WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquacultural exports 1995-2005

  1. Constructing genuine savings indicators for Ireland, 1995-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Moro, Mirko

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we compute the genuine savings indicators for the Republic of Ireland over the period 1995-2005. We expand and improve existing World Bank's estimates by: a) using data collected from official Irish sources; b) employing the net present value method to assess resource depreciation; c) including external costs from SO(2) and NOx emissions; and d) estimating human capital accumulation using the returns to education. We also perform a sensitivity analysis to check the robustness of our estimates to different assumptions and parameters. Our estimates are consistently smaller than the World Bank's and negative in the first years of the period considered. PMID:20932633

  2. An Examination of Research Methods in Mathematics Education (1995-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lynn C.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Marvin E.

    2009-01-01

    This mixed methods examination of 710 research articles in mathematics education published in six prominent educational journals during the period 1995-2005 finds that 50% of the studies used qualitative methods only, 21% used quantitative methods only, and 29% mixed qualitative and quantitative methods in various ways. Although the number of…

  3. Assessing Effectiveness and Efficiency of Academic Interventions in School Psychology Journals: 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlett, Ron; Cates, Gary L.; Savina, Elena; Lauinger, Brittni

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews research in the four major school psychology journals: "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology Quarterly," and "School Psychology Review." The function of the review was to provide school psychologists with a summary of academic interventions published through years 1995-2005, synthesize…

  4. Monitoring socioeconomic inequity in maternal health indicators in Egypt: 1995-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Khadr Zeinab

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Egypt's longstanding commitment to safe motherhood and maternal health has paid off in substantial declines in maternal mortality ratio and significant improvement in the levels of many maternal health indicators. The current study aims to monitor trends of maternal health indicators and their socioeconomic inequities among Egyptian women over ten-year period (1995-2005). It poses the question "to what extent have the recent maternal health improvements been shared among t...

  5. Financial sector and economic growth in the Republic of Croatia 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotny Damir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial sector in the Republic of Croatia had a strong growth between 1995 2005.g. Liberalization of financial sector in 1999 led to an increase in bank foreign debt, which resulted in a strong increase in foreign currency reserves and appreciation of the national currency. The growth of the financial sector and credit expansion have been allocated in favour of private and public consumption, but not in industry investments. GDP growth didn't have the same momentum as financial aggregates. Economic growth, after a contraction in 1999 was within the average of global economic growth. Relying on neoclassical growth model, government and central bank didn't put in place the needed set of pro-active policies. Factor allocation was solely through private bank channels financing private consumption. If the sustainable economic growth and new employment are to be major macroeconomic goals, a new macroeconomic paradigm as combination of neclassical and neokeynesians approach will be needed.

  6. Export Mix Changes and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Espinoza, Roberto; Zahler, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze changes in the export mix of Chilean firms, looking particularly at differences between large firms and SMEs. To do that, we use detailed information of exported products by firms during the period 1995-2005. Our econometric results, which look at the impact of export product churning on firm performance, are heterogeneous by type of change in export mix and by firm size. In general, export mix changes are associated with improvements on productivity, although our res...

  7. Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) and Environmental Physical Activity, Kaunas, 1995-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, E.; Dulskiene, V.; Kuciene, R.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies described a number of fetal development sides related to the environmental physical activity. The aim of this study was to check the possible links between congenital heart disease (CHD) born in a non-selected medical network and indices of environmental physical activity. Children born with CHD in Kaunas, Lithuania, in years 1995-2005 were analyzed at the end of the first year of life (including also those died after birth from this condition). Monthly distribution of CHD (total - 371, both gender (178 boys and 193 girls), 41435 births) were compared with parameters of solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activity, as well as the year, at the month of birth, 9 months before and at year of birth and one year before. CRA was represented by neutron activity on the Earth's surface. Heliogeophysical data were obtained from space research centers in the USA, Russia and Finland. There was found a significant correlation between yearly number of births (r = - 0.9, p = 0.00012). Monthly number of CHD was correlated with SA and CRA often highly at the beginning of pregnancy both in monthly and yearly (r = - 0.7, p = 0.025 for SA, r = 0.8, p = 0.005 for CRA) comparison. For boys the correlation was stronger, but also it was significant for girls. GMA has not shown significant effects. It is concluded that the number of yearly and monthly CHD is connected with SA and CRA in pregnancy. Boys show high levels in these correlations. The mechanism of the cosmophysical effects on human development and temporal distribution of CHD deserve special studies.

  8. Skolbokspropaganda? : En ideologianalys av läroböcker i svenska som andraspråk (1995-2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattlar, Jörgen

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with textbooks for the school subject Swedish as a Second Language published during the period of 1995-2005. The target group for the textbooks in Swedish as a Second Language in this study is young people or adults who have immigrated to Sweden. Immigrants and people of foreign origin who live in Sweden are in general structurally subordinated as regards to socioeconomic factors, which connects to the socio-economical segregation problem. Using this as a point of departure ...

  9. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Financial Sustainability Ratio pada Bank Umum Swast Nasional Non Devisa Periode 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Spica Almilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to test the consistency of time period model, whether the information that previously affects today’s performance can be used to predict the performance in the future, and how the consistency of Indonesia banking financial prediction model formulation equation in order to detect bank condition and performance in the period of pre-economic crisis (1995-1996, during economic crisis (1997-1999 or post-economic crisis (2000-2005 is since bank condition and health is the interest of all relevant parties namely bank owner and manager, customers, Bank Indonesia in its capacity as the supervisor and builder, and the government. The samples are Non Foreign Exchange National Private Banks listed in Indonesian Banking Directory during the period after economic crisis in 1995 – 2005 and Indonesian Financial Economic Statistics Monthly Statement for economic macro indicator. The sampling is performed by means of purposive method (purposive sampling. Dependent Variable in this study is Financial Sustainability Ratio and independent variable in this study is Capital Adequacy Ratio, Non Performing Loan, Return On Assets, Operational Cost Ratio to Operational Income, Loan to Deposit Ratio, Money Supply Sensitivity, General Customer Price Index Sensitivity and SBI Interest Rate Sensitivity. The result of this study shows that model financial sustainability ratio did not have structural stabilization in 1999 – 2005. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini betujuan untuk menguji konsistensi model prediksi kinerja keuangan pada Bank Umum Swasta Nasional Non Devisa periode 1995-2005. Variabel-variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kinerja keuangan Bank Umum Swasta Nasional Non Devisa yang diproksikan melalui Financial Sustainability Ratio (FSR. Sampel yang terpilih dalam penelitian ini dengan metode purposive sampling berjumlah 28 bank umum swasta nasional non devisa yang terdaftar di direktori Bank Indonesia selama tahun

  10. Does Immigrant Employment Matter for Exports? Evidence From Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hiller, Sanne

    2011-01-01

    Immigration impacts the economy in ample ways: it affects growth, wages and total factor productivity. This study deals with the effects of immigration on firm exports. Can firms benefit from hiring immigrants to expand their export sales? Or do immigrants who live in the firm’s region affect trade? In contrast to the existing literature, we are able to distinguish these two distinct channels. Using matched employer-employee data from Denmark for the years 1995 - 2005, we provide novel insigh...

  11. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, E. S.; C.L. dos Santos; Jahncke, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglec...

  12. Aquaculture; Acquacoltura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Murtas, I.D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-12-01

    This paper attempts an overview of the progress made in the field of aquaculture. Aquaculture is a system of techniques strongly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Aquaculture as a biological technique oriented towards the production of useful aquatic organisms, is reaching a stage of consolidation which will place it on an equal footing which agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture provides important economic and nutritional benefits to many regions of developing world. In 1994, over 90 percent of total aquaculture production was in Asia, with China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Republic of Korea as the seven leader producers. [Italiano] L`acquacoltura, vale a dire l`arte di riprodurre artificialmente pesci, alghe, molluschi e crostacei ed altri organismi acquatici utili all`uomo, si presenta oggi come un`attivita` di assoluto rilievo nell`insieme dei vari comparti di produzione alimentare. L`aumento della produzione e` costante anche se cinque paesi asiatici (Cina, India, Giappone, Filippine e Corea del Sud) contribuiscono per l`80% al volume della produzione mondiale. Nel presente lavoro vengono descritti lo stato dell`acquacoltura e della maricoltura nel mondo e le filiere di allevamento delle principali specie.

  13. Democracia y autoritarismo en América Latina: en busca de la década pérdida (1995-2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchón Álvarez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN: Los últimos datos ofrecidos por el «Latinobarómetro» permiten volver a reflexionar sobre un tema clave como es la compleja relación entre democracia y autoritarismo en América Latina. Con este trabajo se pretende realizar una lectura crítica de estos datos, presentando una línea de análisis que permita evaluar el desarrollo de la democracia en la región durante el último decenio (1995-2005), sin renunciar a aventurar algunas hipótesis sobre el devenir futuro de la democracia en el su...

  14. Democracia y Autoritarismo en América Latina: en busca de la década perdida (1995-2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchón Álvarez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Los últimos datos ofrecidos por el “Latinobarómetro” permiten volver a reflexionar sobre un tema clave como es la compleja relación entre democracia y autoritarismo en Iberoamérica. Con este trabajo se pretende realizar una lectura crítica de estos datos, presentando una línea de análisis que permita evaluar el desarrollo de la democracia en la región durante el último decenio (1995-2005), sin renunciar a aventurar algunas hipótesis sobre el devenir futuro de la democracia iberoamericana. ...

  15. Does Immigrant Employment Matter for Exports? Evidence From Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    ? In contrast to the existing literature, we are able to distinguish these two distinct channels. Using matched employer-employee data from Denmark for the years 1995 - 2005, we provide novel insight in the nexus between exports and immigration. We further contribute to the literature by providing first...... employment. Thus, to tap the full potential of foreign labor movements for international trade, political efforts should be targeted towards labor market integration of immigrants....

  16. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  17. Democracia y autoritarismo en América Latina: en busca de la década pérdida (1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier CHINCHÓN ÁLVAREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los últimos datos ofrecidos por el «Latinobarómetro» permiten volver a reflexionar sobre un tema clave como es la compleja relación entre democracia y autoritarismo en América Latina. Con este trabajo se pretende realizar una lectura crítica de estos datos, presentando una línea de análisis que permita evaluar el desarrollo de la democracia en la región durante el último decenio (1995-2005, sin renunciar a aventurar algunas hipótesis sobre el devenir futuro de la democracia en el subcontinente americano.ABSTRACT: The last results gotten from «Latinobarómetro» allow as thinking again about a key issue like the complex link between democracy and authoritarism in Latin America. This paper will try to make a critical review about this data, presenting an analysis to evaluate the development of democracy in this region during the last ten years (1995-2005. Some hypothesis about the future in the Latin American democracy will be offered also.

  18. 山东省7~12岁儿童体成分指数1995-2005年变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎修

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析1995-2005年山东省7~12岁儿童体成分指数变化趋势,为控制青少年超重和肥胖提供依据.方法 依据1995和2005年山东省学生体质健康调研资料,根据皮褶厚度推算体脂比,计算脂肪组织指数(FMI)和非脂肪组织指数(FFMI).结果 在1995~2005年的10a间,山东省7~12岁儿童BMI, FMI, FFMI都出现明显增长,FMI增长速度最快,儿童BMI的增长主要是FMI的增长.结论 1995 -2005年山东省儿童体成分指数发生明显变化,FMI和FFMI是体重研究中值得应用的监测指标.

  19. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  20. Holographic Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Richard; King, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    Proposed is an exploratory study to verify the feasibility of an inexpensive micro-climate control system for both marine and freshwater pond and tank aquaculture, offering good control over water temperature, incident light flux, and bandwidth, combined with good energy efficiency. The proposed control system utilizes some familiar components of passive solar design, together with a new holographic glazing system which is currently being developed by, and proprietary to Advanced Environmental Research Group (AERG). The use of solar algae ponds and tanks to warm and purify water for fish and attached macroscopic marine algae culture is an ancient and effective technique, but limited seasonally and geographically by the availability of sunlight. Holographic Diffracting Structures (HDSs) can be made which passively track, accept and/or reject sunlight from a wide range of altitude and azimuth angles, and redirect and distribute light energy as desired (either directly or indirectly over water surface in an enclosed, insulated structure), effectively increasing insolation values by accepting sunlight which would not otherwise enter the structure.

  1. A Decade of Child-Initiated Family Violence: Comparative Analysis of Child-Parent Violence and Parricide Examining Offender, Victim, and Event Characteristics in a National Sample of Reported Incidents, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeffrey A.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines 11 years (1995-2005) of National Incident Based Reporting System data comparing victim, offender, and incident characteristics for two types of child-initiated family violence: child-parent violence (CPV) and parricide. The objective is to better understand the victim-offender relationship for CPV and parricide and to…

  2. BIOFILTERS IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Šarić; Marina Barilo; Ana Gavrilović; Jurica Jug-Dujaković

    2010-01-01

    Recirculating aquaculture is one of the solutions to an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible aquaculture production, and can be established in either urban or rural communities. Controlled conditions enable optimal growth conditions suitable for the species in question during the whole growth process, as well as the shortening of the process itself, when compared to open uncontrolled systems. Recirculating systems are now one of the most researched fields of aquaculture, and ...

  3. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide.

  4. Aquaculture in mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    A general account of aquaculture of India in mangrove environment has been discussed. In-spite of being a none-too-tidal aquaculture site, the estuaries and backwaters fringEd. by mangrove vegetation have long been used for rearing and fattening...

  5. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Diseases of cultured animal and environmental pollution are very important problems in aquaculture.The use of probiotics in aquaculture has more adva ntages than the use of antibiotics and chemicals in aquaculture. This review int roduces the use and mechanisms of the probiotics in aquaculture.

  6. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: A spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; John Lovette

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calcu...

  7. Microalgae for aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Michels, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the project ‘Zeeuwse Tong’ (Zeeland Sole) was founded with support of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands. The aim of the Zeeuwse Tong project was to establish an innovative land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture sector, which is producing sole, ragworms, algae, shellfish and saline crops in close harmony with nature. The project was divided into two sub-projects: The integrated saline aquaculture farm and the integrated nursery. The research described in this thesis re...

  8. BIOFILTERS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šarić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating aquaculture is one of the solutions to an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible aquaculture production, and can be established in either urban or rural communities. Controlled conditions enable optimal growth conditions suitable for the species in question during the whole growth process, as well as the shortening of the process itself, when compared to open uncontrolled systems. Recirculating systems are now one of the most researched fields of aquaculture, and biofiltration as the reduction of the poisonous ammonia compounds generated by digestion of proteins, is one of its most important parts. The aim of this study was to stress the importance of biofiltration, and to describe different designs of biofilters. Many biofilters are being used in commercial and research aquaculture facilities with differences in choice of working organism, design, material, price and etc. For the proper choice of biofilter it is necessary to know characteristics of each recirculating aquaculture system, because there are still no strict criteria for categorizing and applying different biofilter designs.

  9. Aquaculture report 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Watson, L.; Kent, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.

    1977-04-08

    Growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Tilapia zillii in the Reft River Geothermal Area (RRGT) geothermal waters can equal or surpass that in a commercial aquaculture facility. Fish and prawn mortality over the course of the intermediate term preliminary study did not appear to be related to any inherent geothermal water chemistry conditions. Temperature control was a problem but does not appear to be beyond design control. The absence of temperature-related mortality in channel catfish, Tilapia zilli, and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) indicates increased survival and suggests reduced expenditures for disease control. It may also allow higher fish densities in commercial aquaculture operations using geothermal water. Results of this study indicate potential for commercial aquaculture development at the Raft River Geothermal Testing Site.

  10. Certify Sustainable Aquaculture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Simon; Belton, Ben; Hall, Derek;

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild......) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020 (2). This so-called “blue revolution” requires addressing a range of environmental and social problems, including water pollution, degradation of ecosystems, and violation of labor standards....

  11. Microalgae for aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the project ‘Zeeuwse Tong’ (Zeeland Sole) was founded with support of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands. The aim of the Zeeuwse Tong project was to establish an innovative land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture sector, which is producing sole, ragworms, algae, shellfish and

  12. Safety in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durborow, Robert M.; Myers, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, occupational safety interventions for agriculture-related jobs, specifically in aquaculture, are reviewed. Maintaining quality of life and avoiding economic loss are two areas in which aquaculturists can benefit by incorporating safety protocols and interventions on their farms. The information in this article is based on farm…

  13. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance......Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous...... nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics....

  14. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. PMID:25329615

  15. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-10-17

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

  16. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  17. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter...... of different size and export markets....

  18. Rapeseed use in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Halime Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the aquaculture sector is the provision of suitable and sufficient fish feed, because the most important protein source in aquaculture, the fish meal, is a limited resource. Due to their high nutritional value the rapeseed proteins have great potential as an alternative protein source for the fish nutrition. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a manufacturing process of high quality rapeseed protein concentrates, which can replace the limited marine resource. For this purpose, small pilot scale processing procedures were performed to produce a rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC. The meal for protein extraction was prepared by gentle meal processing. Rapeseed protein fractions were prepared by an aqueous extraction procedure. The obtained protein solution is further purified and then dried. The investigated rapeseed protein extraction process provides RPC with high nutritional value and low levels of antinutritional factors. From the nutritional point of view the produced RPC can be compared with the fishmeal. Its amino acid profile reflects the amino acid demands of fish. The obtained RPC was utilized for experimental setups of fish meal replacement in diets for rainbow trout, turbot, common carp and wels catfish. Experimental results from the conducted feeding trials demonstrate an enormous potential of RPC as protein source in aquafeeds. The highest fishmeal replacement level (up to 100% was observed in the feeding trials with rainbow trout. Therefore, especially in the nutrition of rainbow trout, RPC was identified as an excellent fishmeal alternative.

  19. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  20. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto;

    80 million tonnes accounting for close to 50 % of all aquatic food destined for the global human consumption. The Swedish aquaculture production currently includes about 11,000 tonnes rainbow trout in FW and SW, 1,100 tonnes arctic char (FW), 90 tonnes eel (FW), 1,500 tonnes mussels (SW) and a few...... platform for cooperation on research and education, exchange and transfer of knowledge from research to aquaculture practice. Further, integration of biological and technological research combined with education and training of skilled professionals as well as authority staff dealing with aquaculture...... due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...

  1. Applications of probiotic in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Seval Bahadır Koca; Behire Işıl Didinen; Seçil Ekici; Arife Dulluç

    2011-01-01

    Ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance is caused in increase of productivity in aquaculture. This negatively effects are seen as a results of made applications in production cycles (such as randomly use kemoteropatik). Using probi¬otic in aquaculture is a new approach to reduce these negatively effects. In this study is submi¬ted, definition of the concept probiotic, effect mechanisms of probiotics, colonization to host, selection of pr...

  2. Tendenzen im Internet-Marketing 1995 - 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag werden zunächst wichtige Tendenzen im Umfeld des Internet-Marketing dargestellt, wobei ein Schwerpunkt auf den Veränderungen des Konsumentenverhaltens liegt, die das Internet verursacht. Dabei werden ungeprüfte Annahmen aus der Frühphase der Internet-Ökonomie relativiert – etwa jene, wonach das Internet die Kundenloyalität senke und die Konkurrenzintensität erhöhe, was nach neueren empirischen Forschungsergebnissen eine in einigen Branchen falsche und somit keineswegs allgem...

  3. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...

  4. Nutrition of aquaculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R T

    1991-10-01

    Dietary requirements for amino acids and fatty acids have been reported for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapias (Oreochromis spp.), and eel (Anguilla japonicus). Most of the vitamin and mineral requirements are available for channel catfish and salmonids, and some are available for common carp, tilapia, eel, and other finfish and crustaceans. From this available information, cost-effective feeds can be formulated for the major commercial aquaculture species. Major differences in nutrient requirements between fish and mammals or birds are as follows: fish have a lower digestible energy:protein ratio (8 to 10 kcal of DE/g of CP for fish vs 15 to 20 kcal of DE/g of CP for livestock); fish require n-3 fatty acids and land animals require n-6; fish can absorb minerals from the water, which negates the need for some minerals in the diet; and fish have limited ability to synthesize vitamin C and must depend on a dietary source. Areas for further research include 1) refinement of nutrient requirements of the major culture species considering effects of fish size, temperature, and management; 2) nutrient requirements of crustaceans; 3) effects of nutrition on fish health and product quality; and 4) feeding technology. PMID:1778835

  5. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  6. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize th...

  7. Mediterranean Aquaculture: Marine Fish Farming Development

    OpenAIRE

    Basurco, B.

    2001-01-01

    in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean has been expanding rapidly over recent years. Total aquaculture production in the region reached 1,266,959 t in 1999, which represents approximately 6% of the world aquaculture production (3% in 1995). Although Mediterranean aquaculture still focuses more on mollusc production (53.9%), the share of fish production is progressing constantly (46% in 1999, and 35% in 1995), parallel to global trends of world a...

  8. Knowing Asian aquaculture and fisheries. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Surtida, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An outline is given of aquaculture and fisheries in Asia, providing information of use to students whose work can influence laws, rules, policy and regulations on aquaculture and fisheries, with the view in mind to sustainable aquaculture. In this issue, the following countries are examined: China, Indonesia, and Bangladesh.

  9. Increased competition for aquaculture from fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    ; and supplies from aquaculture have grown continuously. In this paper, the impact of improved fisheries management on aquaculture growth is studied assuming perfect substitution between farmed and wild fish. We find that improved fisheries management, ceteris paribus, reduces the growth potential of global...... aquaculture in markets where wild fisheries constitute a large share of total supply....

  10. Compartmentalisation in aquaculture production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, C; Jones, J B; Zagmutt, F J

    2008-04-01

    Compartmentalisation is a new tool for disease management within a country. In aquaculture, the successful application of compartmentalisation is largely dependent on the system of production and the epidemiology of the disease(s) for which the compartment is being defined. Therefore, compartmentalisation may not be universally applicable across all systems and diseases. The paper examines the implementation of the concept, providing examples of specific industries, and discusses the application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) to the biosecurity of the system. The role of compartmentalisation in the management of aquaculture disease emergencies is also discussed.

