which includes donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, cross-match testing (XMT and anti-HLA antibody searching are crucial examinations in solid organ transplantation aiming to avoid the hyperacute graft rejection and also to predict the immunological outcome of the graft. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue typing data collected at the Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, in order to define those actions that should be taken for improvements in the situation of kidney transplantation in Albania. Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The donor/recipient cross-match testing was performed through a standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC assay using separated donor T and B cells that were tested in parallel with the recipient serum sample. All recipient sera were screened for anti-Class I and anti-Class II HLA antibodies using a bead based Luminex anti-HLA antibody screening test. In the case of detected positivity, an allele-specific anti-HLA antibody determination was conducted with the respective Luminex anti-Class I and Class II HLA antibody determination kits. Results: A total of 174 recipients and 202 donors were typed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation at our laboratory between January 2006 and December 2012. The mean age and female gender proportion of patients were 34.9 years and 34.5%, respectively, and 48.0 years and 65.3% for the donors, respectively. Here, 25.9% of the patients reported a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test and/or a positive anti-HLA antibody testing result. Eighteen patients that were negative for the complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test were positive for anti-HLA antibodies. Conclusion: The predominant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our patient population are chronic pyelonephritis and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.
Full Text Available Recent technological changes have had a great impact on the accounting and financial environment. As other countries Albania has also been affected by developments such as the evolution towards using accounting information packages, financial web reporting, XBRL and cloud computing. Throughout this paper we try to analyze the current situation of accounting and financial reporting in Albania and the impact that the web reporting has had on the simplification of the accounting procedures. We present how tools such as cloud computing and XBRL have impacted the use of the accounting systems and also other reporting institutions in Albania. Describing the current development of cloud services we give information on the part of software vendors in Albania. We find that cloud computing has been used extensively not only by the private companies offering accounting infomations systems, but also by other companies in the public sector (i.e. education. On the other hand we find that XBRL, even though a promising technology, has not been gained great recognition in Albania and is currently not used by any on the institutions or companies, neither by institutions whose mission is to create extensive databases (such as the Registrar of the Companies and which might benefit the most from this technology.
Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra
Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.
Alla, Arben; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Kijowska, Violetta; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc
Our aim was to validate an international instrument measuring self-perceived competency level of family physicians in Albania. A representative sample of 57 family physicians operating in primary health care services was interviewed twice in March-April 2012 in Tirana (26 men and 31 women; median age: 46 years, inter-quartile range: 38-56 years). A structured questionnaire was administered [and subsequently re-administered after two weeks (test-retest)] to all family physicians aiming to self-assess physicians' level of abilities, skills and competencies regarding different domains of quality of health care. The questionnaire included 37 items organized into 6 subscales/domains. Answers for each item of the tool ranged from 1 ("novice" physicians) to 5 ("expert" physicians). An overall summary score (range: 37-185) and a subscale summary score for each domain were calculated for the test and retest procedures. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency for both the test and the retest procedures, whereas Spearman's rho was employed to assess the stability over time (test-retest reliability) of the instrument. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for the test and 0.86 for the retest procedure. Overall, Spearman's rho was 0.84 (Pcross-cultural adaptation of an international instrument taping self-perceived level of competencies of family physicians in Albania. The questionnaire displayed a satisfactory internal consistency for both test and retest procedures in this sample of family physicians in Albania. Furthermore, the high test-retest reliability (stability over time) of the instrument suggests a good potential for wide scale application to nationally representative samples of family physicians in Albanian populations.
Ayyappan, S.; Dash, B.; Ghosh, A.S.
The applications of isotopes in aquaculture research include areas like aquatic production process, nutrient cycles and food chain dynamics, fish nutrition, fish physiology, genetics and immunology. The radioisotopes commonly used are beta emitters. The use of different radioisotopes in aquaculture research are presented. 2 tabs
Paci, Rustem; Ylli, Fatos
The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive multisystem disorder of pregnancy that complicates up to 10% of pregnancies worldwide and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. AIM: To evaluate maternal complications associated with severe preeclampsia. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in the UHOG “Koço Gliozheni”, in Tirana. Primary outcomes evaluated: maternal death, eclampsia, stroke, HELLP syndrome, and pulmonary edema. Secondary outcomes: renal failure, admission in ICU, caesarean section, placental abruption, and postpartum hemorrhage. Fisher’s exact test and Chi-squared test were used as statistical methods. RESULTS: In women with severe preeclampsia we found higher rates of complications comparing to the group with preeclampsia. Eclampsia (1.5% vs. 7.1%, P < 0.001, HELLP syndrome (2.4% vs. 11.0%; P < 0.001, stroke (0.5% vs 1.9%, P = 0.105 pulmonary edema (0.25% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.0035, renal failure (0.9% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.107, admission in ICU (19.5% vs. 71.4%, P = 0.007, caesarean section rates (55.5% vs. 77%, P = 0.508, placental abruption (4.3% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.103 and severe postpartum hemorrhage (3.2% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.628. CONCLUSION: Severe preeclampsia is associated with high rates of maternal severe morbidity and early diagnosis and timely intervention can prevent life treating complications.
vegetation forms an integral part of most productive and presently underutilised coastal ecosystem. It needs to be used in controlled manner. This would offer immense opportunities for generating food resources through aquaculture...
Full Text Available An important factor that has contributed in the realization of a positive economic growth in Albania in the last 20 years is undoubtedly the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME sector. SME financing is a topic of significant research interest to academics, and an issue of great importance to the policy makers around the world. Economic, as well as technical and social arguments warrant the promotion of SMEs. They create large scale, low-cost employment opportunities, use locally available inputs and technologies, mobilize small and scattered private savings, develop entrepreneurship, and correct the regional imbalance in development that exists in industrialized countries. Several studies identify financing, infrastructure facilities, taxes, regulations and stability in policies as major obstacles for the growth of small and medium businesses. Improving the business environment for SME development is a key objective of the policy framework in Albania.
Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.
Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.
JULIAN SHEHU; ALMA IMERI; RUDINA KOCI; ALFRED MULLAJ
The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds) and often h...
inadequa prenal cue, tbe proportion of preature births increse •d from 7 to 11 perent between 197 amd early 1992. Hospits lacked es- sen"h mecidmund erp...were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of privately owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs also 151 Albania: A Country Study imported... entrepreneurs from the reta marketplace. At first, peasants began setting up road- side fruit and vegetables stands or carrying their produce to mar- kets in
Shuka, L.; Malo, Sadik; Tan, Kit
Twelve taxa belonging to fi ve families are reported based on fi eldwork in Albania from 2007 to 2010. Eleven have not been recorded for the country in the relevant volumes of Flora Europaea, Flora of Albania or the Med-Checklist. Notes on ecology and distribution are provided and all the taxa ar...
Berxholi, K; Ziegler, U; Rexhepi, A; Schmidt, K; Mertens, M; Korro, K; Cuko, A; Angenvoort, J; Groschup, M H
Serum samples collected from 167 equines of 12 districts in Albania were tested for West Nile virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay, using WNV lineage 1 and 2. In addition, 95 bird serum samples from Albania and 29 horse samples from Kosovo were tested in ELISA. An overall seroprevalence rate of 22% was found in horses from Albania, whereas no specific antibodies were found in the equine samples from Kosovo and the bird samples. This is the first report indicating WNV infections in animals in Albania, and the first reported seroprevalence study conducted for Kosovo. These results provide evidence for widespread infections of WNV in Albania. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Mackenzie R. Gavery
Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.
Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge
Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous...... growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance...... questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined...
Full Text Available Political transition of Albania is a phenomenon that started since the death of Enver Hoxha, the dictator of communist regime in Albania. After the death of Enver Hoxha on 11 April 1985, Ramiz Alia was appointed as his successor, who for 40 years had been at Enver Hoxha’s side as his most trusted man. He succeeded Hoxha for nearly 6 years believing that he would maintain the communist system. Ramiz Alia came on duty as the head of the Albanian state when the economic situation was very precarious. Political and economic legacy led by Hoxha was almost miserable. The country had the severest political system throughout the communist bloc. In a political point of view, the country’s new leader was elected precisely to continue the political legacy of former leader Hoxha. Ramiz Alia was forced to take immediate measures to change the degraded situation. He undertook several reforms to improve the situation in the country. Among other things, Alia expressed the equality of Albanian citizens, freedoms and human rights. Events were passing each other, marking a great historical importance. Among other things, Alia approved the political pluralism giving way to significant social changes. Echoes of these events and the positive developments in the country do not remain outside the attention of internationals. The arrival of political pluralism and the establishment of Democratic Party, the first opposition party in the country and other political entities exposed the European dream of Albanians. Massive movements in the form of protests and rallies, aimed at overturning the communist regime in the country Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the Political transition of Albania 1985-1991.
Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.
In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…
Holmer, M; Black, K; Duarte, C.M; Marba, N; Kakakassis, I
... aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, comparable to the computer technology industry (Chapters 9 and 10). The demand for marine products is controlled by a complexity of factors in our society, not least the increasing human population and the increasing global affluence that allows the consumer to buy higher price...
Mangesh M. Bhosale
Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.
Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben; Hall, Derek
) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called “blue revolution” requires addressing a range of environmental and social problems, including water pollution, degradation of ecosystems, and violation of labor standards....
Walker, Susan S.
This color-coded guide was developed to assist teachers in helping interested students plan, build, stock, and run aquaculture facilities of varied sizes. The guide contains 15 instructional units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, instructor supplements,…
Full Text Available A survey on viruses was carried out in 2008 in the main olive-growing areas of Albania (Kruja, Sauk and Vlora. Fifty samples from 14 local and 2 exotic olive cultivars were collected from 10 commercial orchards and one collection field and inspected for Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV, Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1, Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus (OLYaV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D by a one-step RT-PCR assay using virus-specifi c primers. None of these viruses were found in the source plants except SLRSV and OLYaV, which were detected in a ‘K. M. Berat’ olive tree grown in the collection field. These findings are important because the incidence of olive virus diseases is low in Albania but high in other Mediterranean countries. Thus, all efforts should be to directed to maintaining the Albanian olive germplasm pathogen-free and in the best agronomical and phytosanitary condition possible.
Aspects of treatment and management of radioactive wastes resulting from the use of radiation sources and radioisotopes in research, medicine and industry, are described. The methods applied for the conditioning of low-level radioactive wastes and spent radiation sources are simple. Solid radioactive wastes with low-level activity, after accumulation, minimization, segregation and measurement, are burned or compressed in a simple compactor of the PGS type. Spent radiation sources are placed into 200 l drums, are cemented and conditioned. Conditioned drums from the Radiation Protection Division of the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), which is the responsible Institution for the treatment and management of radioactive wastes in Albania, are transported to the interim storage building of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Tirana. Work to construct a new building for treatment and management of radioactive wastes and spent radiation sources within the territory of INP is underway. Funds have been allocated accordingly: based on the Law No. 8025 of 25.11.1995, it is the Albanian Government's responsibility to finance activities concerned with the treatment and management of radioactive wastes generating from the use of ionizing radiation in science, medicine and industry in the country. (author)
Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Visser, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen
To establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in Albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana from March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. In addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. Overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%CI 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be infested, and nine species of ectoparasites were identified: Ixodes ricinus, 0.8 %; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l., 8.1 %; Demodex canis, 0.2 %; Sarcoptes scabiei, 0.7 %; Otodectes cynotis, 2.8 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 4.8 %; Ctenocephalides felis, 3.0 %; Pulex irritans, 0.2 %; and Trichodectes canis, 0.2 %. Single and multiple infestations with up to four species of ectoparasites concurrently were recorded in 67 (11.1 %, 95%CI 8.7-13.9) and 26 dogs (4.3 %, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), respectively. On univariate analysis, the category of breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the housing environment (mainly indoors/indoors with regular outside walking vs. yard plus kennel/run), the history of ectoparasiticide treatment and the season of examination were identified as significant (p < 0.05) factors predisposing dogs to various ectoparasites, while the variables dog's age, gender, the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural) and the presence/absence of other pets were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall ectoparasitism revealed that dogs treated with ectoparasiticides at least once per year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.24; p < 0.001) had a significantly lower risk of infestation compared with dogs not treated against ectoparasite infestation. Dogs examined during spring, summer and autumn (OR = 7.08, 7.43 and 2.48, respectively; all p < 0
Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen
From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p dogs to various types of endoparasitism while the variables breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), gender, and type of food were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall endoparasitism revealed that dogs >1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during
Full Text Available Recensione di: Emma Bond e Daniele Comberiati (a cura di, Il confine liquido. Rapporti interculturali fra Italia e Albania, Nardò, Besa, 2013, 229 p., ISBN: 9788849708950, € 18,00.
Alma Spaho, Thoma Mitre
Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...
Toever, W V
Rainbow and Speckled Trout have been successfully hatched and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The system is integrated into the Ark greenhouse providing thermal mass for temperature regulation and supplying nutrient-rich water for plants. The system incorporates bacterial, algal and hydroponic water filtration. Various vegetable crops have been raised in the hydroponic troughs. A scaled-down system suitable for domestic solar greenhouse application is also under development.
Martin, Robert J
Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.
Ylli, F.; Dollani, K.; Paci, R.
On 1995 Albania Parliament approved the Radiation Protection Act, which established the Radiation Protection Commission as Regulatory Body and Radiation Protection Office as an executive office. The licensing of private and public companies is a duty of RPC and the inspections, enforcement, import - export control, safety and security of radioactive materials, are tasks of RPO. Regulations on licence and inspection, safe handling of radioactive sources, radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials have been approved. The Codes of practice in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine have been prepared. Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out monitoring of personal dosimetry, response to the radiological emergencies, calibration of dosimetric equipment's, management of radioactive waste, etc. Based in the IAEA documents, a new Radiation Protection Act is under preparation
Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has been viewed as a power affecting economic growth (EG directly and indirectly during the past few decades. Foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries brings economic development and enhances the international competitiveness of domestic enterprises. It is argued in the existing literature that foreign direct investment (FDI influences economic growth through technology diffusion, human capital formation, etc. FDI accounts for the largest and most important proportion of foreign capital in Albania, which undoubtedly plays an important role in the Albania’s economic development growth. However, as the country’s FDI increases, and in this paper I want to make an empirical research how the FDI has influenced the economic growth of the country. The findings revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between the FDI inflows and the GDP for the studied period which covers 1995 to 2012, thus a positive effect on the economic growth.
Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole
The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...
Pablo R. García Vásquez
Full Text Available The theme that this paper deals with the phenomenon of the religious festival of La Tirana, that by the early twentieth century, had been happening during the month of July of each year in the town of La Tirana, located in the current Commune Pozo Almonte, about 75 kilometers south-east of Iquique, in the Province of Tamarugal First Tarapacá Region - Chile. We believe that as social phenomenon - religious holiday that begins to take shape in the late eighteenth century found in the nineteenth century, the culmination of its development and consolidation of its temporal and geographical layout, as well as its prestige within the horizon of social Pampa del Tamarugal making, that the party is established in the main, influential and best-known popular regional event. Already by the end of the nineteenth century the feast of Tirana, can be defined as a complex network of relationships, of various degrees of order and interest, among which economic, fiscal and religious firmly established and grounded, which allows us to assume that behind the party and operating a complex cultural organization or industry, in this case religion.
Aquaculture may end malnutrition; its output will increase from several million tons to more than 60 million ton/yr by the end of the century. A project aimed at developing the culture of mussels and oysters at the Magdalen Islands in the St. Lawrence Gulf is described. Biological and institutional problems, and obstacles to development are discussed. The key idea is to propose forms of cultivation that can occur in complete submersion below the level of the ice. (5 diagrams, 2 maps, 2 photos)
Hyso, Kozeta; Alimema, Zamira
New developments in the years of democracy in Albania enabled the English out of business in the first plan as the need for businessmen and students studying for business. Albania is rapidly changing with the aim of being part of the process of development and globalization. The higher education in Albania is facing challenges posed by…
Walker, Susan S.; Crummett, Dan
This teacher and student guide for aquaculture contains 15 units of instruction that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to aquaculture; (2) the aquatic environment; (3) fundamental fish biology; (4) marketing; (5) site selection; (6) facility design and layout; (7) water quality management; (8) fish health management; (9) commercial…
Sindermann, C. J.
It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured
Full Text Available This article describes the ongoing project “School for Cultural Heritage through Map Exploitation” (SCHEME, an integrated set of activities designed to support social inclusion in heritage promotion processes in Albania. The main project goal is delivering ICT tools (map and crowdfunding platforms and procedures as well as improving the capacity of stakeholders to sustainably valorize hidden resources. The underlying approach has capitalized on existing technologies and experiences through the development of an advanced interactive multimedia map using data produced in the Ljubljana Process. Subsequently, the map will be extended by collecting more data on the Lake Ohrid Region, which has been selected as a pilot area to promote the neglected inland, relieving pressure on more famous coastal sites. A contest among schools will enrich the database, uploading multifaceted memories collected by students. The winning cultural asset will be the object of a small-scale rehabilitation project supported by a fundraising campaign through a crowdfunding platform. The centrality of people’s active participation will contribute to governance innovation by reverting to traditional top-down promotion processes and practices, in which heritage consumers represent passive recipients of ready-made offers and messages. The map platform also holds specific potential for cultural tourism purposes, avoiding mistakes in the geo-localization of sites.
Deona Cali Kalaja
Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on the questions of how important was the admission of Albania to the League of Nations as well as what was the reason of the change of attitude of the Great Powers and neighbors against Albanian candidature. In the paper is scrutinized the situation of Albania before membership in the League of Nations as well as the reasons that led it before this international body. The topic is interesting as the scrutiny of this moment of Albanian history in international relations helps to understand the events that followed in 1920s and how contributed this admission on the issue of borders and on international recognition.
html? maca =en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf (accessed 4 March 2010). 263 Manuel Montobbio de Balanzo, Spanish Ambassador to Albania, http://www.dw- world.de/dw...article/0,,5259561,00.html? maca =en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf (accessed 4 March 2010). 264 Reinhard Priebe, The Western Balkan European Perspective, http...world.de/dw/article/0,,5259561,00.html? maca =en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf (accessed 4 March 2010). European Commission Enlargement, Albania – Questions
Full Text Available Migration is one of the most prominent phenomena in these ultimate years. It has brought some consequences, such as the concentration of population in major cities and the economic development, but also a number of social problems too. The change of political and economic system in Albania after 1990, put Albanian society in front of a series of phenomena. Democracy in Albania gave way to the free movement of people. This paper is focused on issues such as: economic-financial difficulties, unemployment, forced child labor, spread of deviant behavior, lack of shelter, dropout, perturbation of the nature element.
Leilei Zou; Shuolin Huang
Over China’s long history of aquaculture development, great achievements have been made by enhancing aquaculture as the major contributor to aquatic products supply, while lessons have also been learnt that aquaculture has been developing at the cost of environment. Priority is now given to the aquaculture development in the light of green growth, which attaches importance to both environment protection and high productivity. To sustain Chinese aquaculture in a green-growth manner, polices ch...
Full Text Available The tourism industry is certainly one of the fastest developing industries in the world and it is ranked among the biggest, in terms of contribution to the economy. It offers huge employment opportunities in all its related sectors, such as construction, tele- communication, transport or others and has a great social and cultural impact. Especially over the last decades, tourism grew continuously and aimlessly. The growing number of new destinations had its significant impact in the socio- economic progress all over the world. For many world countries including Albania, which are in a developing phase, tourism represents one of the most important sources of income. But not only; compared to the oil exports, automobiles industry or food industry, the volume of tourism is equal and sometimes, in certain areas, it surpasses these important industries. Therefore, tourism is currently ranked among the leading industries, which have a crucial influence in the international commerce. The more tourism grows, the tougher the competition becomes. Hence, countries should work hard to improve their touristic offer. Obviously, the bett er the quality, the higher the revenue and the contribution to the conomy. According to studies from the UNWTO (the organization that supports countries to fi nd a sustainable position in the current national and international markets, particularly developing countries are in the position to benefit from sustainable tourism. But what is Albania’s position in the world map of Travel and Tourism? How big is the impact of tourism industry in the economy and employment of this developing country? What are the current trends and issues? Is it given priority to the development of this industry? Although its potential is great, its resources are very diverse and rare and now this country is recuperating all those missing years, issues related to globalization, must be considered very carefully. If resources are not properly and
Timothy Paul Hagen
Full Text Available In the years following the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania allowed greater freedom in educational choice by abolishing the government monopoly on education and allowing private schools to operate. However, it is only now, two decades after the fall of communism, that Albania is moving towards officially recognizing the most natural and fundamental option for educating its citizens – allowing parents to educate their children at home. By looking at homeschooling from the perspectives of student achievement, individual freedom, and natural rights, this paper will show that it is good and proper for Albania – and all countries worldwide – to legally recognize the natural right of parents to homeschool their children. While homeschooling is the best option for some children, it may not be the best for all children. Homeschooling should be one option alongside public schools, private schools, private tutoring, and distance-learning programs. While this article focuses on homeschooling in Albania, relying on research from North America, it contributes to the wider discussion of homeschooling policy in Europe, where policies range from homeschooling being largely illegal in nations such as Bulgaria and Germany to being freely permitted with minimal regulation in a nation such as the United Kingdom.
This article explores history teaching in Albania, with particular emphasis on educational and methodological aspects of new history textbooks published after the liberalization of the school textbook market in 2008. National history textbooks serve as a basis for the assessment of changing educational principles and methodologies in history…
Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila
Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…
Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.
Full Text Available The Serbo-Albanian Bank was founded at Cetinje in 1922, at the time Yugoslav-Albanian diplomatic relations were established, with the purpose of opening its branch offices in Albania in order to contribute to closer economic relations between the two neighboring countries. The Bank was unable to achieve its goal in the first two years of operation, as it had not obtained the necessary licenses from the Albanian authorities. The branch office in Scutari was opened only in early 1925. Another topical issue at the time was the creation of the Albanian National Bank as the central monetary institution that would function as a regulator of the entire economic life of Albania. Supported by the Yugoslav state, the Serbo-Albanian Bank planned its transformation into an Albanian central bank, but without success. Namely, it was Italian capital that assumed a leading role in the Albanian National Bank founded in September 1925. In spite of this failure, the branch office of the Serbo-Albanian Bank commenced its operations in Albania. Under its roof, it set up the Privileged Trading Agency, and expressed interest in obtaining exploration and excavation concessions for the copper mine in the region of Puka in northern Albania. It was granted the concession by the Albanian government, but failed to set up a copper exploitation company. Facing numerous difficulties, the major of which was lack of the necessary cash for operation and significant business losses in Albania, the branch office was closed in 1927, pursuant to the decision of the Cetinje headquarters.
Le Minh, Hanh; Phan, Van Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu
a substantial reliance on aquaculture of farmers in the study area with at least half of their income generated by aquaculture. Our analyses highlight that the educational background of farmers explain their engagement in aquaculture better than how long they have worked as aquaculture farmers. Freshwater fish...... the dependence on aquaculture in these two provinces and amongst farmers specializing in shrimp and freshwater fish production, respectively. Further, we tested the ability of different socio-economic variables to explain the observed reliance on aquaculture using an ANCOVA model. The study identifies...
On March 13, 2010, the Anti-Discrimination Law, one of the essential legal instruments that protects human rights in Albania, and also includes the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, came into force. Albania has already the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination. Two LGBT organizations have already been established in Albania: the Alliance against Discrimination LGBT and LGBT Pro Albania. They aim to protect the rights of sexual minorities in Albania and promote a national movement of social mobilization to protect and promote the rights of this community in Albania
Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Nielsen, Siff Malue; Butler, Robb
organisations involved in promoting modern contraception, and four focus group discussions with 40 women from Tirana and a rural village in the periphery of Tirana, divided according to age and residence, were also conducted. Content analysis was used to analyse both the interviews and focus group discussions....... Barriers identified included socio-cultural issues such as status of the relationship with partners and the importance of virginity, problems talking about sexual issues and contraception being taboo, health care issues--especially cost and availability--and individual issues such as unfavourable social...
Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto
due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...... vattenbruket and the strategy Svenskt vattenbruk – en grön näring på blå åkrar, Strategi 2012–2020. Implementing the strategy will require a real management of aquaculture that secures the balance between responsibility for the environment and development of aquaculture production. For a significant......, products, etc. 2. Environmental efficient production with trapping of solid waste and balanced nutrient management (recirculation technology, waste heat/green energy/integrated production systems). 3. Policy instruments: legislation, economic incentives, socioeconomic...
Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C
Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.
Addressing health questions with both pro-active and reactive programmes has thus .... Rationale for selecting and developing probiotics in aquaculture: The ... of probiotics in aquaculture could be regarded as a kind of insurance since it may ...
Mullaj, Alfred; Tan, Kit
Erica multiflora (Ericaceae) in Albania is confirmed to occur in the Karaburun Peninsula as well as other regions in Albania. This links the distribution of the species in Croatia to that of western Greece. Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) are reported as new for the Al......Erica multiflora (Ericaceae) in Albania is confirmed to occur in the Karaburun Peninsula as well as other regions in Albania. This links the distribution of the species in Croatia to that of western Greece. Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) are reported as new...
La presente tesi ha avuto l’obiettivo di illustrare i rapporti tra l’Albania e la Gran Bretagna nel decennio tra il 1940 al 1950. Il lavoro viene svolto basandosi su tre momenti; a) l’ingresso dell’Albania nell’ottica della politica estera della Gran Bretagna e l’invio delle missioni militari britanniche in Albania. b) La fine della Guerra collocò l’Albania dall’altra parte della cortina di ferro rispetto ai britannici causando il peggioramento dei rapporti tra i due governi dopo gli...