  11. Status of Irish Aquaculture 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine; Mhara, Bord Iascaigh; Teo, Taighde Mara

    2005-01-01

    This report is the second annual report on the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2004). It has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute and Taighde Mara. The aims of the report are to: (1) provide an objective and comprehensive source of information on the status of Irish aquaculture in 2004; (2) show the main trends i...

  12. Applications of probiotic in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Bahadır Koca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance is caused in increase of productivity in aquaculture. This negatively effects are seen as a results of made applications in production cycles (such as randomly use kemoteropatik. Using probi¬otic in aquaculture is a new approach to reduce these negatively effects. In this study is submi¬ted, definition of the concept probiotic, effect mechanisms of probiotics, colonization to host, selection of probiotics, use probiotic in fish, crustacean, the mollusk and the live feed.

  13. The need for effective disease control in international aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B J

    2005-01-01

    Globally, aquaculture is steadily expanding both in terms of total production and the range of species farmed. At an overall annual growth rate of about 10%, it is by far the fastest growing sector of food animal production in the world and is providing an increasing proportion of the total production of fish and shellfish for human consumption. However, diseases continue to cause significant economic losses in international aquaculture production and to have a detrimental effect on valuable export trade for some countries. Financial losses have been drastic in some cases and the national economies of some developing countries have been adversely affected. Even just at the local level, disease can have a serious impact on the livelihoods and food security of many individual small farmers and their families, particularly in poorer countries. Despite all the problems caused, diseases continue to be spread internationally even where import health safeguards are in place. Recent examples of such spread are presented and some reasons for the appearance of a disease in a country for the first time are given. It is an unfortunate fact that despite many years of damaging economic and social impact of disease in different sectors of aquaculture, and large sums being spent on research around the world, there are relatively few effective and officially approved products available to control or prevent them. Despite the potential market, there are as yet no commercial vaccines available to prevent the damaging effects of many of the most serious diseases. Without such vaccines, it is likely that the serious impact of diseases in international aquaculture will continue for many years to come. PMID:15962465

  14. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: A spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and land use / land cover change (LUCC) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80%, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that Intergovernmental Panel on Climate C...

  15. Aquaculture Engineering: Status and Roles in the Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Nene A. Jamabo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the role of aquaculture engineering in Nigeria’s aquaculture sub-sector. The focus was on solving site selection problems due to environmental, Climatic and hydrological factors, equipment selection and fabrication, and site specific engineering problems. The poor growth of the aquaculture industry in Nigeria in the past is attributed to the poor status of aquaculture engineering. Also emphasis was placed on the shortage of qualified manpower, aquaculture engineers, in Nigeria, and suggestions were made for the short, medium and long term solutions. It is hoped that this review article will elicit a positive shift in policy towards aquaculture engineering in Nigeria and beyond.

  16. Assessment of coastal aquaculture ponds in Asia with high resolution SAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Ottinger, Marco; Clauss, Kersten; Vo Quoc, Tuan; Künzer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing animal food production sectors worldwide and is the main source of valuable animal protein in many countries. The farming of fish, crustaceans and mollusks generated income and employment for many people in rural coastal areas and has attracted considerable attention for its high export value and potentials in terms of protein supply and global food security. Rising demand for fish, crustaceans and mollusks, and international trade has driven the rapi...

  17. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture... draft national aquaculture policy that supports sustainable aquaculture in the United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to provide a...

  18. Status of Irish Aquaculture 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine; Mhara, Bord Iascaigh; Teo, Taighde Mara

    2006-01-01

    This is the third annual report on the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2003, Parsons et al., 2004). As with the previous reports it has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute (MI) and Taighde Mara Teo (TMT). The objectives of this report are: (1) To provide a useful, objective and comprehensive source of informatio...

  19. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp an...

  20. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  1. Science, the Environment and Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the problems of natural resources, the environment and agriculture in China. Secondly, it discusses the challenge of sustaining a healthy aquaculture. Thirdly, the role of science and technology in environmental management is described in detail, explaining the interaction between research and implication for govemment policymaking and local authority implementation. Finally, the institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) concerned with studies of aquatic ecosystem management are introduced as examples.

  2. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  3. Ethical Aspects of Norwegian Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllander, David

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian government has submitted a report to the Norwegian parliament, concluding that raw oil export can no longer sustain economic growth. Norway is therefore seeking other industries to minimize the economic loss this is causing. Norway is already the largest exporter of salmon and trout in the world. The report states that the government's goal is to increase production to five times today's production by 2050. The ability and desire to grow has its backing from a handful of large c...

  4. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture.

  5. Status of Irish Aquaculture 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine; Mhara, Bord Iascaigh; Teo, Taighde Mara

    2004-01-01

    This is the first joint report on the status of Irish aquaculture, which has been produced in collaboration by the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara, the Marine Institute and Taighde Mara. The value of industry output was over €1 billion in the period from 1990 to 2003 and this represents a significant socio economic impact in the coastal areas of the south and west coast. The aims of the repo...

  6. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, I Chiu; Chao, Nai-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.

  7. Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Eduardo N; Velez, Zélia

    2011-01-01

    The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

  8. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  9. US exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the past, present, and future of US coal exports. It is expected that in the 1990's, the following factors will be evident: Significant increases in coal production and port capacity in Australia and South Africa, but little in Canada; Potentially significant increase in coal production and port capacity in Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia; Continued movement away from subsidized indigenous coal production in Europe and Japan. A substantial growth in world coal trade; Stronger growth in energy demand in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Significantly fewer additions to nuclear generating capacity in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Reduced coal production in Eastern Europe from that of the 1980s; Greater caution will be exercised in putting in new coal production capacity

  10. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  11. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity....... This prediction reconciles the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple destinations to which they can export, many firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  12. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... National Aquaculture Policy and Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy; Notices #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA214 Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: National...: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA is seeking...

  13. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  14. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  15. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  16. Reproduction of European Eel in Aquaculture (REEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne;

    Project aim: Enhance methods and technology applied to produce and culture European eel larvae as basis for the development of a future self-sustained eel aquaculture. Background: The severe decline of the European eel stock calls for conservation measures including national eel management plans...... and establishment of a self-sustained eel aquaculture. In 2005, the National Institute of Aquatic Resources at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua), the Faculty of Life Sciences at Copenhagen University (KU-Life) and the eel aquaculture industry started to build up a research and technology platform...... for the development of methods to reproduce European eel in aquaculture. Two major projects: Artificial Reproduction of Eels II and III (ROE II and III) succeeded during 2005-2008 to produce viable eggs and larvae that lived up to 12 days. The larvae thereby accomplished the yolk-sac stage and became ready to start...

  17. Aquaculture in Coastal and Marine US Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. The presence and location of...

  18. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laetitia Helene Marie; Brugere, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  19. Capturing ecosystem services, stakeholders' preferences and trade-offs in coastal aquaculture decisions: a Bayesian belief network application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Helene Marie Schmitt

    Full Text Available Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12 and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20 were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.

  20. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  1. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John;

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...... traditional matching techniques. Our results show that very few manufacturing firms export, and that export participation is highly persistent. There is also evidence supporting the LBE hypothesis and the results suggest a significant export premium of between 17 and 21%, controlling for differences...

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANIC AQUACULTURE. CASE STUDY: ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture contribute ever more to the production of aquatic food worldwide, even if the sustainable limits for majority of wild fish stocks, are now almost reached or even exceeded. In the EU, aquaculture is an important economic activity in many coastal and continental regions. Aquaculture plays an important role in terms of access to food resources and it is necessary to use its potential to contribute to sustainable development, food security, economic growth and employment. In this regard, starting from EU aquaculture objectives, the paper intend to make an analysis of the national situation of aquaculture and its current potential. The paper presented the progress of Romanian investments in aquaculture, identifying needs and opportunities for the Romanian aquaculture development. Taking into consideration the natural resources available and the growth of global request of organic product, the development of ecologic aquaculture might represent o niche market for local producers.

  3. An Overview of Aquaculture in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Ariel, Ellen; Lyngstad, T. M.;

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to describe in some detail the Nordic aquaculture industries in order to illuminate the similarities and differences. Information that was gathered for each country includes aquaculture history, aquaculture acts and regulations, production and production systems......, environmental concerns, organic aquaculture and outlook for the future. The information will be useful for risk assessments, design of risk-based surveillance programs and for construction of comparative risk profiles for endemic and exotic diseases affecting aquaculture in the Nordic countries. Aquaculture...... char and cod are most important in Iceland. Other important cultured species include eel and blue mussels. There is much diversity in Nordic aquaculture industries in terms of production, farmed species, and production systems. Although the vast majority of the Nordic aquaculture production...

  4. Vertical Integration in the Taiwan Aquaculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Ru Lee (Jiun-Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to improve the distribution channels in the Taiwanaquaculture industry through a better vertical integration. This studyis derived from a need to improve the distribution performance ofagricultural-based industries in response to increasing food demandsin Asia and elsewhere. Based on a four-by-eight matrix derived fromboth a value chain and a service profit chain, thirty different strategiesare developed. This development is based on key success factors andstrategies for vertical integration interviewed and cited in the literatures.The findings are identified by applying the Gray Relational Analysis(GRA. For this study, the key success factors for aquaculture wholesalemarkets include the communication, integration and cohesion ofopinion within the wholesale market; government support; andmutualtrust between members of the vertical integration scheme. The suitablevertical integration strategies are an improved safety and hygiene inspectionof aquaculture products, accuracy of aquaculture product categorization,and precision in product weighing.

  5. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  6. Whither Aquaculture R&D? Results from a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Susanne; Guettler, Stefan; Mueller, Rolf A.E.; Schulz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of the year 2008 a worldwide online Delphi study on the future of R&D in aquaculture was conducted. The Delphi method is widely used to survey experts on the anticipated developments within a specific domain. We employ this method to ascertain the likely future directions of aquaculture research in developed, high-income countries. For the convenience of our respondents we conducted the survey on the web. Results of the survey show that aquaculture experts agree that aquaculture...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this...

  8. Assessing the Aquaculture Curricula in the Northeastern Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 70 secondary agriculture teachers who included aquaculture in the curriculum indicated they averaged 4.5 years experience teaching aquaculture. Limited facilities, equipment costs, and low teacher knowledge were barriers. Only eight had used all of the aquaculture curriculum materials from the National Council for…

  9. Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2011 totaled 60 million tons valued at $119 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  10. Genomic approaches in aquaculture and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancela, M. Leonor; Bargelloni, Luca; Boudry, Pierre;

    2010-01-01

    Despite the enormous input into the worldwide development of fish and shellfish farming in the recent decades, in part as an attempt to minimize the impact of fishing on already overexploited natural populations, the application of genomics to aquaculture and fisheries remains poorly developed....... Improving state-of-the-art genomics research in various aquaculture systems, as well as its industrial applications, remains one of the major challenges in this area and should be the focus of well developed strategies to be implemented in the next generation of projects. This chapter will first provide...

  11. Local Export spillovers in France

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Pamina; Mayneris, Florian; Poncet, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates the presence of local export spillovers on both the extensive (the decision to start exporting) and the intensive (the export volume) margins of trade, using data on French individual export flows, at the product-level and by destination country, between 1998 and 2003. We investigate whether the individual decision to start exporting and exported volume are influenced by the presence of nearby product and/or destination specific exporters, using...

  12. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  13. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed. PMID:26119489

  14. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed.

  15. PROTEOMICS in aquaculture: applications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M; Silva, Tomé S; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming

    2012-07-19

    Over the last forty years global aquaculture presented a growth rate of 6.9% per annum with an amazing production of 52.5 million tonnes in 2008, and a contribution of 43% of aquatic animal food for human consumption. In order to meet the world's health requirements of fish protein, a continuous growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance of proteomics in seafood biology research. Proteomics, as a powerful comparative tool, has therefore been increasingly used over the last decade to address different questions in aquaculture, regarding welfare, nutrition, health, quality, and safety. In this paper we will give an overview of these biological questions and the role of proteomics in their investigation, outlining the advantages, disadvantages and future challenges. A brief description of the proteomics technical approaches will be presented. Special focus will be on the latest trends related to the aquaculture production of fish with defined nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...

  17. THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture provided 31.7% of the world needs for aquatic products. The total production and industrialization of aquaculture will continue. Planning of aquaculture development in Croatia and the preparations for joining the European Economic Community must take into account the status of aquaculture and trends in the world, the common fishery policy of EEC (green document, the production in EEC member states and EEC–candidate states and especially the production in neighboring countries. The number, the size and the strength of organizational structures helping the development of aquaculture in EEC are showing these factors to be of decisive importance for the future of sustainable aquaculture in Croatia, too. The very low fish consumption in the country is a negative health factor for the Croatian citizens and it emphasizes the importance of faster development of aquaculture. The paper is intended to stimulate improvements in the aquaculture development strategy, to promote more positive approach towards this food production sector and to speed up its successfulness in Croatia.

  18. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  19. Export destinations and learning-by-exporting : Evidence from Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Pisu

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the causal effects of exports to different destination countries using a comprehensive dataset on Belgian manufacturing firms from 1998 to 2005. Initial evidence suggests that, before export market entry, exporters to more developed economies have superior productivity levels than non-exporters and firms exporting to less developed countries. Moreover, they seem to experience higher productivity growth rates in the post-entry period, suggesting learning-by-exporting effec...

  20. Export destinations and learning-by-exporting: Evidence from Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pisu, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the causal effects of exports to different destination countries using a comprehensive dataset on Belgian manufacturing firms from 1998 to 2005. Initial evidence suggests that, before export market entry, exporters to more developed economies have superior productivity levels than non-exporters and firms exporting to less developed countries. Moreover, they seem to experience higher productivity growth rates in the post-entry period, suggesting learning-by-exporting effec...

  1. Export Diversification in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The ...

  2. Developing Refractories for Exporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANShang-xin

    1996-01-01

    The total output of China refractory products and export volume of China refractory raw materials rank the first in the world,In future the task is to improve the quality of the products to enlarge the variety and to expand export.

  3. Exports to Imports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China covers ground as it attempts to balance imports and exports after a trade deficit in the first quarter As China gears up to rebalance its economy,a key factor will be weaning its reliance on exports.The vigorous efforts are paying off as the country reported a trade deficit in the first

  4. Strong Support for Exporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The sweeping international financial crisis has taken its toll on the Chinese economy,especially in the export sector.On the one hand,overseas demand has plummeted,while on the other,with the worsening credit environment and emerging trade protectionism,export enterprises are suffering from rising credit risks to the point where some dare not even accept orders.

  5. Women in the South African Labour Market, 1995 - 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Carlene van der Westhuizen; Sumayya Goga; Morne Oosthuizen

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has found that changing policies and attitudes and improved economic performance have impacted on the labour market dynamics for women and the increased feminisation of the South African labour force since the mid-1990s has been well documented. While employment has increased more rapidly for women than for men over the period, it has been suggested that women are overrepresented in low-income, less secure employment. In addition, insufficient jobs were created to absorb the a...

  6. Labour Protection and Productivity in EU Economies: 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei, Fabrizio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines cross-national and sectoral differences in multifactor productivity growth in sixteen European countries from 1995 to 2005. The main aim is to ascertain the role of flexible employment contracts and collective labour relationships in explaining the ample differentials recorded in the European economy. We use the EU KLEMS database for growth accounting and a broad set of indicators of labour regulations, covering two distinct 'areas' of labour regulation: employment laws and collective relations laws. This comprehensive approach allows us to consider arrangements that regulate allocation of labour inputs (fixed-term and part-time contracts, hours worked and the payoff and decision rights of employees. We find that, since 1995, European countries have not followed similar patterns of growth. A large number of variations between European economies are caused by marked differentials in multifactor productivity and part of this heterogeneity is caused by sectoral diversities. We show that, in labour-intensive sectors such as services, fixed-term contracts, which imply shorter-term jobs and lower employment tenures, may discourage investment in skills and have detrimental effects on multifactor productivity increases. Employment protection reforms which slacken the rules of fixed-term contracts cause potential drawbacks in terms of low productivity gains. We also find that more stringent regulation of these practices, as well as a climate of collective relations, sustain long-term relationships and mitigate these negative effects

  7. Aquatic food security:insights into challenges and solutions from an analysis of interactions between fisheries, aquaculture, food safety, human health, fish and human welfare, economy and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Simon; Stentiford, Grant D.; Leocadio, Ana M.; Jeffery, Keith R; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Auchterlonie, Neil A.; Mangi, Stephen C.; Pinnegar, John K.; Ellis, Tim; Peeler, Edmund J; Luisetti, Tiziana; Baker-Austin, Craig; Brown, Mary; Catchpole, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries and aquaculture production, imports, exports and equitability of distribution determine the supply of aquatic food to people. Aquatic food security is achieved when a food supply is sufficient, safe, sustainable, shockproof and sound: sufficient, to meet needs and preferences of people; safe, to provide nutritional benefit while posing minimal health risks; sustainable, to provide food now and for future generations; shock-proof, to provide resilience to shocks in production systems...

  8. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  9. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: a spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stuart E; Lovette, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compliant carbon grids within Ecuador's estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services. PMID:25738286

  10. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: a spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E Hamilton

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change compliant carbon grids within Ecuador's estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services.

  11. Consumer behaviour and preferences for aquaculture products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim;

    During the last decades, the proportion of aquaculture products in the market place has increased dramatically and this trend seems to continue in the future as well. While both the producers of aquaculture products as well as the distribution channels are aware of this change in product...... about consumer preferences and choice in relation to fish in general as well as preferences for farmed and wild fish. Questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of consumers in 5 European countries: Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland and Spain, and a total of 4786 valid questionnaires were...... wild and farmed fish increases with age, since the reported consumption of wild fish decreases with increasing age, which is the opposite trend compared to reported overall fish consumption. The data shows that on average the consumption of fish increases with increasing age in all countries except...

  12. PCR AS DIAGNOSTIC METHOD IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović; Natalija Topić Popović

    1999-01-01

    PCR is an acronym for »polymerase chain reaction«, a technique based on detection and amplification of specific DNA and RNA sequences. It can be applied in diagnostics of hereditary diseases, forensics, population genetics, systematics, bioengineering, evolution biology, and also aquaculture. With this method it is possible to diagnose an array of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of fish, shellfish and crustaceans. The advantages of the technique are manifested in rapid obtaining of re...

  13. Probiotics as Control Agents in Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gómez R. Geovanny D; Balcázar José Luis; MA Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  14. THE BIOECONOMICS OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Richard F. KAZMIERCZAK, Jr.; Caffey, Rex H.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to produce a detailed aquaculture production model incorporating constraints unique to closed system culture and to conduct a formal economic analysis of closed system operation. Results generated by this model indicate that less than perfect management ability can eliminate the normal advantages associated with using high protein feed. While higher protein levels produce faster growth, and for this reason are often used in the industry, the increased direct feed co...

  15. New aquaculture drugs under FDA review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, James D.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Only eight active pharmaceutical ingredients available in 18 drug products have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in aquaculture. The approval process can be lengthy and expensive, but several new drugs and label claims are under review. Progress has been made on approvals for Halamid (chloramine-T), Aquaflor (florfenicol) and 35% PeroxAid (hydrogen peroxide) as therapeutic drugs. Data are also being generated for AQUI-S 20E, a fish sedative.

  16. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  17. Probiotics as control agents in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geovanny D, Gómez R.; Balcázar, José Luis; Ma, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  18. Ecosystem-based approach to aquaculture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick White

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits which, when exceeded, can affect major system restructuring. Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible. Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three main objectives: conservation, sustainable use, and a fair and equitable sharing of the benefits and use of the natural resources. Aquaculture development needs to be within the carrying capacity of the water resource so that it is sustainable and does not greatly impact the environment. The determination of the carrying capacity needs to be science-based. The planning of development in ecosystems has been done for freshwater ecosystems within the PAMB (Protected Area Management Board framework, but in many cases this does not give the correct significance to the impact of aquaculture on the water resources in the ecosystem. It also needs to be extended to river basins and estuaries, brackishwater areas, and inland bays, and seas. The planning and management of aquaculture needs to be undertaken at the local government unit (LGU level in a coordinated manner by all the LGUs that have a part of the water resource. The co-management of aquaculture, in terms of monitoring of the environment, monitoring of production, and monitoring of licenses, needs to be funded out of license fees and non-compliance fines collected by the LGUs. A number of these management activities need to be undertaken jointly (monitoring the environment and others separately but in a coordinated manner (e.g., checking licenses and checking compliance.

  19. Risks of using antifouling biocides in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211(®)), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  20. Making social sense of aquaculture transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience deals explicitly with change and provides a middle ground between the social and the environmental sciences. However, a growing critique by social scientists questions the ability of resilience thinking to adequately examine the social dimensions of change. The question that emerges is how social scientists should engage with resilience. We addressed this question by comparing resilience with agrarian change and transitions theory, through the backdrop of the fastest growing global food sector, aquaculture. Our analysis showed that each theoretical perspective provides fundamentally different insights into social and environmental transition inherent in the aquaculture sector. Although resilience thinking is best suited to assessing the ecological aspects of production, its systems ontology limits the inclusion of dynamic social relations or innovation. In contrast, agrarian transition enables a more meaningful understanding of how social relations are reconfigured as agrarian society shifts toward more capitalist modes of production, and transitions theory provides insights into social process of innovation. Given the epistemological differences between these theoretical approaches, we argue against attempts that reify systemic thinking by naturalizing social theories and concepts into resilience thinking. Instead, we argue that social theories such as agrarian change and transition theory should be seen as complimentary and that integration should focus on bridging results and insights. Doing so enables a more robust assessment of the social aspects of social-ecological transitions in the aquaculture sector and beyond.

  1. State of the art of Italian aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available According to aquaculture production statistics published by FEAP (2007, Italy is the fifth largest fish producer in the European Union having a total quantity for 2006 estimated around 60,000 t. This data is exclusively referred to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, seabream (Sparus aurata, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and European eel (Anguilla anguilla but even if we consider the total aquaculture production elaborated by ISMEA (2006 through year 2005 including sturgeons, carps, striped bass, catfish and ornamental fish, Italy ranks fourth with 69,100 t after Norway (655,364 t, Great Britain (141,793 t and Greece (83,600 t. Over the last 15 years, Italian finfish production has known a decrease related to all the species mainly reared (trout, eel, carps, catfish except for the eurhyaline species that have had an important expansion (Table 1. Based on these considerations, in this work we describe the main features of fish aquaculture in Italy focalizing the attention to the single sectors of the farmed species and their trend for the future.

  2. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  3. Meeting the Needs for More Fish Through Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giap, D. H.; Lam, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.

  4. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  5. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  6. Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, S.J.; Delaporte, A.; Phillips, M. J.; Beveridge, M.; O'Keefe, M

    2011-01-01

    The report begins with an overview of the current status of world aquaculture. It then goes on to describe an approach for estimating the current combined biophysical resource demands of aquaculture for producer countries and regions. Following a comparison of these results with those available for other animal food production sectors the report then examines the consequences of likely future trends in production on the environmental impacts of aquaculture. Finally, the policy implications of...

  7. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU; Kennedy F. Chah

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial resistance (AR) is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs) can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to othe...

  8. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Medrano, Juan F.; Feijoo, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequen...

  9. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  10. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  11. Slowed Exports Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ. Slowed export recovery in the second half Since the beginning of this year, global trade has maintained a recovery growth thanks to the worldwide economic rally.From January to April, the imports of three major Economics--the United States, the euro zone and Japan--rose 17.5 percent on average from a year ago. Import growths for the United States, the euro zone and Japan were 20.9 percent, 4.8 percent and 29 percent, respectively, which spurred China's exports to those regions. From January to June this year, China's exports totaled $705.09 billion, up 35.2 percent from the same period in 2009 and were 5.8 percent higher than the first half of 2008 when the crisis had yet to begin. Those figures indicated China's exports had rebounded to precrisis levels.

  12. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  13. Illegal Weapons Exports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty International, a human rights organization, released a report on June 11 accusing China of facilitating regional conflicts and human rights violations by exporting a large quantity of weapons to Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and the Great Lakes countries of Africa. Responding to such charges, Teng Jianqun, a researcher with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, told the official Xinhua News Agency that China has always put its limited arms exports under strict control and surveillance, deno...

  14. Freshwater aquaculture in the United States: Complying with environmental protection law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, M.

    1993-01-01

    The author deal with the relations between the freshwater fish culture and the many regulations of the environmental protection in USA. The author develops the federal and state administrative frameworks (federal government administration of aquaculture, the state government administration of aquaculture), the freshwater aquaculture and water rights, the freshwater aquaculture and wetlands regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and water quality regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and wild...

  15. Proteomics and its applications to aquaculture in China: infection, immunity, and interaction of aquaculture hosts with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest fishery producer worldwide in term of its aquaculture output, and plays leading and decisive roles in international aquaculture development. To improve aquaculture output further and promote aquaculture business development, infectious diseases and immunity of fishes and other aquaculture species must be studied. In this regard, aquaculture proteomics has been widely carried out in China to get a better understanding of aquaculture host immunity and microbial pathogenesis as well as host-pathogen interactions, and to identify novel disease targets and vaccine candidates for therapeutic interventions. These proteomics studies include development of novel methods, assays, and advanced concepts in order to characterize proteomics mechanisms of host innate immune defense and microbial pathogenesis. This review article summarizes some recently published technical approaches and their applications to aquaculture proteomics with an emphasis on the responses of aquaculture animals to bacteria, viruses, and other aqua-environmental stresses, and development of broadly cross-protective vaccine candidates. The reviewed articles are those that have been published in international peer reviewed journals.

  16. Rethinking the National Export Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Freund

    2014-01-01

    Four years ago, President Barack Obama set the goal of doubling exports within five years and creating 2 million new export-related jobs. The strategy put in place, however, has failed to achieve superior growth. Freund argues that the emphasis on small and medium enterprises in the National Export Initiative, while attractive, was misguided and recommends a specific set of policies that the administration should concentrate on to boost exports. An export boom requires a system that encourage...

  17. Effluent, nutrient and organic matter export from shrimp and fish ponds causing eutrophication in coastal and back-reef waters of NE Hainan, tropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S.; Unger, Daniela; Wu, Ying; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2013-04-01

    Global aquaculture has grown at a rate of 8.7% per year since 1970. Particularly along the coasts of tropical Asia, aquaculture ponds have expanded rapidly at the expense of natural wetlands. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the extent and production process of brackish-water pond aquaculture at the NE coast of Hainan, tropical China, (ii) to quantify effluent and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus export from shrimp and fish ponds and (iii) to trace their effect on the water quality in adjacent estuarine and nearshore coastal waters harboring seagrass meadows and coral reefs. During two expeditions in 2008 and 2009, we determined dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), chlorophyll a (chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in aquaculture ponds, drainage channels and coastal waters in three areas varying in extent of aquaculture ponds. From the analysis of satellite images we calculated a total of 39.6 km² covered by shrimp and fish ponds in the study area. According to pond owners, there is no standardized production pattern for feeding management and water exchange. Nutrient and suspended matter concentrations were high in aquaculture ponds and drainage channels, but varied considerably. The calculated annual export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) from pond aquaculture into coastal waters was 612 and 680 t yr-1, respectively. High concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate and chl a at the majority of the coastal stations point at eutrophication of coastal waters, especially close to shore. Coastal eutrophication driven by the introduction of untreated aquaculture effluents may be especially harmful in back-reef areas, where estuarine retention and mixing with open ocean water is restricted thus threatening seagrasses and corals.

  18. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  19. Effect of Changes in Seasonal Rain Regime on Coastal Ecosystem Structure and Aquaculture Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimo, S.; Melaku Canu, D.; Libralato, S.; Cossarini, G.; Giorgi, F.

    2008-12-01

    A downscaling experiment linked climate forcing produced by a Regional Climate Model for Europe to a 3D high resolution coupled transport biogeochemical model for the Lagoon of Venice, which in turn forced: a) a food web model for evaluation of cascading effects on ecosystem structure and b) a population dynamic bioenergetic filter feeders bivalvae model for evaluation of effects on aquaculture activities. The hierarchy of models was used to compare result for a reference situation (RF, 1961-1990) with results for two future IPCC scenarios (2071-2100), representing market oriented and local sustainability policies (scenarios A2 and B2, respectively). Future climate projections suggest that, locally, annual mean rain will not change much but the seasonal patterns will likely do so. Summer and spring will be more dry and winter and autumn more rainy. This will potentially increase winter nutrient concentrations but -because of unfavourable timing - primary and secondary productions will decrease, and nutrient surplus will be exported from the Lagoon of Venice to the Adriatic Sea. The impacts on higher trophic levels could be softened thanks to presence of alternative energy pathways and role of omnivory. However, in our future scenario of the lagoon food web the suitability for higher trophic level organisms seems lower. A more detailed analysis on clam aquaculture indicates that this activity will suffer the decrease of primary productivity, and point to the need of implementation of proper aquaculture management policies. In the light of adaptive management. These policies cannot be a straightfoward extrapolation of present practises, but need to be defined basing on future conditions.

  20. PCR AS DIAGNOSTIC METHOD IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR is an acronym for »polymerase chain reaction«, a technique based on detection and amplification of specific DNA and RNA sequences. It can be applied in diagnostics of hereditary diseases, forensics, population genetics, systematics, bioengineering, evolution biology, and also aquaculture. With this method it is possible to diagnose an array of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of fish, shellfish and crustaceans. The advantages of the technique are manifested in rapid obtaining of results, high specificity and sensitivity.

  1. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  2. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand...... factor to future production growth in the salmon aquaculture industry....

  3. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Naylor, R.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Tyedmers, P.H.; Folke, C.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Crépin, A.S.; Ehrlich, P.; Gren, A.; Kautsky, N.; Levin, S.A.; Nyborg, K.; Osterblom, H.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.; Xepapadeas, A.; de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment t

  4. Nutrients valorisation via Duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed El-Shafai, S.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The tr

  5. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    Aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) has been the fastest-growing animal food-producing sector in the world during the last three decades. At present, more than half of the world’s human fish consumption comes from aquaculture. Despite the positive trend, the aquaculture industry faces...... challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable....... To this end, key challenges should be thoroughly examined to identify sustainable and efficient solutions. Thus, the thesis focuses on two important bottlenecks in the growth of the aquaculture sector—namely, lack of nutritionally suitable live feed items for marine finfish production and negative...

  6. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D. Miranda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents.

  8. Genomic approaches in marine biodiversity and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Quezada, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  9. Criteria for candidate species for aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, H.H.; Riordan, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the animal taxa that are the most probable candidates for an intensive, commercial aquatic animal husbandry industry is considered. A characterization is presented of those biological criteria that lend the species the necessary physiological and genetic malleability to be adapted and molded into a domesticated race. The animal cultivated must be amenable to intensive management in high-density confinements such as those now being engineered for high-yield aquaculture. Attributes considered are discussed in the context of the various aquacultural ecosystems in which the specific biotype is expected to achieve satisfactory growth and survival. Correlative with bionomic criteria, economic requirements are posed and evaluated in an effort to define a socially and financially profitable agribusiness system. Investment requirements and operating costs are considered in terms of expected returns. However, since production alone is insufficient to sustain an enterprise - i.e., the product must be sold - production costs must be judged against market values. Therefore, ultimate use or consumer acceptance criteria are incorporated into the list of essential requirements for a candidate species for aquafarming.

  10. Export of textile machinery products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the export of textile machinery products continued to keep a rapidly increasing trend. In accordance with the statistics from the custom, as of December this year, the value of exported textile machinery products was USD1.528 billion, increased by 23.54% over the previous year. Except that the export of nonwoven cloth machinery products reduced to a certain degree compared with that in 2006, the export of other varieties of products increased greatly. The export of textile machinery products had been remaining relatively rapid growth since 2000. During this period, the structure of exported products has changed continuously, so do export enterprises. There are still many problems in export of textile machinery products, and manufacturers of textile machinery products should improve and advance continuously. However, on the whole, the integrated and international competitiveness of textile machinery products is enhanced, so is the internationalization level of manufacturers of textile machinery products.

  11. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  12. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.

  13. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  14. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  15. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  16. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from aquaculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2012-06-19

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 310 times that of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) over a hundred year lifespan. N(2)O is generated during microbial nitrification and denitrification, which are common in aquaculture systems. To date, few studies have been conducted to quantify N(2)O emission from aquaculture. Additionally, very little is known with respect to the microbial pathways through which N(2)O is formed in aquaculture systems. This review suggests that aquaculture can be an important anthropogenic source of N(2)O emission. The global N(2)O-N emission from aquaculture in 2009 is estimated to be 9.30 × 10(10) g, and will increase to 3.83 × 10(11)g which could account for 5.72% of anthropogenic N(2)O-N emission by 2030 if the aquaculture industry continues to increase at the present annual growth rate (about 7.10%). The possible mechanisms and various factors affecting N(2)O production are summarized, and two possible methods to minimize N(2)O emission, namely aquaponic and biofloc technology aquaculture, are also discussed. The paper concludes with future research directions.

  17. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  18. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  19. Export oriented industrialization strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Karunaratne, Neil Dias

    1980-01-01

    Disappointment about the results of import substituting industrialization strategies as well as the spectacular performance of a few newly industrialised countries have led many developing countries to switch in the 1970s to export oriented industrialization. This analysis cautions against any misplaced euphoria with regard to this strategy in a neo-mercantilistic and hegemonic world.

  20. China Reshuffles Export Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    What it means for China's economy... Last month, the Chinese Government made sweeping changes to the export tax breaks that domestic companies receive. Here's what happened: On September 14, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of

  1. Benchmarking Nordic Music Export Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Koponen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    Increasing export is necessary for companies and organizations in order to make profit in more globalized business environment. The field of exporting is also ever changing, especially regarding music exporting. The aim of this research project was to explore and improve the joint music export operations in the Nordics. It was assigned by Music Finland which administrates the umbrella organization for a Nordic co-operation called NOMEX. Thus, the author set to discover favorable practices...

  2. Export Restructuring on Rebates Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Again, the Chinese governmenthas recently adjusted the export tax rebates upon 2831 categories of goods, accounting for 37% of the nation's total export products. Export rebates on most products have decreased by 2% to 4%, and some have had an even steeper reduction. For instance,the export tax rebate has plummeted from 11% or 13% to zero on cement and chemical products, which are called "high-energy-consumption.

  3. THE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE COMPONENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Fisheries and aquaculture policy is an instrument for the conservation and management of fisheries and aquaculture. It was created with the aims of managing a common resource. Fisheries policies and management strategies the world over is in a state of flux, continued attempts to use fisheriesas the key to solving a complex web of social and economic issues threaten to overwhelm the basic fact that, if this resources are overfished, they will not sustain either social or development.

  4. Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Rosamond L.; Hardy, Ronald W.; Bureau, Dominique P.; Chiu, Alice; Elliott, Matthew; Farrell, Anthony P; Forster, Ian; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Goldburg, Rebecca J.; Hua, Katheline; Nichols, Peter D

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-bas...

  5. Management options to mitigate environmental impact of aquaculture in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Edpalina, Rizalita Rosalejos

    2009-01-01

    Asia-Pacific represents the most important region for fisheries and aquaculture production. It is world's largest contributor to the world's aquaculture, producing 46.9 million tons or 91% of the global aquaculture production (FAO, 2005). The growth of aquaculture production has been very strong for the last ten years due to the increased production from China. The aquaculture production in Southeast Asia is diversified comprising 41.6% freshwater fish, 23.5% of aquatic plants, 6.7% crustacea...

  6. Aquaculture Asia, vol. 12, no. 2, pp.1-50, April-June 2007

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Aquaculture Asia is a magazine for farmers and aquaculture-related service industries. Articles cover all aspects of aquaculture and the related processing, marketing, economic, environmental and social issues that surround the industry, with regular sections on sustainable aquaculture, marine finfish aquaculture, aquatic animal health, research and farming techniques and the NACA Newsletter. Emphasis is placed on the practical outcomes of research that are of direct benefit to the industry, ...

  7. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m3/d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m3. Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  8. DIAGNOSIS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALVARADO VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Rangel-López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register” (RFC; in the socio-economic aspects: 187 jobs are generated; on technical aspects: the average area for cultivation is 410.11 ha, 79% of production is Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.. The aquaculture activity on Alvarado, Veracruz, it is in a learning process, therefore strategies are needed in order to the development of the activity and increasing production; improving cultivation methodologies and training producers on managing their aquaculture units.

  9. Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801 aquaculture in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kružić Nikolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to present current status of meagre aquaculture in Croatia. Meagre Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801 is a fast growing migratory fish species which used to be widespread along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Today, it is very rare in fisheries catches and is considered highly endangered. Recently, meagre has become an increasingly important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture. In Croatia, meagre is a relatively new cultured species whose farming started after the year 2000. Since the European Commission identified species diversification as a top priority in the framework of the 2020 strategies for Aquaculture, and with recent studies revealing that meagre adapt easily to captivity and maintain a rapid growth rate, this species became an interesting candidate for Croatian as well as Mediterranean aquaculture.

  10. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

  11. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...... (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...

  12. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.;

    2009-01-01

    Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and transferable resistance genes in fish pathogens and other bacteria in the aquatic environment. From these reservoirs, resistance genes may disseminate by horizontal...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...

  13. Proximate analyses - Utilization of Marine Process Waste for Aquaculture Feeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Limited amounts of forage fish are available as an ingredient in feeds for the expanding aquaculture industry. Work is being conducted on a variety of underutilized...

  14. Use of chemicals in aquaculture - issues of concern

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    in use of chemicals that leads to their use or misuse. The chemicals used in intensive and sometimes in semi-intensive aquaculture typically include chemotherapeutants, feed additives, hormones, pesticides and parasiticides. Major environmental and human...

  15. Aquaculture as a part of a multi-use platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Svenstrup Petersen, Ole; Aarup Ahrensberg, Nick;

    2014-01-01

    aquaculture. These developments urgently require effective marine technology and governance solutions to facilitate installation, operation and maintenance of these novel offshore activities. Simultaneously, both economic costs and environmental impact have to remain within acceptable limits, in order...... to increase the feasibility of the use of ocean space. Aquaculture can play an important role in the multi-use of ocean space. This idea is tested on four different sites around Europe, where this paper focus on the one in the Baltic Sea....

  16. DIAGNOSIS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALVARADO VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Lenin Rangel-López; Fabiola Lango-Reynoso; Alberto Asian-Hoyos; María del Refugio Castañeda-Chávez

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the current situation of aquaculture farms in the Municipality of Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico. During this study, 29 interviews were conducted aimed to the units of aquaculture producers; 24 variables were analyzed within the aspects of the socio-economic, technical, marketing and legal framework. The most relevant results within the legal framework: 21% of units has “National Registration of Fisheries and Aquaculture” (RNPyA) and 7% has “Federal Taxpayer Register...

  17. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sumoharjo; Asfie Maidie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each) that assembled in series. ...

  18. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food processing sector in the world. Nevertheless, growth inside the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has been stagnating, with few exceptions. The main reason is strict environmental regulations. This study investigates if green...... growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  19. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  20. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verschuere, L.; Rombaut, G.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstraete, W.

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustace...

  1. Consumer attitudes toward aquaculture: spanish study correlates knowledge, opinions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Polanco, José Manuel; Luna Sotorrío, Ladislao; Llorente García, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Consumer beliefs about the safety and sustainability of aquaculture are statistically related concepts that allow their reduction into a single attitude index. As consumers further identify safety and sustainability in the aquaculture, their opinions about farmed seafood tend to become more favorable. The industry can benefit by assuring that both conditions are satisfied in their operations and communicating them in an understandable language for all segments.

  2. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  3. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  4. Interactions of Aquaculture and Waste Disposal in the Coastal Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xuemei; Hawkins S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper.Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture.Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  5. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gram, Lone

    2016-09-01

    Microorganisms are of great importance to aquaculture where they occur naturally, and can be added artificially, fulfilling different roles. They recycle nutrients, degrade organic matter and, occasionally, they infect and kill the fish, their larvae or the live feed. Also, some microorganisms may protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully manipulate and engineer these microbiomes. Similarly, we can reduce the need to apply antibiotics in aquaculture through manipulation of the microbiome, i.e. by the use of probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that fish pathogenic bacteria in live feed can be controlled by probiotics and that mortality of infected fish larvae can be reduced significantly by probiotic bacteria. However, the successful management of the aquaculture microbiota is currently hampered by our lack of knowledge of relevant microbial interactions and the overall ecology of these systems. PMID:27452663

  6. Risk Taking Propensity and Export Performance of Croatian Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Leko-Simic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Export performance is today one of the most widely used measures of a company’s success, due to the globalization and market liberalization processes. The rather bad export performance of Croatian exporters can be explained by a number of factors, one of which is assumed to be the low level of risk taking propensity, which is one of the three major dimensions of entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of this paper is to analyze company age, size and type of business as determinants of risk taking propensity in Croatian exporting companies. Cluster analysis based on four variable criteria was used in order to determine risk and non-risk takers’ clusters and analyze the significant differences between them in relation to their export performance. The paper is based on research of 88 Croatian exporters.

  7. 中国紫菜养殖业的发展现状研究%Analysis of Development Process and Current Situation of China Laver Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博

    2012-01-01

    紫菜养殖是中国水产养殖业中的代表产业之一。从20世纪70年代开始通过引进外资,开发新品种,创新养殖技术,推动出口,加强协会组织建设等一系列举措,经过30多年的发展,紫菜养殖产业逐步趋于成熟,中国已经成为世界有数的紫菜养殖及出口大国。但是,分析研究发现紫菜养殖业快速发展的同时,在高效率生产及稳定供给、原藻质量保证、市场开发、行业协会建设以及政府管理投入方面仍存在着一些亟待解决的问题。因此,针对这些问题制定相应的措施政策对中国紫菜养殖业的可持续发展有着重要意义。%Laver aquaculture is a representative of China aquaculture industries. From the 1970s, through a series of measures such as, the introduction of foreign investment, developing new products, innovative farming techniques, promotion exports, strengthening of the construction of associations, abd China Laver aquaculture gradually matured. After' thirty years of development, China,is now one of the few countries in the world exports and seaweed' aquaculture. However, by the analysis, it could be found that the rapid development of seaweed aquaculture while, high efficiency in production and a stable supply, quality assurance of raw seaweed, marketing development, construction industry association and government investment there were still some problems to be solved. Therefore, for these issues, to develop appropriate policy measures to solve laver aquaculture issues in China has an important significance for sustainable development.

  8. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  9. Voluntary export restraints and resource allocation in exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo, Jaime; WINTERS, L Alan

    1990-01-01

    Most literature on voluntary export restraints ( VERs ) analyzes the welfare costs of VERs to consumers in the importing country. The authors propose a method for measuring the effects of a VER on the productivity of factors employed in the exporting industry. Their model measures how a VER affects both revenues and efficiency in an exporting industry. They used the model to estimate the effects of the U.S. Orderly Marketing Agreement ( OMA ) on Korean producers of leather footwear ( 1977 - 8...

  10. An Anatomy Of The Export Expansion Process

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, S

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the export market strategies and export modes used by small and medium sized Italian manufacturing firms. The firms vary extensively in their extent and type of export dependence on different channel arrangements and export markets. Moreover, the exporting modes used do show some peculiar links with export objectives specifically higher dependence on direct sales is associated with planned export expansion and higher dependence on agent/representatives and distributors is ...

  11. Export policy of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Tomišková, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the export policy of the Czech Republic. It describes the Export strategy of the Czech Republic for 2012--2020 and covers a number of institutions that currently support Czech exporters. The thesis includes a review of the export policy of Slovakia and its comparison with the current Czech export policy. In conclusion, pros and cons of the Czech export policy are highlighted. There are also suggestions to improve the Czech export support in the future.