Lanier, James A.; And Others
This document provides a listing of descriptors used in the National Aquaculture Information System (NAIS), a computer information storage and retrieval system on marine, brackish, and freshwater organisms. Included are an explanation of how to use the document, subject index terms, and a brief bibliography of the literature used in developing the…
Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus
; and supplies from aquaculture have grown continuously. In this paper, the impact of improved fisheries management on aquaculture growth is studied assuming perfect substitution between farmed and wild fish. We find that improved fisheries management, ceteris paribus, reduces the growth potential of global...... aquaculture in markets where wild fisheries constitute a large share of total supply....
Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.
Full Text Available This study endeavours to understand the volatility of the exchange rate in Albania and to see if there are sign of “fear of floating” present. De jure Albania currently applies a flexible exchange rate regime. Traditionally the main argument in favour of this policy is that monetary policy is not constrained by the predetermined level of the exchange rate. Thus, monetary policy sets interest rates in order to achieve domestic equilibrium (ie. price stability while the nominal exchange rate adjusts to balance the external accounts. Theoretical evidence concerning the impact of exchange rate stability on growth is mixed. The theoretical arguments in favour of flexible exchange rates are mainly of macroeconomic nature, as flexible exchange rates allow for an easier adjustment in response to asymmetric country specific real shocks. From a microeconomic perspective low exchange rate volatility can be associated with lower transaction costs for international trade and capital flows thereby contributing to higher growth.
Kospiri, Aleksander; Zajmi, Asim [Geophysical and Geochemical Center, Tirana (Albania)
The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of geophysical methods to the search for chromite in Albania. Albania is well known for its chromite resources and ranks third amongst world producers of high-quality chromite. The ultramafic massif of Bulqiza, is the most important chromite bearing one. Surveying a surface of about 120 square kilometers (30% of massifs area) in that massif with integrated geophysical methods a considerable number of targets has been discovered, from which some are already objects under mine activity. In the integrated methods for chromite exploration in Bulqiza ultramafic massif are included: geological, gravity, magnetic and electrical mapping of the scale 1:2000 with survey grids 40x20m, 20x5m. Based on the interpretations of geophysical exploration were projected drilling which led to the discovery of some big ore deposits. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs
Dollani, K.; Kushe, R.
In the present paper are described the status of regulatory aspects of low doses control as well as the existing procedures for their implementation in Albania. According to new Radiological Protection Act, approved by Parliament in 1995, the establishment of the infrastructures in radiation protection area is in course, accompanied by the installation and functioning of new equipment for low dose control. Based in many years experience it is concluded that personal doses of the workers added by practices in Albania are 1/10 of dose Emits. Some particular cases of overexposured workers were investigated. Last times the elements of the optimisation procedures (QA and QC) are outlined in the frame of improving regulatory aspects of low doses control. (author)
Full Text Available The religious tolerance is one of the rarest values of the tradition of the Albanian people. It is widely accepted that Albanian people are well known about these values about an excellent coexistence among the believers of different religious communities that are in Albania mainly Muslims and Christians. In this study we bring the essentials of this phenomenon promotional roots of these values while viewed from a previously untreated point of view and in an attempt to answer the questions Where does it stem from the religious coexistence in Albania What are the main promoters of this phenomenon What has been the attitude of the religious clergy in Albania Have they been and are the imams and priests the promotion of tolerance and religious coexistence in Albania These are some of the questions answered in this modest study focusing on how nice and with how much delicacy the lectures of the Clergy have addressed this issue to the faithful or to the world in general. Since they enjoyed undisputable reputation and influence in the majority of the population in the most critical moments of national history the leaders of Muslims believers not only have promoted tolerance and religious coexistence but they have considered the believers of other faiths as brothers preaching this conviction in front of their Muslim believers. These preachings were firstly begun by VehbiDibra who was the first Chairman of the Muslims and all clerics without exception to this day. Also unforgettable are the sermons of priests like Fr. GjergjFishta Fr. ShtjefnGjeovi or Metropolitan VisarionXhuvani to conclude with pearls of Orthodox priest Fan S. Noli who amazed the world with his three speeches in front of world leaders the League of Nations being representative of all Albanians although Orthodox believers were only 20 of the population.
Maria Immacolata Macioti
The paper makes an analysis of the potential effects this might have considering its application related to the initial purposes of the project, by introducing the case of Italy and its strategy of religious education over the years as a comparative tool in order to analyze and predict the potential outcomes of this intent, by considering the national background of Albania and some specific learning traits and outcomes on such topics related to age and cultural set up.
Garo, E.; Kume, V.; Basho, S.
[EN] In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneuri...
Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta cosÃ¬ come alcuni dati giÃ pubblicati. L'esame di 161 localitÃ distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.
Silvana Mustafaj; Elfrida Dishmema; Albina Basholli; Brunilda Baraku
Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the Albanian economy. Agricultural production occupies for about 1/5 of the country's GDP. Agricultural production includes all realized production in all counties of the country. Cereal constitutes a significant part in agricultural production, which are grown all over the country. The main cereals cultivated in the country are wheat, maize, rye, barley and oats. The highest level of cereal production in Albania is reached in low and coasta...
The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...
2016-11- eng.pdf#page=2. 2-5. 38 experienced a major domestic crisis in 1997 as a result of financial mismanagement and corruption through pyramid ...schemes that involved elected leaders across the country. The pyramid schemes reached all economic levels within Albania. Life savings were lost as...of several hundred individuals from Algeria, Egypt , Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia and elsewhere, including veterans of Afghan jihad, into the western
Paravani, Ardian; Orgocka, Aida
To present the history of social marketing of modern contraceptives in Albania. We review documentation and activity of NESMARK, an Albanian non-governmental social marketing organisation, and national data on adoption of modern contraception. During 15 years of awareness raising, sales of affordable products, and provider training, NESMARK has impacted the introduction and adoption of modern contraception in Albania. NESMARK is the country's main distributor of emergency contraception (EC) and complements the public sector in the distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives. NESMARK has made major efforts to overcome prevalent taboos and misinformation held by medical and nursing personnel, pharmacists and the general public, regarding the effectiveness and safety of condoms, oral contraceptives, and EC. NESMARK has contributed to increasing the choices for modern contraception methods in Albania by providing affordable contraceptives, training providers, and educating the general population. However, widespread use of withdrawal coupled with the belief that it is as or more effective than modern contraception, continues to limit uptake of new methods and is a significant challenge to comprehensive and sustained social marketing programmes.
Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.
Full Text Available Albania possesses a wide range of ecological systems including coastal zones, estuaries and lagoons, lakes and wetlands, grasslands, middle-low altitude coppice forests, high altitude forests, alpine vegetation and glacial areas. The country possesses about 3,250 species of vascular plants, 165 families and more than 900 genera. Medicinal plants (botanicals and non-timber forest products have a long history of importance in the culture and traditional knowledge of Albania. Proper legislation and especially legal and regulatory framework enforcement for the regulation of this developing industry remains lacking. A Strategy of Biodiversity plan developed in 2000 calls for an increase in the Protected Areas system which currently covers some 6 % of Albania's area to a total area of 435,600 ha, approximately 15 % of the country's territory. Changes in the legal and policy framework as well as institutional structures is required to move forward and provide an environment for biodiversity conservation and a sustainable protected areas system. The various threats to biodiversity and constraints to improvement are outlined as well as recommendations for sustainable use, assessment and regulation.
Full Text Available The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement, a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.
Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.
In Asia, the epicenter of aquaculture production, the traditional practices tend to be ...... In addition to supporting the development of the International Principles for ...... Government also provided income tax exemption schemes to small scale ...... Forum held in 30th November 2004 in Hotel Equatorial, Penang, Malaysia, 12.
Kellici, Neritan; Dibra, Arvin; Mihani, Joana; Kellici, Suela; Burazeri, Genc
AIM: To date, the available information regarding the quality of primary health care services in Albania is scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of primary health care services in Albania based on physicians' perceptions towards the quality of the services provided to the general
The overarching question of this article is how can we develop a critical understanding of the social place of highways and automobility in the case of a non-capitalist European context such as socialist Albania? Socialism was a period of modernisation for Albania. Part of this modernisation project
Buzra, Urim, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Berberi, Pellumb; Mitrushi, Driada; Muda, Valbona [Department of Engineering Physics, FIMIF, PUT, Tirana (Albania); Halili, Daniela [Department of physics, FNS, AXHU, Elbasan (Albania); Berdufi, Irma [Institute of Nuclear Physics, INP, TU, Tirana (Albania)
Change of irradiative properties of the atmosphere during clear days is an indicator, among others, of existence of atmospheric aerosols and can be used as an indicator for assessment both air pollution and local modifications of solar energy potentials. The main objective of this study is estimation of influence of anthropogenic aerosols on solar energy falling in a horizontal surface during a cloudless day. We have analyzed and quantified the effect of aerosols on reducing the amount of solar energy that falls on the horizontal ground surface in cloudless sky conditions, estimating temporal evolution, both in daily and hour scale, considering also, side effects caused by relative humidity of the air wind speed and geometric factor. As an indicator of concentration of aerosols in atmosphere, we agreed to use the attenuation of solar radiation after the last rainy day. All data were corrected by factors such as, variations of relative humidity, wind speed and daily change of incident angle of solar radiation. We studied the change of solar insolation in three sites with different traffic intensity, one in city of Shkodra and two in city of Tirana. Fifteen days after last rainy day, approximate time needed to achieve saturation, the insolation drops only 3.1% in the city of Shkodra, while in two sites in city of Tirana are 8.5 % and 18.4%. These data show that reduction of solar insolation is closely related with anthropogenic activity, mainly traffic around the site of the meteorological station. The day to day difference tends to decrease with increasing of number of days passed from the last rainy day, which is an evidence of a trend toward a dynamic equilibrium between decantation process of aerosols during the night and their generation during the day.
Julio López Alvarado
Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.
Systems for selection of species for smallholder aquaculture are presented. These are: food fits; management decisions; and economic criteria. Food fits suggests categorizing pond food resources into a few categories based loosely on the instrinsic traits of food which effect their selectivity by predators. Using management decision techniques, potential polycultures might also be compared with each other and with monoculture. Under economic criteria (and for species known in local markets), ...
Kennedy, David A.; Kurath, Gael; Brito, Ilana L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Read, Andrew F.; Winton, James R.; Wargo, Andrew R.
Infectious diseases are economically detrimental to aquaculture, and with continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture, the importance of managing infectious diseases will likely increase in the future. Here, we use evolution of virulence theory, along with examples, to identify aquaculture practices that might lead to the evolution of increased pathogen virulence. We identify eight practices common in aquaculture that theory predicts may favor evolution toward higher pathogen virulence. Four are related to intensive aquaculture operations, and four others are related specifically to infectious disease control. Our intention is to make aquaculture managers aware of these risks, such that with increased vigilance, they might be able to detect and prevent the emergence and spread of increasingly troublesome pathogen strains in the future.
Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.
Rahman, Akhlaqur; Tasnim, Sumaira
In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture. Machine learning algorithms learn models from historical data. In aquaculture historical data are obtained from farm practices, yields, and environmental data sources. Associations between these different variables can be obtained by applying machine learning algorithms to historical data. In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture applications.
Full Text Available Typically ‘income tax’ laws rely on financial accounting data to determine the taxable income of a business entity, although financial and tax accounting have different goals and requirements. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between financial and tax accounting rules in Albania. The study employs a mixed methodology, comprising a review of the legislation, institutional framework and context, and semi-structured interviews with accountants, academics and institutional players. By reviewing the development of this relationship during the past 20 years, we aim to identify and explain the major divergences at present between two sets of rules.
Maria Gabriella Belgiorno de Stefano
Full Text Available Il contributo, accettato dal Direttore, riproduce il testo della Relazione al Convegno sul tema “Libertà Religiosa, Secolarizzazione e Sviluppi recenti in Albania” (Roma, Sala della Protomoteca in Campidoglio, 3 febbraio 2014, organizzato dall’Ambasciata della Repubblica di Albania presso la Santa Sede e presso il Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta e dalla Presidenza Assemblea Capitolina (Roma Capitale.SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Le origini del Kanun albanese - 3. La fratellanza religiosa albanese - 4. Il primo comunismo albanese e la libertà religiosa - 5. L’ateocrazia albanese - 6. La fratellanza albanese e la Costituzione del 1998.
Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally
Full Text Available Competition law and cartel is the basis of a modern economy. While in the US, competition law exists and is terminologically known and is part of legislation since 1890 (Sherman Law, in Europe, it has become part of the founding treaties of the EU since 1957 by the Treaty of Rome. However, at that time, “culture of competition” would be born in the member states of the EU, which traditionally favour cartel agreements, state aid and the promotion of national products. Some EU member states have included competition law in their national legislation in the early 90-s. Rules were set for the first time on competition in the coal and steel market under Articles 65 and 66 of the Treaty of Rome, constituted a new terminology for member states. Albania has worked during these 24 years of democracy, to apply the basic principles of market economy and along with it the Lisbon Treaty, Regulations and EU Directives in the frame of competition. Main purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the abuse of dominant position in the frame of the most important court decision of this legal institution in Albania.
Full Text Available In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in Albania. The target is university students. Many programs that foster entrepreneurship such as incubator centers, business plan competitions along with new educational practices have been developed. In addition, even though studies conducting in this field are few, Albanian education institutions have shown a willing to study the factors influencing entrepreneurship development. The reason is the belief that developing and supporting entrepreneurial activities among youth will positively influence the economy of the country in terms of economic growth. This study widely represents the Albanian students and shows the deteminants of entrepreneurial intention they have. Hopefully the findings of this study would be useful to the policy makers and the Albanian government to undertake effective policies focused on entrepreneurial activity; targeting economic development of the country.
Full Text Available Economic cooperation and trade between countries of region is very important as a opening step for entering in big markets like EU-s. All agreements have a huge impact in customs administration for elimination of customs taxes and for facilitation of trade during customs crossing. Trade integration is seen as faster way for countries to complete all necessary condition for European Integration. This process requires fulfillment of all reforms, needed for approaches the development and integration between countries. This process is spread in time because of the feature and difference between society and their economies. Regional economic integration is considered an import component for longterm integration of South Eastern European countries in EU. Membership of Albania in WTO brings a number of free trade agreements, with the main purpose trade liberalization. The essences of these agreements have been liberalization of customs tariffs for increasing foreign trade and attract foreign investors. The loss of customs income will be compensating from imports increasing and economic development in general. The role of Customs has changed from one of a complete focus on revenue collection to a broad role encompassing components of revenue collection, trade facilitation and border security. Simplified customs procedures and documents are very important for improving relation of business and government and also improving business performance. The aim of this paper is to point out the roles, responsibilities and challenges of customs, for concluding this we have conducted a survey for analyzing the performance of customs in Albania.
Cao, Ling; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Yi; Yang, Chengtai; Yuan, Zonghui; Xiong, Shanbo; Diana, James
Aquaculture activities are well known to be the major contributor to the increasing level of organic waste and toxic compound in the aquaculture industry. Along with the development of intensive aquaculture in China, concerns are evoked about the possible effects of ever-increasing aquaculture waste both on productivity inside the aquaculture system and on the ambient aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, it is apparent that appropriate waste treatment processes are needed for sustaining aquaculture development. This review aims at identifying the current status of aquaculture and aquaculture waste production in China. China is the world's largest fishery nation in terms of total seafood production volume, a position it has maintained continuously since 1990. Freshwater aquaculture is a major part of the Chinese fishery industry. Marine aquaculture in China consists of both land-based and offshore aquaculture, with the latter mostly operated in shallow seas, mud flats and protected bays. The environmental impacts of aquaculture are also striking. Case studies on pollution hot spots caused by aquaculture have been introduced. The quality and quantity of waste from aquaculture depends mainly on culture system characteristics and the choice of species, but also on feed quality and management. Wastewater without treatment, if continuously discharged into the aquatic environment, could result in remarkable elevation of the total organic matter contents and cause considerable economy lost. Waste treatments can be mainly classified into three categories: physical, chemical and biological methods. The environmental impacts of different aquaculture species are not the same. New waste treatments are introduced as references for the potential development of the waste treatment system in China. The most appropriate waste treatment system for each site should be selected according to the sites' conditions and financial status as well as by weighing the advantages and disadvantages of
Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A
There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.
Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291
Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.
This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a course in "Exploring Aquaculture, Agriscience 282," one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. This introductory course is designed to acquaint students with the growing industry of aquaculture; it includes…
Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.
Barata, Eduardo N.; Velez, Zélia
The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.
Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar
remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations......During the last three decades, aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal-food-producing sector in the world, accounting for half of the present seafood supply. However, there is a significant growth disparity among aquaculture-producing countries. The reasons why some countries have achieved...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...
L. P. Buchatsky
Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.
Shuka, Lulëzim; Tan, Kit; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja
Tulipa albanica (Liliaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species from a serpentine area in Kukësi district, northeastern Albania. It is compared with T. scardica from the western Balkans (Macedonia and Kosovo) and with T. schrenkii from the Ukraine, Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia...... size 54.15 (± 0.23) pg. Two different morphotypes of T. australis were noted as occurring on limestone or serpentine in Albania....
The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 1 July 1986 between the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear activities of Albania. It contains two parts. The first part stipulates the agreement of Albania to accept safeguards on all nuclear material or facilities within its territory, or under its jurisdiction or control anywhere for the purpose of verifying that such material is not used for the manufacture of any nuclear weapon or to further any other military purpose or for the manufacture of any other nuclear explosive device. The second part specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I. The Agreement entered into force on 25 March 1988
Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the degree of relative convergence achieved by Albania in relation to the EU during the last decade through a descriptive empirical analysis. The paper is divided into three sections related to real and nominal convergence in the fields of economic performance; trade openness and balance; and monetary convergence, according to the Euro criteria established in the art. 140 (1 of the TFEU and the protocol Nº 13 (price stability, public finances, exchange rate, and long-term interest rates. In order to have a wide perspective about convergence-divergence trends inside and outside the EU, the tendencies followed by Germany and Greece are also mentioned, as paradigmatic cases of divergence within the EU. Finally, a summary table is presented reviewing each of the analysed variables regarding the last decade evolution and the current situation.
Dollani, K.; Kushe, R.
In this paper are presented the regulatory aspects of the radiation sources safety in Albania, based in the new Radiological Protection Act and Regulations. The radiation protection infrastructures and procedures are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing and regular inspection, personal dose monitoring, emergency preparedness which are developed in the frame of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Programme. The issue of the security of radiation sources is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country. A special attention is paid to the identification and location of lost sources for their finding and secure storage. (author)
María Candelaria Beltrán Meza
Full Text Available Currently the globalized business environment prompts companiesto develop strategies to stay within international competition, which has generated in organizations the need to offer new products and services that boost their competitiveness. In this context, innovation is a process that requires vision and creative ideas, guided by a leader and developed by an interdisciplinary team, become an added value for consumers. Nowadays, it is common to collaborate with competitors to share risks, complementing one's strengths with the other's weaknesses, in a new way of doing business, this strategic alliance can be strengthened by linking research centers integrated in the business innovation projects. The purpose of the study is to describe the innovation agenda that an aquaculture company plans to carry out in the short, medium and long term, in order to maintain its competitiveness in the international market.
Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.
of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...
Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.
Zaloshnja, Eduard; Ross, Hana; Levy, David T
To assess the impact of a tobacco control law adopted in Albania in 2007 and to estimate the share of illicit cigarettes on the market. Comparative analysis of two waves of a nationally representative household survey, one conducted before the new law went into effect and the other after 2 years. Official sales data were contrasted with the consumption estimate based on the survey. Smoking prevalence, quit attempts, exposure to cigarette advertising, exposure to second-hand smoke, total cigarette consumption, share of illicit packs among packs possessed by smokers. Despite the adoption of strong smoke-free policies and adverting restrictions, smoking prevalence in Albania has risen. The increase in prevalence has been driven by higher smoking rates among females (18.9% in 2007 vs 29.3% in 2009) and young adults (23.2% in 2007 vs 38.5% in 2009 among 18-19 year olds). Self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and cigarette advertising have been reduced since 2007. The majority of respondents are still exposed to second-hand smoke and more than half are exposed to tobacco advertising. Nevertheless, there are signs that the consumption of illicit cigarettes is declining. The impacts of smoke-free policies and an advertising ban have been limited due to lack of enforcement and failure to adopt a comprehensive set of tobacco control measures. These measures should include sizeable and regular tobacco tax increases in excess of the general level of inflation and income growth. The decline in the share of illicit cigarettes should improve the effectiveness of the cigarette tax policy.
Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put? Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic? How do rates of organic production vary temporally? Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates? Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of 14 C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two
Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard
Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392
Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard
Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.
Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.
The note gives an account, for the first time in India, of an Aquaculture Laboratory with open type seawater circulating system developed at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India. Besides describing the details of the system...
... from Sustainable Aquaculture through Social Learning in Sri Lanka (CIFSRF) ... And, they will explore the role of women as community conduits for applying and ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. The presence and location of...
models of aquacultural production systems with the aim of adopting a suitable one for ... of predicting the environmental condition, so as to determine point of diminishing returns and optimize yield in an ..... sale of fish are also tracked.
Climate adaptation and innovation in Mekong aquaculture – AQUADAPT Mekong ... severe weather events and rising sea levels that impact regional hydrology. ... Research and Development Institute, Cambodia; National University of Laos; ...
Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.
. The size of the industry which is now beginning to emerge, the scale of its individual production units, raise questions concerning the high input rate of feed and chemical and a correspondingly high production of wastes. In intensive aquaculture system...
In the countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan, the technologies of a new generation evolved to exploit high and low enthalpy geothermal sources and mineral waters. There are great experiences for modern complex exploitation of these resources, which increase natural wealth values, in European Community Countries. In Albania, rich in geothermal resources of low enthalpy and mineral waters, similar new technologies have been either partly developed or remain still untouched. Modern complex exploitation is very rare phenomena. Large numbers of geothermal energy of high and low enthalpy resources, a lot of mineral water sources and some CO 2 gas reservoirs represent the base for successfully application of modern technologies in Albania, to achieve economic effectively and success of complex exploitation. Actuality, there are many geothermal, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, biological and medical investigations and studies of thermal and mineral water resources carried out in Albania. Generally, these investigations and studies are separated each from the other. Their information and data will serve for studies and evaluations in Albania regional scale. These studies and evaluations are necessary to well know in regional plane the thermal and mineral water resources potential and geothermal market of the Albania. According to results of these new studies, the evaluation for the perspective level of the best areas in country will be necessary. After the evaluation is possible to start investments in these areas. These investments will be profitable in a short period of time. Integrated and cascade use of geothermal energy of low enthalpy it is important condition for profitable investment. In Albania, there are several geothermal energy sources that can be used. Such geothermal energy sources are natural thermal water springs and deep wells with a temperature of up to 65,5 o C. Deep abandoned oil wells can be used as 'Vertical Earth Heat Probe'. The integrated and
Berdufi, I.; Jaupaj, O.; Marku, M.; Deda, M.; Fiori, E.; D'Andrea, M.; Biondi, G.; Fioruci, P.; Massabò, M.; Zorba, P.; Gjonaj, M.
In the territory of Albania usually every year around 1000 ha are affected by forest fires, from which about 500 ha are completely destroyed. The number of forest fires (nf), with the burning surface (bs) in years has been like this: during the years 1988-1998: nf / bs = 2.19, 1998-2001: nf / bs = 5.66, year 2002 -2005: nf / bs = 8.2, and during the years 2005-2006: nf / bs = 11.9, while economic losses in a year by forest fires is about 2 million of Euro. The increase in years of these figures and the last floods which happened in the last two years in Shkoder, led to an international cooperation, that between the Italian Civil Protection Department and the Albania General Directorate of Civil Emergency. The focus of this cooperation was the building capacity of the Albanian National System of Civil Protection in forecasting, monitoring and prevention forest fires and floods risks. As a result of this collaboration the "National Center for the Forecast and Monitoring of Natural Risks", was set up at the Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment. The Center is the first of its kind in Albania. The mission of the Center is the prediction and monitoring of the forest fire and flood risk in the Albanian territory, as a tools for risk reduction and mitigation. The first step to achieve this strategy was the implementation of the forest fires risk forecast model "RISICO". RISICO was adapted for whole Albania territory by CIMA Research Foundation. The Center, in the summer season, issues a daily bulletin. The bulletin reports the potential risk scenarios related with the ignition and propagation of fires in Albania. The bulletin is broadcasted through email or fax within 12.00 AM of each working day. It highlights where and when severe risk conditions may occur within the next 48 hours
Full Text Available This manuscript analyzes a distinctive period of Albanian history, that after the Balkan Wars and Conference of Ambassadors in London, a period of external political influences with many different interests to implement or prevent the development of the newly created Albanian state. In this context the article focuses in the attitude of Serbia towards Albania, with Serbia’s aim to disable the consolidation of the Albanian state. It tried to influence in the political circumstances regarding the nomination of the ruler prince or at least it tried to alter the situation in the field through its different exponents, religious or political affiliations, in order to make the longstanding dream possible to cruise through the Albanian lands. The declaration of Albanian Independence evoked great concern to the Balkans neighboring states who had dedicated Albania as war trophy. On the other hand, the Serbian politics tried to find elements which would undermine the act of Independence or to put it on a shade in any form. The interest of Serbian politics towards Albania was consistent. If we want to best understand the attitude of the Serbian politics towards Albanians, during this time, we have to analyze in a comparative manner Serbia’s politics in Albania and Kosovo and other occupied territories. While in Albania it committed itself for a Muslim prince, in the occupied Albanian territories it followed a strict anti-Islamic and anti-Albanian policy.