  12. Managerial and learning skills in exporting SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    RUBÉN FERNÁNDEZ ORTIZ; JOSÉ IGNACIO CASTRESANA RUIZ-CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    The relevance of the perception of exports in the field of business management can have a key impact on the exporting behavior of SMEs. In particular, it can determine the decision to implement an export policy, as well as the policies applied to consolidate exports. This paper covers two main aspects. First, the extent to which managerial perceptions of exports affect the decision to export, and second, for these SMEs which are already exporters, we study the managerial perceptions that can ...

  13. China's Export Expansion, Export Structure and Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yisheng; Ning Xuemin

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China's export trade has maintained a rapid growth; meanwhile, China's energy consumption has been increasing sharply. "High export and high energy consumption" has become the feature of China's trade and economic development. In this paper, based on the input-output analysis approach, the authors have conducted an empirical study on the export trade and energy consumption of 21 trade industrial sectors. The results show that, China is a big net exporter of embodied energy. Assuming that the export growth rate of embodied energy maintains to be about 23.6%, the average annual growth rate of the past 32 years, and based on the input-output data of 2005, by 2030 China's net export of embodied energy would be over eight times more than the aggregate energy production, which is obviously infeasible. As a country of very low per capita en- ergy, China must change its export pattern, encourage or restrain the export of different industrial sectors according to their energy consumption intensity, and promote structural change of energy- efficient exported products, so as to achieve the sustainable development. Accordingly, the authors put forward some suggestions.

  14. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  15. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  16. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  17. Slowed Exports Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first half of 2010 is showing that the impacts of the financial crisis are still lingering.Zhao Jinping,a researcher at the Development Research Center of the State Council,says that the possible implementation of exit strategies in developed countries may deal a heavy blow to a global rally,and it will certainly result in slowed exports growth for China.Zhao published his opinion in the China Economic Times.The first part was published in issue No.33.Edited excerpts of the second part follow:

  18. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  19. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m3/d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  20. India’s Services Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Hyvonen; Hao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Exports of services are an important source of demand for the Indian economy and account for a larger share of output than in most major economies. The importance of India’s services exports mirrors that of the broader services sector in India, which is large compared with other countries at a similar stage of development. This article provides an overview of India’s services exports, focusing on their composition and destination, and discusses some of the reasons why services exports are so ...

  1. Export base of czech regions

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Šulc

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of structure and size of goods exported from the Czech regions in the period of 2003–2009. The analysis is related to the export base theory. At first there is the export base theory characterised in the beginning of the article. There is a limited data base for the assessing of international flow of goods and services in case of Czech regions, for only the data of exported goods is regionally monitored. Both the presence and the increase of importance of ...

  2. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.G. van Wijnbergen; I. Arslan

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil count

  3. Wind exports markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the situation of wind export markets and the principles of firming, shaping and moving. Firming means the conversion of uncertain second to second output into hourly deliveries. Firming of energy is used to make up the difference between the hourly schedule and actual output. Firming of capacity is setting aside generation to stand behind fluctuations in wind output within the hour. Shaping is to convert uncertain hour-to-hour output throughout the year into predetermined deliveries that meet consumer demand. Moving refers to BC's attempts to bring about the transport of clean energy to California. But there are transmission issues involved because the network lines to California are already fully subscribed. One solution would be for IPPs to purchase services from Powerex, or any other service provider, at opportunity cost. Another element is that the market price for wholesale electricity is lower than in recent years. It is safe to say that there are lots of uncertainties involved in wind exports.

  4. Possibilities for marker-assisted selection in aquaculture breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAO estimates that there are around 200 species in aquaculture. However, only a few species have ongoing selective breeding programmes. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is not used in any aquaculture breeding scheme today. The aim of this chapter, therefore, is to review briefly the current status of aquaculture breeding schemes and to evaluate the possibilities for MAS of aquaculture species. Genetic marker maps have been published for some species in culture. The marker density of these maps is, in general, rather low and the maps are composed of many amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers anchored to few microsatellites. Some quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for economically important traits, but they are not yet mapped at a high density. Computer simulations of within-family MAS schemes show a very high increase in genetic gain compared with conventional family-based breeding schemes, mainly due to the large family sizes that are typical for aquaculture breeding schemes. The use of genetic markers to identify individuals and their implications for breeding schemes with control of inbreeding are discussed. (author)

  5. Potential use of power plant reject heat in commercial aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1977-01-01

    Current research and commercial activities in aquaculture operations have been reviewed. An aquaculture system using mostly herbivorous species in pond culture is proposed as a means of using waste heat to produce reasonably priced protein. The system uses waste water streams, such as secondary sewage effluent, animal wastes, or some industrial waste streams as a primary nutrient source to grow algae, which is fed to fish and clams. Crayfish feed on the clam wastes thereby providing a clean effluent from the aquaculture system. Alternate fish associations are presented and it appears that a carp or tilapia association is desirable. An aquaculture system capable of rejecting all the waste heat from a 1000-MW(e) power station in winter can accommodate about half the summer heat rejection load. The aquaculture facility would require approximately 133 ha and would produce 4.1 x 10/sup 5/ kg/year of fish, 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ kg/year of clam meat, and 1.5 x 10/sup 4/ kg/year of live crayfish. The estimated annual pretax profit from this operation is one million dollars. Several possible problem areas have been identified. However, technical solutions appear to be readily available to solve these problems. The proposed system shows considerable economic promise. Small scale experiments have demonstrated the technical feasibility of various components of the system. It therefore appears that a pilot scale experimental facility should be operated.

  6. Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The culture of aquatic organisms, especially that of fishes under controlled conditions, up to their harvesting, processing, commercialization and consumption, has been pointed out as an activity that produces a lot of benefits, among them: the obtention high proteic valued food, the incorporation to the economy of lands not usefull for agriculture activities, the increment of fishing resources, the recycling of organic matter produced in the units, the regional development, the generation of employment, technologies and foreign currencies. Several research areas are identified that can be developed, using the nuclear technologies, for example in the reproduction, nutrition, diagnose and control of illnesses, environmental monitoring and quality certification of products. In the concerning to the Venezuelan aquaculture, investigations are required that need to use those techniques. For example: 1) Production of autochthonous inductive agents, by means of radioinmunoenssay (RIA), to determine the gonadotropines coming from the hypophysis of fish cultivated with the purpose of gathering the glands in its best moment, to generate the final maturation and spawn in autochthonous species. 2) Genetic improvement of cultivated species through the knowledge of the genetic load of different lines and breeds found in the natural means, and to achieve its maintenance to solve inbreeding problems, in autochthonous species aswell in as in exotic ones, by the use of marking techniques (ADE, RFLA and microsatellite techniques). 3) Nutritional and feeding studies of species under commertial culture, especially on the effect of the aflatoxins in the inputs or the portions, substances that influence in a negative way the aquatic nutrition. In this case, competitive immunoassays of enzymes bounded (ELISA) and radioinmunoessays. 4) Illness diagnose, by means of the ELISA kit, specifically of the more common illness in fishes cultivated in the country

  7. Responsible aquaculture in 2050: Valuing local conditions and human innovations will be key to success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diana, J.S.; Egna, H.S.; Chopin, T.; Peterson, M.S.; Cao, L.; Pomeroy, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Slack, W.T.; Bondad-Reantaso, M.G.; Cabello, F.

    2013-01-01

    As aquaculture production expands, we must avoid mistakes made during increasing intensification of agriculture. Understanding environmental impacts and measures to mitigate them is important for designing responsible aquaculture production systems. There are four realistic goals that can make futur

  8. Low-head saltwater recirculating aquaculture systems utilized for juvenile red drum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems reuse water with mechanical and biological treatment between each use and thus require wastewater treatment techniques for continuous waste removal. However, the traditional techniques and equipment utilized in recirculating aquaculture systems are expensive. The d...

  9. In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

  10. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  11. Tumbling Auto Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yantai Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The seemingly rebound global financial crisis has seriously eroded world economy from 2008,of which China's tumbling auto imports and exports business is a good example.At the beginning of 2008 it kicked off as an excellent year for the Chinese automotive market,but ended with the onset of a recession in last quarter both from the perspective of import and export.

  12. Sinosure Helping to Stabilize Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The unfolding international financial crisis is taking its toll on China’s economy, especially China’s exports. On one hand, overseas demand has plummeted, while on the other, with the worsening credit environment and emerging trade protectionism, export enter-prises are suffering from rising credit risks, to the point where some of them dare not even accept orders.

  13. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  14. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming).

  15. The Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Recirculating Aquaculture System Biofilms and their Response to Various Sanitizers

    OpenAIRE

    King, Robin K.

    2001-01-01

    THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN BIOFILMS OF RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SANITIZERS Robin K. King ABSTRACT Recirculating aquaculture offers a prospect for successful fish farming, but this form of aquaculture presents a great potential for pathogenic microorganisms to become established in the system through the formation of biofilms. Biofilms are capable of forming on all aquaculture system components, incorporating the various microflor...

  16. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J F; Esteves, V I; Santos, E B H

    2016-06-01

    Oxytracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic authorized for use in European aquaculture. Its photo-degradation has been widely studied in synthetic aqueous solutions, sometimes resorting to expensive methods and without proven effectiveness in natural waters. Thus, this work studied the possibility to apply the solar photo-degradation for removal of OTC from marine aquaculture's waters. For that, water samples were collected at different locals of the water treatment circuit, from two different aquaculture companies. Water samples were firstly characterized regarding to pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), organic carbon and UV-Vis spectroscopic characteristics. Then, the samples were spiked with OTC and irradiated using simulated sunlight in order to evaluate the matrix effects on OTC photo-degradation. From kinetic results, the apparent quantum yields and the outdoor half-life times, at 40°N for midsummer and midwinter days were estimated by the first time for these conditions. For a midsummer day, at sea level, the outdoor half-life time predicted for OTC in these aquaculture's waters ranged between 21 and 25 min. Additionally, the pH and salinity effects on the OTC photo-degradation were evaluated and it has been shown that high pH values and the presence of sea salt increase the OTC photo-degradation rate in aquaculture's waters, compared to results in deionised water. The results are very promising to apply this low-cost methodology using the natural sunlight in aquaculture's waters to remove OTC. PMID:27049790

  17. Assessment of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to address three objectives: 1) to determine the nitrogen cycling of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; 2) to determine the energy budget of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; and 3) to determine which low cost fish diets could be used as a replacement or supplement to commercial diets for Tilapia mossambica. A 6435 liter recirculating aquaculture system was enclosed in a 32.6 m/sup 2/ greenhouse. Water was recirculated through two 416 liter trickling filter towers and three 5.5 m long hydroponic troughs. The aquaculture tank was stocked with a polyculture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) and the hydroponic troughs were planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The fishes were fed a commercial fish diet and the tomatoes were irrigated with the aquaculture water using a modified Nutrient Film Technique. The fish yield was 42.2 kg and the average tomato yield from 24 plants was 4.1 kg/plant. The combined fish and tomato production accounted for 65% of the total nitrogen input. Leaf analyses and visual inspection showed that the tomato plants from the hydroponic troughs were deficient in potassium and magnesium. An energy analysis of the greenhouse and aquaculture-hydroponic system showed that when combining the energy outputs of heat, fish, and tomatoes the energy ratio (energy output/energy input) was similar to literature values for milkfish pond culture. When only the fish production was considered the energy ratio was similar to literature values reported for intensive water recirculating systems.

  18. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  19. 77 FR 50082 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Census of Aquaculture AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION... currently accepting stakeholder feedback in the form of content requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture..., (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The results of the 2005 Census of Aquaculture were...

  20. Research update for the Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2014 totaled 80 million tons valued at $140 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture h...

  1. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    , larvae of flatfishes undergo a particularly evident and dramatic metamorphosis, because flatfishes completely reprogram their body to move from the pelagic habitat, in the water column, to the benthic habitat, on the sea floor. Due to the complex morphological and physiological changes, in aquaculture...... capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...

  2. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang;

    Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms...

  3. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  4. Learning to export and learning by exporting: The case of Ethiopian manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Siba, Eyerusalem; GEBREEYESUS, Mulu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between exporting and firm performance using a longer panel dataset of Ethiopian manufacturing firms for the period 1996 - 2009. We test two hypotheses regarding exporting: selection into exporting versus learning by exporting. According to the selection into exporting hypothesis, more productive firms self-select into exporting due to high entry costs. The learning by exporting hypothesis, on the other hand, emphasizes that firms learn after ent...

  5. 2006 Rare Earth Export Quota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to correlative stipulations in "Goods Import εt Export Administrating Statute of P.R.C", 2006export quota for important industrial products was issued by the Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. on December 30th of 2005. Export quota of rare earth products is 45,000 tons. It is said the quota will be distributed in two batches. The first batch of quota will reach 70-80% of the total with 21,700 - 24,800tons for domestic companies and 10,500 - 12,000 tons for foreign invested companies. Quota will be distributed to relevant enterprises directly in recent days.

  6. Genetics in Aquaculture: Proceedings of the Sixteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture Charleston, South Carolina October 20 and 21, 1987

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun durin...

  7. Environmental quality and aquaculture systems: Proceedings of the Thirteenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Mie, Japan, October 24-25, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was begun during t...

  8. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

      One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been recently dev

  9. Zebrafish as Animal Model for Aquaculture Nutrition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Elizabeth Ulloa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism’s response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed.

  10. Beyond net deficits: new priorities for an aquacultural geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belton, B.; Bush, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Geographers first identified aquaculture as an important field of study during the 1990s, pointing to a ‘net deficit’ in geographical knowledge about the activity. This paper examines how far geographers have come in bridging this knowledge deficit in the last 20 years. While increasing attention ha

  11. Microorganisms in recirculating aquaculture systems and their management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) are increasingly considered as production systems of the future with a minimum ecological impact for the production of aquatic food. To maintain a good water quality and to produce quality and healthy fishery products, the systems depend on a diverse microbia

  12. An Inexpensive Recirculating Aquaculture System with Multiple Use Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Gerald Don, Jr.; Cook, S. Bradford; Scurlock, Carrie Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive recirculating aquaculture system that can hold up to 46 pounds of fish, invertebrates, and mussels for classroom use. The system is versatile, requires little maintenance, and can be used for both teaching and research purposes. (WRM)

  13. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  14. Microscreen effects on water quality in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three microscreen mesh sizes (100, 60 and 20 μm) on water quality and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance compared to a control group without microscreens, in triplicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Operational conditions were kept...

  15. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  16. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Millot, Sandie;

    2015-01-01

    on coping styles may contribute to improved sustainability of the aquaculture industry, including welfare and performance of farmed fish. Moreover, we will suggest areas for future research, where genetic basis (heritability/epigenetic) of coping styles, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind consistent...

  17. Identification of specific demands on Feed in Dutch Organic Aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of specific demands for organic feed focussed on feed demands for four fish species which can be cultured in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS), tilapia, African Catfish, shrimp and turbot. The evaluation of the various feed formulations indicates that there are several ingredien

  18. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dabrowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. A shellfish model that includes growth and physiological interactions of mussels with the ecosystem and is fully embedded in the 3-D numerical modelling framework has been developed at the Marine Institute. This shellfish model has a microbial module designed to predict levels of coliform contamination in mussels. This model can also be used to estimate the carrying capacity of embayments, assess impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds and help to classify shellfish waters. The physical coastal model of southwest Ireland provides a three day forecast of shelf water movement in the region. This is assimilated into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end-users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish killing species. Further services include the use of models to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the marine fisheries resources. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  19. Fish to 2030 : Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes global prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. The World Bank Group (WBG) Agriculture Action Plan 2013-15 summarizes critical challenges facing the global food and agriculture sector. An ever-increasing global population necessitates adequate food and nutrition for the growing population through increased production and reduced waste. Production increase must occur in...

  20. Charting the Research Course for Sustainable Aquaculture in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vun L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to arising needs and demands, aquaculture is currently the fastest growing food production sector. In order to increase yield and yet to remain sustainable, the challenges would be to minimise impact on the environment and ecosystem services. Aquaculture activity contributes significantly to Malaysia and also the state of Sabah’s economy and food security. Hence, the future changes in the environment as a result of rapid population growth and development would pose as threats to this industry in terms of quality, quantity and sustainability. Unforeseen environmental changes such as environmental pollution from other sources, climate change and the changes in policies would jeopardize the sustainability of this industry. In order to anticipate such impacts to the aquaculture activities, this paper set to chart a sustainable course for its development. Four important research courses were proposed: establishment of a sustainable framework, assessment of impacts of climate change, viability and vulnerability assessment due to future environmental changes and food security. Such findings would eventually allow the stakeholders to plan and manage the resources and aquaculture activities in such a way that foster sustainable food security and resilient aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Fishery and Aquaculture Relationship in the Mediterranean: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RELINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mediterranean represents only 0.8% of the world seas, it is the site of a very long-established fishing activity, characterized mainly by multispecific catch and by artisanal or coastal activity, resulting from a mosaic of very diversified structures and gears, along more than 45,000 km of coastline. Two main biological features of this sea are the occurrence of a large richness of species (it represents 5.5% - 7% of world marine fauna and 16.6% of macrophyta, which stands in contrast with its ‘trophic poverty’ and the absence of large monospecific fishery, except for some small and large pelagic fish. Another biological characteristic of Mare Nostrumis the high invasion of exotic species, some exploited by fishery and aquaculture, some others quite dangerous. For the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea, the production (catch + aquaculture had been steadily increasing over the period 1972-1988 from 1,140,000 t to 2,080,000 t . The period 1988-1991 has shown a drastic drop in catches (in 1991: 1,400,000 t. From 1990 to 1995 the total catch increased to 1,701,379 t then decreased and in 2000 reached 1,485,046 t . In 2000 Turkey had the first place with 496,174 t, 26.9% of the total value (1,846,026 t, including fishing and aquaculture, followed by Italy with 25%, Greece 9%, Spain 7.6% and Algeria 5.4%. As in many parts of the world, aquaculture production in the Mediterranean is rapidly expanding. In 1970 the total aquaculture production was about 18,297 t of which 74.3% produced in Italy. In 2000 a value of 358,614 t was reached, about 1/4 of the total fishery catch, while the world aquaculture production corresponds to half of the world total catch. Italy is still the main producer with 46.7% , followed by Greece with 21.5%, Turkey 9.9% and France 6.7%. A sharp drop in the production of the European eel ( Anguilla anguilla and of the European flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis is recorded. Positive and negative interactions between

  2. Exports reflect "safety of products"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the made-in-China products are absolutely safe, and the steady increase in exports despite the recent widespread criticism reflects their safety standards, a Ministry of Commerce official said Thursday.

  3. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  4. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exporting authority. 592.304 Section... § 592.304 Exporting authority. (a) The term exporting authority means one or more entities designated by a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  5. Effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development in aquaculture tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietz, Matthias; Hall, Michael R; Høj, Lone

    2009-07-01

    Microbial biofilms developing in aquaculture tanks represent a reservoir for opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and procedures to control formation and bacterial composition of biofilms are important for the development of commercially viable aquaculture industries. This study investigated the effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development on microscope glass slides placed in small-scale aquaculture tanks containing the live feed organism Artemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that ozonation accelerated the biofilm formation cycle, while it delayed the establishment of filamentous bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups in the biofilm for both water types, but ozonation influenced their dynamics. With ozonation, the bacterial community structure was relatively stable and dominated by Gammaproteobacteria throughout the experiment (21-66% of total bacteria). Without ozonation, the community showed larger fluctuations, and Alphaproteobacteria emerged as dominant after 18 days (up to 54% of total bacteria). Ozonation of seawater also affected the dynamics of less abundant populations in the biofilm such as Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetales and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium branch of phylum Bacteroidetes. The abundance of Thiothrix, a bacterial genus capable of filamentous growth and fouling of larvae, increased with time for both water types, while no temporal trend could be detected for the genus Vibrio. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated temporal changes in the dominant bacterial populations for both water types. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed the FISH data, and sequences were related to bacterial groups commonly found in biofilms of aquaculture systems. Several populations were closely related to organisms involved in sulfur cycling. Improved Artemia survival rates in tanks receiving ozonated water suggested a positive effect of ozonation on animal

  6. Do Exporters Gain From VERs?

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo, Jaime; WINTERS, L Alan

    1990-01-01

    Previous literature has concentrated on the rent transfer accruing to exporting countries when a VER is binding. This paper studies the efficiency and distributional effects arising when VERs force factors out of industries in which they are most productive. A theoretical model of the industry under the VER is developed to establish qualitative conditions under which a VER will result in: spillovers of exports to unrestricted markets; industry contraction; and loss in national welfare. Key pa...

  7. Rising Threshold Shows Export Ambition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beginning from March 1 of this year,China only allows authorized manufacturers to engage in automobile exports in an effort to raise auto quality.The licensing system,jointly introduced by Ministry of Commerce,National Development and Reform Commission,General Administration of Customs,State Quality Inspection Administration and Certification and Accreditation Administration of China,aims to ensure that only large and credible auto manufacturers take part in auto exports.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Some Major Fishery Products Exported from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The export quality marine and aquaculture fish and fishery products were collected from European Union Approved (EUA) and EU-non-approved (EUN) plants located at east and west coast of India and were analysed for the presence of human bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 126 samples comprising of 26 marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus), 18 freshwater prawn, scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 40 squid (Loligo sp.), six cuttle fish (Sepia sp.), 30 rohu (Lobia rohita) and six long fin herring (Citrocentrus sp.) were analysed. The samples were screened for aerobic plate count (APC) and pathogens including Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that the marine products from EUN plants were of poorer microbiological quality as compared with products from EUA plants. Samples of squid (40%) and shrimp (28.5%) from EUN plants were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. However, V. cholerae, L. monocytogenes, and, Y. enterocolitica were not detected in any of the samples tested. Shrimp samples (28%) from EUN plants were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp (14.3%) and squid (40%) were also contaminated with coagulase positive S. aureus. Salmonella contamination was observed in 16.7% of the cuttle fish samples from EUN plants. Whole herring samples were of acceptable microbiological quality. Of the freshwater items analyzed, whole rohu samples had higher microbial load as compared to processed rohu samples. All the rohu samples were free from the pathogens, however, 25% of the rohu steak samples had E. coli exceeding the limit of 20 cfu/g. Both whole as well as headless scampi harboured higher microbial load; whole (50%) and headless (41%) scampi samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The results suggested a need for implementation of better hygienic practices for the improvement of microbial

  9. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m3/d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m3 to 7,700 m3/d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m3/d, compared to 18,400 m3/d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m3. 24 figs., 4 tabs

  10. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  11. China will Reduce Aluminium Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Starting from January 1, 2005, China eliminated the 8 per cent export tax rebate for aluminium, and further more, the exporters will have to pay 5 per cent export tax. This is beyond the expectations of the producers, for most of them thought only the 8 per cent export tax rebate would be eliminated and it was still too early to add the export tax.

  12. The Application of Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA Using Stratified Double Net Rounded Cage (SDFNC for Aquaculture Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto P. Putro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of fishery production nationally and internationally may impact on the potential emergence of a variety of environmental problems. The application of sustainable aquaculture is urgently needed by breeding fish for commercial purposes in a manner such that it has a minimum impact on the environment, contributing to the development of local communities and generating economic benefits. The design of the cage and farming practice in aquaculture activities are the important steps to ensure that farming activity is still observed in order to anticipate the risk of organic enrichment caused by the activities. The application of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture  (IMTA on the Stratified Double Floating Net Cage  (SDFNC integrated with biomonitoring are an appropriate solution to the ongoing productive farming practices. IMTA is an aquaculture practice using more than one species of biotas which have ecologically mutual relationship as a part of the food chain in the area at the same time. The application of IMTA allows farmers to get several aquaculture products in the same area without increasing the horizontal area of the farms. At first, the SDFNC has been applied for farming Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia niloticus as polyculture system in freshwater ecosystem of Rawapening Lake, Central Java. Its operation has been able to increase the production capacity of at least 75% of conventional cages. The application of SDFNC-IMTA using milkfish (Chanos Chanos, seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii, and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been able to minimize the impact and maintain the water ecosystem in the Gulf Awerange, South Sulawesi.

  13. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  14. International Marketing Strategies and the relationship with the export performance and export marketing orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to identify the relationship between marketing strategies of exporting Taquari Valley firms with the export performance and export market orientation. To achieve the goal sought proposed is the development of theoretical benchmark, made up items strategies for international marketing, export performance and export market orientation. In epistemological level was conducted a survey, applying for a questionnaire to a sample of 25 exporting companies that have industrial activitie...

  15. The Development Of Export Marketing Strategies Between Manufacturer And Merchant Exporters Within The Indian Apparel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Davar, S C; Rajagopal, S

    1992-01-01

    With the growing apparel exports from India, the development of export marketing strategies for manufacturer and merchant exporters become significant. This study identifies and draws out the major strategy elements used by manufacturer and merchant exporters. The study indicates that manufacturer exporters utilize product diversification, improved quality and differentiation, competitive pricing, better promotion and having diverse market as elements of their export marketing strategies. The...

  16. Managerial and learning skills in exporting SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN FERNÁNDEZ ORTIZ

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the perception of exports in the field of business management can have a key impact on the exporting behavior of SMEs. In particular, it can determine the decision to implement an export policy, as well as the policies applied to consolidate exports. This paper covers two main aspects. First, the extent to which managerial perceptions of exports affect the decision to export, and second, for these SMEs which are already exporters, we study the managerial perceptions that can help to consolidate their commitment to exports. To this aim, some scales based on structural equations to measure the perception of the advantages and disadvantages of exporting are developed and validated. Both analyses are carried out considering whether the SMEs involved are family businesses or not, so that the results obtained can also explain the potential impact of this fact.

  17. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  18. Overview of the application of nucleotide in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Do Huu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although long history application in infant formula, dietary nucleotide supplementation has been used only recently in the evaluation of growth performance, stress and pathogen resistance in aquaculture species. This paper addresses the present knowledge of the use of nucleotide supplemented in the diet for culture species. Research reveals that dietary nucleotide may have significant impact and is recommended to add to the feed of aquatic species to get better performance. However, more studies should also be conducted to have better understandings on dose requirement, duration of application, impact on different life stage and under different environmental stress and pathogens. Further study should also examine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation of intestinal microbiota and gut morphology, and immune response of aquaculture species.

  19. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  20. Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Teodor BURUIANĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of a large amount of certain types of beneficial bacteria can reduce the multiplication and development of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. A “probiotic” is a product that contains live microorganisms which positively influence the host intestinal microbiota by preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth and development of beneficial bacteria. Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria with beneficial effects in aquaculture industry. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. in fish culture improved especially growth performance, immune response and the disease resistance of fish against pathogenic bacterial infections. The objective of the current paper is to review the recent published investigations reported in the scientific literature on the use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in aquaculture, focusing on their beneficial effects on the host. This review includes the main effects of Bacillus spp. administration in shrimp culture, carp culture, tilapia culture, and other fish culture.

  1. Liposarcoma in clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced in indoor aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Benharroch, D; Kachko, L; Reis-Hevlin, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-06-01

    Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, produced and grown in an experimental indoor aquaculture facility, presented with lipomatous tumours. A total of 14 affected fish were examined. Based on the total number of fish at the aquaculture facility at the time of outbreak of this pathology, the scope of the incident is estimated to be 1 of 300 fish. The tumours were characterized by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes, lipoblasts and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs, muscle, central nervous system and, in one case, an eye. Detailed macroscopic and histopathological features are presented. The suggested diagnosis is that of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, a diagnosis so far never applied to fish. The limited outbreak of the neoplasm lasted a few months in 2011 and did not recur. Possible factors leading to this phenomenon, notably the metastasis, are discussed.

  2. Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ⇔ H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 μeq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

  3. Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

    2001-09-01

    In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock.

  4. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez; Gerardo Rodríguez-Quiroz; Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal; Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1) and 20% (APL2) worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six we...

  5. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Merica Slišković; Gorana Jelić

    2002-01-01

    Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems nece...

  6. Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa M. Farghally; Doaa M. Atia; Hanaa T. El-madany; Faten H. Fahmy

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and brazed heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchang...

  7. Aquaculture in tropical Mexican lakes and dams: achievements and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza, Jorge; Lopez, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Mexico, with highly diverse physiography, geology, soils and climate, is a country with a broad mosaic of aquatic ecosystems within 320 watersheds. This paper presents a brief picture of Mexican fresh waters, the distribution of rainfall and the potential for aquaculture. The main fish species and water bodies, dams and lakes, are highlighted. The country faces problems of surface water shortage which requires better management.

  8. Dietary carbohydrates and denitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meriac, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to overfishing of global fish stocks and increasing fish meal prices, plant ingredients are being increasingly used as an alternative source of protein in fish feeds. However, the inclusion of unpurified plant ingredients will also increase the content of fibers in feeds. Fibers are nearly indigestible and will therefore increase solid waste production in aquaculture. This solid waste can be used to as a carbon source for denitrification to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquacult...

  9. Economic analysis of rural and artisanal aquaculture in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Recalde Ruiz, Jose Renato

    2009-01-01

    Three different types of culture and conditions were tested to determine the profitability of Rural and Artisanal Aquaculture Project in Ecuador: monoculture of the freshwater fish named locally cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), monoculture of red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and polyculture tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) – cachama (Piaractus brachypomus). The economic models used for this particular analysis were Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Using these meth...

  10. Threats to Aquatic Environments: Is Aquaculture a Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Rosamond L.

    2004-01-01

    Marine ecosystems and fisheries face serious threats from over-fishing, run-off of land-based pollutants, introductions and invasions of exotic species, coastal development and habitat alteration, unintended by-catch, and climate change. Annual global fish catches fluctuate between 80 and 90 million metric tonnes (MMT) and appear to be declining. As a result of limitations on wild capture, aquaculture has emerged as a major player in seafood production and marketing worldwide. During the past...

  11. Probiotic, a tool in livestock and aquaculture production

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Alberto López-Acevedo; Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán; María de la Luz Vázquez-Sauceda

    2013-01-01

    The probiotics are products based on different microorganism strains, those products have evolved from a just simple mixture of active bacteria to products with specific properties of adherence, colonization, synergies, antibacterial activity, etc. Probiotic products for livestock and aquaculture production are designed with strains developed to operate under specific conditions and which need to be understood and taken into account by the producers because different results can be observed d...

  12. Identification of specific demands on Feed in Dutch Organic Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Poelman, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of specific demands for organic feed focussed on feed demands for four fish species which can be cultured in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS), tilapia, African Catfish, shrimp and turbot. The evaluation of the various feed formulations indicates that there are several ingredients, which are common for the four species, and will therefore be used for further elaboration on the organic availability. These feed ingredients, are: fishmeal and oil, corn meal, wheat meal, bloo...

  13. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment.

  14. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lem...

  15. Assessing the Competitiveness of EU Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Polymeros, Konstantinos; Tsakiridou, Efthimia; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to evaluate the competitiveness of the fisheries and aquaculture industries of some Mediterranean countries. Revealed Comparative Advantage indices of Italian, French, Greek, Portuguese and Spanish fish products are estimated, in order to gain new insights regarding the position of these products in the market of the European Union, in terms of competitiveness. In addition, this study sheds light on the evolution of competitiveness over the last decade. The estimated Compar...

  16. Application of Constructed Wetlands on Wastewater Treatment for Aquaculture Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gu; WU Zhenbin; CHENG Shuiping; LIANG Wei; HE Feng; FU Guiping; ZHONG Fei

    2007-01-01

    A group of constructed wetlands (CWs) were applied to the recirculating aquaculture system. This study assessed the performance of CWs in treating the aquaculture wastewater, examined the water quality condition of aquaculture ponds and the growth and the survival rate of "target" species(Ictalurus punctatus and Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that CWs were effective on reducing the concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, at 70.5%), total suspended solids (TSS, at 81.9%),chlorophyll a (Chl-a, at 91.9%), ammonium (NH4+, at 61.5%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N, at 68.0%). Effect of CWs on phosphate (PO43- -P) removal was relatively lower (at 20.0%). The concentrations of BOD5, TSS, Chl-a, NH4+ and TN, TP in the recirculating culture pond were significantly lower than that in the control pond( p < 0.05 ). CWs could help to increase total yield, survival rate of the "target" species and significantly decrease feed conversion ratio ( p < 0.05 ).

  17. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production. PMID:23392894

  18. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  19. Research on China's Aquaculture Efficiency Evaluation and Influencing Factors with Undesirable Outputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jianyue; WANG Pingping

    2015-01-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology ex-tension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that tech-nology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  20. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...

  1. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  2. Solid waste reduction of closed recirculated aquaculture systems by secondary culture of detritivorous organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Adrian A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional production systems used in aquaculture such as ponds, raceways, net cages or recirculating systems have in common that they release large amounts of feed nutrients either in dissolved or particulate form. The efficient removal of suspended solids is a key factor for the successful operation of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The here presented thesis utilised the solid wastes from modern aquaculture recirculating system for carnivorous fish for the secondary production o...

  3. Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Li; Shi-yang Zhang; Ling Tao; Xiao-li Li; Jing-hua Song; Chun-xue Zhang; Jian-qiang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture effic...

  4. Performance and Loading of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants Receiving Aquaculture Processing Effluent.

    OpenAIRE

    GOVERE; SIMBARASHE; MAHLATINI PRECIOUS; NDABANINGI ANGELINE

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with the loading and performance of a domestic wastewater treatment plant when receiving combined influent from an aquaculture processing factory and an urban settlement in Kariba town, Zimbabwe. The methodological framework was a case study approach involving a local aquaculture factory and two treatment plants. In the study effluent from Nyamhunga treatment plant, which receives both domestic and aquaculture effluent, acted as the treatment. Effluent from a similarsized pla...

  5. The potential for eEngineering enhanced functional-feed soybeans for sustainable aquaculture feed

    OpenAIRE

    Eliot eHerman; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvestedallocated fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange...

  6. Aquaponics and its potential aquaculture wastewater treatment and human urine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Henrique Junior Aiveca

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to study the developing fields of aquaponics and its potential for aquaculture wastewater treatment and human urine treatment. Aquaponics is a food production system which combines fish farming (aquaculture) with soilless crop farming (hydroponics). In this thesis the concept of aquaponics and the underlying processes are explained. Research on aquaculture wastewater and human urine wastewater is reviewed and its potential application with aquaponic sys...

  7. Proceedings of the Ninth and Tenth U.S.-Japan Meetings on Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The United States and Japanese counterpart panels on aquaculture were formed in 1969 under the United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). The panels currently include specialists drawn from the federal departments most concerned with aquaculture. Charged with exploring and developing bilateral cooperation, the panels have focused their efforts on exchanging information related to aquaculture which could be of benefit to both countries. The UJNR was started by ...

  8. A Comparative Economic Evaluation of Farming of three Important Aquaculture Species in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbugua, Henry Mwangi

    2007-01-01

    Information on the economic viability of aquaculture is crucial for investors when assessing the feasibility of an aquaculture investment. Unfortunately, such information has been scarce in Kenya. This paper evaluates the viability of commercial culture of three aquaculture species in Kenya under four culture practices. These are: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), mainly produced using mono- or polyculture under semi intensive systems; and rainbow ...

  9. Tendência temporal de afastamento do trabalho em servidores públicos (1995-2005 Time trends of sick leave in Brazilian civil servants (1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Bittencourt Cunha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência temporal das taxas de afastamento do trabalho por problemas de saúde de servidores públicos estaduais, das Secretarias de Estado da Saúde e da Administração do Estado de Santa Catarina, no período de 1995 a 2005. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico exploratório de séries temporais com utilização de dados secundários. Foram calculadas as taxas de afastamento segundo secretaria, sexo e grupos de patologias. Utilizou-se o procedimento de Prais-Winsten para a análise de tendência. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 40.370 afastamentos. A tendência das taxas de afastamento foi de decréscimo para ambas as secretarias, considerando ambos os gêneros. Para o gênero feminino da SEA, a tendência foi de estabilidade. As taxas foram mais elevadas na SES. O número médio de dias de afastamento aumentou no decorrer do período analisado. Segundo os grupos de patologias (CID 10, as maiores taxas foram encontradas nos capítulos V, XIII, XXI, XIX e IX. CONCLUSÕES: A tendência de decréscimo das taxas de afastamento e o respectivo aumento da média de dias de afastamento refletem mudanças no perfil de morbidade dos servidores públicos, com o predomínio de transtornos mentais e doenças do sistema osteomuscular, que exigem maior tempo de recuperação para o retorno ao trabalho. O estudo sugere a investigação de fatores associados ao adoecimento que fundamentem as políticas de saúde do servidor.OBJECTIVE: To analyze time trends of sick leave rates among state civil servants in the State Secretariats of Health and of Administration in Santa Catarina, Brazil from 1995 to 2005. METHOD: This is an ecological study with secondary data. Rates of sick leave were calculated according to State Secretariat (Health and Administration, gender, and pathological groups. Prais-Winsten procedure was utilized to analyze trends. RESULTS: 40,370 absences were analyzed. The trend of sick leave rates was decreasing for both State Secretariats (Health and Administration, when considering both genders. Among women in the State Secretariat of Administration, the trend was that of stability. The rates were more elevated in the State Secretariat of Health. The average number of days of sick leave increased during the period analyzed. According to the pathological groups (ICD 10, the greatest rates were the chapters V, XIII, XXI, XIX, and IX. CONCLUSIONS: The decreasing trend in sick leave rates and the respective increase in the average days of sick leave taken reflect changes in the morbidity profile of state civil servants, with the predomination of mental disorders and osteo-muscular system diseases, which demand greater recovery time before returning to work. This study suggests greater investigation of the factors associated to the illness process underlying civil servants' health care policies.

  10. Economic valuation of Mangroves for comparison with commercial aquaculture in south Sulawesi, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Fensholt, Rasmus; Mertz, Ole

    2015-01-01

    and decreased mainly due to conversion to aquaculture. Currently, little is known about the economic benefits of commercialization of aquaculture as compared to those derived from mangroves in the form of products and services. Here, we estimate the Total Economic Value (TEV) of mangrove benefits in order...... Present Value (NPV) between the benefit value of mangroves and that of commercial aquaculture revealed that conversion of mangroves into commercial aquaculture was not economically beneficial when the analysis was expanded to cover the costs of environmental and forest rehabilitation....

  11. Home Textile Exports Show Recovery Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lan; Guoyun

    2010-01-01

    @@ In this article we have analysed the export performance of Chinese main home textile products, including bedding products, carpet, curtain and towel based on official export data during the first eight months of 2010.

  12. 2006 RE Export Enterprises List Announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to "Requirement for RE Export Enterprises and Application Procedure in 2006", the Ministry of Commerce P.R.C announced "2006 Rare Earth Export Enterprises List "on December 30th of 2005. The enterprises are listed below.

  13. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  14. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  15. A Strong Backbone For Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Export & Credit Insurance Corp., founded in 2001, is the country’s only policy-oriented credit insurance company. In line with the state’s diplomatic, foreign trade and industrial policies, it supports the country’s commodity, technology and servic

  16. JOINT VENTURES AMONG EXPORTING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUDHURI, Prabal Ray

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we examine the incentive for joint venture formation among exporting firms. We show that an increase in domestic demand increases the incentive for joint venture formation. An increase in world price, however, can either increase or decrease the incentive for joint venture formation.

  17. Branch being forced to work for export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of efficiency of export of the Tyumen' oil and oil products in February-April 1996 is given. Effect of export taxes reduction and changes of the situation at the internal and external oil market on the export of oil and oil products is considered. Possible prospects on the export development as well as consequences of the newly-adopted tax code for the oil industry are discussed

  18. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  19. EXPORT MARKETING IN INDIA: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Sagar

    2015-01-01

    In export marketing, goods are sent abroad as per the formalities and procedures framed by the home countries as well as by the importing countries. Export marketing is certainly more complicated as compared to domestic marketing particularly due to severe international competition, lengthy procedures and formalities and the quality and cost factors involved. Along with this, export marketing offers ample opportunities for earning high profits. In addition, export marketing has wider economic...

  20. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export... marketing activities; b. Collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (...

  1. 27 CFR 7.60 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond....

  2. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or...

  3. 27 CFR 16.31 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft,...

  4. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  5. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  6. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in this part shall not apply to wine exported in bond....

  7. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  8. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  9. Export growth slowdown from January to April

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    January to April this year, the economic operation of China’s textile industry overall in slowdown trend, the growth rate of output of major products fell significantly, exports and profits were greatly affected, the textile industry is facing great operating pressure. The export side, Japan, EU, U.S. textile and garment export growth has slowed down, the market share

  10. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the...

  11. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  12. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  13. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any...

  14. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export...

  15. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental...

  16. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries...

  17. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  18. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not...

  19. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  20. Export market potential for selected horticultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the feasibility of utilising an irradiation plant to disinfest fresh fruit and vegetables destined for export markets. It examines the export market potential of selected crops with the prime view of estimating likely trends in export markets in the future. These trends will have a significant bearing on throughput levels, and hence on the economic viability of an ionising energy plant

  1. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  2. Aquaculture Industry Potential and Issues: A Case from Cage Culture System Entrepreneurs: Suggestions for Intensification of Aquaculture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N.A. Faiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cage culture has become a popular aquaculture system nowadays. In the recent statistics provided by DOF, the cage culture system has generated almost USD 400 m (RM 1.39 b of income per year. In order to further intensify this economic activity the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA through the DOF has zoned the aquaculture industry via Aquaculture Industry Zone (ZIA Programs throughout Malaysia. Cage culture system seems to have the ability to be a catalyst in enhancing the economy level of local people but it is well known that certain problems must be overcome first before the potential can be clearly seen. Thus the main focus of this study is to clarify all the potentials and problems faced by the cage culture system entrepreneurs in running their aquaculture activity. Approach: The research approach for this study was a qualitative case study that provided an in-depth description of potentials and issues in aquaculture industry in the district of Kuala Pahang, Malaysia. Data was gained using a Focus Group Discussion (FGD among the cage culture system entrepreneurs guided by an interview guide. A total of 10 cage culture entrepreneurs were selected as the FGD members. The questions served as a guide, but allowed respondents freedom and flexibility in their answers. The findings were in descriptive analysis. Results: The cage culture system was found to provide better income that lead to a higher quality of life for the entrepreneurs, positive intangible values existed among the entrepreneurs; experiences have taught them to become self independent. There were problems identified such as no independence in selecting the fingerlings, environmental problems seem to burden them, unstable pellet price, no official agreement between them and the government emphasizing the portion of the river is given to them for running their business and lot of bureaucracies that the entrepreneurs need to face. Conclusion

  3. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  4. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  5. Resource-Based and Institutional Perspectives on Export Channel Selection and Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    He, X; Brouthers, K. D.; Filatotchev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Exporting is a critically important strategy for firms to grow, yet research in this area has tended to ignore how firms can leverage resource-based capabilities to improve export performance. Building on the resource-based view and institutional theory, the authors develop a novel perspective to explain how a firm can improve export performance by aligning its export channel with its level of market orientation capabilities, contingent on the institutional distance between home and export ma...

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-15

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have not yet been properly evaluated. In this study we performed a probabilistic risk assessment for eight different aquaculture production scenarios in Asia by combining up-to-date information on the use of veterinary medicines and aquaculture production characteristics. The ERA-AQUA model was used to perform mass balances of veterinary medicinal treatments applied to aquaculture ponds and to characterize risks for primary producers, invertebrates, and fish potentially exposed to chemical residues through aquaculture effluents. The mass balance calculations showed that, on average, about 25% of the applied drug mass to aquaculture ponds is released into the environment, although this percentage varies with the chemical's properties, the mode of application, the cultured species density, and the water exchange rates in the aquaculture pond scenario. In general, the highest potential environmental risks were calculated for parasitic treatments, followed by disinfection and antibiotic treatments. Pangasius catfish production in Vietnam, followed by shrimp production in China, constitute possible hot-spots for environmental pollution due to the intensity of the aquaculture production and considerable discharge of toxic chemical residues into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. A risk-based ranking of compounds is provided for each of the evaluated scenarios, which offers crucial information for conducting further chemical and biological field and laboratory monitoring research. In addition, we discuss general knowledge gaps and research priorities for performing refined risk assessments of aquaculture medicines in the near future.