Ahmeti, Albana; Preza, Iria; Simaku, Artan; Nelaj, Erida; Clark, Andrew David; Felix Garcia, Ana Gabriela; Lara, Carlos; Hoestlandt, Céline; Blau, Julia; Bino, Silvia
Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced in several European countries but can represent a considerable cost, particularly for countries that do not qualify for any external financial support. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing rotavirus vaccination into Albania's national immunization program and to inform national decision-making by improving national capacity to conduct economic evaluations of new vaccines. The TRIVAC model was used to assess vaccine impact and cost-effectiveness. The model estimated health and economic outcomes attributed to 10 successive vaccinated birth cohorts (2013-2022) from a government and societal perspective. Epidemiological and economic data used in the model were based on national cost studies, and surveillance data, as well as estimates from the scientific literature. Cost-effectiveness was estimated for both the monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent vaccines (RV5). A multivariate scenario analysis (SA) was performed to evaluate the uncertainty around the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). With 3% discounting of costs and health benefits over the period 2013-2022, rotavirus vaccination in Albania could avert 51,172 outpatient visits, 14,200 hospitalizations, 27 deaths, 950 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and gain 801 life-years. When both vaccines were compared to no vaccination, the discounted cost per DALY averted was US$ 2008 for RV1 and US$ 5047 for RV5 from a government perspective. From the societal perspective the values were US$ 517 and US$ 3556, respectively. From both the perspectives, the introduction of rotavirus vaccine to the Albanian immunization schedule is either cost-effective or highly cost-effective for a range of plausible scenarios. In most scenarios, including the base-case scenario, the discounted cost per DALY averted was less than three times the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. However, rotavirus vaccination was not cost-effective when rotavirus cases
Full Text Available The government is one of the key players in the economic area of each country. Its impact is evident in all areas, such as political, economic and socio-cultural ones. This impact is measured by an indicator which economists call 'the size of the public sector'. As government's influence is so significant a question naturally arises: Should the impact of the government be big or small? There are many arguments in favor and against this issue and it is difficult to come to a consensus on the extent of government's intervention in the economy. That is why the purpose of this paper is to present a picture of this intervention in the economic life of our country by connecting this indicator with the budget deficit. First, we will elaborate the progress of the size of the public sector in Albania and its measurement by various indicators. Secondly, we will compare the size of the public sector in Albanian with the sizes of the public sector of other countries in the region. Finally, we will present the results of a study on the optimal size of the public sector in the economy of a country being analyzed and in terms of our country.
Full Text Available There are many discussions about ethics beginning with a fair and fundamental question: “What is ethics all about?” It is the same as morality, or is kind of a soft law that imposes values but without enforcing them? What is the contribution of the society in imposing values and ethical standards, and how business is involved? Ethical standards are applied in business word, differing from social responsibilities that business has in the social environment where it operates. To better exemplify those concepts the researcher goes through one of the largest companies that offers wireless communications, Vodafone Albania; also one of the world’s largest mobile telecommunication operators. The bright side of social responsibilities is associated in some cases by regressive informal standards applied to all investors and new businesses in the country. The cost of informality is paid in full by the society diminishing the values of social responsibilities and ethical standards applied by business organizations. Even though, Vodafone has successfully implemented social responsiveness initiatives through cause promotions initiatives, corporate social marketing, cause related marketing, company philanthropy, community volunteering, and socially responsible business practices that support social causes to improve community well-being and protect the environment.
Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.
Doris Koliqi Malaj
Full Text Available One of the basic principles of civil rights is that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The life protection, liberty and property should be equally guaranteed to citizens to exclude discrimination of minorities or other parts of the population. These rights are an important part of civil liberties and are considered as an essential element for effective citizenship. Arbitrary arrest, terror, torture or other serious and unlawful interference, both by state and private actors, significantly affect the well-being of democracy as it affects the very essence of it. In liberal democracies, leaders legitimized by the people must be involved within the norms and principles of the rule of law in order to establish a healthy relationship between the state and the citizen. This relationship is considered to be damaged in non-liberal democracies as it is affected by the suspension of individual freedoms and rights. This paper aims to analyze whether these individual rights are guaranteed and protected in Albania, considering from the perspective of the legal framework as well as in the political reality. This study aims to analyze the development of human rights, judicial rights and their implementation in our country to come to the conclusion, whether our system is that of a liberal democracy or not.
Full Text Available This study aims to develop and suggest to Albania an applicable academic-level Library and Information Science (LIS educational program approach parallel to world developments in this aspect. Scientific and technological developments have deeply impacted LISfield. The development-education interaction has reflected even in the curriculum changes. In an era where scientific and technological changes can deeply affect education merely a flexible and general approach that could place profes- sional developments and local characteristics of the country could be suggested. A descriptive method was used and a survey questionnaire was applied to 94 librarians from different types of libraries and 6 educators. From the questionnaires it was concluded that a LIS education in a university level is needed in the country. As conclusion this study suggested a conceptual educational approach regarding LIS education. This approach is comprised of eight general modules/subject areas such as information resources, information organization, information users and communication, research, theory and phi- losophy, systems and information technology management, and other disciplines.
Full Text Available Although Brexit did trigger some discussion about the European Single Market future The Commission strategy for an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods persons services and capital is ensured remains the same and increasingly attracts the attention and interest of policy makers and researchers. The digital single market a recent concept developed in the context of the European Union goes beyond the Cloud computing IoT and Big Data that are present-day words frequently mentioned in country strategies. The aim of coming together into a single market is to maximise the benefits of technology while simultaneously preserving values we hold timeless. Expanding this concept and considering the configuration of a digital market in Albania is the underpinning of this paper. Goods and services provided on-line will grant a better access and improved service to the benefit of customers under conditions of fair competition and a high level of consumer and personal data protection. A single platform necessarily digital can incorporate the banking industrial education investment markets and contribute to their unification. This first step of placing the idea should be followed by considering components like digital infrastructure development digitally educated people collaborative economy and others. There is a vision for the country development with no timeline yet above and beyond the brainstorming approach.
Full Text Available The legal system during communism is understandable in Albania only if we study its legal institutions and development. In this context, a chronological presentation is needed, based mainly on the work of Krisafi, Ballanca, Luarasi, Gjika, Elezi, Omari, Brozi, Gjilani (2009. In this framework, the analysis of this manuscript is closely related to the pre communism situation, not only in the frame of history of property law, but also institutions and content they had during the communism era. Main purpose of this article is the analysis of property- and commercial law in Albania, in the context of the consequences they brought in the transformation process of Albania with the fall of Communism and establishment of democracy.
Full Text Available This paper will provide an overview of the scientific studies about Italy’s occupation of Albania during World War II. It also suggests the issues still to be addressed and shows the disposal of new archival sources, finally available to scholars. Documentary collections on the Union between Italy and Albania are abundant but there are just a few historical works that analyze them thoroughly. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part briefly describes the major events and the Union’s institutional framework. The second one provides an overview of the historiography about Albania during 1939-1943. The third part gives an overview of the documents available in recent years. The last one suggests the main research the mes related to Italy as an occupying power during World War II.
Tan Loh eTeng Hern
Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.
Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming
during the HP decomposition. The model assumes that the enzyme decay is controlled by an inactivation stoichiometry related to the HP decomposition. In order to make the model easily applicable, it is furthermore assumed that the COD is a proxy of the active biomass concentration of the water and thereby......Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...
Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) technologies help to overcome barriers to domestic aquaculture expansion and enhance the sustainability of the modern fish farming industry through reduction in environmental impacts. With RAS, fish farm expansion is no longer highly constrained by competition ...
Full Text Available Aquaculture contribute ever more to the production of aquatic food worldwide, even if the sustainable limits for majority of wild fish stocks, are now almost reached or even exceeded. In the EU, aquaculture is an important economic activity in many coastal and continental regions. Aquaculture plays an important role in terms of access to food resources and it is necessary to use its potential to contribute to sustainable development, food security, economic growth and employment. In this regard, starting from EU aquaculture objectives, the paper intend to make an analysis of the national situation of aquaculture and its current potential. The paper presented the progress of Romanian investments in aquaculture, identifying needs and opportunities for the Romanian aquaculture development. Taking into consideration the natural resources available and the growth of global request of organic product, the development of ecologic aquaculture might represent o niche market for local producers.
Full Text Available the industry on a sound footing. An Aquaculture Working Group was appointed by the CSIR in 1981, which developed a research strategy, identified needs and suggested priorities for research on major problem areas in aquaculture....
Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for Poverty Alleviation in the Rural Areas of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, ...
Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S
This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.
Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2016 totaled 90 million tons valued at $180 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (DOC) is... United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to...
Conversion of aquaculture solid wastes into single cell protein (SCP) for fish feed through solid state fermentation using three fungi species, Aspergilus niger, Trichodema viride and Rhizopus species were investigated. Solid aquaculture waste was collected from the sedimentation unit of a re-circulating aquaculture farm in ...
Nadine, H.; Liermann, A.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Reicherter, K. R.
The Lake Ohrid Basin located on 693 m a.s.l. at the south-western border of Macedonia (FYROM) with Albania is a suitable location for neotectonic studies. The lake is set in an extensional basin-and-range-like situation, which is influenced by the roll-back and detachment of the subducted slab of the Northern Hellenic Trench. The seismicity record of the area lists frequent shallow earthquakes with magnitudes of up to 6.6, which classifies the region as one of the highest risk areas for Macedonia and Albania. A multidisciplinary approach was chosen to reveal the stress history of the region. Tectonic morphology, paleostress analysis, remote sensing and geophysical investigations have been taken out to trace the landscape evolution. Furthermore, apatite fission-track (A-FT) analysis and t-T-path modelling was performed to constrain the thermal history and the exhumation rates. The deformation history of the basin can be divided in three major phases. This idea is also supported by paleostress data collected around the lake: 1. NW-SE shortening from Late Cretaceous to Miocene with compression, thrusting and uplift; 2. Uplift and diminishing compression in Late Miocene causing strike-slip and normal faulting; 3. Vertical uplift and E-W extension from Pliocene to present associated with local subsidence and (half-) graben formation. The initiation of the Ohrid Basin can be dated to Late Miocene to Pliocene. The morphology of the basin itself shows features, which characterize the area as an active seismogenic landscape. The elongated NS-trending basin is limited by the steep flanks of Galicica and Mokra Mountains to the E and W, which are tectonically controlled by normal faulting. This is expressed in linear step-like fault scarps on land with heights between 2 and 35 m. The faults have lengths between 10 and 20 km and consist of several segments. Post-glacial bedrock fault scarps at Lake Ohrid are long-lived expressions of repeated surface faulting in tectonically
Full Text Available Information has become an important element without which society cannot achieve its objectives. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays, because of the importance and necessity of information in today's dynamic environment. Western countries are convinced that the information society will result in economic and social benefits (Audenhove 2000. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, notes that information infrastructures are expected to stimulate economic growth, increase productivity, create jobs, and improve on the quality of life (Gichoya 2005. It is for these reasons that many studies state that the role of ICTs as enablers of sustainable development is growing. The overall goal of this paper is to point out the importance of ICT market development for the sustainable development of all the economy and the final development of Information society, especially in developing countries, where Albania is the case study illustration. The first step of this research is to show the importance of studying ICTs in the light of building an information society. In fact, the efforts of a country to build an information society, in order to benefit in terms of sustainable development, are closely related to the efforts of building strong information infrastructures and a growing ICT sector. Many indicators related to Information society measurement deal in fact with the infrastructures needed and the products and services of ICT sector. But, failures to submit ICT in contexts which are contrary to techno-economic rationality are reflected in many cases in developing countries. Thus, a defining characteristic of this research is to understand the contexts that confront ICT and information systems development in developing countries in terms of their conditions. In fact the development of ICT sector, depend not only on the political, economic and social conditions of each country, but also on the phase of e
Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in
Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.
Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.
The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...
Bai Yaxiang; Hu Yucai; Yang Guijuan
Experiments show that after hydrobiology stimulation by a certain dosage of a physical field such as electromagnetic, laser, or neutron irradiation, hydorbiological activity can be improved, and consequently yield and quality enhanced. Recent advances in the application of physical fields in aquaculture are summarized, and prospects for future developments presented
Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S
Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.
Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.
This paper describes the aquaculture program developed at Inverness College in Scotland. Inverness is located in the Scottish Highlands and serves an area roughly the size of Belgium, but with a population of only 300,000. The regional infrastructure and human capital resources in the Highlands are relatively weak due to inadequate transportation,…
The use of biotechnology in various aspects of human endeavour have obviously created a great impact but not without some risks. Not withstanding, there is still the need for its adoption as more of the already adopted biotechnologies are being improved upon with lesser demerits. Aquaculture is not also left out in the ...
Introduction. Most studies have shown that the best feed for optimal fish production in aquaculture is one rich in high amount of protein. The amount of protein in the ..... Aquatic Science, Florida Coop, Ext. Serv. FA-16, 4 pp. Hargreaves J. A. and Tucker C. S. (2004). Managing. Ammonia in Fish Ponds. SRAC Publication Fact.
Fish farming is the world's fastest-growing sector of agricultural business. ... history of application: e.g. fertilization of ponds to increase feed availability. ... significant advances in the genetic improvement of Tilapia used in aquaculture in recent ... Vaccines: Modern technology is also of great value in the field of vaccines and.
Cancela, M. Leonor; Bargelloni, Luca; Boudry, Pierre
. Improving state-of-the-art genomics research in various aquaculture systems, as well as its industrial applications, remains one of the major challenges in this area and should be the focus of well developed strategies to be implemented in the next generation of projects. This chapter will first provide...
Torres Beristain, B.
Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the
Rodrigues, Pedro M; Silva, Tomé S; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming
Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5 million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hai, N V
This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Interest in cobia Rachycentron canadum aquaculture in the US has increased greatly in the last decade due to their excellent consumer appeal, extremely rapid growth rates, and the observed success of rearing this species in Taiwan and other southeastern Asian countries. Because most cobia are grown...
Vince, Joanna; Haward, Marcus
The development of third party assessment and certification of fisheries and aquaculture has provided new forms of governance in sectors that were traditionally dominated by state based regulation. Emerging market based approaches are driven by shareholder expectations as well as commitment to corporate social responsibility, whereas community engagement is increasingly centered on the questions of social license to operate. Third party assessment and certification links state, market and community into an interesting and challenging hybrid form of governance. While civil society organizations have long been active in pursuing sustainable and safe seafood production, the development of formal non-state based certification provides both opportunities and challenges, and opens up interesting debates over hybrid forms of governance. This paper explores these developments in coastal marine resources management, focusing on aquaculture and the development and operation of the Aquaculture Stewardship Council. It examines the case of salmonid aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia, now Australia's most valuable seafood industry, which remains the focus of considerable community debate over its siting, operation and environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
However, the complexity of an aquaculture system which result from multiple interactions makes it difficult to predict how the aquatic community will respond to changes with simple methods of analysis, especially if the methods address a single stressor at a time. These necessitated the development of numerous aquatic ...
Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.
A series of experiments among different social groups in both Albania and the Netherlands give the opportunity to compare behavioral patterns related to tax evasion. Aside from the decision whether or not to evade taxes, subjects have to choose a source of income, where one type enables subsequent
Full Text Available The banking system, as the most important component of the financial system in Albania, plays a crucial role in economic development. Measuring the efficiency of the intermediation system requires special attention because of its implications on the level of investments, savings, resource allocation etc. The most common indicator for the efficiency of the banking system is the cost of intermediation, measured by the spread of interest rates (the difference between the average lending rate and the average deposit rate. The study aims to analyze the trend of interest rate spread (IRS in Albania for the period 2005-2014 based on a comparative analysis with other countries and to identify the factors with significant impact on the level of IRS in the local currency. It is based on the empirical analysis of several macroeconomic and market factors that determine IRS, used in previous studies in this field, but also incorporating other elements that are associated with the characteristics of the Albanian system. Albania has experienced high IRS during the last decade, with large fluctuations, especially in the local currency. The results of the study based on quarterly panel data for the period 2005-2014 show that IRS in Albania is negatively affected by the level of development of the banking sector and the discount rate, while inflation, deficit rate and monetary supply put positive pressure on this indicator.
Full Text Available Almost all countries face the problems of trade balance, although they are more inherent in developing countries and economies in transition. A majority of economists adheres to a common opinion real depreciation may lead to an improvement of the trade balance. That said, countries encountering trade balance issues use real exchange rate depreciation in order to improve the trade balance situation. Albania belongs to the group of transition countries that has been facing negative trade balance over last two decades. National currency devaluations of the lek (ALL have been used by Albania to improve its trade balance. Therefore, this paper intends to investigate the effect of the real effective exchange rate depreciation of the ALL on the trade balance of Albania using quarterly data from 1994 to 2015. Bounds testing cointegration approach, vector error correction model (VECM and impulse response were used for empirical analysis. The results of the study show that there exists a long-term cointegration between the real effective exchange rate depreciation and the trade balance. Specifically, real effective exchange rate depreciation positively affects the trade balance of Albania in both the long-run and short-run indicating the weak presence of the J-curve effect. Important recommendations were derived from the results.
Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; van Wissen, Leo
It is essential to explore the role of gender while analysing internal migration in Albania to account for the differing experiences of men and women. Quantitative studies suggest that Albanian internal migration is pioneered by men, with women merely acceding to their wishes. This article addresses
Peci, V. [Seismological Institute, Tirana (Albania); Maeda, K. [Meteorologial Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Seismology and Volcanology Research; Matsmura, K.; Irikura, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Disaster Prevention Research
The paper investigates some characteristics of fore shock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible fore shocks, the authors obtained a probabilistic relation between possible fore shocks and main shocks. Results recorded between 1901-1994 are analysed and discussed.
Blerta Dragusha (Spahija
Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.
Meyer, Jonas; Mader, Marlene; Zimmermann, Friedrich; Çabiri, Ketrina
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine sustainability-related challenges in the two Western Balkan countries--Albania and Kosovo. It discusses the opportunities of local higher education institutions (HEIs) taking responsibility to tackle these challenges by providing professional development through science-society collaboration in…
Albania and Western Europe for more than two decades until he died in 1468. In recognition of his persistent resistance, Pope Pius II conferred upon him...Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is...9 II . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE ALBANIAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICES
Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.
This is an action research that endeavors to construct the category of ‘lone mothers’ in Albania, through their own voice, for the purpose of creating the socio-political discourse on their real needs they and their children have. It talks about lone mothers not as needy or vulnerable, but as women
Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed
Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including
Papa, Anna; Velo, Enkeleda; Kadiaj, Perparim; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Kota, Majlinda; Bino, Silvia
Albania is a Balkan country endemic for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). It was shown previously that CCHF virus (CCHFV) sequences from Albanian patients cluster into Europe 1 clade. Aim of the present study was to test for CCHFV ticks collected in several regions of Albania, and to determine the genetic lineage(s) of the CCHFV strains in relation with their geographic distribution. A total of 726 ticks (366 Hyalomma marginatum, 349 Rhipicephalus bursa and 11 Rhipicephalus sanguineus) collected from livestock during 2007-2014 were included in the study. Thirty of 215 (13.9%) tick pools were positive for CCHFV. Lineage Europe 1 was detected in H. marginatum ticks collected in the endemic region of Albania, while lineage Europe 2 was detected mainly in R. bursa ticks in various regions of the country. Both genetic lineages were detected in the CCHF endemic area (northeastern Albania), while only Europe 2 lineage was detected in the south of the country. A higher genetic diversity was seen among Europe 2 than Europe 1 Albanian sequences (mean distance 3.7% versus 1%), suggesting a longer evolution of AP92-like strains (Europe 2) in their tick hosts. The present study shows that besides CCHFV lineage Europe 1, lineage Europe 2 is also present in Albania. Combined with results from recent studies, it is concluded that lineage Europe 2 is widely spread in the Balkans and Turkey, and is associated mainly with R. bursa ticks (at least in this region). Its pathogenicity and impact to the public health remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Doci, Florida; Thaci, Jonida; Foster, Angel M
Contraceptive prevalence is relatively low in Albania, and abortion is the mainstay of family planning. Although levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive pills are available, uptake of this method is minimal. Emergency contraception (EC) could play a significant role in addressing women's need for an effective and discreet pregnancy prevention method. However, information about the dynamics surrounding EC is limited. In 2016-2017, we conducted a multimethods qualitative study that aimed to explore awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices toward EC in Albania. This project comprised four components: a community-based survey with 115 respondents, six focus group discussions with women of reproductive age, 19 semistructured key informant interviews, and 16 structured interviews with retail pharmacists. We analyzed our data using descriptive statistics and for content and themes. Our findings suggest that EC is widely available in pharmacies in Albania. However, a quarter of our survey participants did not know whether EC was available, and more than a third did not think EC was safe to use. Women face numerous barriers to accessing this form of contraception. Misconceptions about hormonal contraceptives, in general, and about progestin-only EC in particular, lack of training among providers, and stigma and fear of judgment were common obstacles identified by participants. Misinformation and lack of knowledge about EC among women and providers in Albania appears common. Training health service providers, raising awareness among women, and developing linguistically and culturally resonant materials for distribution could be keys to improving access to and use of EC. Although the availability of progestin-only EC is widespread in Albania, our findings suggest that more work needs to be done to align national regulatory policies with international standards, facilitate evidence-based service delivery, and increase access to medically accurate information in
Tartari, Flamur; Buzo, Stiliano; Vyshka, Gentian
The apparatus invented by Dr. Luigj Benusi in 1943, in Tirana, was a practical application of the Kowarsky technique and Ambard laws, helping in determining blood urea levels and very important to a variety of diseases, mainly kidney disorders. The apparatus was invented and prepared from very simple laboratory materials, such as glasses, test tubes, corks and volumetric cylinders. Technologically, it was based upon the determination of blood urea through hypobromite, and, among the advantage...
Agreement of 1 July 1986 between Albania and the Agency for the application of safeguards to all nuclear activities of Albania. An agreement by exchange of letters of 31 October and 28 November 2002 with the Republic of Albania in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: - the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement 1 that entered into force on 25 March 1988, concluded between the Republic of Albania and the IAEA, satisfies the obligation of Albania under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); - the safeguards set forth in the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Albania, in connection with the NPT; - notwithstanding Article 25 of the SGA, the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement shall remain in force as long as Albania is party to the NPT. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 28 November 2002 and, pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date
Park, Y H; Hwang, S Y; Hong, M K; Kwon, K H
The aquaculture industry has grown dramatically, and plays an important role in the world's food supply chain. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with food animals receives much attention, and drug use in aquaculture is also an important issue. There are many differences between aquatic and terrestrial management systems, such as the methods used for administration of drugs. Unique problems are related to the application of drugs in aquatic environments. Residual drugs in fish products can affect people who consume them, and antimicrobials released into aquatic environments can select for resistant bacteria. Moreover, these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, or their resistance genes, can be transferred to humans. To decrease the risks associated with the use of antimicrobials, various regulations have been developed. In addition, it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquatic animals by vaccination, to improve culture systems, and to monitor the amount of antimicrobial drugs used and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.
Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.
Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen); Yi-Hsu; Cheng-Jen Lin; Kongkiti Phusavat; Nirote Sinnarong
The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwan aquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This study is derived from a need to improve the distribution performance of agricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demands in Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived from both a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategies are developed. This development is based on key success factors and strategies for...
Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.
Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.
Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles
Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407
Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.
Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.
this paper is to make such connections and ground the policy debate on scientific evidence. The Corporate Governance in banks is one of the most important discussions overall the world, being reinforced especially after the crises period. It is related with the sensitive situation and the stage of developments of the local economy and moreover with the impact of the crises that is still ongoing. As an answer, during late 2008 and beginning 2009, it has been noticed a fast reaction and total focus from all banks on building (if missing and improving their structures of Corporate Governance. The liquidity problems suddenly affecting the banking sector constrained Banks to enlarge their activities / operations and forced them in better evaluating their investments. The importance of a strong financial sector in impacting the country’s economy growth through both level of banking development and stock market liquidity (Levine and Sara Zervos 1996, 1998 is quite evident even in the developing countries. Moreover, Peter Rousseau and Watchel (2000 findings’ confirm the positive impact of the stock market activity and the banking development. For this reason the governments in the developing countries are insisting in increasing credits of banks towards the private firms. The banking system in Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Albania has certain similarities in terms of development stage, related with the economic growth rate as well. The banking system, there is operating for more than 100 years instead of 15-20 years of development in the remaining countries.