  7. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    . Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find......This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  8. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumoharjo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture pays more attention as a bio-integrated food production system that serves as a model of sustainable aquaculture, minimizes waste discharge, increases diversity and yields multiple products. The objectives of this research were to analyze the efficiency of total ammonia nitrogen biofiltration and its effect on carrying capacity of fish rearing units. Pilot-scale bioreactor was designed with eight run-raceways (two meters of each that assembled in series. Race 1-3 were used to stock silky worm (Tubifex sp as detrivorous converter, then race 4-8 were used to plant three species of leaf-vegetable as photoautotrophic converters, i.e; spinach (Ipomoea reptana, green mustard (Brassica juncea and basil (Ocimum basilicum. The three plants were placed in randomized block design based on water flow direction. Mass balance of nutrient analysis, was applied to figure out the efficiency of bio-filtration and its effect on carrying capacity of rearing units. The result of the experiment showed that 86.5 % of total ammonia nitrogen removal was achieved in 32 days of culturing period. This efficiency able to support the carrying capacity of the fish tank up to 25.95 kg/lpm with maximum density was 62.69 kg/m3 of fish biomass productionDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85 [How to cite this article: Sumoharjo, S.  and Maidie, A. (2013. Evaluation on Biofilter in Recirculating Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2,80-85. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.80-85

  9. Using Metadata Description for Agriculture and Aquaculture Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Šimek, J. Vaněk, V. Očenášek, M. Stočes, T. Vogeltanzova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most used metadata formats and thesauri suitable for describing scientific and research papers in the domains agriculture, food industry, aquaculture, environment and rural areas. These include the Dublin Core (DC, Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS, Virtual Open Access Agriculture and Aquaculture Repository Metadata Application Profile (VOA3R AP and the AGROVOC thesaurus. Having analyzed the metadata formats and research paper lifecycle, the authors would recommend that each paper should entail metadata description as soon as it is published. The metadata are to describe the content and properties of the paper. One of the most suitable metadata formats is the VOA3R AP that is partially patterned on the DC and combined with the AGROVOC thesaurus. As a result, an effective description, availability and automatic data exchange between and among local and central repositories should be attained.The knowledge and data presented in the present paper were obtained as a result of the following research programs and grant schemes: the Grant No. 20121044 of the Internal Grant Agency titled „Using Automatic Metadata Generation for Research Papers“, the Grant agreement No. 250525 funded by the European Commission corresponding to the VOA3R Project (Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository: Sharing Scientific and Scholarly Research related to Agriculture, Food, and Environment, http://voa3r.eu and the Research Program titled „Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agrifood Systems“ of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport number VZ MSM 6046070906.

  10. Nitrite removal from marine aquaculture wastewater using electrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazardous and toxic nature of some of the constituent such as nitrite in the aquaculture wastewater is of major concern. Present study focuses the removal of nitrite from the aquaculture wastewater prior to disposal. Effect of certain operational parameters such as electrode material, current density, initial pH, and electrode spacing on nitrite removal from aquaculture wastewater was elucidated. Better nitrite removal efficiency achieved when nickel used as compared to stainless steel, graphite and aluminum electrodes. Nitrite removal is positively related to the current density however, increase is up to 31.4% when current density increased from 2.5 to 9.3 mA/cm/sup 2/. Further increase in current density does not improve the process efficiency. Removal efficiency of electrochemical process decreased with the increase in initial pH of test solution. However, with the passage of time this difference is diminishing. This may be attributed to the presence of higher amount of hypochloric acid which does not dissociate at lower pH values. Subsequently faster oxidation of nitrite achieved during first few minutes of test runs. Amount of available hypochloric acid reduced at high pH values and oxidation of nitrite reduced subsequently. Rate of nitrite removal found to be increased as the inter-electrode spacing decreased up to an optimal spacing of 3 cm which showed highest nitrite removal. Further reduction in spacing does not augment the removal efficiency probably due to the formation of scale on cathode surface and passivation of electrode which suppressed further oxidation process. (author)

  11. Predicting salt advection in groundwater from saline aquaculture ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.

  12. Aquaculture, husbandry, and shipping at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Z M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) aquaculture systems, husbandry, and live fish shipping methods. The ZIRC has a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration in its main fish facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, feeding and shipping of fish. Whereas the procedures presented here are merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, they offer starting points to set up, develop, refine, or troubleshoot methods in other fish facilities. PMID:27443942

  13. Aquaculture and husbandry at the zebrafish international resource center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zoltán M

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the aquaculture system and the husbandry methods used at the Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC). ZIRC employs a recirculating water system with mechanical and biological filtration for its main facility, and a flow-through water system for its quarantine room. I describe basic husbandry methods for breeding, rearing larvae, and feeding and the extensive in-house health surveillance for the biosafety of the fish population. Whereas the description of these procedures is merely an overview and only the most essential methods are included, it offers several starting points to set up, refine, or troubleshoot other fish facilities. PMID:21924177

  14. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  15. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Ma, Caihua; Gao, Huiwang; Li, Fengqi; Zhang, Meizhao; Qiu, Yantao; Wang, Bo

    2008-08-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  16. [Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas and their role in aquaculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, E V; Isaeva, N M; Balakhnin, I A

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria of genus Aeromonas are constant components of microbiota of fresh reservoirs where they, together with other microorganisms, play the part of natural biofilter and promote water self-purification. They are necessarily present in normal microflora of hydrobionts inhabiting fresh reservoirs. The greatest attention is paid by the researchers to Aeromonas and biotrophs in connection with epizootics in aquaculture which have become more frequent, in particular, under fish breeding. That is why the review is, to more extent, concerned in the works of this trend made by the foreign and home researchers for the last decade. PMID:1406386

  17. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography

  18. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Joesting; R. Blaylock; P. Biber; A. Ray

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances in marine shrimp and finfish aquaculture alleviate many of the environmental risks associated with traditional aquaculture, but challenges remain in cost-effective waste management. Liquid effluent from freshwater aquaculture systems has been shown to be effective in agricultural crop production (i.e., aquaponics), but few studies have explored the potential for reuse of marine aquaculture effluent, particularly the solid fraction. The purpose of this study was t...

  19. ‘Halophyte filters’: the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already overexploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through f

  20. PRO-EEL Brochure: towards reproduction and a self-sustained aquaculture of european eel

    OpenAIRE

    Jonna Tomkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the PRO-EEL project is to breed the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in captivity. Eel reproduction has become a crucial area of research due to a severe decline in the natural stock, resulting in an urgent need to shift from capture-based aquaculture to the breeding of eels for a self-sustainable aquaculture.

  1. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlow, M.; Oel, van P.R.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive a

  2. Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

  3. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  4. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  5. 50 CFR 21.47 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants at aquaculture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shot as listed in 50 CFR 20.21(j). (3) Persons operating under this depredation order may use decoys... cormorants at aquaculture facilities. 21.47 Section 21.47 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... aquaculture facilities. (a) What is the purpose of this depredation order? The purpose of this...

  6. Why are prices in wild catch and aquaculture industries so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; Lebrancón-Nieto, Joseba

    2013-12-01

    Through a comparative analysis of prices in capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors, the objectives of this paper are a) to investigate three the trends in prices of forage catches to feed the aquaculture species, b) to analyze the amount of fish species need to feed aquaculture species in order to assess the level of efficiency in resource use, and c) to examine the degree of economic concentration either in wild-catch industry and aquaculture sectors. The results show that prices of cultivated species are higher than prices of the same species when harvested from the sea. We explain this fact by the interplay of three forces. First, the amount of wild fish to feed aquaculture species continues to improve over time. Second, the pressure of fishing activities has not been reduced since catches of most forage fishes are declining, which induce higher prices of capture species that feed aquaculture production. Third, the level of seafood market concentration is significantly higher in aquaculture than in wild catches, which generates higher prices in aquaculture.

  7. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The profitabi

  8. Life cycle assessment of food production in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems of the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phong, L.T.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of integrated agriculture–aquaculture (IAA) farming systems in the Mekong Delta that differ in types of aquaculture intensification. Daily inputs and outputs for rice, fruits, vegetables, pigs, poultry, and fish were collected on 11 farms over a period o

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  10. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian;

    2015-01-01

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...

  11. Export Rebates on Grain Finished

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Xinwen

    2008-01-01

      According to the State Statistics Bureau, China's consumer price index (CPI) jumped by 6.9 percent year-on-year last November, approaching the high levels seen at the end of 1996, one of the largest areas of increase was the price of grain,which rose by 6.6 percent. There is no doubt the growth in CPI can be mainly attributed to soaring food prices and the diffusion effect of oil price adjustments. Large orders for grain exports have put Chinese grain suppliers under tremendous pressure. In order to solve this problem, the Finance Ministry and State Administration of Taxation together announced that 84 categories of export tax rebates on major types of grain will be eliminated.……

  12. Export Rebates on Grain Finished

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to the State Statistics Bureau, China's consumer price index (CPI) jumped by 6.9 percent year-on-year last November, approaching the high levels seen at the end of 1996, one of the largest areas of increase was the price of grain,which rose by 6.6 percent. There is no doubt the growth in CPI can be mainly attributed to soaring food prices and the diffusion effect of oil price adjustments. Large orders for grain exports have put Chinese grain suppliers under tremendous pressure. In order to solve this problem, the Finance Ministry and State Administration of Taxation together announced that 84 categories of export tax rebates on major types of grain will be eliminated.

  13. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    Growth rates in Far Eastern economies have, until recently, been one of the most debated international features. At the same time, quality focus has spread from the same region, notably Japan. It seems only natural to include the concept of quality in an attempt to understand economic growth...... in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  14. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending......This paper presents an international trade model based on a market structure with monopolistic competition and age dependent quality and productivity in producing each product variety. Due to innovations new product varieties of a still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...

  15. Aquaculture, Fresh Water, DATCP licensed aquaculture producers, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aquaculture, Fresh Water dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  16. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    may not necessarily outperform intermediaries, as physical distribution channels still hold several positional advantages compared to virtually organised ones and the Internet provides organisational and managerial challenges as well. Although reduced market friction may beget some activities......It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  17. Globalization and Distribution of Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Börje; Nilsson, Desirée

    2007-01-01

    During the 1980s many economists started to use the term globalisation as a catchword for  an increased interaction between countries in world trade. The literature does not provide a clear definition of globalisation. We set up a number of criteria and formulate hypotheses about globalisation that we explore for Swedish export flows during the years 1965-2000. Globalisation, in this study, is referred to as increases in country diversity, extended transport radii, less effect of distance on ...

  18. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  19. NAS Panel faults export controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Effect of Wind-solar Complementary Increasing Oxygen System in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong You

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore a sustainable aquaculture methodology, water was increased oxygen by a wind-solar power which was tested in a production period of the Penaeus vannamei in paper. The result shows that, compareing with the conventional aerating comparison, the system could improve water environment in ponds and dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH value and the content of nitrite stably and uniformly change; make full use of wind energy and solar energy clean energy, save 100% on power consumption, 15.9% on bait, 46.0% on drug; save aquaculture costs, increase income 282%. Using "Wind-solar" complementary increasing oxygen can improve water environment, save power, reduce aquaculture costs, increase aquaculture production and income, provide a new thought and method for green and ecological aquaculture, so it has high value of practical application.

  1. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products. PMID:26471677

  2. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products.

  3. Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Johann D.; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Gehrke, Peter C.; Griffiths, Shane P.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Johnson, Johanna E.; Le Borgne, Robert; Lehodey, Patrick; Lough, Janice M.; Matear, Richard J.; Pickering, Timothy D.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Gupta, Alex Sen; Senina, Inna; Waycott, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    Pacific Island countries have an extraordinary dependence on fisheries and aquaculture. Maintaining the benefits from the sector is a difficult task, now made more complex by climate change. Here we report how changes to the atmosphere-ocean are likely to affect the food webs, habitats and stocks underpinning fisheries and aquaculture across the region. We found winners and losers--tuna are expected to be more abundant in the east and freshwater aquaculture and fisheries are likely to be more productive. Conversely, coral reef fisheries could decrease by 20% by 2050 and coastal aquaculture may be less efficient. We demonstrate how the economic and social implications can be addressed within the sector--tuna and freshwater aquaculture can help support growing populations as coral reefs, coastal fisheries and mariculture decline.

  4. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  5. Solar energy system design for a lobster aquaculture facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    In aquaculture, as in most manufacturing processes, the operating cost is greatly dependent upon the cost of energy. The objectives were to: (a) analyze the power requirements for a lobster aquaculture plant, and (b) to evaluate the use of solar energy as a cost reduction measure in plant operation. A flat plate collector system capable of supplying heat alone was compared with a total energy system in which both electrical power and heat were supplied. The flat plate collector was not cost effective because when heat was needed in December, the least amount of heat was available from solar radiation. Therefore, the collector area and cost were prohibitive. However, the total energy system was cost effective when the capital investment was amortized over ten or more years. The optimum solar power plant was designed to provide 100% of the average yearly power demands, or 60% of the December power requirement. This plant would consist of 60,000 square feet of mirror surface (3.5 acres of land for 40% packing density) which would concentrate 1500 to 2000 suns on a receiver mounted on an 85 foot tower. In the tower would be the three storage stoves which would contain the heat required to operate a 343 KWe Brayton gas turbine engine and alternator for 27 hours. Equipment to generate 3 million kw-hr annually will cost an estimated $1.3 million.

  6. Detecting and monitoring aquacultural patterns through multitemporal SAR imagery analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeti, Giuliana; Travaglia, Carlo; Carla, Roberto

    2003-03-01

    The inventory and monitoring of aquaculture areas are essential tools for decision-making at a governmental level in developing countries. With the use of satellite imagery, these tasks can be performed in an accurate, rapid and objective way. This approach is also economically viable, as the worth of aquaculture far outweighs its cost. This paper describes a methodology for identifying and monitoring shrimp farms by means of multi-temporal satellite SAR data. SAR offer all-weather capabilities, an important characteristic since shrimp farms exist in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Moreover, the backscatter effect created by the dykes surrounding the ponds produces a typical pattern which allows the interpreter to distinguish them from other types of water-covered surfaces. However, the presence of speckle noise limits the interpretability of SAR imagery. To increase it, a multi-temporal set of four scenes covering the study area was processed by using a method that enhances time-invariant spatial features and reduces speckle without compromising the geometrical resolution of the images. The enhanced SAR imagery has proved to be valuable in identifying shrimp farm patterns with a field-tested accuracy of more than 90 percent. The methodology reported in this study has been tested with the ground truth obtained under operative conditions in Sri Lanka, thanks to the support of the FAO TCP/SRL/6712 project.

  7. NALYSIS OF ROMANIAN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE IN REGIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela\tNECULITA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration in European Union assumes obtaining certain benefits. Fisheries and aquaculture can provide a key contribution to food security and poverty alleviation. Employment in the sector has grown faster than the world’s population, providing jobs and supports the livelihoods of hundreds of millions. Fish continues to be one of the most- traded food commodities worldwide being very important for developing countries. However, productivity gains in fisheries do not always imply long-term increases in supply. Developing countries are continuing their efforts to clarify the linkage between development activities and sustainable resource use. Both population and economic growth are putting enormous additional pressures on inland and marine fisheries resources as contributors to food security and providers of a social safety net. At the same time, the use of domestic fisheries to generate foreign exchange is exacerbating allocation issues between artisan and industrial fleets. The actual fisheries legislation was influence by social, economic and environmental considerations. The paper proposes an integrated analysis of Romanian situation by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions. Fisheries in general and aquaculture sector in particular could be regarded as an advantage for Romania in the European competition. The main problem of the Romanian fisheries is its unsatisfactory competitiveness both regarding the domestic and European market.

  8. Genomics in eels--towards aquaculture and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Yuki; Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2012-10-01

    Freshwater eels (genus Anguilla), especially the species inhabiting the temperate areas such as the European, American and Japanese eels, are important aquaculture species. Although artificial reproduction has been attempted since the 1930s and large numbers of studies have been conducted, it has not yet fully succeeded. Problems in eel artificial breeding are highly diverse, for instance, lack of basic information about reproduction in nature, no appropriate food for larvae, high mortality, and high individual variation in adults in response to maturation induction. Over the last decade, genomic data have been obtained for a variety of aquatic organisms. Recent technological advances in sequencing and computation now enable the accumulation of genomic information even for non-model species. The draft genome of the European eel Anguilla anguilla has been recently determined using Illumina technology and transcriptomic data based on next generation sequencing have been emerging. Extensive genomic information will facilitate many aspects of the artificial reproduction of eels. Here, we review the progress in genome-wide studies of eels, including additional analysis of the European eel genome data, and discuss future directions and implications of genomic data for aquaculture. PMID:22527267

  9. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  10. Application of Aquaculture Monitoring System Based on CC2530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Liu, X. Q.

    In order to improve the intelligent level of aquaculture technology, this paper puts forward a remote wireless monitoring system based on ZigBee technology, GPRS technology and Android mobile phone platform. The system is composed of wireless sensor network (WSN), GPRS module, PC server, and Android client. The WSN was set up by CC2530 chips based on ZigBee protocol, to realize the collection of water quality parameters such as the water level, temperature, PH and dissolved oxygen. The GPRS module realizes remote communication between WSN and PC server. Android client communicates with server to monitor the level of water quality. The PID (proportion, integration, differentiation) control is adopted in the control part, the control commands from the android mobile phone is sent to the server, the server again send it to the lower machine to control the water level regulating valve and increasing oxygen pump. After practical testing to the system in Liyang, Jiangsu province, China, temperature measurement accuracy reaches 0.5°C, PH measurement accuracy reaches 0.3, water level control precision can be controlled within ± 3cm, dissolved oxygen control precision can be controlled within ±0.3 mg/L, all the indexes can meet the requirements, this system is very suitable for aquaculture.

  11. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merica Slišković

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

  12. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S; Chakraborty, T; Kumar, V; DeBoeck, G; Mohanta, K N

    2013-06-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand for animal protein, aquaculture continuously requires new techniques to increase the production yield. However, with every step towards intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in stress level on the animal as well as on the environment. Feeding practices in aqua farming usually plays an important role, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice among the fish and shrimp culturists. Probiotics, also known as 'bio-friendly agents', such as LAB (Lactobacillus), yeasts and Bacillus sp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are non-pathogenic and non-toxic micro-organisms, having no undesirable side effects when administered to aquatic organisms. Probiotics are also known to play an important role in developing innate immunity among the fishes, and hence help them to fight against any pathogenic bacterias as well as against environmental stressors. The present review is a brief but informative compilation of the different essential and desirable traits of probiotics, their mode of action and their useful effects on fishes. The review also highlights the role of probiotics in helping the fishes to combat against the different physical, chemical and biological stress. PMID:22512693

  13. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle F.;

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr......One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades......, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using...... the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971-2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population...

  14. Phylogeny of the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in European Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cieslak, Michael; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Skall, Helle Frank;

    2016-01-01

    One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades, the subgenogr......One of the most valuable aquaculture fish in Europe is the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but the profitability of trout production is threatened by a highly lethal infectious disease, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), caused by the VHS virus (VHSV). For the past few decades......, the subgenogroup Ia of VHSV has been the main cause of VHS outbreaks in European freshwater-farmed rainbow trout. Little is currently known, however, about the phylogenetic radiation of this Ia lineage into subordinate Ia clades and their subsequent geographical spread routes. We investigated this topic using...... the largest Ia-isolate dataset ever compiled, comprising 651 complete G gene sequences: 209 GenBank Ia isolates and 442 Ia isolates from this study. The sequences come from 11 European countries and cover the period 1971–2015. Based on this dataset, we documented the extensive spread of the Ia population...

  15. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-12-21

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  16. Control methodologies based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in RAS (recirculation aquaculture systems) where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and plate type heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. A well at Umm Huweitat on the Red Sea is used as a source of geothermal energy. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchanger is designed using the epsilon–NTU (number of transfer units) analysis method. For optimal growth and abundance of production, a different techniques of control system are applied to control the water temperature. The total system is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to study the overall performance of control unit. Finally, a comparison between PI, Fuzzy-PID, and Fuzzy Logic Control has been done. - Highlights: • Design recirculating aquaculture system using geothermal energy. • Design a PI controller for water temperature control. • Design a Fuzzy logic controller for water temperature control. • Design a Fuzzy-PID controller for water temperature control. • Comparison between different control systems

  17. Epigenetics—Potential for Programming Fish for Aquaculture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Moghadam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks affecting the expression of genes are triggered by environmental stimuli, can persist throughout life or across multiple generations and can affect an individuals phenotype. In recent years there has been a revival of interest about the possible role of epigenetics in affecting complex or quantitative traits. This growing interest is partly driven by the increasing affordability of ultra-high throughput sequencing methods for studying the epigenome. In this review we focus on some of the possible applications of epigenetic knowledge to the improvement of aquaculture. DNA methylation, in which a methyl group is added to the C5 carbon residue of a cytosine by DNA methyltransferase, has been the most widely studied epigenetic mechanism to date, and methods used to obtain and analyse genome-wide DNA methylation data are outlined. The influence of epigenetic processes on the estimation of breeding values and accuracy of genomic selection for genetic improvement of aquatic species is explored. The possibility of tightly controlling nutritional stimuli found to affect epigenetic processes in order to tailor the development of fish for aquaculture is also discussed. Complex experiments will be required in order to gain a better understanding of the role of epigenetics in affecting quantitative traits in fish.

  18. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  19. An overview of the certified organic export sector in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbon, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of almost all certified and in-conversion organic export operations in Uganda in late 2005. It covers products exported, company size and ownership, standards exported to, certification costs, total export values, value-added in Uganda, marketing channels, crop procurement systems, management of organic operations and the main challenges experienced by exporters. Findings include that numbers of certified exporters are growing rapidly. Export values ...

  20. An investigation into internationalization motives, export barriers and the export marketing strategies that effect exporting performance of Thai textile SME Company

    OpenAIRE

    Eowpittayakul, Pongsakorn

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the experiences of exporting textile SME Company in Thailand. The aims of this project are to get an insight view into how Thai firm's export motivation. Moreover, the study is to find the export barriers that affect the firm export performance in different ways. This study further investigated into firm export marketing strategies that affect the firm export performance in a particular area. The project involved gauging reactions from Jong Pattana Co., LTD., wh...

  1. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    . Osing a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find......This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  2. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  3. Price and Income Elasticities of Iranian Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrkar Roshan, Sedigheh

    This study investigates the export demand elasticities at the aggregate and disaggregated levels over the period 1977 to 2001 for Iran. By utilizing an export demand model and using time series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated by commodity class. As the elasticities of demand for various categories of exports are different, while they are crucial for policy determination. Based upon the estimated results, price and income elasticities are almost similar to those obtained in earlier studies in the case of developing countries. The main findings of this paper demonstrate that, price elasticities are smaller than -1 for all exports categories, whereas the income elasticities are found to be greater than one. The results also suggested, the income elasticities of industrial goods are higher compared to other export categories, while the lower elasticities are found in primary exports. The price and income elasticity estimates have also good statistical properties.

  4. Promoting exports in the energy technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion

  5. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  6. India's Export of Livestock and Allied Products

    OpenAIRE

    J K Sachdeva

    2005-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the governments’ export policy is to maximise agricultural exports in order to earn foreign exchange. It also seeks to provide remunerative prices to the farmers while ensuring adequate availability of essential commodities to the domestic consumers at reasonable prices. This paper analyses the India’s exports of livestock and allied products to principal groups of countries in the light of world trade. The direction of trade has been analysed to explore the area...

  7. Natural gas exports and macroeconomic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada's leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as the energy producing province of Canada

  8. Tax Exportability in Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tax incidence is a basic topic in public economics as the tourism industry is an increasingly major contributor to government revenue. Generally, government taxation objectives are for the purpose of financing programs that improve people’s lives and economic prosperity, accelerate economic growth and allow for access to sustainable development. In the first view, tax policy decisions by government are based on their effects on the distribution of economic welfare. Therefore, to provide incentives for governments to select a suitable tax policy, exportability of tax is important. Hotel room tax is one of the main parts of tourism tax. Despite the importance of tax for government, it seems that the exportability of hotel room tax is still not well known. Therefore, understanding the counteraction of foreign visitors with respect to its main factors is important for the Malaysian government and tourism management. To achieve these aims, this study examines tax incidence effects on the tourism market. Approach: We use hotel room as representative of tourism market. Quarterly data from 1995-2009 are used and a dynamic model of simultaneous equation is employed. Results: Our results indicate that in the short run supply is elastic and demand is inelastic.But in the long run both demand and supply are elastic to price. Conclusion: Based the results if the government imposes one ringgit (Malaysian currency tax on hotel room price, the tourist contribution is more than 89 and 74% in the short run and long run respectively. Hence, we conclude that the Malaysian tourism market is exportable. Our results also indicate that tax on hotel has no negative social effects in the short run.

  9. International Marketing Strategies and the relationship with the export performance and export marketing orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the relationship between marketing strategies of exporting Taquari Valley firms with the export performance and export market orientation. To achieve the goal sought proposed is the development of theoretical benchmark, made up items strategies for international marketing, export performance and export market orientation. In epistemological level was conducted a survey, applying for a questionnaire to a sample of 25 exporting companies that have industrial activities, chosen in a not probabilistic manner. Finally, it was observed that the key decisions on how to act in various markets in terms of strategies for international marketing - satisfaction with the internal market, international consistency, adaptation and localization level of the strategies - have relationship with the export market orientation and the export performance of studied companies.

  10. A perspective on energy exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on New Brunswick Power's energy export experience over the past two decades, it appears that Canada could have a very special and unique opportunity to input into the US energy market over the coming decades. The CANDU reactor can offer one of these opportunities. Such business opportunities can be of very real benefit to both countries and to the particular regions involved. Like any other form of business, this one must be carefully planned and must be conducted in an environment conducive to the achievement of the objectives of the business

  11. Monitoring bacterial diversity of the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina upon transfer into aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Naglaa M; Rao, Venkateswara; Hamann, Mark T; Kelly, Michelle; Hill, Russell T

    2008-07-01

    Marine sponges in the genus Ircinia are known to be good sources of secondary metabolites with biological activities. A major obstacle in the development of sponge-derived metabolites is the difficulty in ensuring an economic, sustainable supply of the metabolites. A promising strategy is the ex situ culture of sponges in closed or semiclosed aquaculture systems. In this study, the marine sponge Ircinia strobilina (order Dictyoceratida: family Irciniidae) was collected from the wild and maintained for a year in a recirculating aquaculture system. Microbiological and molecular community analyses were performed on freshly collected sponges and sponges maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 9 months. Chemical analyses were performed on wild collected sponges and individuals maintained in aquaculture for 3 months and 1 year. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to assess the complexity of and to monitor changes in the microbial communities associated with I. strobilina. Culture-based and molecular techniques showed an increase in the Bacteroidetes and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria components of the bacterial community in aquaculture. Populations affiliated with Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and Planctomycetes emerged in sponges maintained in aquaculture. The diversity of bacterial communities increased upon transfer into aquaculture. PMID:18469126

  12. Human capital and wages in exporting firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset, we find that there is a weak negative direct effect of exporting on wages, but an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages. That is, we find an export wage premium, but only in firms where the skill......This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using...

  13. ROMANIAN EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clipa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Exports of a nation can form a large part of its commercial card on the international market. Global consumer, according to the quality of exports, may associate a certain image about the country of origin. This article aims at explaining the relationship between exports and competitiveness of a nation, the analysis focuses on the nature and intensity of intra-Community exports of Romania. To this end we considered a number of performance indicators that are able to reveal the positioning of trade from Romania to the EU.

  14. FDI as an Export-Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Lawson, Lartey Godwin

    towards countries with large exports of agri-food, thereby supporting the hypothesis that FDI is used as an export-platform. FDI is coupled with high exports from Denmark, probably of raw or semi-processed food products for further processing and exports. We also find that FDI is higher in countries......We investigate factors affecting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) outflow from Danish agrifood firms to the rest of the world. We develop a conceptual model and subsequently use a gravity model based on data from 127 countries receiving Danish FDI in agri-food in 2004-2008. We find higher Danish FDI...

  15. Prioritization and Ranking Problems Exporting Iranian Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Askandari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to prioritize and rank problems exporting Iranian saffron. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on issues related to data and information collected from questionnaires, with 816% reliability is used. In this study, the sample of managers and sales and marketing company is exporting Iranian saffron is the sample size of 231 subjects. The results of this study are positive and significant relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables of export performance of export barriers exist.

  16. Foreign Direct Investment and Electronics Exports: Exploratory Empirical Evidence from Malaysia's Top Five Electronics Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck Cheong Tang; Koi Nyen Wong

    2007-01-01

    The foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed significantly to Malaysia's electronics exports as well as the growth and development of the electronics industry as a result of the export-oriented industrialization initiatives undertaken since 1970s. The aim of this study is to explore the causation between FDI and electronics exports by using Malaysia''s top five electronics exports by SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) product groups. The findings show a bi-directional c...

  17. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  18. 10 CFR 590.208 - Small volume exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small volume exports. 590.208 Section 590.208 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.208 Small volume exports. Any person may export up to 100,000 cubic feet of natural...

  19. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit....

  20. 50 CFR 14.63 - Export declaration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export declaration requirements. 14.63... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Wildlife Declarations § 14.63 Export... exporter's agent, shall be filed with the Service prior to the export of any wildlife at the port...

  1. Exporter Behavior, Country Size and Stage of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Fernandes; Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the micro structure of the export sector for 45 countries and studies how exporter behavior varies with country size and stage of development. Larger countries and more developed countries have more exporters, larger exporters, and a greater share of exports controlled by the top 5 percent. The extensive margin (more firms) plays a greater role than the inte...

  2. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... opportunities for sales of canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review From Canned Wild Salmon Export Council, LLC (``CWSEC''). SUMMARY:...

  3. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to EFS International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export...

  4. 78 FR 18814 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: List of Items Classified Under Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... controlled for export because the items provide at least a significant military or intelligence advantage to... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 RIN 0694-AF73 Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: List of Items Classified Under Export Control Classification 0Y521 Series--Biosensor...

  5. 78 FR 12719 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... expansion of U.S. exports. Topics may include the Administration's ``Doing Business in Africa'' campaign... International Trade Administration President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY:...

  6. 15 CFR 30.3 - Electronic Export Information filer requirements, parties to export transactions, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that all information needed for reporting to the AES, including correct export licensing information... requirements set forth in 15 CFR 758.3 of the EAR. (2) Authorized agent responsibilities. In a routed export... applicant on the license in certain routed export transactions (see 15 CFR 758.3 of the EAR). Therefore,...

  7. Feasibility of direct utilization of selected geothermal water for aquaculture of macrobrachium rosenbergii. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, C.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility was tested of direct utilization of geothermal water for the aquaculture of Malaysian freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). A problem with using geothermal water for aquaculture is the chemical composition of the water with high flouride levels being a particular problem. Results show that (1) some geothermal water in Idaho can be used directly for the aquaculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, (2) high flouride levels cannot be directly correlated with high mortality rates and (3) low flouride levels do not correlate with high growth rates.

  8. Use of planted biofilters in integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, N.T.D.; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using planted biofilters for purification of recirculated aquaculture water in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam was assessed. The plant trenches were able to clean tilapia aquaculture water and to maintain good water quality in the fish tanks without renewal of the water. NH4-N was ...... rates of 725 kg N and 234 kg P ha-1 year-1. This research demonstrates that integrated recirculating aquaculture-hydroponics (aquaponics) systems provide significant water savings and nutrient recycling as compared with traditional fish ponds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  9. Long term/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Nielsen, Jeppe L.;

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive long term formalin application at low dose was investigated to determine the effect on formaldehyde removal rate, biofilter nitrification and the microbial composition in small-scale recirculation aquaculture biofilters. Six pilot-scale recirculation aquaculture systems holding rainbow...... Nitrobacter sp. was not detected. The relative abundances of AOB and NOB in the untreated system were generally higher compared to the system exposed to formalin. Low dose formalin in recirculated aquaculture systems proved to be a possible treatment strategy, as the effect on nitrification was minimal. Since...

  10. African Aquaculture: A Regional Summary with Emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Moehl, J.; Machena, C.

    2000-01-01

    The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations, most of which are practising some form of aquaculture, often at a very low level. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale, with fish ponds integrated into the m...

  11. Nuclear exports and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's nuclear export policy together with its non-proliferation and safeguards policy embrace both the country's desire to promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its effort to minimize the risk of further proliferation of nuclear weapons. This policy reflects the belief that only if Canadian parliamentary and public opinion can be convinced that Canada's nuclear exports will not contribute to nuclear proliferation will the long-term health of the country's nuclear industry be assured. Canada requires a political commitment to non-proliferation from its nuclear partners, and looks to the IAEA to administer safeguards on nuclear material of Canadian origin to guarantee that commitment. Agreements reached with its nuclear partners are in accordance with provisions of the non-proliferation treaty and include a contingency provision for fall-back safeguards if the other state should withdraw from the NPT. Provision is made for mutual agreement on reprocessing and enrichment of nuclear material. Agreements have been reached with some twenty nuclear partners, and efforts are continuing to come to new international understanding on reprocessing, enrichment, and plutonium storage

  12. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  13. Heterotrophic Bacterial Flora in Aquaculture Area around Xuejiadao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zongjun; LI Yun; YU Dehua; WANG Xianghong; CHEN Jixiang; Robertson P.A.W.; Austin B.; XU Huaishu

    2002-01-01

    From Oct., 1999 to Oct., 2000, the heterotrophic bacterial flora in the aquaculture area around Xuejiadao wasinvestigated. The result shows that the populations of the heterotrophic bacteria are heavier in summer and autumn thanthose in winter and spring. The average populations in seawater, sediment, the surface of seaweed and the surface of fish are1.4 × 104cfu mL -1, 5.4 × 106cfu g 1, 1.5 × 106cfu g-1 and 1.8 × 103cfu cm 2, respectively. A total of 30l strains were isolated,among them 259 were Gram-negative. All the Gram-negative bacteria belong to 13 genera and some genera of Enterobacteri-aceae. The communities of bacteria are slightly different among the samples. In the body surface of fish, Genus vibrio isdominant. In the remaining samples, dominant genus is Aeromonas.

  14. Microbial diversity of biological filters in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Harold J; Mirzoyan, Natella; Saito, Keiko

    2010-06-01

    Development of environmentally sustainable farming of marine and freshwater species using recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) requires a complete understanding of the biological component involved in wastewater treatment. This component integrates biofilters composed of microbial communities whose structure, dynamics, and activities are responsible for system success. Engineering highly efficient, environmentally sound, disease-free, and economically viable systems necessitates a thorough knowledge of microbial processes involved in all facets of RAS biofilters and has only recently been the focus of comprehensive studies. These studies have included the application of molecular tools to characterize community diversity and have identified key processes useful for improving system performance. In this paper we summarize the current understanding of the microbial diversity and physiology of RAS biofilters and discuss directions for future studies. PMID:20371171

  15. Fuzzy Logic Controller based on geothermal recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Farghally

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common uses of geothermal heat is in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS where the water temperature is accurately controlled for optimum growing conditions for sustainable and intensive rearing of marine and freshwater fish. This paper presents a design for RAS rearing tank and brazed heat exchanger to be used with geothermal energy as a source of heating water. The heat losses from the RAS tank are calculated using Geo Heat Center Software. Then a plate type heat exchanger is designed using the epsilon – NTU analysis method. For optimal growth and abundance of production, a Fuzzy Logic control (FLC system is applied to control the water temperature (29 °C. A FLC system has several advantages over conventional techniques; relatively simple, fast, adaptive, and its response is better and faster at all atmospheric conditions. Finally, the total system is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK to study the overall performance of control unit.

  16. Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, Haydar [Mechanical Engineering Department, Guemueshane University, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Midilli, Adnan [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department. Nigde University, 51000 Nigde (Turkey); Oezdemir, Atilla; Cakmak, Eyuep [Central Fisheries Research Institute, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period. (author)

  17. The Use of Vision in a Sustainable Aquaculture Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-Vui Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy feeding causes significant water pollution. By controlling the proper amount of feed, reducing the waste to minimum will effectively reduce the problem of water contamination. In this project, a Sustainable Aquaculture Feed System (SAFS has been designed and developed. It can automatically feed the fishes by estimating fishes’ appetite through machine vision. The discussion includes design and optimization of the vision system using Labview as well as the integration of various components in the SAFS. With the developed algorithm, the system is able to detect the presence of fishes and count the number of fishes. The outcome is able to estimate and infer the fish appetite. Therefore, the feeding time can be planned ahead. In addition, the system includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI for monitoring, display the feeding status and sensors reading such as pH, turbidity and temperature.

  18. EST projects in aquaculture: sea bass, red tuna and perch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernardini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern technologies used in aquaculture may improve fish production and quality and, at the same time, reduce environmental impact with benefits on the public perception of the industry. To be economically profitable, these modern technologies request an increase of rearing density that, however, could affect fish welfare (Vazzana et al., 2002. Therefore, beside the traditional markers, it may be important to look for alternative parameters such as molecular biomarkers (Gornati et al., 2004; Ryan and Hightower, 1996. In this view, genomic strategies are revolutionizing scientific research also in the understanding of fish physiology and gene evolution; this is also due to the relatively easiness to isolate novel and homologous genes using public databases (Parrington and Covard, 2002.

  19. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  20. Aendringer i immunstatus blandt nydiagnosticerede hiv-inficerede i Danmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Simon; Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42......). The median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis increased in this group (median 19.1 cells/microL per year [95% CI: 3.7-11.3]), while it remained stable among heterosexually infected. The number of newly-diagnosed homosexually infected under 30 years with a CD4 cell count over 400 cells/microL increased...

  1. Changes in immunological status among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected in Denmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, S.; Lohse, N.; Hansen, A.B.;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42......). The median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis increased in this group (median 19.1 cells/microL per year [95% CI: 3.7-11.3]), while it remained stable among heterosexually infected. The number of newly-diagnosed homosexually infected under 30 years with a CD4 cell count over 400 cells/microL increased...

  2. Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Pedersen, Gitte;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expected survival of HIV-infected patients is of major public health interest. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival time and age-specific mortality rates of an HIV-infected population compared with that of the general population. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: All HIV......-infected persons receiving care in Denmark from 1995 to 2005. PATIENTS: Each member of the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study was matched with as many as 99 persons from the general population according to sex, date of birth, and municipality of residence. MEASUREMENTS: The authors computed Kaplan-Meier life...... tables with age as the time scale to estimate survival from age 25 years. Patients with HIV infection and corresponding persons from the general population were observed from the date of the patient's HIV diagnosis until death, emigration, or 1 May 2005. RESULTS: 3990 HIV-infected patients and 379...

  3. Trends in Outcomes of the Vocational Rehabilitation Program for Adults with Developmental Disabilities: 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Alberto; Butterworth, John

    2008-01-01

    This article describes national trends in outcomes of the vocational rehabilitation (VR) program, with a focus on adults with developmental disabilities during the period of 1995 to 2005. Findings show that the VR program has made substantial progress in excluding extended employment from the array of possible employment closures. Efforts are…

  4. The Impact of Health Sector Reform on State and Society in Bangladesh, 1995-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Kazi Maruful

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that in recent years the Government of Bangladesh has invested substantially and initiated numbers of multi-sector and multilevel institutional and programmatic reforms to improve the health of the poor and women, the health status of the poor in Bangladesh is one of the worst in the world. In this context this thesis aims to answer do health reform policies benefit the poor? In order to address the central research question, from a bottom-up critical perspective, it aims to...

  5. Elite empresarial: recrutamento e valores políticos (Paraná, 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Neves Costa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa algumas particularidades dos valores políticos da elite empresarial, aqui considerada como uma elite política, e de sua articulação com outras variáveis socioeconômicas, tomando como objeto o Paraná, entre 1995 e 2005. Através da aplicação de um questionário, foram levantadas informações sobre a origem social, a trajetória política e os valores políticos relacionados à democracia dos presidentes de entidades de representação do empresariado paranaense. Verificamos que este grupo é não apenas homogêno em relação a aspectos socioeconômicos, como também coeso em relação aos valores relacionados à democracia, o que não significa a inexistência de diferenças e divergências. Neste sentido, a consideração dos valores políticos desta elite empresarial e não apenas de seus aspectos socioeconômicos contribuiu para a compreensão de suas características, bem como das vias de acesso a esta elite.This article analyzes some of the specificities of the political values of the entrepreneurial elite and its articulation with other socio-economic variables. This study centers on the state of Paraná, in the years between 1995 and 2005. With the application of a survey, we were able to collect information on the social background, the political trajectory and the political values of the presidents of some of the most important entities for the representation of entrepreneurs in that state. Besides the variables that relate to the recruitment of this elite, we also noted a rather strong cohesion in regards to democratic values, which does not mean the inexistence of diverging views, however. Therefore, the study of the political values of the entrepreneurial elite makes it possible to better comprehend some important characteristics of this social group, namely its views on democracy and democratic institutions.

  6. Aendringer i immunstatus blandt nydiagnosticerede hiv-inficerede i Danmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Simon; Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg;

    2008-01-01

    ). The median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis increased in this group (median 19.1 cells/microL per year [95% CI: 3.7-11.3]), while it remained stable among heterosexually infected. The number of newly-diagnosed homosexually infected under 30 years with a CD4 cell count over 400 cells/microL increased...

  7. Assessment of gynecologic malignancies: A multi-center study in Tehran (1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Momtahen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The observed differences in cancer incidence are mainly due to different individuals and social risk factors. This study aims to demonstrate the characteristics of female genital malignancies according to the pathological records in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all records of pathological specimens categorized as ovarian, uterine corpus or uterine cervix cancers from 1995 to 2005, in five teaching hospitals in Tehran, were studied. Age, marriage, parity, menopausal status, smoking, oral contraceptive usage, pathological staging, and histological grading were reviewed by a trained general practitioner. SPSS 14 was used for statistical analysis. Result: Mean age (SD at the time of diagnosis was 50 (15. Fifty-nine percent of ovarian, 33.9 and 47.7% of uterine corpus and uterine cervix malignant patients were premenopausal. About 90% of all were nonsmokers and 82.7% were multiparae. Various types of gynecologic malignancies included ovarian (55.5%, uterine corpus (24.9%, and uterine cervical cancers (19.6% were diagnosed. In tumors of the uterine corpus and uterus cervix, the most frequent stage of diagnosis was stage IIA. Conclusion: Ovarian cancer was the most frequently occurring gynecologic tumor. Although distribution of age in ovarian cancer was similar to that mentioned in the literature, occurrence of the cancer was more frequent in the premenopausal state.

  8. Health services and systems research in Europe: overview of the literature 1995-2005.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objective, within the collaborative study SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe) is to give an overview of health services and health systems research in Europe, based on a search of the literature in PubMed and Embase. METHOD: The method used in this study consist

  9. Health services and systems research in Europe: overview of the literature 1995-2005.

    OpenAIRE

    Delnoij, Diana M.J.; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objective, within the collaborative study SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe) is to give an overview of health services and health systems research in Europe, based on a search of the literature in PubMed and Embase. METHOD: The method used in this study consisted of: (i) A bibliometric analysis, and (ii) Classification of health services and systems research according to pre-defined criteria for a sample of 500 publications in the PubMed search. RESULTS:...

  10. Soutien du niveau intermediaire au district sanitaire urbain a Kinshasa (1995-2005), RD Congo.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahindo Mbeva, Jean-Bosco; Schirvel, Carole; Karemere, Hermes; Porignon, Denis

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the decentralization of health systems, some countries have introduced intermediate (provincial) levels in their public health system. This paper presents the results of a case study conducted in Kinshasa on health system decentralization. The study identified a shift from a focus on regulation compliance assessment to an emphasis on health system coordination and health district support. It also highlighted the emergence of a?managerial (as opposed to a bureaucratic) approach ...