Khosravi-Katuli, Kheyrollah; Prato, Ermelinda; Lofrano, Giusy; Guida, Marco; Vale, Gonçalo; Libralato, Giovanni
Recently, it was observed that there is an increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in aquaculture. Manufacturers are trying to use nano-based tools to remove the barriers about waterborne food, growth, reproduction, and culturing of species, their health, and water treatment in order to increase aquaculture production rates, being the safe-by-design approach still unapplied. We reviewed the applications of NPs in aquaculture evidencing that the way NPs are applied can be very different: some are direclty added to feed, other to water media or in aquaculture facilities. Traditional toxicity data cannot be easily used to infer on aquaculture mainly considering short-term exposure scenarios, underestimating the potential exposure of aquacultured species. The main outputs are (i) biological models are not recurrent, and in the case, testing protocols are frequently different; (ii) most data derived from toxicity studies are not specifically designed on aquaculture needs, thus contact time, exposure concentrations, and other ancillary conditions do not meet the required standard for aquaculture; (iii) short-term exposure periods are investigated mainly on species of indirect aquaculture interest, while shrimp and fish as final consumers in aquaculture plants are underinvestigated (scarce or unknown data on trophic chain transfer of NPs): little information is available about the amount of NPs accumulated within marketed organisms; (iv) how NPs present in the packaging of aquacultured products can affect their quality remained substantially unexplored. NPs in aquaculture are a challenging topic that must be developed in the near future to assure human health and environmental safety. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
Miralles, Laura; Mrugala, Agata; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Juanes, Francis; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva
Aquaculture impacts on wild populations of fish have been considered principally due to farm escapes. The Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, which exhibits two distinct genetic units in the Mediterranean Sea, is a voracious predator and is attracted to aquaculture cages to prey on farmed fish, particularly Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata and European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax. We compared the genetic diversity of adult Bluefish caught inside one aquaculture farm located in Spanish waters of th...
Full Text Available Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development of e-commerce is an important element of national economy. Being a new important sector, e-commerce can only flourish where there is a good infrastructure, both legal and technological, which is attractive to consumers and business. So the need for rules and principles facilitating e-commerce has become increasingly evident, too. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the regulatory framework, legal issues and the challenges in the development of electronic commerce in Albania.
Full Text Available The general view that the banks’ lending plays a crucial role in the real estate market was again confirmed during the recent financial crisis. During the precrisis period, house prices in Albania increased rapidly, supported also by a fast expansion of mortgage lending. This study aims to empirically analyse the relation between housing prices and banks’ financing in the long run, referring to a VECM model. The estimated results confirm the important role of mortgage to house prices. Meanwhile, the relation between house prices and interest rates resulted statistically insignificant. Unlike the previous literature, exchange rate has been included as an endogenous variable. Results show positive correlation and statistical significance between house prices and exchange rate. Finally, this paper is expected to contribute to the literature as there are very few studies that elaborate on the macroeconomic factors’ influence on the housing prices in Albania.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the study and analysis of factors affecting the need for reorganization of entities engaged in water supply services. From this perspective, the research seeks to identify international practices made in this regard and how they can be adapted to water utilities in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show that regionalization of water utilities is a successful development direction not only of studied literature but also practice in Albania. The study is based on sources of information taken from primary and secondary sources. The selected method for collecting and processing information from primary sources is the empirical method through direct surveys and questionnaires, whereas from secondary sources is descriptive and analytical method. As secondary sources, we are consulted and referred to academic resources, such as articles, books, studies and reports carried out and published by national organizations, local and foreign companies in this field.
Full Text Available Autonomy of public health insurance scheme comprises political, financial, organizational, normative and contractual aspects. The paper analyses the role and position of a health insurance scheme (HIS within the overall healthcare system in Albania, the relationship to all other institutions, stakeholders and actors. By analyesing published literature and collected data through secondary sources, the paper focuses on financial autonomy, which refers first of all to a certain level of budgetary independence regarding source generation and spending on health services. For assuring effective and efficient performance of the single payer for health care services in Albania, need effective changes in the legislation do take into account the various levels of autonomy mentioned above.
Full Text Available As an immobile, durable and heterogonous good, each housing unit has a bundle of different characteristics. Hedonic price method, which depends on the consumer theory of the classical economics, implies that each characteristic of heterogeneous goods provides a different level of satisfaction or utility to the consumer, being widely accepted as a toolkit for estimating effects of these characteristics on prices and rents. HPM expresses housing prices as the function of structural characteristics, location characteristics, and neighborhood characteristics. Theory and empirical applications of the HPM, which have been used for more than 40 years in developed countries, due to the lack of suitable data related literature is limited in Albania. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between housing rents and housing characteristics in urban Albania with micro database of Living Conditions and Income Survey 2012.
Full Text Available The tertiary education is a critic mechanism for the socio-economic progress, for individuals who aspire a brighter future and it is also considered an important catalyzer of the economic mobility (Department of Treasury and Department of Education, 2012, 2. Based on the positive role and impact that the tertiary education has on the sustainable development, President Obama once stated that it is of damage to treat education as a luxurious public service. In line with the general considerations about the tertiary education in the U.S. the parallel comparison with Albania comes as a direct interpretation of utopia in the education policy-making. As policies are usually drafted based on data and findings, in the case of Albania there is a lack of data on expenses on tertiary education as share of GDP. This stands also for the main limitation of the paper.
Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.
Christopher D. Golden
Full Text Available Aquaculture now supplies half of the fish consumed directly by humans. We evaluate whether aquaculture, given current patterns of production and distribution, supports the needs of poor and food-insecure populations throughout the world. We begin by identifying 41 seafood-reliant nutritionally vulnerable nations (NVNs, and ask whether aquaculture meets human nutritional demand directly via domestic production or trade, or indirectly via purchase of nutritionally rich dietary substitutes. We find that a limited number of NVNs have domestically farmed seafood, and of those, only specific aquaculture approaches (e.g., freshwater in some locations have the potential to benefit nutritionally vulnerable populations. While assessment of aquaculture's direct contribution via trade is constrained by data limitations, we find that it is unlikely to contribute substantially to human nutrition in vulnerable groups, as most exported aquaculture consists of high-value species for international markets. We also determine that subpopulations who benefit from aquaculture profits are likely not the same subpopulations who are nutritionally vulnerable, and more research is needed to understand the impacts of aquaculture income gains. Finally, we discuss the relationship of aquaculture to existing trends in capture fisheries in NVNs, and suggest strategies to create lasting solutions to nutritional security, without exacerbating existing challenges in access to food and land resources.
This manuscript analyzes a distinctive period of Albanian history, that after the Balkan Wars and Conference of Ambassadors in London, a period of external political influences with many different interests to implement or prevent the development of the newly created Albanian state. In this context the article focuses in the attitude of Serbia towards Albania, with Serbia’s aim to disable the consolidation of the Albanian state. It tried to influence in the political circumstances regarding t...
Eda Vula; Blerim Saqipi; Theodory Karaj; Nikoleta Mita
The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher ...
International Relations and Security Network, 2004, http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital- Library /Publications/Detail/?id=155586 (accessed November 7, 2013...in Italy: The case of Arbëresh and Albanian Migrations, in “Beyond Multiculturalism : Views from Anthropology” (Furnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2009... Multiculturalism : Views from Anthropology, edited by Giuliana B. Prato, 79-101. Furnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2009. Prifti, Peter R. Socialist Albania since
AURELA SUPARAKU; ARIS HUQI; NATASHA HAKA (DURAJ)
A survey to determine the presence and abundance of phytoseiid mite on apple orchards has been conducted in Durres (Shena-Vlash), Albania. Leaf samples were taken from five apple varieties: Pink Lady, Golden, Starking, Fuji, Gala and the phytoseiid were then extracted. As the result of the survey, two species belonging to the Phytoseiidae family were identified: Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) and Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten). Amblyseius andersoni was found in all apple varieties analyzed in thi...
Full Text Available The right to appeal is both a fundamental human right and a procedural tool, whereby parties exercise examination of the lawfulness of court rulings, etc. The constitution of the Republic of Albania, 1 approved in 1998, expressly provides for and guarantees the right to file an appeal. Unlike other rights, this fundamental right was not restricted, being in accordance with Article 17 of the Constitution, except for cases otherwise provided in the Constitution. In accordance with this constitutional right and guarantee, all codes of administrative procedures, civil and criminal procedure, provided for and widely guaranteed the exercise of the right to file an appeal. This absence of restriction of the right to fi le an appeal brought about an overload of court cases and trial delays, thus making the completion of the adjudication within a reasonable deadline uncertain. As a result, there rose the necessity to limit this right in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania. The amendments to the Constitution by Law no. 76/2016 also limited the right to fi le an appeal under Article 17 of the Constitution. However, these amendments were not complete, as they did not entail the exercise of the right to file an appeal against decisions of administrative authorities. The jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Albania is a guarantee of the right to appeal/effective access in the civil and administrative process, although slightly controversial in the criminal process. However, positive developments regarding the guarantee of effective access to the court have recently occurred. Even in the broad jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights, when cases from Albania have been adjudicated, violations of the right to effective appeal have been observed in the criminal process.
Uarda Roshi; Naim Mecalla
Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development...
Kamjunke, Norbert; Nimptsch, Jorge; Harir, Mourad
characterization of aquaculture DOM quality and its bacterial degradation using four salmon aquacultures in Chile. Fluorescence measurements, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the DOM revealed specific and extensive molecular alterations caused by aquacultures...
Full Text Available Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries, and has been identified as a means of generating national income in less industrialized economies. Like other countries, Albania has promoted tourism as a major source of national income. The tourism industry in Albania currently focuses on coastal areas, rather than on the unique features that set this country apart from its neighbors. Albania’s natural features have the potential to attract tourists seeking ecological and cultural experiences. Thoughtful, sustainable development of these resources could enhance community livelihoods throughout Albania. The purpose of this study was to discover if differences in perceptions of sustainable tourism development and principles in Shkodra Region existed between four stakeholder groups: residents, entrepreneurs, government officials, and tourists. Data were collected from stakeholders using a self competed questionnaire, which included Likert-style questions inquiring about attitudes and perceptions of sustainable tourism development in the community. The data gathered illustrate that the perception of sustainable tourism principles varies considerably among stakeholder groups. As a distinct stakeholder group, the majority of local residents generally were welcoming of tourism.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher education from a research-based and practice orientation. This article is based primarily on findings from desk research conducted at public universities in Kosovo and Albania, more specifically analyzing the university curricula and other documents related to the provision of teacher education courses. In addition, the research involves the analysis of work completed and documents produced as a result of the 2009-2011 Trans-European Mobility Program for University Studies (TEMPUS Project “Development of Master Study Programs in Education” (DEMED. The article outlines the similarities and differences of teacher education systems in Kosovo and Albania and emphasizes the need for small countries to co-operate on joint reform that leads to wider regional impact and facilitates mobility of staff and students. Identifying common goals is thus important. The two priority goals for these two countries are: development of practice and research-based teacher education. Conclusions are presented with the intent of findings being extrapolated to similar small, developing countries.
Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian
Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 geochronological ages already published or acquired for this work. The five lower terraces of the four studied rivers are well dated (10 new and 23 already published ages. These terraces are younger than 30 ka and their remnants are numerous. Their restoration allows estimating the regional trend of incision rate and the identification of local shifts. We argue that these shifts are linked to the active tectonics when they coincide with the faults already mapped by previous authors. Vertical slip rates for eight active faults in southern Albania are thus estimated for the last 19 ka and vary from ~0.1 to ~2 mm/a. The Lushnje Tepelene Thrust, that extends more than 120 kilometers, has a throw rate that varies from 0.2 to 0.8 mm/a, whereas the active faults of the extensional domain are segmented but are very active, with throw rates reaching locally 2 mm/a.
Full Text Available Small & Medium Sized Enterprises have an important place in the economical development of Albania. They already consist of the majority of private business and they are the main source of employment generation, innovation and productivity growth. In this context animportant determinant of the Albanian economy development lies in the development of small and medium enterprises, which is not based only on the number of start-ups but also on the positive change of business environment and entrepreneurial skills. The aim of the research is to examine the contribution of SMEs to the economic growth of the country through employment generation, building of added value, GDP, export activities etc., and the changes in entrepreneurial skills of Albanian SMEs to foresee the ways of improvement and enterprise development. The methods of research are: analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature discussing the problems SMEs are facing and the environmental changes; the systematic statistical data analysis of Albanian entrepreneurial skills of small and medium-sized enterprises. The analysis shows that from the weakest dimensions of SME sector in Albania are entrepreneurship education and training and the promotion of innovation and use of new technologies.Keywords: SMEs, economic growth, Albania
China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.
Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…
Risk Management Practices. Briefs. Aquaculture and Climate. Journal articles. River-based cage aquaculture of tilapia in Northern Thailand : sustainability of rearing and business practices. Journal articles. Learning about climate-related risks: decisions of Northern Thailand fish farmers in a role-playing simulation game ...
This booklet contains information on aquaculture and ideas for aquaculture projects. The information provided is for students at upper elementary through high school learning levels. Recommended activities at the end of the text are organized by level of difficulty. The activities can be modified depending on area and availability of resources. A…
The study contributes to nationwide attempts to enhance the contributions of aquaculture to the fishery subsector, and consequent overall gross domestic product of Nigeria, as well as to the protein intake of her citizenry. The focus is on the determination of the magnitude of constraints affecting aquaculture development in ...
Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed by...
13 oct. 2009 ... Sena S. De Silva is Director General of the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia- Pacific and Honorary Professor of Aquaculture and Fisheries Biology at the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. F. Brian Davy is Senior Fellow at the International Institute for ...
Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.
Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated.
Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus
In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand...... factor to future production growth in the salmon aquaculture industry....
Steins, N.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Taal, K.; Bolman, B.C.; Bink, E.; Dop, van H.; Dekker, A.; Numan, J.; Spek, van der G.; Pijl, van der W.
This report presents the results of a Dutch public-private capacity building (Knowledge to Knowledge or K2K) mission for fostering sustainable aquaculture and fisheries development in Myanmar. The objectives of the K2K mission were to: 1) analyse Myanmar’s aquaculture and fisheries knowledge
Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, is fraught with potential hazards and risks which are categorized into occupational, environmental, food safety and public health. This paper reviewed major hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry and proffered strategies for their management and control.
Documents. Modeling the effects of weather and climate on thermal stratification and the risks of low dissolved oxygen episodes in aquaculture ponds. Documents. Impacts of climate change and water uses on availability of water for aquaculture in the Lower Nan Basin. Documents. The role of middlemen networks and ...
Troell, M.; Naylor, R.L.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Tyedmers, P.H.; Folke, C.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Crepin, A.S.; Ehrlich, P.; Gren, R.; Kautsky, N.; Levin, S.A.; Nyborg, K.; Osterblom, H.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.H.; Xepapadeas, T.; Zeeuw, de A.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment
Webber, H H; Riordan, P F
The nature of the animal taxa that are the most probable candidates for an intensive, commercial aquatic animal husbandry industry is considered. A characterization is presented of those biological criteria that lend the species the necessary physiological and genetic malleability to be adapted and molded into a domesticated race. The animal cultivated must be amenable to intensive management in high-density confinements such as those now being engineered for high-yield aquaculture. Attributes considered are discussed in the context of the various aquacultural ecosystems in which the specific biotype is expected to achieve satisfactory growth and survival. Correlative with bionomic criteria, economic requirements are posed and evaluated in an effort to define a socially and financially profitable agribusiness system. Investment requirements and operating costs are considered in terms of expected returns. However, since production alone is insufficient to sustain an enterprise - i.e., the product must be sold - production costs must be judged against market values. Therefore, ultimate use or consumer acceptance criteria are incorporated into the list of essential requirements for a candidate species for aquafarming.
Jorge A Huete-Pérez
Full Text Available Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.
Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning
Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The paper explores the determinants of internal migration in Albania, adopting the Harris-Todaro approach to migration: an internal migration function is estimated using district wage and unemployment rate differentials. The aggregate level wages and unemployment, included in the migration equation, are retrieved from a first stage wage and unemployment equations, estimated controlling for personal characteristics. Moreover, in order to test the predictions of the human capital model of migration, the difference between migrants and non-migrants is emphasized in the estimation. The data source is the "Living Standard Measurement Survey for Albania" (2002, undertaken by the national Institute of Statistics and the World Bank jointly. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differentials are important determinants of the propensity to migrate in Albania. This conclusion is further emphasized by noting that migrants gain substantially in terms of higher returns to individual characteristics after emigration.
Frosina Londo; Fioralba Vela
Cultural/Heritage tourism market has always been seen as very important in tourism development in Albania, even before 90‘s. It‘s important in nowadays to be focused in a very well planned development of this form of tourism, as cultural tourism is trying to be one of the key determinants of Albanian tourism development. In Albania it has been developed since before 90‘s, time when tourism itself did not have the proper attention by the government. It must be emphasized that cultural tourism ...
Bardhosh Ferraj; Elisabeta Susaj; Lush Susaj; Irena Kallco
“Kallmet” is one of the most sprout autochthonous wine grape cultivar in the North-western and Central part of Albania. Study was conducted in three consecutive years, 2009-2011, in Malësia e Madhe, 250 m above the sea level, in the North-western part of Albania, in a 10 years old vineyard. For evaluation of the main characteristics the IPGRI Descriptors of Grapevine was used. Form of the new shoot tip of “Kallmet” is half-open, with no anthocianic coloration, and densely prostrate hairs. The...
Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.
Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164
Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar
Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.
Christian Reinhard Vogl
Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.
Madubuike U. ANYANWU
Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.
Alejandro H Buschmann
Full Text Available Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.
Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.
Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemic in Western Europe is largely due to subtype B. Little is known about the HIV-1 in Eastern Europe, but a few studies have shown that non-B subtypes are quite common. In Albania, where a recent study estimated a ten-fold increase of AIDS incidence during the last six years, subtype A and B account for 90% of the know infections.We investigated the demographic history of HIV-1 subtype A and B in Albania by using a statistical framework based on coalescent theory and phylogeography. High-resolution phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis showed a limited introduction to the Balkan country of subtype A during the late 1980s followed by an epidemic outburst in the early 1990 s. In contrast, subtype B was apparently introduced multiple times between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. Both subtypes are growing exponentially, although the HIV-1A epidemic displays a faster growth rate, and a significantly higher basic reproductive number R(0. HIV-1A gene flow occurs primarily from the capital Tirane, in the center of the country, to the periphery, while HIV-1B flow is characterized by a balanced exchange between center and periphery. Finally, we calculated that the actual number of infections in Albania is at least two orders of magnitude higher than previously thought.Our analysis demonstrates the power of recently developed computational tools to investigate molecular epidemiology of pathogens, and emphasize the complex factors involved in the establishment of HIV-1 epidemics. We suggest that a significant correlation exists between HIV-1 exponential spread and the socio-political changes occurred during the Balkan wars. The fast growth of a relatively new non-B epidemic in the Balkans may have significant consequences for the evolution of HIV-1 epidemiology in neighboring countries in Eastern and Western Europe.
Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R
Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demiraj, Eglantina; Mucaj, Liri; Bicja, Mirela
The climate change scenarios for Albania are prepared by using MAGICC/SCENGEN software, by CRU/UEA. MAGICC is run to calculate the global changes by using the mid- range IS92a emission scenario as the reference scenario and SRESA1, SRESA2, SRESB1 and SRESB2 as policy scenarios. SCENGEN is run using 6 of the available standardized GCM global warming patterns (HadCM2, UKTR, ECHAM4, CSIRO-TR, UIUC-EQ, GFDLLO). A composite pattern is constructed by using these 6 GSM altogether for each scenario. The climate change scenario for Albania leads to an annual increase in temperature up to 3.6 o C and decrease in precipitation to -12.5% by 2100 related to 1990. Severe summers with high temperatures (up to 4.10 o C) and low precipitation (up to -27%) are expected to meet over the territory that may cause negative or positive impacts. Autumn seems to play the second role in annual changes. Milder winters and warmer springs are expected as well. A decrease in the long term mean annual and seasonal runoff has to be expected for the whole territory and for three time horizons (years 2025, 2050, 2100). It would affect the surface water flow, reducing its amount. Under reduced surface flow and increased evaporation, the storage of reservoirs will decrease, which will effect the energy production by hydropower stations. Because of the reduction of stream flows in the wetlands, western part of Albania would experience both increasing demands for water and reduced supply of water, which would decrease wetland area. Other consequences of expected warming include not only changes in total water amount and levels, but also erosion of riverbeds, and modification of turbidity and sediment load. (Author)
Buonomo, E; Doro Altan, A M; Cenko, F; Godo, A; Scarcella, P; Fioramonti, L; Marazzi, M C; Palombi, L
Albania is a Balkan country in South-Eastern Europe which, in recent years, has undergone complex demographic, political and economical changes. A notable drop in infant and maternal mortality rates and a significant rise in economic indicators have been observed in recent years. Despite this, over 15% of the population living in the northern and north-eastern areas of the country lives in extreme poverty conditions. In recent years various healthcare system reforms have been introduced, including the introduction of private healthcare and improvement of the main hospital infrastructures but not much has been done to increase the provision of essential healthcare services especially in rural and poor areas. Inequalities in health care are therefore widespread and these particularly affect children living in critical areas. In this paper we describe a paediatric healthcare intervention programme conducted in Albania from 2002 to 2004, aimed at improving the health and nutrition status of children and tackling healthcare system inequalities. The intervention consisted in offering free healthcare services and assistance, delivered through the Albanian healthcare system, to 5280 children. It also involved a health education programme for the mothers. The impact of the programme on the prevalence of infant malnutrition was evaluated by examining the medical records of 1745 infants followed for at least 6 months. Prevalence of malnutrition significantly decreased, from 13.4% to 4.2% during the study period. Mortality in children aged 0-5 years also showed a considerable drop. These results confirm that an efficient and sustainable model of paediatric healthcare assistance in Albania is possible.
Buka, Migena; Bilgiç, Reyhan
In the present study, the attitudinal differences between public and private schoolteachers in Albania were investigated. Since the type of the organization varies, one would expect different climates for the emergence of job attitudes--mainly job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment, the most frequently studied job attitudes in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. It was hypothesized that the private schoolteachers would be more satisfied than public schoolteachers, especially due to high levels of payment and other desirable conditions. However, the public schoolteachers will be more involved than the private schoolteachers since they have to justify their continued work under the undesirable conditions. The commitment level of the private schoolteachers will be higher than the public schoolteachers since there is usually high correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Data were gathered from a total of 429 teachers working in public (n = 254) and private (n = 175) schools in Albania, in high and middle schools. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. The results indicated that the private schoolteachers were more satisfied, as expected, revealed a weaker job involvement and were more committed to their school than their colleagues in the public sector. The results were found to be in line with previous studies conducted in the west. However, this study is believed to have a potential contribution to the literature in general, and to the Albanian local literature in particular. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no similar study in Albania. Discussion is provided along with the limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.
Hor, K. W.; Salleh, S. M.; Abdullah; Ezree, Mohd; Zaman, I.; Hatta, M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ismail, A. E.; Mahmud, W. A. W.
The high market demand has led to the rapid growth in fish farming. The young generation are inexperienced in determining the estimated results of fish farming and the preparation of fish pond during the period of fish farming. These need a complete guide as their reference which includes the knowledge of fish farming. The main objective of this project is to develop a practical design of real pond appropriate with aquaculture technology and fish farming production. There are three parts of study in this project which include fish farming cage, growth of fish and water quality of fish farming pond. Few of experiments were carried out involved the collection data in terms of growth of fish and parameters of water quality.
Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Robert, Rene; His, Edouard
Les travaux concernant l'utilisation d'algues unicellulaires pour la nutrtion de larves et de juvéniles de bivalves d'intérêt commercial sont analysés. Sur une cinquantaine d'espèces d'algues testées, un dizaine seulement sont produites en grande quantité dans des écloseries commerciales sous le non "d'algues fourrage". Les principales espèces employées sont décrites et leurs caractéristiques majeures illustrées. Les critères permettant de retenir une espèce pour son utilisation en aquacultur...
Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne
for the development of methods to reproduce European eel in aquaculture. Two major projects: Artificial Reproduction of Eels II and III (ROE II and III) succeeded during 2005-2008 to produce viable eggs and larvae that lived up to 12 days. The larvae thereby accomplished the yolk-sac stage and became ready to start...... feeding. The results were in particular promising because they evidenced that methods successfully applied to Japanese eel has a potential for application also to the European eel. ROE II and III were supported by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and the European Commission through...... the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG) and the Danish Food Research Program 2006, respectively. Results: The REEL project accomplished through three series of experiments to consolidate previous results. The longevity of larvae was extended from 12 to 20 days after hatch in first feeding...
Heyong Jin Roh
Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.
This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Albania carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation
Graf, Wolfram; Pauls, Steffen U; Vitecek, Simon
In this contribution, we describe Isoperla vjosae sp. nov. from Albania. We characterize males, females, and larvae of the new species collected at the Vjosa River using morphological and molecular approaches. Isoperla vjosae sp.nov. is a member of the I. tripartita group, which is widely distributed in the Balkans. This new endemic species is being threatened by a proposed hydroelectric power dam on the Vjosa River impacting the type locality - a large, shifting gravel, low altitude River - an atypical habitat for larvae of the I. tripartita group. For the first time we use molecular tools to delineate Isoperla species from the Balkans.
Full Text Available This article deals with the current situation of labor resources in Albania and its trends from the viewpoint of their contributions to the overall country progress. A real partnership between business and public institutions, the efforts to formalize the economy, to promote discipline and better application of international standards are considered key issues for the future country developments. The effective management of human resources and coordination could not be reached without profound structural and economic reforms, without free entrepreneurship initiative encouragement, and without mutual confidence between the employers and the employees.
Jokanović, Igor; Grujić, Bojana; Zeljić, Dragana; Grujić, Žarko; Svilar, Mila
The provision and maintenance of road infrastructure is a major global business, consequently it is essential that road maintenance services are provided in the most cost effective manner. Without regular maintenance, roads can rapidly fall into disrepair, preventing realization of the longer term impacts of road improvements on development, such as increased agricultural production and growth in school enrollment, which is of particular importance for a network of local (access) roads. Inadequate local roads maintenance in Albania is proposed to be solved by implementing performance based maintenance approach for which the costing exercise is presented within the paper.
Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Gli evangelici albanesi a favore della lingua, della cultura, dell’identità e dell’indipendenza - 2. La nuova Costituzione albanese e il ripristino della libertà religiosa - 3. Le trattative per la stipula dell’accordo di cooperazione - 4. I contenuti dell’accordo e i suoi effetti nel rapporto con la legislazione ordinaria a tutela della libertà religiosa - 5. La proiezione dell’efficacia degli accordi nell’area dell’Albania etnica – 6. Gli accordi di cooperazione: un modello esportabile?
Paisley, Larry; Ariel, Ellen; Lyngstad, T. M.
in the Nordic countries has a long history; beginning in the 1850s when hatcheries for restocking of salmon and trout were established in Norway. Nowadays, Atlantic salmon is the dominant cultured species in Norway and the Faroe Islands, whereas rainbow trout dominate in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Arctic......The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems...
Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.
Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone
protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial...... communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully...
*Table of Contents* Sustainable Aquaculture Fertilization, soil and water quality management in small-scale ponds part II:Soil and water quality management S. Adhikari Fisheries and aquaculture activities in Nepal Tek Gurung Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: A knowledge-base for rural aquaculture Farmers as Scientists: Commercialization of giant freshwater prawn culture in India M.C. Nandeesha Aquaculture in reservoir fed canal based irrigation systems of I...
... of Sri Lanka is increasingly emphasizing aquaculture development as a means to foster ... Pilot interventions tested the effectiveness of mobile short text messaging to ... Building on this project, researchers will test three ways of scaling-up ...
Naylor, Rosamond L.; Hardy, Ronald W.; Bureau, Dominique P.; Chiu, Alice; Elliott, Matthew; Farrell, Anthony P.; Forster, Ian; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Goldburg, Rebecca J.; Hua, Katheline; Nichols, Peter D.
Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it. PMID:19805247
Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register” (RFC; in the socio-economic aspects: 187 jobs are generated; on technical aspects: the average area for cultivation is 410.11 ha, 79% of production is Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.. The aquaculture activity on Alvarado, Veracruz, it is in a learning process, therefore strategies are needed in order to the development of the activity and increasing production; improving cultivation methodologies and training producers on managing their aquaculture units.
The present level of thermal aquaculture, utilizing thermal water which is waste cooling water from nuclear power plant, in Japan is reported. There are 13 major potential areas for thermal aquaculture in cooperation with conventional type thermal power plants, seven of which are actually operating. Aquaculture facilities of all these are on land, none in the sea. Of these seven centers, those that have already commercialized their nursery methods or are approaching that stage of research and development, are Tohoku Hatsuden Kogyo Ltd., Tsuruga Hama Land Ltd. and Kyushu Rinsan Ltd. Major problems faced specialists in Japanese thermal aquaculture are water temperature, water quality, radioactivity and costs. For keeping the water temperature constant all seasons, cooling or heating by natural sea water may be used. Even negligible amounts of radioactivity that nuclear power plants release into the sea will concentrate in the systems of marine life. A strict precautionary checking routine is used to detect radioactivity in marine life. (Kobatake, H.)
Documents related to EPA's preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential impacts related to the issuance of a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Rose Canyon Sustainable Aquaculture Project.
The study investigated types of improved aquaculture technologies used by the ... fish farmers culture fish in earthen ponds, for commercial and home consumption ... fishes/m2 (98.3%), water quality management (99.1%) and fish ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...
Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.
industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...
growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...
Majority of aquaculture practices are still based on extensive and semi-intensive farming systems though a trend to intensify operations to enhance yields and improve the efficiency of the production process has emerged in recent years. Apart from...
Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...
...; little reached commercial markets. Although trout had been produced for food since the turn of the century, only with the advent of the catfish culture industry did commercial aquaculture gain visibility as a market force...
...; little reached commercial markets. Although trout had been produced for food since the turn of the century, only with the advent of the catfish culture industry did commercial aquaculture gain visibility as a market force...
Full Text Available You will see three historical monument together wherever youlook from the centre square of the capital city, Tirana, Albania. Thesethree historical monuments which became the symbol of Albania areEthem Beg Mosque, Clock Tower and Skenderbeg Statue. Inheritedfrom the Ottoman State, Ethem Beg Mosque and Clock Tower wereagreed to be the symbol of Islam and Turk wherease Skenderbeg Statue,made in the period of Enver Hoxha(1968 was usually accepted to bethe symbol of Chiristianity.On one hand the unity of socalled historical monument may beinterpreted as figural image of Islam and Christianity conflict, on theother hand the three symbol historical monuments, all together in thesame square may show a meaningful indicator among the two religionsfor the sake of peace and tolerence. It was Turks who always havebehaved in tolerence to the nations of which she lived togetherthroughout history.In recent days, all efforts concering the city cross-stitchingreligious missionary activities and making intensive effort in order toincrease the rate of Christianity in Albania of which %70 percent arestill Muslim provide a foundation for a sphere of conflict. Nobody givesfull guarantee on this case. For that reason the most direct rod map onpreventing conflict is tolerence.Tolerence makes people closer to eachother in all conditions. Thatpeople love eachother and protect common values of humanity is onlypossible to have a great tolerence among themselves. After September11 Events in America, all people in the world understood how muchreligious tolerence they need.In this concern, these three symbols must be accepted in allactivities such as conference and meeting and supported continuously. Arnavutluk’un başkenti Tiran’ın merkez meydanın hangi cephesinden bakılırsa bakılsın üç eserin bir arada olduğu görülecektir. Arnavutluk’un simgesi haline gelen bu üç eser, Ethem Bey Camii, Saat Kulesi ve İskender Bey Heykelidir. Osmanlı Devleti’nden bize
Le Sri Lanka se tourne vers l'aquaculture pour diversifier son économie rurale et accroître sa production alimentaire, particulièrement dans les provinces du nord et de l'est du pays, qui se relèvent du conflit civil. Bien que l'aquaculture représente une stratégie de sécurité alimentaire prometteuse, elle doit être gérée de ...
Halley E. Froehlich
Full Text Available Offshore aquaculture is increasingly viewed as a mechanism to meet growing protein demand for seafood, while minimizing adverse consequences on the environment and other uses in the oceans. However, despite growing interest in offshore aquaculture, there appears to be no consensus as to what measures commonly define an offshore site or how effects of offshore aquaculture—relative to more nearshore practices—are assessed. This lack of agreement on what constitutes offshore aquaculture has the potential to convolute communication, create uncertainty in regulatory processes, and impede understanding of the ecological implications of offshore farming. To begin addressing these issues, we reviewed and analyzed biologically-focused primary and gray literature (Ntotal = 70 that categorize and quantify characteristics of offshore aquaculture from around the world. We found that many “offshore” descriptions are relatively close to shore (<3 nm and significantly shallower (minimum depth ≤30 m than may be assumed. We also uncovered an overall lack of consistent reporting of even the most common location-focused metrics (distance from shore, depth, current, a dearth of impact related studies (n = 17, and narrow scope of the studies themselves (i.e., 82% nutrient pollution. Of the finite subset of articles that investigated negative ecological impacts of offshore aquaculture, we found the probability of any measurable impact from an offshore farm appears to significantly decrease with distance from the farm (probability of measurable response at 90 m ± SE = 0.01 ± 0.03. Such general, but informative points of reference could be more robustly quantified with better systematic and standardized reporting of physical farm characteristics and a broader scope of ecological investigation into the effects of marine aquaculture. With offshore aquaculture still in its infancy, consistent metrics are needed for a comparable framework to guide sustainable
Zhang , Jiaran; Li , Daoliang; Wang , Cong; Ding , Qisheng
International audience; Conductivity is regard as a key technical parameter in modern intensive fish farming management. The water conductivity sensors are sophisticated devices used in the aquaculture monitoring field to understand the effects of climate changes on fish ponds. In this paper a new four-electrode smart sensor is proposed for water conductivity measurements of aquaculture monitoring.The main advantages of these sensors include a high precision, a good stability and an intrinsic...
Dollani, K.; Grillo, B.; Telhaj, E.
Attempts for the establishing of a safe and secure radioactive material transport in Albania began a decade ago with formulation of the different regulation in the field of safe and secure handling of the radioactive materials. In 2004 a special regulation for the safe transport of radioactive material was prepared and approved by the National Radiation Protection Commission). This regulation has been based in the IAEA standards for the radioactive material transport and was reviewed periodically. The last regulation of the radioactive material transport was approved by Albanian government through a governmental ordinance. The transport of the radioactive material in Albania is performed by licensed subjects, which fulfill all requirements of the mentioned governmental ordinance. Based in the existing regulation, for each transport of radioactive material, a special permission is issued by NRPC. The issuing of permission allows competent authority to provide necessary information on transport regularity and to have under survey all transports of the radioactive material carried out inside the country. Last year were issued more than 80 permissions for the transport of the different types and categories of the radioactive sources. (author)
Full Text Available Wage of both public and private sectors is a very important source of incomes for most of the population in Albania. The importance of public sector wage policy exceeds the sector's actual share of total employment, because the level of wages in this sector is, to a certain extent, a point of reference for wages in the private sector, too. During the first transition years the wages of a great number of the employees, whose enterprises had stopped being operational, were practically a form of social support. The data for this paper are gathered from all the surveys done on wages during transition from the public sources and the institute of statistics. From these data results that the wages have increased recurrently, first of all to counter the inflationary effects and to provide a better remuneration to the employees in both sector, despite the global financial crisis. This is due to the lack of full integration in the global markets. In this paper we discuss about the wage tendency in Albania as a country in further development, exposed to the risks of the global financial crisis, and the reaction to the difficulties encountered while the country is preparing for the EU integration.
Full Text Available Basidiomata of a wild mushroom macroscopically recognised as Pleurotus ostreatus were observed on an oak trunk in a mixed wood of northern Albania. Pure cultures of the fungus were then obtained on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Molecular analyses of genomic DNA of the fungus confirmed its identification. The rDNA ITS region nucleotide sequence of the studied Pleurotacea matched at 99% those of two P. ostreatus strains already present in NCBI GenBank database. The rDNA ITS nucelotide sequences of two pure cultures of the Albanian P. ostreatus were deposited in EMBL database under the accession numbers LN849458 and LN849459. One of the fungus isolates was subsequently cultivated under protected and semi-natural conditions. Productivity and biological efficiency of the Albanian P. ostreatus ranged from about 10% to 16% and from 33 to 53.33%, respectively. This seems to be the first report on the artificial cultivation of P. ostreatus in Albania and could have, in the next future, a high economic impact on development and diffusion of this important edible mushroom over the country.
Enkelejda Metaliaj (Softa
Full Text Available The states between them create a kind of cooperation, which appears in the creation of political alliances, increase in the level of cooperation, greater use of more efficient and streamlined means for unifying ways of acting. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters comes as an old tradition, with different stages of development and dictated by political and historical conditions in which every country has passed. In the case of Albania, seen in a historical context, since the birth of the Albanian state and during the existence of the communist regime (1944-1990, judicial cooperation in criminal matters in general, and the implementation of extradition, in particular refers to only bilateral treaties between different countries, which were a clear expression of political alliances of the time. With the democratic changes occurring in the early 90s, along with the establishment of relations with many countries of Europe and the world, judicial cooperation in criminal matters was given an important role in setting the bases in the legislative framework and this led to the signing of the European Convention “On Extradition” (and its Protocols which its ratification by the Republic of Albania, which has become part of the domestic Albanian legislation, establishing a set of binding standards, which have already been applicable to the Albanian legislation.
Full Text Available The inspiration that drove us to this study is that conventional tourism in Albania is focused more on promoting seaside, cultural tourism, luxury resorts, etc. which has demonstrated a good trend. At the same time, specific parts of the country have been abandoned due to their underdeveloped situation. Given their assets as constructed and indigenous habitat, they progressively appear as regions for rural tourism development. It could provide good development opportunities in remote mountainous areas that every day more are abandoned by the population because they do not have enough employment opportunities. But as for other rural areas which have a great potential for development of rural tourism, they are not preferred by the population either to live because they do not have developed agriculture. They do not provide the opportunity to earn enough money to live on at the appropriate standard. So the development of rural tourism would help the population in such areas to diversify their activities and earn some extra income, motivating inhabitants to stay in their own areas. Overall, it would contribute to the balanced development of the regions of Albania.
Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to provide relevant findings on the status of management accounting in Albanian Accounting Practices, based on the direct survey with selected companies and individuals (experts on the field. In our analysis we have used as a benchmark the IFAC statement on Management Accounting Concepts and its description of the evolution of management accounting. To achieve our objectives we prepared and provided to a large group of professional accountants (that mainly are dealing with bookkeeping and financial statement preparations a structured questionnaire, containing several questions on the status of the practices applied in Albania on management accounting. This survey was carried out during the first half of 2009. Findings of this paper are based on the answers given by 300 respondents. These answers point out that management accounting practices in Albania tend not to be complex and sophisticated. Budgeting, product profitability and financial performance measurement remain the central pillars, while other, most contemporary, management accounting techniques are sporadically used. There is also little evidence of management accounting concerned directly with "value creation".
Full Text Available As competitiveness is growing in the Balkans, a new approach in the development of heritage tourism, which can adapt to these circumstances, is required. Cluster practices can be the new approach that can improve competitiveness of Albanian tourism. Considering the nature of Albania and its rich heritage, it is a very attractive “magnet” for foreign tourists. The article starts with a presentation of tourism experience in Albania and discusses why heritage tourism is possibly the only way to develop tourism now and for the future, in the country. Some brief explanation concerning cluster practices follow: a presentation of the main issues about cluster practices, their benefits and drawbacks, their implementation and the ways they can be monitored and evaluated. It is important to direct attention to the fact that cluster practices are becoming an important means to development and to the enforcement of social capital in the geographical areas where they are implemented. In the end of the article is shown why cluster practices can be worth of being implemented in area of Butrint-Saranda-Gjirokastra-Korca. The paper concludes with the main findings and conclusions of the analysis.
Full Text Available Fighting poverty is a major challenge for Albania, in which tourism can make a significant contribution. However, it is important to analyze the basic concepts behind specific policies and actions that would allow tourism to be effective, like the possibilities offered by micro-credit. In fact, tourism development must be properly managed, avoiding anarchic, speculative development, so that it can be transformed into benefits for the local people and their environment. This paper will list seven areas of action through which tourism development in Albania as a Mediterranean country could fight poverty, with several of them relating to the possibilities created by micro-credit. After analyzing each of these approaches, a methodology must be drawn up for selecting the most effective projects from two points of view – interest for tourism and impact on poverty reduction.
Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.
Full Text Available Development aid is a financial aid given by governments, NGOs, global and regional unions, or private entities to support the development of developing countries, as a consequence also of Albania as one of them. Its main reason is decreasing poverty and encouraging development. Many literatures reveal evidences of the impact these financial aids have on the economic growth of a country. This paper creates a link between the research done and the practice by making a detailed description of the phenomena and making clear how the effects are derived. It further analyzes the economic development of Albania in terms of net income during the last 30 years, and the corresponding financial aid allocation for each year. Starting with the interpretation of the financial aid amount allocated each year; this research paper also extends the information regarding the fields of economy where this aid is invested. The descriptive statistics shows that financial aid has noticeably increased from year to year and its impact on the economy as well.
Full Text Available For a very long time, Albania has had one of the highest levels of fertility in Europe: in 2002 the total fertility rate of 2.2 children per woman was the highest in Europe. Although this current level is high, the country has experienced a rapid fertility reduction during the last 50 years: a TFR decline from 7 to 2.2. This reduction has occurred in the absence of modern contraception and abortion, which indicates the significance of investments in the social agenda during the communist regime that produced policies with indirect effects on fertility. Most significant of these were policies focused on education, in particular on female education. Social and demographic settings for a further fertility reduction in Albania have been present since 1990. Contraception and abortion have been legalized and available since the early 1990s, but knowledge of their use is still not widespread in the country, largely due to the interplay between traditional and modern norms of Albanian society. This chapter points out that future fertility levels will be determined not only by new policies that might be introduced, but predominantly by the balance of this interplay.
Full Text Available Albania is formerly the most closed country in Europe and has suffered from severe economic and political problems during the last two decades. In the southern part lies Gjirokastra, birthplace of former dictator Enver Hoxha, and home to diverse communities of Albanians and Greeks. Gjirokastra Old Town, proclaimed Museum City by the regime in 1961 and later turned into a UNESCO World Heritage City, climbs the steep western side of the Drinos valley. During the communist era the city was heavily industrialized with a metal work factory as well as factories for products such as shoes, refrigerators, and umbrellas. On the eastern side is the archaeological site of the ancient city of Antigonea, thus defining a landscape with long historical processes and a multitude of narratives and interpretations. In recent years this landscape has witnessed increased efforts to secure what are perceived heritage values, focusing on the older structures i.e. the world heritage part of the city and the archaeological site. However, the structures of post-war era of Albania contribute significantly to the full context of the landscape, but since the mid-1990s and the collapse of Albanian post-communist economy the former industrial sites are increasingly deteriorating. Parallel with severe economic problems with massive volumes of unemployed, a criminally based economy on drug trafficking is increasing. This paper will discuss the societally based problems in securing different heritage assets for a positive societal development.
MSc. Valdrin Dervishaj
Full Text Available Banks need to make thorough analysis and take into consideration all the potential risks that arise related to their lending, preventing bad loans mostly during economic slowdown. The Non-Performing Loans (now on referred as NPL in Kosovo continued falling from 8.7% as it was in 2013 to 8.3% in 2014. While in 2014 NPL level decreased, the provisioning for loans continued to increase from 110.5% to 114.4%. This is a positive toward any unexpected situation. Lost loans have continued to increase in moderated way for the last four years. Banking Sector in Albania since the last economic recession entered into third period of development which shows huge problems with high NPL ratio, credit shrink, lower banks’ profitability and intensive attempts to introduce stabilizing mechanisms. NPL ratio was the highest in South East Europe Countries (now on referred as SEEC region, number of outstanding loans tended to decrease such as profit in banking sectors. As a response to highest NPL ratio compared to world level, Kosovo authority has set only guidelines for restructuring and monitoring the process of regularity. This provides banks with a wide range of autonomy in the procedures of restructuring. Authority in Albania has been active in the process of normalizing the system. In 2013 has introduced the guideline on corporate loan restructuring. The guideline promotes 12 principles.
Full Text Available This study provides an in-depth analysis of the value chain governance in the fruit sector in Albania. Particular attention was paid to the nature of relations between agricultural producers and marketing channel chosen by them, distinguishing between big wholesalers, local collectors and exporters, longer-term relations, commitment and trust, and contracting along the value chain. Given the absence of, or weak, contract enforcement and the clear evidence of embeddedness in dyadic relationships in this chain, we focused our analysis on sustained relationships, contracting and personal bonds as a determinant factor to improve business relationship quality. This paper is based on a structured survey targeting 182 orchard farmers in two leading fruit production regions in Albania, namely Korca and Peshkopia. The survey showed a weak prevalence of verbal contracts in embedded relationships. The percentage of contracts between farmers and local collectors is slightly higher compared to wholesalers. This evidence is much stronger when we investigate the incidence of contracts in stable relationships (i.e. selling to the same buyer. We also find that mature relationships generate higher sustainability - a result which does not come as a surprise, although the coordination between farmers and other actors downstream is only at early stages. The main implications which arise from our analysis are relevant for agribusinesses, farmers and policy makers.
This study aims to consider children's perspectives about free time activity choices. Through the use of drawings, favourite free time activities of third culture kids in Albania are compared with those of children in the UK. The sample comprises four boys and three girls from four to eight years from each country. Further conversations reveal…
Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111
M. M. Kathleen
Full Text Available The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture’s surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n=20, while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n=90. The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n=94 which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.
Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos
Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not
Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Stauvermann, Peter Josef; Patel, Arvind; Kumar, Radika Devi
In this article, we explore the long-run cointegration between output, capital and energy consumption, in per worker terms, for Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. We use the augmented Solow (1956) model and the ARDL bounds procedure (Pesaran et al., 2001) to examine the short-run and long-run effects of energy and capital on output (in per worker terms). We also conduct causality test using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) non-causality procedure. Our results show the existence of long-run cointegration between output per worker and energy per worker for all the four countries. We find that energy per worker have a dynamic short-run positive effect in Albania (0.37%), Bulgaria (0.25%), Hungary (0.36%) and Romania (0.68%), and a long-run positive effect in Bulgaria (0.32%) and Romania (0.63%) which duly indicate that energy consumption has a momentous long-run effect in these two countries. The causality results indicate a unidirectional causation from output per worker to energy per worker for all the four countries, and from capital per worker to energy per worker for Albania and Romania. Consequently, a balance between effective energy consumption and sound energy conservation policies are likely to support economic growth in the four countries. - Highlights: • Energy has a short-run positive effect in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. • A long-run positive elasticity is noted in Bulgaria and Romania. • Output per worker cause energy per worker in the four countries. • A unidirectional causality from capital to energy is noted for Albania and Romania
Myers, Melvin L
Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .
Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S
Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.
Smith, Kenan C
The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.
Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan
Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993
Rani, Faisyal; Rafiqa, Adni Luthfi
This research purpose to explain about the role of End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) International to solve child trafficking case in Albania (2007-2012). ECPAT International is a non-governmental organization which take focus on solving child trafficking case and ECPAT International has had affiliate in some country in the world, one of them is Albania.Authors analyze and explain about child trafficking condition which is occure...
Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha
The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters
Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product qua...
Heredia Salazar, Brunilda
The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country [es
Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.
FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)
Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.
In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.
Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10 5 kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10 6 kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10 4 kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated
Vyshka, Gentian; Kruja, Jera
The extent to which dementia affects a person's testamentary capacity has been the subject of much litigation with some countries introducing legal tests to assess capacity. In light of substantial societal change in Albania in the last two decades and an epidemic of property litigation, Albanian legal practice is witnessing an increasing number of attempts to posthumously nullify wills. Plaintiffs are mainly relatives of the deceased testator who are unhappy with the quantity or quality of the property they have inherited. Based on plaintiffs' claims, solicitors may request expert neuropsychiatric reviews postmortem, often basing their position on prescription drug use by the testator during his/her last years of life. The authors discuss ethical issues intrinsically related to the difficult role of a potential expert witness in these litigation cases.
Full Text Available Competition discipline in the European Union is a substantial component of the EU’s institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty made the “internal market” a shared competence, while necessary competition rules for the internal market are an exclusive competence of the Union. This paper aims to analyse the sources of the competition discipline in the EU and in Albania focusing more on constitutional sources. From this analyses will emerge that sources of competition discipline are numerous and each of them plays an important role in the development of the competition policy. But arises the question if these sources are all equally important or not? This paper will focus also n the importance of each source in both levels: European Union and Albanian discipline of competition.
Kordha Tolica, Ermelinda; Gorica, Klodiana
This book examines the relationship between information society and information communication technology (ICT) markets, while evaluating the ICT impact on Albanian society and its economy. It offers insights on the country's information society development and compares it to other nations. The book begins with a general introduction to information society and efforts that can be used for ICT strategy. It then takes a look at ICT as an industrial sector and uncovers the importance for a strong ICT infrastructure management. Using this background information, the book finally explores the growing information society and ICT sector found in Albania. It measures the information society being created, and compares it to other countries in South Eastern Europe. Next the authors introduce a theoretical model for ICT driven development, focusing on ICT innovation and investment as factors that can affect the ICT market. These factors have also taken into account for strategy development in the national and industr...
Mitrushi, Driada; Berberi, Pëllumb; Muda, Valbona; Buzra, Urim; Bërdufi, Irma; Topçiu, Daniela
The main objective of this study is to compare data provided by Database of NASA with available ground data for regions covered by national meteorological net NASA estimates that their measurements of average daily solar radiation have a root-mean-square deviation RMSD error of 35 W/m"2 (roughly 20% inaccuracy). Unfortunately valid data from meteorological stations for regions of interest are quite rare in Albania. In these cases, use of Solar Radiation Database of NASA would be a satisfactory solution for different case studies. Using a statistical method allows to determine most probable margins between to sources of data. Comparison of mean insulation data provided by NASA with ground data of mean insulation provided by meteorological stations show that ground data for mean insolation results, in all cases, to be underestimated compared with data provided by Database of NASA. Converting factor is 1.149.
Babani, F.; Civici, N.; Mullaj, A.; Kongjika, E.; Ylli, A.
Heavy metal contamination of soils causes serious problems to our society. A small number of interesting plant species have been identified that can grow in soils containing high levels of heavy metals, and can also accumulate these metals to high concentrations in the shoot. The heavy metal contents in root, shoot, leaves and flowers of spontaneous plants grown in metalliferous sites in Albania together with the elemental composition of the native soils were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus of analyzed ecotypes was evaluated via chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during induction kinetics. Response of plant root system to the presence of metals, the available pools of metals to plants, effect of plant biomass to phytoextraction, photosynthetic pigment metabolism and chlorophyll fluorescence signature of leaves allowed to characterize hyperaccumulator properties and to detect the variation between selected ecotypes to heavy metal accumulation.
Toto, Emanuela; Massabo, Marco; Deda, Miranda; Rossello, Laura
In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. The DesInventar system consists in a methodology and software tool that lead to the systematic collection, documentation and analysis of loss data on disasters. The main sources of information about disasters used for the Albanian database were the Albanian Ministry of Internal Affairs, the National Library and the State archive. Specifically for floods the database created contains nearly 900 datasets, for a period of 148 years (from 1865 to 2013). The data are georeferenced on the administrative units of Albania: Region, Provinces and Municipalities. The datasets describe the events by reporting the date of occurrence, the duration, the localization in administrative units and the cause. Additional information regards the effects and damage that the event caused on people (deaths, injured, missing, affected, relocated, evacuated, victims) and on houses (houses damaged or destroyed). Other quantitative indicators are the losses in local currency or US dollars, the damage on roads, the crops affected , the lost cattle and the involvement of social elements over the territory such as education and health centers. Qualitative indicators simply register the sectors (e.g. transportations, communications, relief, agriculture, water supply, sewerage, power and energy, industries, education, health sector, other sectors) that were affected. Through the queries and analysis of the data collected it was possible to identify the most affected areas, the economic loss, the damage in agriculture, the houses and people affected and many other variables. The most vulnerable Regions for the past floods in Albania were studied and individuated, as well as the rivers that cause more damage in the country. Other analysis help to estimate the damage and losses during the main flood events of the recent years, occurred in 2010 and 2011, and to recognize the most affected sectors. The database was
Šmit, Ž.; Tartari, F.; Stamati, F.; Vevecka Priftaj, A.; Istenič, J.
A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st–4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE–PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium–manganese–iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age
Tartari, Flamur; Buzo, Stiliano; Vyshka, Gentian
The apparatus invented by Dr. Luigj Benusi in 1943, in Tirana, was a practical application of the Kowarsky technique and Ambard laws, helping in determining blood urea levels and very important to a variety of diseases, mainly kidney disorders. The apparatus was invented and prepared from very simple laboratory materials, such as glasses, test tubes, corks and volumetric cylinders. Technologically, it was based upon the determination of blood urea through hypobromite, and, among the advantages of the apparatus of Benusi, were its extreme simplicity, the smaller amount of blood needed for producing results (2 milliliters), as well as an easiest way to clean up and to manage the apparatus from a practical point of everyday use.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mobile operator users living in Tirana, urban area and its outskirts. The level of confidence for sampling is 95%, (p <0.05. The used methodology is implemented through interviews with experts (the employee of mobile operators, as well as, observation of the service process in general and face to face interview according to a properly designed questionnaire. The evaluation methods for approving the hypothesis are based on linear regression and ÷2 tests. This paper aims to find a significant correlation between the duration of contractual agreement and the occupation of the mobile service users. There is significant dependence between groups of age and the variables like Web-page of the operator, signal coverage and the price of 3Gservice
Lukassen, Mie Bech; Schramm, Edward; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund
the distribution of geoA in more than 50 European and Brazilian aquaculture systems has allowed us to identify the diversity among geosmin-producing bacteria. The different populations of geosmin-producers were evaluated relative to plant design, environmental and operational parameters in full-scale aquaculture...... systems using multivariate statistics. The influencing parameters identified were subsequently validated by testing their gene expressions in well-controlled pilot scale aquaculture systems. The results show that the geoA gene is a relative well-conserved gene with limited horizontal gene transfer events...... phase. Furthermore, the gene expressions of the individual groups show positive correlations to the organic loading and presence of oxygen. The current study reveals the presence of important populations involved in geosmin production and which parameters are of importance for their presence...
von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian
Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... and/or economic reasons.A potential alternative technology for removing nitrate currently applied for treating surface and drainage water is based on using wood by-products as a carbon source for denitrification. Using lab-scale horizontal-flow woodchip filters, the current study investigated...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...
Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, I; Ponte, Stefano
In this article, we explain what shapes food value chains through the analysis of selected aquaculture industries in four key Asian producing countries. Worldwide production of aquatic resources has grown rapidly in the past few decades, and aquaculture production in Asia has played a decisive role...... in this growth. We examine the main forms of coordination found along these value chains and the role that institutional frameworks play in governing them. We observe that negative publicity, driven by NGO and media campaigns, has led to increased use of third-party certification and the adoption of public...... and private standards. We find that the most sophisticated aquaculture operations in Asia are found in value chains led by retailers and branded processors and where the quality of domestic institutional frameworks has facilitated compliance with increasing demands from buyers overseas. Finally, we reflect...
Zhao, J; Chen, M; Quan, C S; Fan, S D
In many countries, infectious diseases are a considerable threat to aquaculture. The pathogenicity of micro-organisms that infect aquaculture systems is closely related to the release of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, both of which are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Thus, QS disruption is a potential strategy for preventing disease in aquaculture systems. QS inhibitors (QSIs) not only inhibit the expression of virulence-associated genes but also attenuate the virulence of aquaculture pathogens. In this review, we discuss QS systems in important aquaculture pathogens and focus on the relationship between QS mechanisms and bacterial virulence in aquaculture. We further elucidate QS disruption strategies for targeting aquaculture pathogens. Four main types of QSIs that target aquaculture pathogens are discussed based on their mechanisms of action. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hambly, Adam; Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming
The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs...
Diana, J.S.; Egna, H.S.; Chopin, T.; Peterson, M.S.; Cao, L.; Pomeroy, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Slack, W.T.; Bondad-Reantaso, M.G.; Cabello, F.
As aquaculture production expands, we must avoid mistakes made during increasing intensification of agriculture. Understanding environmental impacts and measures to mitigate them is important for designing responsible aquaculture production systems. There are four realistic goals that can make
Rothuis, A.J.; Duijn, van A.P.; Rijsingen, J.C.M.; Pijl, van der W.; Rurangwa, E.
This study aims to assess the potential role of aquaculture in improving food security in Kenya. It addresses current bottlenecks that prevent aquaculture from achieving its food security objectives and identifies possible interventions. This study furthermore explores business opportunities for
de Oliveira, Pedro Keller; Cavalli, Richard Souto; Kunert Filho, Hiran Castagnino; Carvalho, Daiane; Benedetti, Nadine; Rotta, Marco Aurélio; Peixoto Ramos, Augusto Sávio; de Brito, Kelly Cristina Tagliari; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; da Rocha, Andréa Ferretto; Stech, Marcia Regina; Cavalli, Lissandra Souto
Aquaculture has many occupational hazards, including those that are physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and mechanical. The risks in aquaculture are inherent, as this activity requires particular practices. The objective of the present study was to show the risks associated with the aquaculture sector and present a critical overview on the Brazilian public policies concerning aquaculture occupational health. Methods include online research involved web searches and electronic databases including Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scielo and government databases. We conducted a careful revision of Brazilian labor laws related to occupational health and safety, rural workers, and aquaculture. The results and conclusion support the idea that aquaculture requires specific and well-established industry programs and policies, especially in developing countries. Aquaculture still lacks scientific research, strategies, laws, and public policies to boost the sector with regard to occupational health and safety. The establishment of a safe workplace in aquaculture in developing countries remains a challenge for all involved in employer-employee relationships.
CONTENTS: Sustainable Aquaculture - Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture: Aquaculture for Poverty Alleviation and Food Security - Part II. Shrimp pond waste management by U Win Latt. The role of rural extension in the sustainable development of Chinese aquaculture by Min Kuanhong. Farmers as Scientists: Diversity enhances profitability and sustainability by M.C. Nandeesha. Properties of Liming Materials by Claude E. Boyd, Mali Boonyaratpalin & Taworn Thunjai. Seed Produc...
Full Text Available We employed mtDNA and nuclear SNPs to investigate the genetic diversity of sheep breeds of three countries of the Mediterranean basin: Albania, Greece, and Italy. In total, 154 unique mtDNA haplotypes were detected by means of D-loop sequence analysis. The major nucleotide diversity was observed in Albania. We identified haplogroups, A, B, and C in Albanian and Greek samples, while Italian individuals clustered in groups A and B. In general, the data show a pattern reflecting old migrations that occurred in postneolithic and historical times. PCA analysis on SNP data differentiated breeds with good correspondence to geographical locations. This could reflect geographical isolation, selection operated by local sheep farmers, and different flock management and breed admixture that occurred in the last centuries.
... Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service... requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture. This census is required by law under the ``Census of... results of the 2005 Census of Aquaculture were released in October 2006. For more information, visit...
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production system in the world. The research program at the USDA-ARS-SNARC strives to improve the efficiency and sustainability of warmwater U.S. aquaculture. SNARC scientists have impacted the catfish (#1 U.S. aquaculture industry), tilapia (#3) and hybrid st...
Food security, fisheries and aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon : final technical report (March 1, 2011 to February 28, 2014). Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Pêches, aquaculture et bien vivre en Bolivie : contributions à la sécurité alimentaire. Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia ...
Food security, fisheries and aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon : final technical report (March 1, 2011 to February 28, 2014). Download PDF. Briefs. Pêches, aquaculture et bien vivre en Bolivie : contributions à la sécurité alimentaire. Download PDF. Briefs. Fisheries, aquaculture and living well in Bolivia : contributions to ...
Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.
Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have
Narasimha Rao Vajjhala; Salu George Thandekkattu
Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can benefit significantly from investments in e-commerce and e-business. However, the adoption of e-commerce has been quite slow and limited among SMEs, especially in transition economies. Interviews were conducted with senior managers from 30 medium-sized enterprises in a transition economy – Albania, three from each of the ten key sectors, namely, information and communication technology (ICT), tourism, banking, financial servi...
Bojaxhi, Faruk; Toromani, Elvin
Background and Purpose: Trees growing at high elevations are particularly sensitive to climate variability. In this study, tree-ring chronologies of Pinus heldreichii Christ. have been developed to examine their dynamism along a 350 km latitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in 6 high elevation sites along a latitudinal gradient from Kosovo and Albania. Two opposite cores from 148 healthy and dominant P. heldreichii trees were taken using an increment borer. Th...
FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ
Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pest...
During the communist regime and until 1995 homosexual relations were senteced by law in Albania as a criminal offense. Membership in the Council of Europe and the ratification of the European Convention on Human Rights brought as a result the improvement of the legal framework and the abolition of the condemnation of homosexual relations. The first attempts of activism were shown in the form of meetings on joint activities organized by the Gay community in public spaces or cruising areas. In ...
Full Text Available Albania has potential for developing the organic agriculture sector; however, it is a new industry and constraints abound including lack of consumer preferences information for organic food. Knowledge on consumer preferences and behaviour toward organic (bio products is crucial for market development benefiting potential entrepreneurs and government policies. They need to know the preference for preferred product attributes and willingness to pay. Tomato, which is the most important vegetable in terms of consumption and production in Albania, is the subject of this study. A conjoint choice experiment with the most important product attributes: production type (bio vs. conventional, production system (open field vs. greenhouse, origin and price were used to design the choice surveys. Four distinct classes have been identified as significant using latent class analysis. The classes are summarized as: bio-ready consumers, price sensitive consumers, variety seeking consumers and quality seeking consumers. Origin played a small influence on preference. Education and income did show some influence on preference for organic tomatoes. Although the organic food market in Albania is in its infancy stage, organic tomatoes are clearly preferred and many consumers are willing to pay a premium price.
Hybridization, triploidization and genetic mapping were also briefly reviewed as aquaculture-oriented genetic techniques to improve growth and other commercially important traits. Cryopreservation and other biotechnologies potentially applicable on genetic improvement were also briefly mentioned as supporting tools for ...
More than 700 million people depend on aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) for their livelihood. These are diverse farming systems that include a mix of cultivation, livestock-raising, aquaculture, fishing, and gathering natural resources such as fruits, seeds, timber and wildlife. However, there are many constraints that ...
This scenario leaves a high percentage of the population who depend on fish and fish products food insecure, and thus, the need to boost aquaculture production to argument the supply from the wild. The study therefore looks into the possibility of boosting the production systems through the use of micro-credit and ...
Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.
This Peace Corps training manual was developed from two existing manuals to provide a comprehensive training program in fish production for Peace Corps volunteers. The manual encompasses the essential elements of the University of Oklahoma program that has been training volunteers in aquaculture for 25 years. The 22 chapters of the manual are…
Leal, M.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Petersen, D.; Osinga, R.
Coral aquaculture is an activity of growing interest due to the degradation of coral reefs worldwide and concomitant growing demand for corals by three industries: marine ornamental trade, pharmaceutical industry and reef restoration. Although captive breeding and propagation of corals is a
Feed-based production of ictalurid catfish in ponds is the largest aquaculture sector in the United States. The feed biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD) typically is 1.1-1.2 kg O2/kg feed. Feed also results in a substantial increase of carbon dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphate to ponds, and this ...
Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Office of Public Information and Publications.
This program is designed to involve students in the economy of their community. It combines an interdisciplinary educational program with practical field and laboratory experience. This program provides opportunities in the area of aquaculture, controlled cultivation of marketable species and the total ecological corrections necessary to maintain…
Henriksson, P.J.G.; Rico, A.; Zhang, W.; Al-Nahid, A.; Newton, R.; Phan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.; Jaithiang, J.; Dao, H.M.; Phu, T.M.; Little, D.C.; Murray, F.J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, Q.; Haque, M.M.; Kruijssen, F.; de Snoo, G.R.; Heijungs, R.; van Bodegom, P.
We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different
Pollution is an age – long problem which has become wide spread due to increase in human population, expanding human settlement and advances in production technologies. Similarly, aquaculture is also on the increase but as a result of increase in the demand of cheap, high quality protein necessitated by high ...
Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.
The global aquaculture production of crustaceans, shellfish and fish has to increase to satisfy the growing demand and also to compensate for the reduced capture from overexploited fisheries. Extending the area of brackish and fresh water ponds is constrained by the limited availability of land and
Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia (CIFSRF) ... for their families' consumption in the same ponds as large fish, which can be sold for income. ... The project also studies opportunities to scale up the model for broader use ... Assessing improvements in nutrition outcomes following agricultural ...
use of check trays and adjustment of feed accordingly (95.0%), formation of ... Key words: adoption, improved aquaculture, shrimp farmers ... Brackish water shrimp farming is getting more attention because of high profitability ..... water and pond water whereas 52.5% of farmers did not observe the actual acclimatisation.
Bruijn, de Irene; Liu, Yiying; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and
capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...
The project will also test the efficacy of different governance models for sustainable aquaculture management, to understand which institutional partnerships work best for knowledge mobilization. Third, the project will find ways to overcome factors currently limiting sustainable production, namely the supply of fingerlings for ...
Risk aversion and emotions in the management of climate-related risks by fish farmers. IDL-56181.pdf. Papers. Climate-related risks to cage aquaculture in the reservoirs of Northern Thailand. IDL-56141.pdf. Papers. Weighing Costs, Weathering Risks: Adaptive Strategies of Fish Farmers Facing Multiple Risks in Northern ...
One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been
Schneider, O.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.
This paper analyses nutrient conversions, which are taking place in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. In these systems fish is cultured next to other organisms, which are converting otherwise discharged nutrients into valuable products. These conversions are analyzed based on nitrogen and
Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma
neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support...... a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast....
Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...
Janssen, K.P.E.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Besson, M.B.; Komen, J.
In breeding programs for aquaculture species, breeding goal traits are often weighted based on the desired gains but economic gain would be higher if economic values were used instead. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a bio-economic model to derive economic values
Gender and the management of climate-related risks in northern Thailand. Papers. Risk aversion and emotions in the management of climate-related risks by fish farmers. Papers. Mainstreaming climate change into inland aquaculture policies in Thailand. Papers. Improving climate risk management as an adaptation ...
Pham, T.A.N.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Le, T.C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
This study aims to analyze the economic feasibility of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in pangasius farming in Vietnam. The study uses a capital budgeting approach and accounts for uncertainty in key parameters. Stochastic simulation is used to simulate the economic performance of medium and
Webber, H H; Riordan, P F
The problems of vertically-integrated aquaculture are outlined; they are concerned with: species limitations (in the market, biological and technological); site selection, feed, manpower needs, and legal, institutional and financial requirements. The gaps in understanding of, and the constraints limiting, large-scale aquaculture are listed. Future action is recommended with respect to: types and diversity of species to be cultivated, marketing, biotechnology (seed supply, disease control, water quality and concerted effort), siting, feed, manpower, legal and institutional aids (granting of water rights, grants, tax breaks, duty-free imports, etc.), and adequate financing. The last of hard data based on experience suggests that large-scale vertically-integrated aquaculture is a high risk enterprise, and with the high capital investment required, banks and funding institutions are wary of supporting it. Investment in pilot projects is suggested to demonstrate that large-scale aquaculture can be a fully functional and successful business. Construction and operation of such pilot farms is judged to be in the interests of both the public and private sector.
We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...
Background: Global aquaculture production has increased continuously over the last five decades, and particularly in China. Its aquaculture has become the fastest growing and most efficient agri-sector, with production accounting for more than 70% of the world’s aquaculture output. In the new century, with serious challenges regarding population, resources and the environment, China has been working to develop high-quality, effective, healthy, and sustainable blue agriculture through the application of modern biotechnology. Sound knowledge related to the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms has laid a solid foundation and provided the innovation and technology for rapid development of the aquaculture industry. Marine biotechnology, which is enabling solutions for ocean productivity and sustainability, has been promoted since the last decades of the 20th Century in China. Objective: In this article, priority areas of research, mainly genetic breeding, omics studies, novel production systems, biosecurity, bioprocesses and biorefinery, as well as the major progress of marine biotechnology R&D in China are reviewed. Conclusion: Current innovative achievements in China are not enough and the level and frequency of academic advancements must be improved. International cooperation and assistance remain crucial for the success of marine biotechnology. PMID:28553577
Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.
The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.
With increasing food production challenges such as dwindling capture fisheries and impacts of climate change becoming more eminent, solutions to food insecurity and malnutrition in Kenya must bring about quick results in food availability by stimulating more own-food production. Aquaculture has so far been recognized ...
Full Text Available Although the Mediterranean represents only 0.8% of the world seas, it is the site of a very long-established fishing activity, characterized mainly by multispecific catch and by artisanal or coastal activity, resulting from a mosaic of very diversified structures and gears, along more than 45,000 km of coastline. Two main biological features of this sea are the occurrence of a large richness of species (it represents 5.5% - 7% of world marine fauna and 16.6% of macrophyta, which stands in contrast with its ‘trophic poverty’ and the absence of large monospecific fishery, except for some small and large pelagic fish. Another biological characteristic of Mare Nostrumis the high invasion of exotic species, some exploited by fishery and aquaculture, some others quite dangerous. For the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea, the production (catch + aquaculture had been steadily increasing over the period 1972-1988 from 1,140,000 t to 2,080,000 t . The period 1988-1991 has shown a drastic drop in catches (in 1991: 1,400,000 t. From 1990 to 1995 the total catch increased to 1,701,379 t then decreased and in 2000 reached 1,485,046 t . In 2000 Turkey had the first place with 496,174 t, 26.9% of the total value (1,846,026 t, including fishing and aquaculture, followed by Italy with 25%, Greece 9%, Spain 7.6% and Algeria 5.4%. As in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean is rapidly expanding. In 1970 the total aquaculture production was about 18,297 t of which 74.3% produced in Italy. In 2000 a value of 358,614 t was reached, about 1/4 of the total fishery catch, while the world aquaculture production corresponds to half of the world total catch. Italy is still the main producer with 46.7% , followed by Greece with 21.5%, Turkey 9.9% and France 6.7%. A sharp drop in the production of the European eel ( Anguilla anguilla and of the European flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis is recorded. Positive and negative interactions between
Full Text Available Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands. Data from adjacent weather stations were analyzed together with in situ water quality instrument deployments spanning a 12-year period (November 2004 -November 2016. We found correlations between two periods with extremely high fish mortality at He'eia Fishpond (May and October 2009 and slackening trade winds in the week preceding each mortality event, as well as surface water temperatures elevated 2-3°C higher than the background periods (March-December 2009. We posit that the lack of trade wind-driven surface water mixing enhanced surface heating and stratification of the water column, leading to hypoxic conditions and stress on fish populations, which had limited ability to move within net pen enclosures. Elevated water temperature and interruption of trade winds previously have been linked to the onset of El Niño in Hawai'i. Our results provide empirical evidence regarding El Niño effects on the coastal ocean, which can inform resource management efforts about potential impact of climate variation on aquaculture production. Finally, we provide recommendations for reducing the impact of warming events on fishponds, as these events are predicted to increase in magnitude and frequency as a consequence of global warming.
Fry, Jillian P.; Mailloux, Nicholas A.; Love, David C.; Milli, Michael C.; Cao, Ling
Globally, demand for food animal products is rising. At the same time, we face mounting, related pressures including limited natural resources, negative environmental externalities, climate disruption, and population growth. Governments and other stakeholders are seeking strategies to boost food production efficiency and food system resiliency, and aquaculture (farmed seafood) is commonly viewed as having a major role in improving global food security based on longstanding measures of animal production efficiency. The most widely used measurement is called the ‘feed conversion ratio’ (FCR), which is the weight of feed administered over the lifetime of an animal divided by weight gained. By this measure, fed aquaculture and chickens are similarly efficient at converting feed into animal biomass, and both are more efficient compared to pigs and cattle. FCR does not account for differences in feed content, edible portion of an animal, or nutritional quality of the final product. Given these limitations, we searched the literature for alternative efficiency measures and identified ‘nutrient retention’, which can be used to compare protein and calories in feed (inputs) and edible portions of animals (outputs). Protein and calorie retention have not been calculated for most aquaculture species. Focusing on commercial production, we collected data on feed composition, feed conversion ratios, edible portions (i.e. yield), and nutritional content of edible flesh for nine aquatic and three terrestrial farmed animal species. We estimate that 19% of protein and 10% of calories in feed for aquatic species are ultimately made available in the human food supply, with significant variation between species. Comparing all terrestrial and aquatic animals in the study, chickens are most efficient using these measures, followed by Atlantic salmon. Despite lower FCRs in aquaculture, protein and calorie retention for aquaculture production is comparable to livestock production
Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A
Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.
Full Text Available We investigate some characteristics of foreshock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible foreshocks, we obtained a probabilistic relation between possible foreshocks and mainshocks. From documentary and instrumental data for the period 1901-1994 for the area between 39.0°- 43.0°N and 18.5°-21.5°E we evaluated the probability of the occurrence of mainshocks immediately after their possible foreshocks. The result shows that the probability that mainshocks with magnitude M ³ 6.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.4, distance £ about 50 km and time £ 10 days is 38% (6/16. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.4 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 6.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.3% (6/468, but the probability increases to 33% (1/3 if 7 earthquakes with M ³ 4.4 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. From instrumental data for the period 1971-1994, the probability that mainshocks with M ³ 5.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.0 is 33% (5/15. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.0 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 5.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.9% (5/262, but the probability increase to 5.6% (1/18 if 3 earthquakes with M ³ 4.0 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. We also found a regional variation of foreshock activity with activity decreasing from the Vlora-Elbasani-Dibra transversal seismic belt to the Ionian-Adriatic seismic zone to the interior part of Albania seismic zone.
Максим [Maxim] Макарцев [Makartsev
Full Text Available On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South Eastern Albania In the article I consider official texts in Slavic dialects in Albania. Three texts are taken as examples: “An Internal Handbook for Organising the Work of a Regional Committee at a District/Prefecture Level of MAEI [Macedonian Alliance for European Integration]” (2009, a letter written by the villagers of Boboshtica to the Bulgarian Exarch (1873, and The “Charter of the Society of Kaynas” (2006. They make use of language in its symbolic function – the way these texts are written is almost as important as what exactly is written. These texts have been created to showcase the language and to underline its uniqueness against the background of another language or idiom, or, to put it another way, to underline through the language the special status of the people that use it. Oficjalne teksty w słowiańskich dialektach okolic Korczy w południowo-wschodniej Albanii Artykuł omawia oficjalne teksty powstałe w słowiańskich dialektach Albanii. Wybrano przykładowo trzy teksty: Wewnętrzne wytyczne w sprawie organizacji pracy komitetu MAEI na poziomie okręgu/prefektury (2009, list mieszkańców Boboszticy do bułgarskiego egzarchy (1873 i Statut towarzystwa „Kajnas” (2006. Te trzy teksty posługują się językiem w sposób symboliczny. To, w jakiej odmianie języka są napisane, jest równie ważne, jak ich treść. Teksty te powstały bądź po to, aby pokazać język i podkreślić jego unikalność na tle innego języka, lub po to, aby poprzez język podkreślić szczególny status ludzi, którzy się nim posługują.
Edlira Harizi (Shemsi
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and
Background Ethnobotany in South-Eastern Europe is gaining the interest of several scholars and stakeholders, since it is increasingly considered a key point for the re-evaluation of local bio-cultural heritage. The region of Gollobordo, located in Eastern Albania and bordering the Republic of Macedonia, is of particular interest for conducting ethnobiological studies, since it remained relatively isolated for the larger part of the 20th Century and is traditionally inhabited by a majority of ethnic Macedonians and a minority of Albanians (nowadays both sharing the Muslim faith). Methods An ethnobotanical survey focused on local food, medicinal, and veterinary plant uses was conducted with 58 participants using open and semi-structured interviews and via participant observation. Results We recorded and identified 115 taxa of vascular plants, which are locally used for food, medicinal, and veterinary purposes (representing 268 total plant reports). The Macedonian Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) was greater than the Albanian TEK, especially in the herbal and ritual domains. This phenomenon may be linked to the long socio-cultural and linguistic isolation of this group during the time when the borders between Albania and the former Yugoslavia were completely closed. Moreover, the unusual current food utilisation of cooked potatoes leaves, still in use nowadays among Macedonians, could represent the side effect of an extreme adaptation that locals underwent over the past century when the introduction of the potato crop made new strategies available for establishing stable settlements around the highest pastures. Additionally, the difference in use of Helichrysum plicatum, which is popular in the local Macedonian folk medicine but absent among Albanians, confirms the particular significance of this taxon as it relates to the yellow colour of its flowers in South Slavic folklore. Conclusion Botanical studies with an ethnographic approach are crucial for
Sapto P. Putro
Full Text Available The increase of fishery production nationally and internationally may impact on the potential emergence of a variety of environmental problems. The application of sustainable aquaculture is urgently needed by breeding fish for commercial purposes in a manner such that it has a minimum impact on the environment, contributing to the development of local communities and generating economic benefits. The design of the cage and farming practice in aquaculture activities are the important steps to ensure that farming activity is still observed in order to anticipate the risk of organic enrichment caused by the activities. The application of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA on the Stratified Double Floating Net Cage (SDFNC integrated with biomonitoring are an appropriate solution to the ongoing productive farming practices. IMTA is an aquaculture practice using more than one species of biotas which have ecologically mutual relationship as a part of the food chain in the area at the same time. The application of IMTA allows farmers to get several aquaculture products in the same area without increasing the horizontal area of the farms. At first, the SDFNC has been applied for farming Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia niloticus as polyculture system in freshwater ecosystem of Rawapening Lake, Central Java. Its operation has been able to increase the production capacity of at least 75% of conventional cages. The application of SDFNC-IMTA using milkfish (Chanos Chanos, seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii, and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been able to minimize the impact and maintain the water ecosystem in the Gulf Awerange, South Sulawesi.