  11. Public health research in Denmark in the years 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Aro, Arja

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to find out the number of publications (in Danish) and research projects (including grey literature) either carried out or ongoing within the field of public health in Denmark, using the same criteria as the SPHERE project, but looking at Danish research...... databases. METHODS: The Danish research database served as the main resource for the study supported by national reserach reports. RESULTS: There is an increasing trend in the number of public health research projects and publications. Compared with public health research projects published in English...... there are differences in some categories. Overall, public health research in Denmark seems to contribute around 4.8%-6.5% of the total amount of health research. Conclusions: Public health research has a relatively low share of overall health research in Denmark....

  12. La desigualdad en Educación en México por Entidad Federativa 1995 - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Salgado Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se utiliza el coeficiente de Gini para medir la desigualdad en la educación que tienen actualmente los ciudadanos mexicanos en las diferentes entidades del país, la hipótesis principal es que la desigualdad en educación medida a través del índice de Gini está negativamente asociada con el promedio de años de escolaridad, esto es, que los Estados que han logrado un alto nivel de educación es más probable que logren una mejor igualdad educativa que aquellos que tienen niveles bajos de educación. Según Kutznets, si el nivel de escolaridad se incrementa, la desigualdad en educación primero se incrementa, después llega a un máximo y posteriormente declina. Encontramos que cuando el promedio de los años de estudio en una Entidad Federativa es bajo, típicamente una pequeña parte de la población tiene todos los años de escolaridad concluidos, y además hay una gran desigualdad educativa entre las entidades o regiones del país.

  13. Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Pedersen, Gitte;

    2007-01-01

    -infected persons receiving care in Denmark from 1995 to 2005. PATIENTS: Each member of the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study was matched with as many as 99 persons from the general population according to sex, date of birth, and municipality of residence. MEASUREMENTS: The authors computed Kaplan-Meier life...

  14. Time Series Studies on Indonesian Rupiah/USD Rate: 1995-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Hardiyanto

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe exchange rate of Rp/USD has experienced three regimes since 1967: fixed, managed float, and free float. During the period of 1967 – 1986, Rp/USD was devalued for 8 times by the authority to help maintain the external balance. The devaluations were part of the expenditure switching po

  15. Coping with Remote Control: Scandinavian Subsidiaries in Germany and East Asia 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Bonderup Bjørn, Lars; Søndergaard, Mikael

    The considerable cultural distance between Scandinavia and East Asia may be reflected in headquarters-subsidiaries relations. This paper provides a comparative analysis of this issue from a subsidiary perspective, focusing on control and coordination mechanisms of a matched sample of Danish...

  16. Study about the relation of gender equity and human development in northeastern Mexico, 1995- 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Zamudio Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of indexes taken from easily measurable variables, this paper takes a look at both the gains and setbacks of Mexican society in its fight for gender equality and its relation to human development. The object of this paper is to show the possible future tendencies in this context, insofar as opportunities arise for both men and women to both fully develop their capacities and to take advantage of the same within their surroundings. The case study focuses on the municipalities of the northeast region of Mexico, formed by the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. A reduction in the inequality gap in health, education and income is observed, although the condition of women is still far from being on a par with that of men, especially where resources for a dignified life are concerned. The most noticeable gap between men and women is related precisely to the limited access and control of resources that allow women to make their own decisions regarding their lives and consequently, their empowerment is marginal.

  17. Dust Storms and Mortality in the United States, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme weather events, such as dust storms, are predicted to become more frequent as the global climate warms through the 21st century. The impact of dust storms on human health has been studied extensively in the context of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian storms, but t...

  18. Export - led growth or growth – driven exports? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, Santos R.; Muse, Bernard O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the role of export in the economic growth process in Nigeria. Time series data ranging from 1970 to 2009 was used and the study employs unit root testing, co-integration analysis and VAR Granger Causality/Exogeneity Wald Tests to analyze annual time series data from Nigeria. The study uses three measures of export namely, Total export, Oil export and Non-Oil export. This enhances the stability and robustness of results. The unit root test showed that both economic growth a...

  19. 77 FR 13990 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... quantity, destination, and marketing year of all pork and DDG export sales, changes in sales, and shipments... public to obtain information on export sales activity until the actual shipments had taken place... length(s) of cotton. Mixed wheat shall be considered to be the predominant wheat class of the blend....

  20. China Not the Only Rare Earth Exporter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since China announced it was reducing exports of rare earth,there have been continuous voices in the international community demanding China expand exports or seek alternative resources.The United States has also complained to the WTO that China is hoarding the commodity.

  1. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate...

  2. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export”...

  3. The Export Quotas for Next Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Ministry of Commerce recently announced the 2006 export quotas for some metals commodities. According to the document, China’s export quotas for tungsten and its products will be 15,800 tons. For antimony and its products, the quotas will be

  4. The Decline in China Textile Exports Narrowed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This is a crucial moment for China’s textile export industry, which is in the midst of deep economic downturn. In the January-Novem- ber 2009 period, the decline in accumulated textile and apparel exports was being constantly reduced and the tendency of rebound is

  5. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 322.1 through 322.5. ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exports. 352.16 Section 352.16...

  6. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal...

  7. 26 CFR 52.4682-5 - Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 82). (ii) The aggregate tax that would (but... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 52.4682-5 Section 52.4682-5 Internal... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-5 Exports. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating...

  8. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  9. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... of Energy (DOE) published a proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department...

  10. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the appropriate provision of 19 CFR chapter I, and the required certification of deposit has been... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed...

  11. Home Textile Exports Show Recovery Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this article we have analysed the export performance of Chinese main home textile products, including bedding products, carpet, curtain and towel based on official export data during the first eight months of 2010.Let’s first look at the background. The growth in China’s manufacturing

  12. The Silver Export Quota for 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Ministry of Commerce recently announced the first lot of silver export quota for 2005. According to report, the first lot of silver export quota amounts to 2,443 tons which is 252 tons more on 2004 basis. There are 37 en-

  13. Export potential of Brazilian industrial firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Pino Oliveira de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the recent astonishing export growth in Brazil came from firms which already exported. The export base was not able to grow at the same pace. Since expanding the export base may have several positive effects on firms' productivity and size, in this paper we provide a four-level classification of Brazilian industrial firms according to their potential to export, and we identify a subset of non-exporting firms which are potential exporters. The effects of export stimulating policies may be improved by focusing more closely on these firms.O recente crescimento das exportações no Brasil se baseou fortemente naquelas firmas já exportadoras, e a base exportadora não conseguiu acompanhar o mesmo ritmo de crescimento. Considerando que expandir a base exportadora pode ter efeitos positivos sobre a produtividade e tamanho das firmas, neste artigo classificamos as firmas industriais brasileiras em quatro níveis de acordo com o potencial exportador, e especialmente identificamos um subconjunto de firmas que não exportam mas que são potenciais exportadoras. Os efeitos das políticas de promoção às exportações podem ser maximizados se elas forem focalizadas nestas firmas.

  14. Entrepreneurship, export orientation, and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A.J. van Stel (André)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the relationship between a country’s prevalence of new ventures and its rate of economic growth is investigated, while taking into account new ventures’ export orientation. It is generally acknowledged that new venture creation as well as export activity may both be importa

  15. Risk in A Concentrated Export Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The export destination of China’s home textile products are considered to be highly concentrated. This is reflected by the statistical data of the past couple of years when, the top export destination of the following products-bedding products, curtain and towel- is United States.

  16. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  17. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... loading, sealing or labeling, and affixing of TIR plates. He shall remove one voucher from the carnet... container or road vehicle to the port of actual exportation. (c) At the port of actual exportation, the carnet and the container (or heavy or bulky goods) or road vehicle shall be presented to the...

  18. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  19. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  20. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ..., employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 9, 2010. [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13558 of November 9, 2010 Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the... Homeland Security for administrative purposes, an interagency Federal Export Enforcement...

  1. Export Specialisation and Local Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of expo

  2. Textile Exports to Japan Witnessing a Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China textile and apparel exports to Japan was witnessing a downturn in all statistics of China Customs and Japan METI in the Jan.-Apr. 2010 period. Exports to Japan this year later will face more pressure as gains in Japan’s consumption could moderate due to a lackluster jobs market and debt crisis.

  3. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export....

  4. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export....

  5. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export... marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application...

  6. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... customs' requirements; sales and marketing; export brokerage; foreign marketing and analysis; foreign... for the provision of Export Trade Facilitation Services; 2. Engage in promotional and marketing... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an...

  7. Monitoring Antibiotic Use and Residue in Freshwater Aquaculture for Domestic Use in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dang Kim; Chu, Jacqueline; Do, Nga Thuy; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Delahaut, Philippe; De Pauw, Edwin; Douny, Caroline; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Vu, Ton Dinh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2015-09-01

    Vietnam is an important producer of aquaculture products, and aquatic products are essential to the Vietnamese diet. However, Vietnam also has very little enforced regulation pertaining to antibiotic usage in domestic aquaculture, which raises concerns for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, analysis was conducted on the presence of antibiotic residues in domestically sold fish and shrimp raised in freshwater farms in Vietnam, and an assessment of farmers' knowledge of proper antibiotics usage was performed. The results indicated that a quarter of tested aquaculture products were antibiotic screening test positive, and there is a general lack of knowledge about the purpose and proper usage of antibiotics by aquaculture producers. Farmers' decision-making processes about antimicrobial use are influenced by biased sources of information, such as drug manufacturers and sellers, and by financial incentives. PMID:25561382

  8. Use of ozone for sustainable brackishwater industrial aquaculture and management of environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dwivedi, S.N.

    The use of ozones for sustainable brakish water industrial aquaculture and the management of the environment is discussed. In sample survey conducted in the farms, it was seen that oxygen level was not adequate for high production. Replacement...

  9. The evaluation of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer associated with airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airlifts in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide aeration, degasification, and water circulation. They allow the simplification of systems, and if designed properly, can reduce the capital costs and minimize operation and maintenance associated with alternative pumping systems. In order t...

  10. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  11. Directly measured denitrification reveals oyster aquaculture and restored oyster reefs remove nitrogen at comparable high rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster restoration and aquaculture are both hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification (DNF). However, this has...

  12. The role of oyster restoration and aquaculture in nutrient cycling within a Rhode Island estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal ecosystems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for other organisms. Oyster aquaculture and restoration are hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification. However, this has not been exam...

  13. The role of oyster restoration and aquaculture in nitrogen removal within a Rhode Island estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster aquaculture and restoration are hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via assimilation, burial, or benthic denitrification. Stu...

  14. Shellfish Culture at the Milford Laboratory: hatchery production, stock enhancement and aquaculture research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide shellfish in support of Milford Lab efforts, external research projects and regional shellfish restoration. Conduct aquaculture experiments aimed at...

  15. Misuse of multiple comparison tests and underuse of contrast procedures in aquaculture publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yossa, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In aquaculture research, independent variables are qualitative (with or without a structure), quantitative, or factorial combinations. A qualitative independent variable is a variable that has unquantifiable, nominal variants (levels), which represent different categories such as the fish gender. Th

  16. Fisheries and wildlife sciences doctoral student wins best poster award at World Aquaculture Society meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Guillame Salze, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences in the College of Natural Resources at Virginia Tech, received the best poster award at the recent World Aquaculture Society meeting in San Antonio, Texas.

  17. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  18. Fate of water borne therapeutic agents and associated effects on nitrifying biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    Recent discharge restrictions on antibiotics and chemotherapeutant residuals used in aquaculture have several implications to the aquaculture industry. Better management practices have to be adopted, and documentation and further knowledge of the chemical fate is required for proper administration...... and to support the ongoing development of a sustainable aquaculture industry. A focal point of this thesis concerns formaldehyde (FA), a commonly used chemical additive with versatile aquaculture applications. FA is safe for use with fish and has a high treatment efficiency against fungal and parasite...... ≥2 mg/L. PAA and HP decay patterns were significantly affected by water quality parameters, i.e. at low organic matter content HP degradation was impeded due to microbial inhibition. FISH analysis on biofilm samples from two different types of RAS showed that Nitrosomonas oligotropha was the dominant...

  19. Export and Economic Growth in India: Causal Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Alok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between export and economic growth has been an important issue of discussion among scholars and economist throughout the world. The existence of nexus in between export and economic growth can be examined in several ways like growth rates relating to GDP and export, proportion of export to growth, several policies relating to accelerate economic growth and export etc. The effective way to explore nexus in export and economic growth would be the causal analysis between two var...

  20. Public attitudes towards marine aquaculture: A comparative analysis of Germany and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution

  1. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  2. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Bolman, Bas; Bricker, Suzanne; Burnell, Gavin; Caetano, Miguel; van Duijn, Arie; Fabi, Gianna; Ferreira, João G.; Gault, Jeremy; Grati, Fabio; Grönroos, Juha; Guayder, Olivier; Jak, Robbert

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include activities such as recreation, tourism, facilities for renewable energy production, all of which are expected to increase in importance. There is also increasing focus on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)...

  3. Analysis of sedimentation and resuspension processes of aquaculture biosolids using an oscillating grid

    OpenAIRE

    Masaló Llorà, Ingrid; Guadayol, Oscar; Peters, Francesc; Oca Baradad, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Menció d'Honor 2010 que atorga l'Aquacultural Engineering Society Sedimentation and resuspension processes of aquaculture biosolids (non-ingested feed and faeces) are analysed using vertically oscillating grids as a source of turbulence in fluid tanks. An oscillating grid system consists of a container in which a grid is stirred vertically generating a well-known turbulent field that is function of amplitude and frequency of oscillation, distance between grid and measurement point, and mes...

  4. Markets, marketing and production issues for aquaculture in East Africa: the case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jagger, P.; Pender, J

    2001-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently responsible for an insignificant proportion of total fish production in Uganda. However, given the increasing demand for fresh fish in urban and peri-urban araes, and threats to the supply of fish from natural catch fisheries, the potential exists for a strong market in aquaculture. Small-scale fish farmers located relatively close to markets or all-season roads, and who can supply consistent and high quality produce, will have the widest range of marketing opportunit...

  5. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    OpenAIRE

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified an...

  6. In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera) in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia De Caralt; Javier Sánchez-Fontenla; María J. Uriz; Wijffels, Rene H.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of the most reliable methods to supply pharmaceutical companies with sufficient quantities of the target compound. In this study, we focus on the aquaculture of the sponge Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862),...

  7. Integrated aquaculture-agriculture in Egypt : towards more efficient use of water resources : workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent studies, research and practical experiences from Egypt and abroad with forms of aquaculture that use water en nutrients more efficiently than common pond culture were discussed at a workshop held in Cairo (April 21, 2011). The presentations include the results of a study undertaken on four Egyptian integrated aquaculture – agriculture farms where water use, effluent water quality, fish harvest and revenue from crop and fish sales in 2010 were monitored.

  8. Recycling Aquacultural Waste through Horticultural Greenhouse Production as a Resource Recovery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Divya Sreelatha

    2006-01-01

    For intensive production systems like the Blue Ridge Aquaculture (BRA), based in Martinsville, VA, there are significant economic incentives to reuse the waste by diverting it into a cropping system that would increase the total productivity and total resource-reuse efficiency, and decrease the environmental, ecological, and financial costs of aquacultural waste disposal. In order to facilitate the reuse of effluent from the tilapia production at the BRA, a green house was developed. On this ...

  9. The economic sustainability of land-based aquaculture systems: An integrated analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennich, Therese

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fish is rising, caused by population growth and an increasing per capita consumption of fish. At the same time, production from capture fisheries has stagnated and there are growing concerns about the environmental impact of sea-based aquaculture. Future developments in the fishing industry must meet demand, without compromising the environment. Technological advancements have introduced land-based fish farming and Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) technology as a ...

  10. Risk Analysis of Tilapia Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: A Monte Carlo Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kodra, Bledar

    2007-01-01

    Risk Analysis of Tilapia Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: A Monte Carlo Simulation Approach Bledar Kodra (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this study is to modify an existing static analytical model developed for a Re-circulating Aquaculture Systems through incorporation of risk considerations to evaluate the economic viability of the system. In addition the objective of this analysis is to provide a well documented risk based analytical system so that individuals (investors/lenders) c...

  11. Management of environmental issues for sustainable fisheries production from aquaculture in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayao, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaculture depends largely upon a good aquatic environment. The quality of the aquatic medium determines success to a large extent in aquaculture. The medium is particularly vulnerable to excessive abstraction (i.e surface or groundwater) and contamination from a range of sources (industrial, agricultural or domestic) as well as risks of self-pollution. Environmental management options proffered so far include: improvements in farming performance (especially related to feed and feeding strat...

  12. THE EFFECT OF LITOPENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS AQUACULTURE ON MACROALGAE GROWTH IN OPUNOHU BAY, MOOREA, FRENCH POLYNESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has many effects on the surrounding landscape. In Mo’orea, the only aquaculture operation is a shrimp farm in Opunohu Bay. To test the effect of shrimp farm runoff into the bay, a macroalgae field survey was conducted at different distances from the Opunohu River, where the effluent outlets. Algae cover was used to indicate nutrient concentration. I found that there is no significant relationship between distance from the shrimp farm outlet and algae cover. The red algae Acanthoph...

  13. Feasibility of adopting aquaculture without detriment to existing farming practices: a case of Bangladesh farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.; Rab, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Integrating agriculture aquaculture that would draw inputs from on farm sources is viewed as a viable option to improve the productivity, income and resource use efficiency of existing farms in Bangladesh. To assess the existing resource availability, use pattern and efficiency before introducing new aquaculture technology within the existing farm systems, a survey of 330 pond operating farm households was conducted in six selected unions from two thanas (subdistricts) of Bangladesh.

  14. Aquaculture Asia, Vol 9, No. 3, pp.1-52, July-September 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    CONTENTS: Genetic considerations in fisheries & aquaculture with regard to impacts upon biodiversity, by Thuy T. T. Nguyen. Rice-fish culture for food and environmental security, by by M.C. Nandeesha. [Farmers as Scientists series] Research and development on land-based aquaculture of spotted Babylon, Babylonia areolata in Thailand: Pilot hatcher-based seedling operation, by Nilnaj Chaitanawisuti Sirusa Kritsanapuntu, and Yutaka Natsukari. Native catfish culture - a boon to In...

  15. Enhancing Profitability of Pond Aquaculture in Ghana through Resource Management and Environmental Best Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah

    2014-01-01

    The accelerating pace of growth of aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa has received much positive appraisal because of the potential of the industry to contribute to economic development and food security by providing jobs and animal protein. Adoption of best management practices (BMPs) holds the potential to ameliorate the related environmental impacts of aquaculture, such as in the amounts of nutrients and sediment that will enter natural water bodies from earthen pond effluents. The goals of...

  16. Aquaculture Asia, Vol.14, No.4, pp.1-52, October - December 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture Peter Edwards writes on rural aquaculture Edwards, P. Mussel farming initiatives in North Kerala, India: A case of successful adoption of technology leading to rural livelihood transformation Laxmilatha, P., Thomas, S., Asokan, P.K., Surendranathan, V.G., Sivadasan, M.P., and Ramachandran, N.P. Selective study on the availability in indigenous fish species having ornamental value in some districts of West Bengal Panigrahi, A.K., Dutta, S. and Ghosh...

  17. DIFFERENT PLANT DERIVED BY-PRODUCTS USE IN FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    KAUSIK MONDAL

    2013-01-01

    As aquacultural practices increase in magnitude and hasten the flow ofmaterials and energy through the systems, compared to natural conditions, it stands toreason that many organic wastes can, save both monetary and caloric inputs into themodern aquaculture if these wastes are processed suitably and used as manure inincreasing productivity of the pond or as feed stuff to replace high cost ingredients in theformulation of diet for fish.

  18. A Comparison between America and Other Countries in Offshore Aquaculture Management:a Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>In America offshore aquaculture is gaining momentum in recent years,and expects to grow faster in the near future.The White House has clearly expressed its support;statistics show that the aquaculture has huge potential and can contribute a lot to employment and help reducing the trade deficit;the offshore aquaculture act which is designed to promote American offshore aquaculture industry has been proposed to the Congress for action.However,there are still some long standing obstacles hindering its development such as competing uses, wasted pollutants,lacking of fishing food,escapees,GMOs,lengthy permission procedures etc.Ironically,to some of these issues,debates have been there for decades without consensus.While the proposed National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005 may provide major principles for the solution to these problems,it is also useful to draw experiences from some other countries that have longer history and more advanced skills in the industry.Their technology and institutional design are prone to the development of their aquaculture industries.Mainly this paper,as a literature review,examines the practices of Norway,Canada and Australia, and compares their actions with the real problems in U.S.,and what has been proposed by National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005.This paper aims to check what other nations have done with these problems,draw useful experiences from them,analyze what the Offshore Aquaculture Act has achieved,and recommend what the related federal agencies should do in the next step.

  19. Export versus domestic market opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation analyzed the current global wood pellet market and evaluated some of the forces currently driving market expansion. Global wood pellet production statistics were also presented. Large forest companies are now expanding into the energy sector and seeking to produce processing heat from biomass in addition to creating value-added products such as wood pellets, ethanol and electricity. The European biomass action plan has promised to increase production of energy from biomass from 4 per cent to 8 per cent by 2010. Various biomass boiler eco-directives have been established internationally, and some countries in Europe are now aggressively promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Biofuels mixing quotas have been established in various countries as well as tax relief plans for users of bio-fuels. As a result of these developments, along with various new directives, wood pellet consumption in Europe has increased from approximately 1 million tonnes in 2000 to 5 million tonnes in 2005. Consumption of wood pellets in Canada has increased only marginally in the same time period. While Canada currently exported 330,000 tonnes of wood pellets to Europe in 2006, it is expected that exports will increase to 800,000 tonnes by 2010. Other potential markets for Canadian wood pellets include South America, South Africa, Japan, and China. Production of wood pellets in China is expected to increase from current negligible production figures to approximately 50 million tonnes by 2020. Biomass research and development activities in Europe and North America are continuing to improve the calorific value of wood pellets and improve their mechanical strength. Researchers are also investigating methods of lowering wood pellet production costs. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Turcios

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future.