Full Text Available For the first time a comparison of variable external characters of a series of males and females of Pseudochazara amymone (Brown, 1976 from southern Albania is conducted. Pseudochazara amymone, flying together with P. mniszechii tisiphone (Brown, 1980, was local and quite common in steep valleys on ophiolite substrate on two separate mountains, one of which is a recently discovered locality by Eckweiler (2012, while the other one is a new locality. An analysis of external characters of all specimens from the two localities suggests no statistically significant differences. In the field, patrolling P. amymone males are easily distinguished from P. mniszechii tisiphone males but this is not the case for females, and therefore we provide determination keys for males and females of these two species. These are based on a statistical analysis of a specimen series from one Albanian P. mniszechii tisiphone population compared with all P. amymone in this study. Photographs of androconia, copula and some extreme forms of P. amymone are presented. To encourage further research in this poorly explored country a map is included, showing all historical records of Papilionoidea from literature, including our own observations.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of parasites in equines in Albania, where there is still a considerable number of working equines, particularly the donkeys. A total of 336 (68 horses, 190 donkeys and 78 mules faecal samples were tested using standard coprological methods. The results showed that an average of about 47.8% of animals used to obtain faecal samples, were infected with one or more parasitic elements. In particular, amongst the examined equines, 60.3% of the horses, 44.2% of the donkeys and 46.2% of the mules were infected. Strongylus spp. was found in 47.3%, Anoplocephala spp. in 3.8%, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi in 7.6% and Parascaris equorum in 1.9% of the animals. Strongyles were significantly more prevalent between October and December compared to the rest of the year. Examination of larval cultures according to geographical distribution, showed that 41%, 43% and 44% of individuals were found positive for small strongyles. A total of 11 (8.9, 15 (16.9 and 19 (15.3 individuals according to above geographical distribution were found infected with Strongylus vulgaris.Key words: equine, epidemiology, strongyles, blood parasites, serology
Schettino, Antonio; Perna, Roberto; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Ghezzi, Annalisa; Tassi, Luca; Sforzini, David
We report on a combined magnetic-GPR survey performed in 2015-2017 at the ancient Roman city of Hadrianopolis, located in southern Albania, in the context of the project Teatri Antichi Riuniti (TAU). The collected data supplemented previous archaeological surveys performed by the University of Macerata with the aim of promoting the valley and starting the realization of an archaeological park. Hadrianopolis was founded through a reorganization of a previous Hellenistic settlement. Starting from 2015, magnetic and GPR surveys were carried out in Hadrianopolis in order to determine the urban framework. The collected data revealed the existence of structures organized along two main different patterns, which have been interpreted as due to the superposition of Roman buildings and Late Antiquity structures. In fact, the arrangement of structures in the studied area shows a regular urban organization of Roman type separated by a less regular disposition of the buildings that can be attributed to the Byzantine age. The latter arrangement is superimposed on the previous Roman structures. A stone wall, clearly identified by the combination of magnetic anomalies and GPR images, separates the Byzantine seattlement from the genuine Roman sector.
Full Text Available The market today is confronted with cornucopia of challenges and opportunities. The unfolding scenario is being closely watched by marketers across the globe and they are competing with each other to grasp the market share. In order to win over the consumers, marketers are constantly evolving strategies.The western firms based and operating from market-based economies are progressively being confronted with the growing challenge of creating brand awareness amongst the perspective consumers. As a result, advertising has become an essential marketing tool for these foreign firms in establishing their relatively less or unknown brands and products. The study aims to report the results of a survey about changing attitudes towards advertising in Albania. It examines the questionnaire - based response of a sample population of consumers from the city of Vlora, in their general attitudes towards advertising. Findings will contribute to the understanding of theoretical explanations for advertising in emerging markets, and of western firms using advertising marketing tool to penetrate these markets.
Valbona Pajo Bala
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Albanian constitutional and legal framework on referenda, in general, focusing special attention to the abrogative referenda of a law or part thereof. Given the absence of any concrete case of an abrogative referenda held in Albania, which does not creates very much room for discussion in that regard, the paper, through a comparative approach on the referenda culture in other european states, aims at offering to the reader a more complete view on the mechanisms and guarantees enjoyed by voters and the effective way of their use, in order to give life to the direct democracy, but without replacing the representative one. In addition, part of the analyses will be the powers of the Constitutional Court for the ex ante constitutional review of the issue subject to a referendum, the review of constitutionality of the referndum and of its results. In this context, the paper will focus on the constitutional case-law as a tool for increasing the referenda culture and shaping the constitional order, as well as a source of standards and values. Another objective of the paper is to open a discussion on the need for the reception of referenda-related standards elaborated in those European countries, where the culture of helding a referenda and the case-law on the regard is enriched and may serve as a qualitative basis for further reference.
Michael L. Galaty
Full Text Available This article presents the results of archaeological, (ethno-historic, and ethnographic research in the Shala River valley of northern Albania. We argue that through time and in different periods of occupation - Middle Palaeolithic, Iron Age, Late Medieval, and Modern - the valley's residents have met similar challenges of extreme geography and a harsh environment differently, in particular by interacting in different ways and at different levels of intensity with the outside world. These shifts caused changes in population, settlement, and socio-political organisation that are reflected strongly in the local landscape and built environment. Population, settlement, and socio-political organisation did not hold constant, but were influenced by external forces, despite the seeming isolation of the valley and its occupants. This article demonstrates how thin material and documentary records can be greatly enhanced through carefully integrated, interdisciplinary studies of settlement, home construction, and neighbourhood expansion and abandonment. We present select results drawn from an on-line database and GIS, along with photos, drawings, and audio recordings of transcribed interviews. An interactive system of blogs allows the authors to direct readers to additional sources of data, and readers to tell authors and other readers how they have accessed and displayed these data, and with what results.
Xhixha, G.; Ahmeti, A.; Bezzon, G. P.; Bitri, M.; Broggini, C.; Buso, G. P.; Caciolli, A.; Callegari, I.; Cfarku, F.; Colonna, T.; Fiorentini, G.; Guastaldi, E.; Mantovani, F.; Massa, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Mou, L.; Prifti, D.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Kuqi, D. S.; Shyti, M.; Tushe, L.; Xhixha Kaceli, M.; Zyfi, A.
This study focuses on the radiological characterisation of building materials manufactured in Albania by using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of 40 K , 226 Ra and 232 Th were, respectively, 644.1±64.2, 33.4 ± 6.4 and 42.2 ± 7.6 Bq kg -1 in the clay brick samples and 179.7 ± 48.9, 55.0 ± 5.8 and 17.0 ± 3.3 Bq kg -1 in the cement samples. The calculated activity concentration index (ACI), varied from 0.48±0.02 to 0.63±0.04 in the clay brick samples and from 0.29±0.03 to 0.37±0.02 in the cement samples. Based on the ACI, all of the clay brick and cement samples were categorised as A1 materials. The authors can exclude (at 3s level) any restriction of their use as bulk materials. (authors)
Full Text Available The increasing spread of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Europe and US raises public health concern due to the species competence to transmit several exotic human arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and urges the development of suitable modeling approach to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of the mosquito. Here we developed a dynamical species distribution modeling approach forecasting Ae. albopictus eggs abundance at high spatial (0.01 degree WGS84 and temporal (weekly resolution over 10 Balkan countries, using temperature times series of Modis data products and altitude as input predictors. The model was satisfactorily calibrated and validated over Albania based observed eggs abundance data weekly monitored during three years. For a given week of the year, eggs abundance was mainly predicted by the number of eggs and the mean temperature recorded in the preceding weeks. That is, results are in agreement with the biological cycle of the mosquito, reflecting the effect temperature on eggs spawning, maturation and hatching. The model, seeded by initial egg values derived from a second model, was then used to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of eggs abundance over the selected Balkan countries, weekly in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The present study is a baseline to develop an easy-handling forecasting model able to provide information useful for promoting active surveillance and possibly prevention of Ae. albopictus colonization in presently non-infested areas in the Balkans as well as in other temperate regions.
Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.
Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.
Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.
Xhixha, G; Ahmeti, A; Bezzon, G P; Bitri, M; Broggini, C; Buso, G P; Caciolli, A; Callegari, I; Cfarku, F; Colonna, T; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Massa, G; Menegazzo, R; Mou, L; Prifti, D; Rossi Alvarez, C; Sadiraj Kuqi, Dh; Shyti, M; Tushe, L; Xhixha Kaçeli, M; Zyfi, A
This study focuses on the radiological characterisation of building materials manufactured in Albania by using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were, respectively, 644.1±64.2, 33.4 ± 6.4 and 42.2 ± 7.6 Bq kg(-1) in the clay brick samples and 179.7 ± 48.9, 55.0 ± 5.8 and 17.0 ± 3.3 Bq kg(-1) in the cement samples. The calculated activity concentration index (ACI), varied from 0.48±0.02 to 0.63±0.04 in the clay brick samples and from 0.29±0.03 to 0.37±0.02 in the cement samples. Based on the ACI, all of the clay brick and cement samples were categorised as A1 materials. The authors can exclude (at 3σ level) any restriction of their use as bulk materials.
Full Text Available Departing from the contemporary work of migrant authors of Albanian origin − OrnelaVorpsi, Anilda Ibrahimi and Elvira Dones − as well as from the theatrical monologueItalianesi by Saverio La Ruina, this article delves into the question of identity within postcolonial discourse. What role, in fact, do the Italian colonizers that remainedbehind in the liberated colonies play? How does their ‘hybrid’ identity help us toreflect upon colonial violence and upon the difficulties the colonizers themselves would have experienced internally when faced with accepting this violence? Additionally, the specific discussion of Albania, vis-à-vis narratives of contemporary migrants, allows us to reflect upon the Italian situation in particular, which, from unification to the present day offers specific material for the discussion of the relationship to, and the confronting of, the theme of ‘otherness’. A broad definition of ‘European’ colonialism − that goes beyond the alleged African otherness and runs along the same lines as a redefinition vehemently proposed by new groups of migrants in Italy (in particular by those from the Albanian immigration wave of 1991− allows one to question the Italian ambitions in regards to the Balkans and the Eastern expansion across national borders.
Dillingham, John; And Others
A 1989-90 project determined the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in the aquaculture industry. The study identified technical materials and other resources available in private industry and higher education institutions. Two surveys determined the status of aquaculture in Texas school districts and identified tasks performed by…
Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S
The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.
Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim
The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.
Guterstam, B.; Forsberg, L.E. [Stensund Ecological Center, Stensunds Fold Center, S-61991 Trosa (Sweden); Buczynska, A. [Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, 175 Wolczanska strasse, PL-90942 Lodz (Poland); Frelek, K. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, PL-80416 Gdansk (Poland); Pilkaityte, R. [Natural Science Faculty, University of Klaipeda, LT-5813 Klaipeda (Lithuania); Reczek, L. [Department of Water Supply and Sewage Systems, Warsaw Agricultural University, 166 Nowoursynowska strasse, PL-02787 Warsaw (Poland); Rucevska, I. [Latvian Environmental Data Center, Straumes 2, Jurmala LV 2015 (Latvia)
This paper is a summary of an in-depth study of key factors in the function of a 7-year-old aquaculture system designed for treatment and recycling of domestic wastewater at Stensund, Trosa, Sweden. The reported areas are: wastewater flows, reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus, nitrogen, and fecal bacteria. Plant production is recorded as harvested biomass, and energy results are given as generated heat and electricity consumption. Special studies were conducted on the reduction of copper by anaerobic treatment. Nitrification was studied with different filter media. Microalgal autofocculation of phosphorus was studied in relation to pH and water hardness for the green algal genus Scenedesmus. Limiting factors for the growth of Daphnia magna in the zooplankton step of the constructed aquatic food-web was studied in a specially designed reproduction test. The results are analyzed in order to optimize the function of the wastewater aquaculture
There is some merit of thermal water from power plants in the effect to marine life. Since 1963, the research and development on the aquaculture using this warm water have been carried out at some twenty power plants, seven nuclear and thirteen thermal, some of which are now in the commercial stage. These fish farming projects are operated variously from seed to adult fish production. They can also be classified as land and sea facilities, conforming to the characteristics of the respective sea areas. The current situation in this field and the future prospect are described: thermal aquaculture including seed production and adult fish farming; the projects in nuclear and thermal power plants, respectively; future problems in the facilities, breeding environment and marine life for cultivation. (Mori, K.)
Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw
challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable...... environmental externalities. A sustainable supply of high-quality live feeds at reasonable prices is absolutely essential for aquaculture hatcheries because many commercially produced high-value marine fish larval species, such as flounder, grouper, halibut, tuna and turbot, require live feed for their early...... developmental stage. The key challenge in this regard is that the conventional used live feed items, Artemia and rotifers, are nutritionally deficient. Thus, the first main purpose of the thesis is carrying out an economic analysis of the feasibility of commercial production and the use of an alternative live...
À l'heure actuelle, près de la moitié des animaux aquatiques que consomment les humains sont issus de l'aquaculture, une proportion qui est appelée à augmenter. Une grande partie de la production aquacole mondiale se trouve en Asie tropicale et subtropicale et constitue une importante source d'emploi et de sécurité ...
Due to overfishing of global fish stocks and increasing fish meal prices, plant ingredients are being increasingly used as an alternative source of protein in fish feeds. However, the inclusion of unpurified plant ingredients will also increase the content of fibers in feeds. Fibers are nearly indigestible and will therefore increase solid waste production in aquaculture. This solid waste can be used to as a carbon source for denitrification to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquacul...
Arzul, Isabelle; Ariel, E.; Hill, B.
The PANDA project aims to establish a permanent network of aquatic animal health specialists (researchers and diagnosticians) to provide a forum for the debate of issues concerning diseases in European aquaculture, and to communicate the results of these discussions to the European Commission with provision of advice on EU policy and legislation for aquatic animal health. PANDA consists of five scientific work packages: risk analysis, epidemiology, diagnosis, environmentally safe strategies f...
During the last decade, empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This paper argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries, such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated rather restrictive production function specifications on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated o...
During the last decade empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This report argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated production functions on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated on firm level observations of Norwegian salmon aquacu...
Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Svenstrup Petersen, Ole; Aarup Ahrensberg, Nick
European oceans will be subject to massive development of marine infrastructure in the near future. The most obvious is the energy facilities e.g. offshore wind farms, exploitation of wave energy, expansion of electricity connections, and also further development and implementation of marine...... aquaculture. These developments urgently require effective marine technology and governance solutions to facilitate installation, operation and maintenance of these novel offshore activities. Simultaneously, both economic costs and environmental impact have to remain within acceptable limits, in order...
Catherine Bouloux Marquet
Full Text Available We study a continuous deterministic host-macroparasite system which involves populations of hosts, parasites, and larvae. This system leads to a countable number of partial differential equations that under certain hypotheses, is reduced to finitely many equations. Also we assume hypotheses to close the system and to define the global dynamics for the hosts. Then, we analyze the spatially homogeneous model without demography (aquaculture hypothesis, and show some preliminary results for the spatially structured model.
Ce projet porte sur l'élevage du tilapia dans de petits étangs fermiers ou des cages flottantes dans les rivières et les réservoirs du nord de la Thaïlande. Les chercheurs exploreront des façons d'adapter les pratiques aquacoles aux changements climatiques et analyseront la valeur de l'aquaculture comme stratégie ...
Kobayashi, Mimako; Msangi, Siwa; Batka, Miroslav; Vannuccini, Stefania; Dey, Madan M.; Anderson, James L.
Seafood sector can contribute to the global food supply in an important way, and provide an important source of animal protein. Based on observed regional trends in seafood production and consumption and using a global, partial-equilibrium, multi-market model, this study investigates what the global seafood market may look like in 2030. The model projects that the total fish supply will increase from 154 million tons in 2011 to 186 million tons in 2030, with aquaculture entirely responsible f...
Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J
The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.
Medipally, S R; Yusoff, F M; Sharifhuddin, N; Shariff, M
Asian arowana, Scleropages formosus is a highly valued aquarium fish in the world, particularly in Asian countries, and has been listed as one of the most highly endangered species. This is a freshwater, carnivorous, fairly large mouth breeding fish belonging to the family Osteoglossidae. Arowana can be found in different colour varieties such as green, red, silver and golden. Among these varieties, Malaysian golden is the most valuable fish and is endemic to the Krian riverine system, Malaysia. However, overexploitation, habitat change and pollution have caused a serious decline of this arowana variety. Recently, arowana aquaculture industry is expanding rapidly in Southeast Asian countries. However, difficulties in an accurate differentiation of sex and strains, causing imbalanced stocking ratios for optimum spawning, remain major obstacles in maximizing arowana production. In addition, problems in sustainable water sources of suitable quality and prevention of diseases need to be addressed. Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and bioremediation are two possible technologies that could be used to minimize pollution and ensure adequate high-quality water for arowana culture. In addition, the application of appropriate molecular markers for sex and strain identification is also an important strategy required for the improvement of captive breeding. This review discusses several issues such as the importance of arowana as an aquarium fish, its market demand, current problems in the arowana aquaculture industry and the possible technologies to enhance reproductive capacity and increase culture production. ?
Full Text Available Aiming at low automation degree and backward aquatic product management of current aquaculture in China, this paper designed a set of radio communication and control system which consists of 3 parts of information collection module, control module and radio communication module. This system both realizes wireless monitoring of quality parameters of water for aquaculture and realizes wireless control of water level and dissolved oxygen value through radio communication. Test results show that data transfer is more accurate and reliable after adding customized protocol and answer signals in radio communication. The highest error and missing rate within 1000 m is 0.36, the lowest error and missing rate is 0.05 and the longest response time is 49 ms. The dissolved oxygen value detection system designed in this paper is close to the testing value of existing dissolved oxygen value transmitter DO6309. With wireless data transfer mode, it has higher practicality. The wireless control of dissolved oxygen value and water level can be controlled within the appropriate range with stable and precise control. The study results can provide intelligent aquaculture model with simple operation and precise control for enormous aquatic breeders
Latifi, Rifat; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Bakiu, Evis; Boci, Arian; Dasho, Erion; Olldashi, Fatos; Pipero, Pellumb; Stroster, John A; Qesteri, Orland; Kucani, Julian; Sulo, Ardi; Oshafi, Manjola; Osmani, Kalterina L; Dogjani, Agron; Doarn, Charles R; Shatri, Zhaneta; Kociraj, Agim; Merrell, Ronald C
To analyze the initial experience of the nationwide clinical telemedicine program of Albania, as a model of implementation of telemedicine using "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" strategy. This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from teleconsultations in Albania between January 1, 2014 and August 26, 2015, delivered synchronously, asynchronously, or a combination of both methods. Patient's demographics, mode of consultation, clinical specialty, hospitals providing referral and consultation, time from initial call to completion of consultation, and patient disposition following teleconsultation were analyzed. Challenges of the newly created program have been identified and analyzed as well. There were 1,065 teleconsultations performed altogether during the study period. Ninety-one patients with autism managed via telemedicine were not included in this analysis and will be reported separately. Of 974 teleconsults, the majority were for radiology, neurotrauma, and stroke (55%, 16%, and 10% respectively). Asynchronous technology accounted for nearly two-thirds of all teleconsultations (63.7%), followed by combined (24.3%), and then synchronous (12.0%). Of 974 cases, only 20.0% of patients in 2014 and 22.72% of patients in 2015 were transferred to a tertiary hospital. A majority (98.5%) of all teleconsultations were conducted within the country itself. The Integrated Telemedicine and e-Health program of Albania has become a useful tool to improve access to high-quality healthcare, particularly in high demanding specialty disciplines. A number of challenges were identified and these should serve as lessons for other countries in their quest to establish nationwide telemedicine programs.
Full Text Available The authors examine the logistic ecology of 30 large-scale networks that were active in human smuggling and trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium (1995–2003. Ten networks were studied in greater detail in order to determine three final profiles of networks, based on their use of structural and operational intermediary structures. They are called the “individual infiltration” and the “structural infiltration” human smuggling patterns, and the “violent-control prostitution” trafficking pattern. It should be noted that the business is organized in such a way that the organizers of the logistical support are never inculpated.
Dorela KAÇAUNI KONOMI
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show to what extent English teachers speak the MT (Albanian in the EFL classrooms when they teach Young English Learners in a public school in Korça, Albania. To achieve this, the researcher analyzed the data collected from four classroom observations in grades 3 up to 6. Three English teachers were interviewed and compared to show how much they used Albanian and reasons why they used it. The data obtained from the classroom observations and interviews showed that all the teachers used Albanian in the EFL classrooms in different extents and for different reasons.
Tran, Kim Chi; Tran, Minh Phu; Phan, Thi Van
Antimicrobials are important to treat diseases in aquaculture and the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of antimicrobial products commonly used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam. A total of 25 antimicrobial products were obtained from 20...... to strengthen diagnostic services, legislation and control of antimicrobial products in shrimp aquaculture and educate farmers on prudent antimicrobial use practices....
Gu Li; Shi-yang Zhang; Ling Tao; Xiao-li Li; Jing-hua Song; Chun-xue Zhang; Jian-qiang Zhu
Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture effic...
Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Galaty, Michael; Bejko, Lorenc; Sadori, Laura; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg; Koçi, Rexhep; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore
A multidisciplinary micro-paleontological study of a sediment core (SK19) drilled in the coastal area of Lake Shkodra, northern Albania, integrated with archaeological data from the Projekti Arkeologjikë i Shkodrës (PASH), provides compelling evidence for a long-term relationship between Shkodra's natural environment and its inhabitants. Charophyte and ostracod data recovered from SK19 combined with those already studied from the distal core SK13 (Mazzini et al., 2015), reveal important information concerning the changing characteristics of the water body through time. In particular, the ostracod fauna display a truly Balkanic character with eight taxa endemic to the area. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the two cores indicates that a wide marshland extended towards the present eastern coast of the lake, fed discontinuously both by surface- and ground-water, beginning sometime before 12,140 cal yrs BP. For about 7000 years ostracods do not record any significant changes, whereas the Characeae record in the proximal zone displays important variations. Those variations do not match any of the climatic oscillations revealed in previous studies by δ18O or pollen data, thereby implicating human activities. Ostracods and charophytes indicate that permanent shallow waters occurred in the Shkodra basin only around 5800 cal yrs BP. Historical sources of the Roman Empire indicate a swamp (the Palus labeatis), crossed by the River Morača, which flowed into the River Buna. Evidence for local fires, whether natural or anthropogenic, is recorded in SK13, scattered between 4400 and 1200 yrs BP. From 4400 to 2000 yrs BP, during the Bronze and Iron Age, hill forts ringed the marsh and burial mounds marked its edges. But around 2000 cal yrs BP, a dramatic change in the water body occurred: the disappearance of Characeae. Possibly fires were used for the elimination of natural vegetation and the subsequent cultivation of olive and walnut trees, causing an increase on organic
Full Text Available Local governance is a broad concept and is defined as the formulation and execution of collective action at the local level. The purpose of local government is to ensure effective and efficient use of public resources and service delivery at the level closest to citizens. Regional development is a new concept that aims to stimulate and diversify the economic activity of a country (region, to encourage investment in the private sector, to create a new jobs vacancy and improves living standards of the country. Regional development policies are a number of measures designed and promoted by the central and local administration, but the cooperation undertaken at the actors are in a different one, which included the private sector and civil society. At the center of these regional policies or practices is the use of efficient potential of each region, being particularly focused on business, means promoting the development of the new enterprises, promoting labor market and investment, improve the quality of environment, health , education and culture. Traditional objective of regional development policies is the reduction of territorial disparities for achieving a relative balance between economic and social levels of development in different areas in the national territory. Regional development is the actual task of local government units in Albania, and is one of the tasks and challenges of the future. Currently it takes a special importance in the context of European Union integration. Reforms have begun to change the system in 1990 in order to implement local democracy and decentralization principles that are present today. Inequalities that exist within the region and between them indicate that in some regions the economic potential is not being fully utilized, and that it reduces the overall performance in national level.
Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals is one of the major threats to soil and water as well as human health. Much attention is being paid to metal-accumulating plants that may be used for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Some plants can accumulate remarkable levels of metals, 100-1000-fold the levels normally accumulated in most species. This study evaluated the potential of mercury accumulation of 17 plant species growing on contaminated sites in the ex-industrial area of the PVC Factory, Vlora, Albania. Plant roots, shoots and soil samples were collected and analyzed for the selected metal concentration values. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC was calculated to evaluate the potential use of plant species for phytoremediation purposes. The concentration of Hg in soils inside the contaminated area varied from 45-301 mg/kg-1. The concentration of Hg in plant shoots and roots varied from 0.1 to 12.9 mg/kg-1 and 0.1 to 4.2 mg/kg-1, respectively. Species Medicago sativa L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter were found to be the most suitable plants for phytoremediation of the site contaminated with mercury (BAC values varied from 30-10 percent, respectively. Considering the BAC values, none of the plant species was found to be a hyperaccumulator; however, plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots have the potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. The results of this study can be used for the management and decontamination of soils with mercury using plant species having phytoremediation potential/characteristics.
Full Text Available The e-banking system is a system which enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions such as: balance inquiries, account transfers, bill payments and some of them offer even the possibility to make loan or credit card applications on a website operated by the institution via internet at any place or time. The e-banking is referred to as online banking or internet banking. The banks have chosen to be part of the wide world of Web in order to stay competitive in the fast changing world of business and also to take further advantages. This innovation (accompanied by globalization and technology development has”obliged” the business entities to redefine and remodel their operations. Electronic banking is the wave of the future. It provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of the ease and cost of transactions. But it also poses new challenges for country authorities in regulating and supervising the financial system and in designing and implementing macroeconomic policy. In the first section there is an overview of E-banking products and services offered world wide and in Albania as a special case. In the second section there is a general overview of the e-banking advantages and disadvantages. In the third part there is a discussion above the features, challenges, advantages and disadvantages of E-Banking vs traditional banking. In the last part there are given some general recommendations to be taken in consideration in order to maintain effective and to further develop the operating environment for the existing and potential e-banks.
Full Text Available Marks, Engels and Lenin’s ideologies were the foundation of the theory of law, in the Albanian legal system. They were not contra positioned to the private law system, but were in contradiction with the bourgeois society and its private ownership (Reich, 1972, 27. Socialist law literature was based on the principle that state-owned enterprises had great advantages not only compared to enterprises but also compared to large capitalist corporates; not only because of their socialist nature which led to the disappearance of the exploitation of the masses, but also because of their economic nature, as part of a large and mechanized economy in which the successes of modern science and technology could be maximally implemented (Marjani, Malindi, Shtepani, 1982, 16. Either Article 8 of the Constitution of 1946, nor legal changes to 1950, or Article 26 of the Constitution of 1976 did contain a definition of the enterprise. The Constitution regulated only the basic principles of the planning economy, which was based on the planning economy and state-owned enterprises, cooperatives and other workers associations. Article 26 and 27 of the Constitution of 1976 define the following: “For the administration of the means, which are in ownership of the people, the state creates companies, which operate in the interest of the society, defined in the state plan”. “The prices of selling products of the companies and purchase prices of fruit products and animals are determined by the state”. These constitutional norms forced state-owned enterprises and agricultural cooperatives, to use the means of production in a centralized form, to meet the obligations of the plan and to ensure the interests of society (Çela, Çami, Hysi, Omari, 1978, 125. In this context, main aim of this article is the function and content of the enterprise during communism in Albania.
McPeek, Kathleen C.; McDonald, P. Sean; VanBlaricom, Glenn
Aquaculture operations are a frequent and prominent cause of anthropogenic disturbance to marine and estuarine communities and may alter species composition and abundance. However, little is known about how such disturbances affect trophic linkages or ecosystem functions. In Puget Sound, Washington, aquaculture of the Pacific geoduck clam (Panopea generosa) is increasing and involves placing nets and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes in intertidal areas to protect juvenile geoducks from predators. Initial studies of the structured phase of the farming cycle have documented limited impacts on the abundance of some species. To examine the effect of geoduck aquaculture on ecological linkages, the trophic relationships of a local ubiquitous consumer, Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), to its invertebrate prey were compared between geoduck aquaculture sites and nearby reference areas with no aquaculture. Mark-recapture data indicated that sculpin exhibit local site fidelity to cultured and reference areas. The stomach contents of sculpin and stable isotope signatures of sculpin and their prey were examined to study the trophic ecology of cultured and reference areas. Results showed that the structured phase of geoduck aquaculture initiated some changes to staghorn sculpin ecology, as reflected in sculpin diet through stomach content analysis. However, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes revealed that the general food web function of sculpin remained unchanged. The source of carbon at the base of the food web and the trophic position of sculpin were not impacted by geoduck aquaculture. The study has important implications for geoduck aquaculture management and will inform regulatory decisions related to shellfish aquaculture policy.
Kamjunke, Norbert; Nimptsch, Jorge; Harir, Mourad; Herzsprung, Peter; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Neu, Thomas R.; Graeber, Daniel; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Carlos Reyes, Juan; Woelfl, Stefan; Hertkorn, Norbert
Aquacultures are of great economic importance worldwide but pollute pristine headwater streams, lakes, and estuaries. However, there are no in-depth studies of the consequences of aquacultures on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and structure. We performed a detailed molecular level characterization of aquaculture DOM quality and its bacterial degradation using four salmon aquacultures in Chile. Fluorescence measurements, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the DOM revealed specific and extensive molecular alterations caused by aquacultures. Aquacultures released large quantities of readily bioavailable metabolites (primarily carbohydrates and peptides/proteins, and lipids), causing the organic matter downstream of all the investigated aquacultures to deviate strongly from the highly processed, polydisperse and molecularly heterogeneous DOM found in pristine rivers. However, the upstream individual catchment DOM signatures remained distinguishable at the downstream sites. The benthic algal biovolume decreased and the bacterial biovolume and production increased downstream of the aquacultures, shifting stream ecosystems to a more heterotrophic state and thus impairing the ecosystem health. The bacterial DOM degradation rates explain the attenuation of aquaculture DOM within the subsequent stream reaches. This knowledge may aid the development of improved waste processing facilities and may help to define emission thresholds to protect sensitive stream ecosystems.
Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong
Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results
...) L'aquaculture in Italie; 6) L'aquaculture au sein de la Communaute economique europeenne; 7) Freshwater aquaculture in the United States, complying with environmental protection law and policy; 8...
Mariya F. Mizintseva
Full Text Available The article deals with the basic resources and the vectors of ecological tourism development in Albania as a new region for eco travel, previously not popular but having great prospects for development through mainstreaming the rational nature management. The authors highlight the impact of tourism development on the environment, the role of ecological tourism in sustainable development of the countries of the world, the value relevance of environmental management tourism and its basic principles. The article also describes the prerequisites, trends and prospects of development of ecological tourism in Albania, the main objectives for optimization and further efficient formation of ecological tourism as a basic direction in the tourism sphere of the country. The authors give recommendations for the promotion of ecotourism in the country as a key element of tourism business; the active promotion of ecotourism of Albania for Russian tourists; focusing attention on rural and mountain tourism as ecotourism areas; intensification of marketing tools aimed at increasing awareness of Albania as a brand in the world of tourism; finding ways of legal regulation of tourist activities in the country.
Chatzinikolaou, Y.; Dakos, V.; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M.
Ecological integrity has become a primary objective in monitoring programs of surface waters according to the European Water Framework Directive. For this reason we propose a scheme for assessing the ecological integrity of a major transboundary river, the Aoos-Vjose (Greece-Albania), by analysing
Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane M.; Wagner, Bernd
Lake Prespa (Macedonia/Albania/Greece) occupies an important location between Mediterranean and central European climate zones. Although previous multi-proxy research on the Late Glacial to Holocene sequence, core Co1215 (320cm; ca. 17cal ka BP to present), has demonstrated its great value as an
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the question of ethnic affiliation of Macedonian Muslims in conditions of combined ethnical neighborhood. There are around ten settlements with Macedonian population in the Eastern part of the Republic of Albania (Mac. Golo Brdo, Alb. Golloborda. Five scientific researchers from St. Petersburg: Andrej Sobolev, Alexander Novik, Denis Ermolin, Maria Morozova and Alexandra Dugushina (Institute of Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography and St. Petersburg State University had organized fieldwork in the villages Trebisht, Klenje, Ostren etc. in 2008-2010. The author puts into academic context a new description of almost unexplored Macedonian community. The data have been obtained during the fieldworks in Eastern Albania. In conditions of long-term neighborhood with other languages and religious denominations, the adapting mechanisms have worked out specific approaches to preserving ethnical identity and traditional culture, perceiving their value and necessity of translating to descendants. Materials of fieldwork include data about identity, language, culture of Macedonian community in different periods of the state of Albania (Osmanli time, Royal Albania, Enver Hoxha monism period, post-communist transition, modern republic. These expedition materials are archived in the Kunstkamera (Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The founds of the Museum have traditional clothes of Macedonian Muslims from Golo Brdo which are collected during the fieldworks 2008-2010
Velo, Enkelejda; Bongiorno, Gioia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Myrseli, Teita; Crilly, James; Lika, Aldin; Mersini, Kujtim; Di Muccio, Trentina; Bino, Silvia; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele
The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp. genomic DNA. In the same year, Culicoides trapping was performed for bluetongue disease surveillance in 91 sites of southern Albania, targeting livestock farms regardless recent occurrence of VL in the surveyed areas. In 35 sites where sand flies were collected along with midges, Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most prevalent among the Phlebotomus species identified, however search for leishmanial DNA in females of this species was unsuccessful. In 2011, sand flies were trapped in 4 sites of north Albania characterized by high VL incidence, and females were dissected to search for Leishmania infections. Both P. neglectus and P. tobbi were collected at high densities. Two positive specimens were detected from a sample of 64 P. neglectus trapped in one site (3.1%). Parasites were successfully cultured from one specimen and characterized as belonging to Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1, the only zymodeme so far identified as the agent of human and canine leishmaniasis in the country. Altogether our studies indicate that P. neglectus is the main leishmaniasis vector in Albania.
Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Fanti, Riccardo; Vannocci, Pietro; Krymbi, Ervis; Centoducati, Carlo; Ghini, Alessandro
The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been subject to a rapid development after the recent political changes, resulting in a general land degradation. Also the rate of migration from rural areas to the most urbanized areas currently represents a major problem for the National Civil Protection, since the urban sprawl in the suburbs are often located in high-risk areas, particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. The National Civil Protection system, in terms of subsidiary institutional and volunteer components, is relatively young in Albania. The progressive decentralization of the administrative competences triggered by the recent political changes is accompanied by the acquisition of new territorial information and the development of specific protocols for the emergency management, as well as the risk reduction. The management of natural disasters demands not only an early response to the criticalities, but also a correct mapping of the damage and the development of emergency plans for future events in order to protect lives, properties and the environment and moreover to spread the risk awareness in the population and to prepare it for such circumstances. The main purposes of the Pilot Project "Shkoder" is to enhance the resilience of a little community, located 9 kilometers south-west of Shkodra (Northern Albania), to flooding and earthquakes and to promote the subsidiarity principle by means of: a) demonstrating how basic information for the disaster planning (collected with a real demonstrative field survey) and the risk
Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S. and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85
In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.
29 avr. 2016 ... Aquaculture au Sri Lanka. L'adoption de l'ostréiculture dans deux collectivités côtières du Sri Lanka a donné lieu aux premières exportations d'huîtres du pays. Au Sri Lanka, le gouvernement a pour objectif de doubler la consommation de poisson par personne, de 11 kilos à 22 kilos par année, d'ici à la fin ...
Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza
It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.
Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg
This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept....... Fish performed similarly in all treatments. Preliminary screening of trout gills did not reveal any pathological changes related to microscreen filtration and the resulting water quality. Biofilter performance was also unaffected, with 0′-order nitrification rates (k0a) being equivalent for all twelve...
Sadeghi-Nassaj, Seyed Mohammad; Catalá, Teresa S; Álvarez, Pedro A; Reche, Isabel
Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named "extractive" species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM). However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (-holothurian) only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata , whereas the other tank (+holothurian) also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali . We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm) and qualitative (spectral slopes) optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H) and -holothurians (-H). We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four -H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata . In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm ( a 325 ) and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm ( S 275-295 ) were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m -1 and 16 µm -1 , respectively) than in the effluent of the -holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m -1 and 34 µm -1 , respectively), the former being similar to those found in the inlet
Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.
SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.
Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
productivity and the value of fish production per capita among participants. However, in the long run no similar well-determined effect emerges. Second, MAEP appears to have had no significant impact on socioeconomic status as measured by consumption expenditure of participating households. The authors argue......This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...
Snyman-van der Walt, Luanita
Full Text Available The Department of Environmental Affairs and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries commissioned the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research to conduct a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Aquaculture Development...
A review on the potential of aquaculture development in Kenya for poverty alleviation and food security. ... It is estimated that another 40 million metric tonnes of aquatic food will be required by the year 2030. Today ... Key words: Fish production, capture fisheries, culture systems, Economic Stimulus Programme, aquaculture ...
Rachman, F.; Satriagasa, M. C.; Riasasi, W.
New Yogyakarta International Airport (NYIA) is being constructed in Temon Sub District, Kulonprogo District. It lies on 587.2 ha area in the southern part of Java Island coastal area. Many areas of Kulonprogro coastal area are used for aquaculture of vanname shrimp. In that case, the aquaculture land needs to be cleared for the airport construction necessity and requires compensation. The value of the compensation needs to be right calculated by both sides, regarding the aquaculture land are local community assets. This study uses spatial analysis and visual interpretation. Whereas, the calculation of the acquisition value and income capital value uses Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method. The result shows the area of aquaculture land which impacted to be cleared is 83 ha, means decreasing of shrimp ponds area in Temon Sub District, Kulonprogo District. The calculation of acquisition value for airport development indicates higher value than the income from the aquaculture activity. The results mean the aquaculture landlords do not incur losses due to the airport development project. These findings can be used for local government and related stakeholders to formulate a policy of aquaculture relocation and to estimate projection for aquaculture land suitability in Yogyakarta coastal area.
Pahlow, G.; Oel, van P.R.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.
As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive
Mota, V.C.; Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Canário, A.V.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.
Little information is available on steroid concentrations in the rearing water of aquaculture systems and whether they accumulate in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Therefore this study aimed at determining (1) the concentrations and variation of cortisol and sex steroids in RAS, (2) the
Roy Chaudhury, R.K.; Ramana Murty, V.; Ravindran, M.
The objective was to perform a waste load allocation and determine the extent of aquaculture that the creeks can sustain, by meeting the water quality criteria for both the creek ecosystem and pond culture. Based on these results, similar assessments may be performed for other sites supporting large scale aquaculture activities. This paper introduces the sampling program and modelling methodology of the study
Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian
Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...
Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, K.P.E.; Hofherr, Johann; Contini, Franca; Haffray, P.; Komen, J.; Nielsen, E.E.; Bargelloni, L.
The use of selective breeding is still relatively limited in aquaculture species. Information on such activities is sparse, hindering an overall evaluation of their success. Here, we report on the results of an online survey of the major aqua-culture breeding companies operating in Europe. Six main
Cranford, P.J.; Kamermans, P.; Krause, G.H.M.; Mazurie, J.
An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social and
Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schneider, O.; Blancheton, J.P.; Roque dÓrbcastel, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.
The dual objective of sustainable aquaculture, i.e., to produce food while sustaining natural resources is achieved only when production systems with a minimum ecological impact are used. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) provide opportunities to reduce water usage and to improve waste
Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.
In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The
Lembo, Giuseppe; Jokumsen, Alfred; Spedicato, Maria Teresa
expressed by the participants revealed both competence and awareness, despite the complexity of the subject. Several ideas and useful suggestions emerged regarding unresolved technical issues. In addition, the need for a targeted communication strategy on the quality of organic aquaculture products...... and the necessity of fostering European/national programs to support the production and marketing of organic aquaculture products were highlighted...
The USDA-ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) in Franklin, ME has been supporting the U.S. coldwater marine aquaculture industry for the past thirteen years by developing a genetically improved North American Atlantic salmon. The St. John's River stock was chosen as the focal ...
Phong, L.T.; Dam, van A.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Tri, L.Q.; Steenstra, F.A.; Zijpp, van der A.J.
This study compared ecological sustainability of Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture (IAA) systems with different forms and intensity of aquaculture integration in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: orchard-based and low-input fish (O-LF); rice-based and medium-input fish (R-MF); and rice-based and
Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di
This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.
The USDA-ARS National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) in Franklin, ME has been supporting the U.S. coldwater marine aquaculture industry for the past thirteen years by developing a genetically improved North American Atlantic salmon. The St. John's River stock was chosen as the focal ...
Klinger, Dane H; Levin, Simon A; Watson, James R
Aquaculture production is projected to expand from land-based operations to the open ocean as demand for seafood grows and competition increases for inputs to land-based aquaculture, such as freshwater and suitable land. In contrast to land-based production, open-ocean aquaculture is constrained by oceanographic factors, such as current speeds and seawater temperature, which are dynamic in time and space, and cannot easily be controlled. As such, the potential for offshore aquaculture to increase seafood production is tied to the physical state of the oceans. We employ a novel spatial model to estimate the potential of open-ocean finfish aquaculture globally, given physical, biological and technological constraints. Finfish growth potential for three common aquaculture species representing different thermal guilds-Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata ) and cobia ( Rachycentron canadum )-is compared across species and regions and with climate change, based on outputs of a high-resolution global climate model. Globally, there are ample areas that are physically suitable for fish growth and potential expansion of the nascent aquaculture industry. The effects of climate change are heterogeneous across species and regions, but areas with existing aquaculture industries are likely to see increases in growth rates. In areas where climate change results in reduced growth rates, adaptation measures, such as selective breeding, can probably offset potential production losses. © 2017 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Albanian music, which dates back to the Albanian Independence, is characterized by two main aspects: supporting of patriotic, illuminist and democratic ideas and a model in most classical or romantic music as well as being linked to folk music. The history of last year’s is followed with the oppression and dream to come close to the European Culture. During this relatively long period (almost half century, the first musical compositions were created in Albania. Initially there were some pre - professional attempts to create genuine musical compositions which had a significant role in some aspects. First, these compositions leaded to the creation of the first musical genres of the Albanian music. Second, different vocal and orchestral ensembles started to include in their repertoires operas of Albanian authors and in the case of vocal operas, even with Albanian language texts. Third, the level of musical compositions was updated, from folk music towards a level that would improve decade after decade. From the ranking of piano operas of the Albanian music that I did and showed at the end of this work, it is noticed that the first operas of our piano music sprung during the first years of 20th century. Those years were filled with endeavours and struggles for national identity, for the protection of borders from excessive greed of our neighbours or superpowers interests and also years of the first attempts to follow the steps of developed countries’ cultures that surround us. So it was the time of efforts for cultivation of people and step by step creation of our cultural identity. Referring to this, the Albanian writer, aesthete, translator and teacher Ernest Koliqi wrote: “It is an axiomatic affirmation that small nations that would not know how to organise their culture, fatally would dissolve under huge political and social exacerbations emerging today. We are moving toward formation of a politically united Europe and through sufferings
Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables
Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.
The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography
Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve
Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include ......, both industries represent human activities strongly influencing, and influenced by, the environment. Management of aquaculture and fisheries, as well as other uses of the coastal zone, should be considered integral parts with local variations in their respective importance.......Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include...
Farghally, Hanaa M.; Atia, Doaa M.; El-madany, Hanaa T.; Fahmy, Faten H.
One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in RAS (recirculation aquaculture systems) where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and plate type heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. A well at Umm Huweitat on the Red Sea is used as a source of geothermal energy. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchanger is designed using the epsilon–NTU (number of transfer units) analysis method. For optimal growth and abundance of production, a different techniques of control system are applied to control the water temperature. The total system is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to study the overall performance of control unit. Finally, a comparison between PI, Fuzzy-PID, and Fuzzy Logic Control has been done. - Highlights: • Design recirculating aquaculture system using geothermal energy. • Design a PI controller for water temperature control. • Design a Fuzzy logic controller for water temperature control. • Design a Fuzzy-PID controller for water temperature control. • Comparison between different control systems
Mulyadi, Y.; Syahroni, N.; Sambodho, K.; Zikra, M.; Wahyudi; Adia, H. B. P.
Fish production is important for the economy in fishing community and for ensuring food security. Climate change will lead a threat to fish productivity. Therefore, a solution offered is to cultivate certain fish, especially those with high economic value by using offshore aquaculture technology. A Sea Station cage is one of the offshore aquaculture cage model that has been used in some locations. As a floating structure, the Sea Station cage need a mooring system to maintain its position. This paper presents the selection analysis of the mooring system designs of the Sea Station cage model that it is suitable with Indonesia Ocean. There are 3 mooring configurations that are linear array, rectangular array, and 4 points mooring type. The nylon mooring rope type has been selected to be used on the 3 mooring configurations and the rope has a diameter of 104 mm with a breaking force of 2.3 MN. Based on results from comparing the 3 mooring configurations, the best mooring configuration is linear array with the tension on the rope of 217 KN and has the safety factor of 0.2 based on DNVGL OS-E301
Full Text Available Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients. Furthermore, some microalgal species possess natural anti-microbial compounds or contain biomolecules that can serve as immunostimulants. In addition, emerging genetic engineering technologies in microalgae offer the possibility of producing ‘functional feed additives’ in which novel and specific bioactives, such as fish growth hormones, anti-bacterials, subunit vaccines, and virus-targeted interfering RNAs, are components of the algal supplement. The evaluation of such technologies for farm applications is an important step in the future development of sustainable aquaculture.
Full Text Available Integration in European Union assumes obtaining certain benefits. Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Employment in the sector has grown faster than the world’s population, providing jobs and supports the livelihoods of hundreds of millions. Fish continues to be one of the most- traded food commodities worldwide being very important for developing countries. However, productivity gains in fisheries do not always imply long-term increases in supply. Developing countries are continuing their efforts to clarify the linkage between development activities and sustainable resource use. Both population and economic growth are putting enormous additional pressures on inland and marine fisheries resources as contributors to food security and providers of a social safety net. At the same time, the use of domestic fisheries to generate foreign exchange is exacerbating allocation issues between artisan and industrial fleets. The actual fisheries legislation was influence by social, economic and environmental considerations. The paper proposes an integrated analysis of Romanian situation by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions. Fisheries in general and aquaculture sector in particular could be regarded as an advantage for Romania in the European competition. The main problem of the Romanian fisheries is its unsatisfactory competitiveness both regarding the domestic and European market.
de Bruijn, Irene; Liu, Yiying; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Raaijmakers, Jos M
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and the excessive use of antibiotics and other chemicals is of substantial concern. A more sustainable disease control strategy to protect fish and shellfish from (re-)emerging diseases could be achieved by introduction or augmentation of beneficial microbes. To establish and maintain a 'healthy' fish microbiome, a fundamental understanding of the diversity and temporal-spatial dynamics of fish-associated microbial communities and their impact on growth and health of their aquatic hosts is required. This review describes insights in the diversity and functions of the fish bacterial communities elucidated with next-generation sequencing and discusses the potential of the microbes to mitigate (re-)emerging diseases in aquaculture. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.
Leal, J F; Henriques, I S; Correia, A; Santos, E B H; Esteves, V I
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. The main concern related to its use is the bacterial resistance, when ineffective treatments are applied for its removal or inactivation. OTC photo-degradation has been suggested as an efficient complementary process to conventional methods used in intensive fish production (e.g.: ozonation). Despite this, and knowing that the complete mineralization of OTC is difficult, few studies have examined the antibacterial activity of OTC photoproducts. Thus, the main aim of this work is to assess whether the OTC photoproducts retain the antibacterial activity of its parent compound (OTC) after its irradiation, using simulated sunlight. For that, three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio sp. and Aeromonas sp.) and different synthetic and natural aqueous matrices (phosphate buffered solutions at different salinities, 0 and 21‰, and three different samples from marine aquaculture industries) were tested. The microbiological assays were made using the well-diffusion method before and after OTC has been exposed to sunlight. The results revealed a clear effect of simulated sunlight, resulting on the decrease or elimination of the antibacterial activity for all strains and in all aqueous matrices due to OTC photo-degradation. For E. coli, it was also observed that the antibacterial activity of OTC is lower in the presence of sea-salts, as demonstrated by comparison of halos in aqueous matrices containing or not sea-salts. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. is the most widespread species in Albania and less investigated from dendroclimatological point of view. Previous studies have reported that Q. cerris is sensitive to the environment when growing at different latitudes and ecological conditions. Based on this fact we have explored the response of different Q. cerris populations located along the longitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: The stem discs were sampled from six sites (Kukes, Diber, Rreshen, Ulez, Elbasan, Belsh along longitudinal gradient ranging from north-east to central Albania. All oak forests stands grow under the influence of specific local Mediterranean climate. Tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using a linear table, LINTAB and the TSAP-Win program. Following the standard dendrochronological procedures residual tree-ring width chronologies were built for each site. Statistical parameters commonly used in dendrochronology were calculated for each site chronology. Relations between the tree-ring chronologies were explored using Hierarchical Factor Classification (HFC and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while the radial growth-climate relationship was analyzed through correlation analysis using a 19-month window from April in the year prior to tree-ring formation (year t - 1 until October in the year of growth (year t. Results and Conclusions: The length of the site chronologies ranged from 16 to 36 years, with the Elbasan site chronology being the longest and the Belsh site chronology the shortest one. Trees at lower elevation were younger than trees at higher elevation. Statistical parameters (mean sensitivity (MS and auto correlation (AC of site chronologies were different among them and lower values of AC1 showed a weaker dependence of radial growth from climatic conditions of the previous growing year. Principal component analysis showed that Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were